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Sample records for active germplasm bank

  1. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

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    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  2. Quality and bioactive compounds in fruit of foreign accessions of mango conserved in an Active Germplasm Bank1

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    Thalita Passos Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the quality and levels of bioactive compounds in the fruit of 22 foreign accessions of the mango belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semiárido. Sixty fruits from each of the accessions: Florigon, Haden, 65, Irwin, M 13269, Momi-K, Scuper Many, Simmonds, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Winter, Zill, Amrapali, Olour, Aplle DCG 406, Mon Amon DCG 407, Black Java, Kensington, Chené, Manila, Manzanillo and Maya, were harvested upon reaching physiological maturity, one half being analysed when harvested and the other half stored at ambient temperature (25.4 ± 2.9 ºC and 41 ± 9% RH until ripe. The experimental design was completely randomised in a 22 x 2 factorial (accession x maturity stage, with three replications of ten fruits. The accessions Chene, Momi-K and Van Dyke stood out for their physical attributes: weight, length, diameter and firmness of pulp, and for their good post-harvest conservation. The accession Amrapali was different because of its high levels of soluble solids, total soluble sugars, starch, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, suggesting a high potential for insertion into a breeding program aimed at the quality of the mango.

  3. Genetic diversity in a germplasm bank of Oenocarpus mapora (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E F; de Oliveira, M S P

    2012-11-26

    Oenocarpus mapora is an Amazonian palm species commonly used by native populations for food and in folk medicine. We measured genetic variability, using RAPD markers, of material kept in a germplasm bank composed of accessions sampled from the Brazilian Amazon. These included 74 individuals from 23 accessions sampled from 9 localities in three States of the Brazilian Amazon. Jaccard genetic similarities were calculated based on 137 polymorphic bands, amplified by 15 primers. Dendrograms constructed based on the genetic similarities among individuals and sample localities demonstrated genetic separation of Acre State from the States of Amazonas and Pará. Two models in three hierarchical levels were considered for AMOVA: one considering the grouping of sampling sites in each state, and the other considering sampling sites in each subgroup formed by the dendrograms. The first model showed no significant genetic variation among states. On the other hand, genetic variation among subgroups was significant. In this model, the within-sample-site genetic diversity was 47.15%, which is considered to be low, since O. mapora is allogamous. By means of Bayesian analysis, the sample sites were clustered into five groups, and their distribution was similar to what we found in the dendrograms based on genetic similarity.

  4. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

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    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  5. Molecular characterisation of a germplasm bank for Theobroma genus using the RAPD technique

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    Yovany Moreno

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA were used for analysing 145 individuals (128 T. grandiflorum and 17 T. bicolor from the ex situ Theobroma genus germplasm bank at Instituto Sinchi, located at San José del Guaviare. 5 primers able to generated polymorphism were selected from an initial set of 20, generating 114 bands that enable to us to distinguish between more than 99% of individuals analysed: 57 bands for T. grandiflorum (84.2% polymorphic, 45 bands for T. bicolor (26.7% polymorphic and 12 bands shared between the two species (58.3% polymorphic. A high degree of intra-specific similarity particularly in T. bicolor was established from the similarity matrix obtained by using the Dice index and represented in a UPGMA dendrogram and the principal components analysis (PCA. The comparison of this analysis with a previous morpho-agronomic evaluation of some T. grandiflorum individuals revealed that the groups generated on the basis of its agronomic and morphological traits were heterogeneous at molecular level. The obtained information will be used as a tool in strategies regarding maintenance, enrichment and use of the germplasm bank. Key words: Theobroma grandiflorum, Theobroma bicolour, RAPD, molecular characterisation.

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology "Genotyping-by-Sequencing" Platform (DArTseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A.; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming. PMID:28775737

  8. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia A. Egea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  9. Genetic structure from the oldest Jatropha germplasm bank of Brazil and contribution for the genetic improvement

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    DALILHIA N. DOS SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jatropha is a potential oilseed crop, which requires mitigating factors such as the low genetic variability of the species. The solution runs through the research of Brazilian germplasm. Attention should be given to the germplasm of jatropha the north of Minas Gerais, because this is the oldest national collection and because this region may be a regions of jatropha diversity due to selection pressure arising from environmental adversities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of 48 accessions of collection from Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG, using SSR and ISSR markers. The results showed low genetic diversity, but some individuals stood out as J. mollissima (48, J. podagrica (47, Mexican accessions (42, 43, 44 and 45 and some national accessions (28, 29, 41 and 46. Therefore, aiming to increase the genetic variability and improve the effectiveness of jatropha breeding programs, it is suggested to explore such as parental accessions to generate commercial hybrids. This fact implies the possibility to support future production of jatropha, since this culture may be an important source of income, especially for small farmers living in semiarid regions of Brazil.

  10. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE TANGERINAS DE BANCO ATIVO DE GERMOPLASMA DE CITROS DO CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANDARIN FRUITS FROM CITRUS GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK OF `CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC'

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    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido estudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994. Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos.The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7

  11. Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. accessions of Citrus Active Germplasm Bank Caracterização de isolados do vírus da tristeza dos citros de acessos de pomelos (Citrus paradisi Macf. do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros

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    Maria Júlia Corazza-Nunes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates from 35 grapefruit accessions belonging to Citrus Active Germplasm Bank of the "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" located at the "Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira", Cordeirópolis, São Paulo state, Brazil, were characterized and evaluated through symptoms in the trees, biological indexing, immunological diagnosis with different monoclonal antibodies and SSCP analysis (single-strand conformation polymorphism of the coat protein gene. Symptomatology indicated that, in general, the group of plants with smaller canopy volume and severe stem pitting differed significantly from the group that presented greater vegetative development and mild to moderate stem pitting. However, the isolates from most of the accessions induced mild reaction on Mexican lime. The serological evaluation through the DAS-ELISA using monoclonal antibodies did not reveal any association between virus titer in the plant tissue and symptoms. The reaction with different monoclonal antibodies and the distinct electrophoresis patterns obtained through SSCP showed that there is a high degree of diversity among the isolates that infect these grapefruit accessions. High complexity within the same isolate was also observed in the SSCP profiles. This finding indicates that the CTV isolates from these plants are a complex mixture of CTV haplotypes. Similar SSCP banding patterns were observed among some plants with strong stem pitting symptoms, and among some plants with weak or moderate stem pitting symptoms.Isolados do vírus da tristeza dos citros (CTV de 35 acessos de pomelos que fazem parte do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros, localizado no Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Cordeirópolis, São Paulo, Brasil, pertencente ao Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, foram caracterizados através dos sintomas observados nas árvores, indexação biológica, diagnóstico imunológico e análise SSCP (polimorfismo de conformação de fita simples

  12. Promotional activities of banks in Serbia

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    Zelenović Vera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.

  13. The Decline of Traditional Banking Activities

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    Gabriela Cornelia Piciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.

  14. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities. The...

  15. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity provides new insights on the genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut germplasm bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes; Rosado, Tatiana Barbosa; Laviola, Bruno Galvêas; Formighieri, Eduardo Fernandes; Cruz, Cosme Damião

    2013-09-01

    The genetic variability of the Brazilian physic nut (Jatropha curcas) germplasm bank (117 accessions) was assessed using a combination of phenotypic and molecular data. The joint dissimilarity matrix showed moderate correlation with the original matrices of phenotypic and molecular data. However, the correlation between the phenotypic dissimilarity matrix and the genotypic dissimilarity matrix was low. This finding indicated that molecular markers (RAPD and SSR) did not adequately sample the genomic regions that were relevant for phenotypic differentiation of the accessions. The dissimilarity values of the joint dissimilarity matrix were used to measure phenotypic + molecular diversity. This diversity varied from 0 to 1.29 among the 117 accessions, with an average dissimilarity among genotypes of 0.51. Joint analysis of phenotypic and molecular diversity indicated that the genetic diversity of the physic nut germplasm was 156% and 64% higher than the diversity estimated from phenotypic and molecular data, respectively. These results show that Jatropha genetic variability in Brazil is not as limited as previously thought.

  16. Active Risk Management and Banking Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Buston, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the net impact of two opposing effects of active risk management at banks on their stability: higher risk-taking incentives and better isolation of credit supply from varying economic conditions. We present a model where banks actively manage their portfolio risk by buy

  17. Active Risk Management and Banking Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Buston, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the net impact of two opposing effects of active risk management at banks on their stability: higher risk-taking incentives and better isolation of credit supply from varying economic conditions. We present a model where banks actively manage their portfolio risk by

  18. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  19. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

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    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  20. Active Drivers of Adoption of Internet Banking

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    Pankaj Yadav

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of internet by banking sector in India has changed the definition of banking completely. The management of different banks has been making concrete efforts to facilitate the acceptance of i-banking by bringing out its benefits to the customers. This paper identifies the active factors that influence customers intention regarding use of internet banking in Himachal Pradesh  Data was collected from a sample of 120 respondents through a well structured questionnaire. The data was collected from Government employees of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh by asking close ended questions regarding their attitude towards i-banking and their future intention about its use . For analysing and interpreting data in the present study, basic statistical tools, chi-square test (test of independence and logistical regression analysis was used with the help of SPSS 16.0 version. Out of seven factors i.e., perceived risk, perceived usefulness,  perceived quality of service, Perceived cost, Perceived ease of use, trust and awareness, three significant factors i.e., perceived risk, perceived usefulness  and perceived quality of service have been identified that actively influence future adoption intention to adopt internet banking . Further the study exhibited that perceived usefulness and perceived quality of service positively influence the intention to adopt i-banking while perceived risk negatively affect the future adoption intention of i-banking. This  model has the overall predictability of classifying 76.7 % cases correctly and exhibited that 87.2 % customers are classified for adopting i-banking service whereas 57.1 % customers for not having intention to use it in future

  1. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Risks and return of banking activities related to hedge funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Mustiers, J P.; Dubois, A.

    2007-01-01

    There are approximately 10,000 hedge funds worldwide, managing assets of over USD 1.5 trillion. Investment banking activities are more and more intertwined with hedge funds, as hedge funds obtain financing from banks through prime brokerage and are clients or counterparties of banks for all sorts of products. The development of hedge funds has therefore created many opportunities for investment banks. Bank benefit from hedge funds activities directly to the extent that hedge funds are their c...

  3. Bank Powers. Activities of Securities, Subsidiaries of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    clarity impedes the efficiency of their U.S. operations. Ofr ials with whom we spoke expresed corcerns about the prGhibition against affiliate J banks...conveyed some suggestions for editorial and technical changes to your staff in oral discussions and we understand that these changes will be incorporated...have been orally provided. This letter comments on several issues addressed in the draft report which are of particular concern to the Commission. I

  4. Credit and investment activities of commercial banks in Ukraine

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    Olga Zaslavska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an examination of the credit and investment activities of commercial banks in Ukraine. Using the indicators of profitability the author has made an evaluation and analysis of the effectiveness of credit and investment banking. There are also shown dynamics and structure of the Ukrainian banks credit portfolio. In the article are revealed trends and impacts on bank investment lending to the real sector of Ukrainian economy.

  5. 12 CFR 211.23 - Nonbanking activities of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonbanking activities of foreign banking organizations. 211.23 Section 211.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking Organizations § 211.23...

  6. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  7. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with...

  8. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  9. [Financial aspects of tissue bank activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrić, Nikica; Dekaris, Iva

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, we are faced with increasing challenges in the field of tissue banking. New technologies and scientific advances have resulted in new standards designed by European Union in the form of Directives. Our ophthalmologists have also participated in this process, Professor Nikica Gabrić as member of the European Eye Bank Association Committee (1999-2005) and Associate Professor Iva Dekaris as member of the same Committee (2005-2006). Since this year, Associate Professor Iva Dekaris has been appointed actual vice-president and future president of this general European organization in charge of corneal tissue banking. She will hold the position for the next three years by automatism. New regulations made to enhance tissue banking in order to provide greater amount of safety and contentment for patients necessitate increased costs. Taking eye bank as an example, we showed financial problems that each tissue bank is faced with every day. Taking care of all the costs needed for processing human corneal tissue in Croatia that will be used for transplantation, we calculated approximate costs required for this process and compared them with other countries.

  10. 12 CFR 347.116 - Recordkeeping and supervision of foreign activities of insured state nonmember banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... volatility. Information should be available on sources of liquidity—cash, balances with banks, marketable... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and supervision of foreign activities of insured state nonmember banks. 347.116 Section 347.116 Banks and Banking FEDERAL...

  11. 12 CFR 7.5008 - Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities. 7.5008 Section 7.5008 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... because the bank's products or services are accessed through electronic means by customers located in the...

  12. Statistical assessment of quality of credit activity of Ukrainian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldavska Olena V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts an economic and statistical analysis of the modern state of credit activity of Ukrainian banks and main tendencies of its development. It justifies urgency of the statistical study of credit activity of banks. It offers a complex system of assessment of bank lending at two levels: the level of the banking system and the level of an individual bank. The use of the system analysis allows reflection of interconnection between effectiveness of functioning of the banking system and quality of the credit portfolio. The article considers main aspects of management of quality of the credit portfolio – level of troubled debt and credit risk. The article touches the problem of adequate quantitative assessment of troubled loans in the credit portfolios of banks, since the methodologies of its calculation used by the National Bank of Ukraine and international rating agencies are quite different. The article presents a system of methods of management of credit risk, both theoretically and providing specific examples, in the context of prevention of occurrence of risk situations or elimination of their consequences.

  13. Cord blood banking activity in Iran National Cord Blood Bank: a two years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Mostafa; Atarodi, Kamran; Nakhlestani, Mozhdeh; Abolghasemi, Hasan; Sadegh, Hosein; Faranoosh, Mohammad; Golzade, Khadije; Fadai, Razieh; Niknam, Fereshte; Zarif, Mahin Nikougoftar

    2014-02-01

    Today umbilical cord blood (UCB) has known as a commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation and many cord blood banks have been established around the world for collection and cryopreservation of cord blood units. Herein, we describe our experience at Iran National Cord Blood Bank (INCBB) during 2 years of activity. From November 2010 to 2012, UCBs were collected from 5 hospitals in Tehran. All the collection, processing, testing, cryopreservation and storage procedures were done according to standard operation procedures. Total nucleated cells (TNC) count, viability test, CD34+ cell count, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, screening tests and HLA typing were done on all banked units. Within 3770 collected units, only 32.9% fulfilled banking criteria. The mean volume of units was 105.2 ml and after volume reduction the mean of TNC, viability, CD34+ cells and CFUs was 10.76×10(8), 95.2%, 2.99×10(6) and 7.1×10(5), respectively. One unit was transplanted at Dec 2012 to a 5-year old patient with five of six HLA compatibilities. In our country banking of UCB is new and high rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplants needs expanding CB banks capacity to find more matching units, optimization of methods and sharing experiences to improve biological characterization of units.

  14. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  15. Elements of banking intermediation in the Algerian Banking system and the means to activate it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habbar Abderezak, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Banking intermediation raises several interrelated issues for banks, the central bank and the Treasury. It is linked to the gross domestic product, money supply and bank liquidity, etc. These elements will be examined in this article to learn the elements of bank intermediation in the Algerian banking system and ways of strengthening it.

  16. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  17. Prudential regulation and surveillance - essential elements of the banking activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Without being an exhaustive study, the analysis aims to identify the intrinsic correlations of essential notions for the banking field - prudence, prudential supervision, international publishing and sanctions, quartered obviously in risk area. We mention that risk, as related to surveillance and caution, represents the possibility of potential, expected or unexpected events to have a negative impact on the bank capital or the bank revenue. We will not use the notion of control, which seems included in that broader surveillance, but we remind that a prudential supervision aims at preventing internal or external risk at a credit institution level, and at avoiding their spread. Macroeconomic prudential supervision is an internal management activity, given the evolution of constraints that come from outside, the change of activity place or the redefinition of prudential rules at national and international level.

  18. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have been raised concerning the extent to which international banking facilities may purchase (or sell) IBF...

  19. THE PROCESS OF MONITORING AND CONTROLLING WITH REFERENCE TO THE BANKING ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDUCAN LAURA – RAMONA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the banking financial sector has evolved. Beginning with the evolution of the products offered by banks, the risks at which a bank is exposed have diversified. By taking into consideration the risks that appeared and the necessity of dealing with them in an efficient way, the banking institutions have had to embrace a strategic approach of their activities on the named markets.The present paper speaks about the audit activities, the external banking audit, and the internal banking audit as well as about the main features of the audit in the banking activity.

  20. Bank finance and export activities of Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Yindenaba Abor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines SMEs’ access to bank finance and how that affects their export activities. The study adopts a probit model to assess the empirical relations. The findings of the study suggest that SME access to bank finance improves their likelihood to export. Such finance is critical to cater for the high fixed costs of exporting, international marketing and branding, and meeting higher quality standards required for overseas markets. The results of the study also indicate that older firms, more productive firms, and larger firms are more likely to take the important step of entering into the export market. Policy interventions should therefore be directed at reducing the bottlenecks that prevent SMEs from accessing funding from the commercial banks.

  1. Assessing bone banking activities at University of Malaya medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Ramalingam, Saravana; Min, Ng Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Zaman, T Kamarul; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of establishing in-house bone banks is its ability to readily provide allograft bones for local surgeries. Bone procurement activities of our university bone bank during the 10 years of operation were reviewed. Socio-demographic data of donors, types of bone procured, cases of rejected bones and types of allograft bones transplanted are presented. From 179 potential donors, 73 % were accepted with 213 procured bones. Femoral head was the common bone transplanted (45 %), as it was also the most common procured (82 %). Bones were rejected mainly due to non-technical reasons (83 %) rather than positive results of microbiological (13 %) and serological (4 %) tests. Comprehensive data could not be obtained for further analysis due to difficulties in retrieving information. Therefore, quality assurance system was improved to establish more systematic documentations, as the basis of good banking practice with process control hence allowing traceability.

  2. 75 FR 8239 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission Activities and Standby Letters of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... 2590-AA33 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission Activities and Standby Letters of... Home Loan Bank (Bank) housing associates, the Banks' core mission activities, and Bank issuance of... collection contained in the current Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates regulation, has been...

  3. Assessment the solutions which increase active Internet banking customers (The case study: MellatBank branch of Kish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing electronic banking services is one of the major requirements in connection with the development of services and customer satisfaction is a top priority, especially customers who are interested to use modern banking services.One glance at the status quo can be realized bank had not achieved much success in customers use ebanking services. Hence this studyidentifies needs, desires, expectations and opinions with e-banking customers in order to increase the bank's Internet Banking active customers.And helps banks and activists in the field of ebanking to focus on these factors in the formulation of their strategies. This study aimed to investigate solutions to increase the willingness of bank customers to use electronic services.To examine the purpose and hypothesis Technology Acceptance Model Davis chosen with four attitudes, perceived usefulness, ease of understanding and willingness to use the customer.This population consists of applied research consisted of all those within 6 months of the second and third year94 received the bank's internet banking user ID and password.For example, simple sampling method was used and the sample size has been calculated by Cochran 96.The questionnaire used in the survey questionnaire technology adoption is Davis. By professors and experts approved the validity and reliability by Cronbach's alpha (0.83 obtained and structural equation model was used to examine the hypotheses of the study. Results show that the three hypotheses regarding attitudes, perceived usefulness and willingness to use Verified by accepting internet banking and internet banking relationship with the ease of understanding has been rejected.

  4. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding...

  5. Micropropagation, seed propagation and germplasm bank of Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson Micropropagação, propagação por sementes e banco de germoplasma de Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Biondo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson (Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant species with antivenom properties, native from Brazilian Savanna regions (Cerrado, which due to overexploitation and habitat deforestation is in danger of extinction. As an initiative for conserving this endangered but economically important plant species, a micropropagation protocol was developed and genotypes were stored in the Germplasm Bank "Cerrado In vitro". For the in vitro propagation of M. velutina, nodal segments were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA, Zeatin, 2ip, DTT and TDZ. Best multiplication ratio was achieved when to the medium 0.44 µM BA, ranging 1: 6.7, were added. Plantlets cultured on MS/2 medium supplemented with 26.85 µM NAA rooted successfully (50.5%. Although rooted and un-rooted plantlets acclimatized to soil conditions, great losses were observed within un-rooted plantlets, while the rooted presented 100 % survival. It was possible to maintain 43% of the M. velutina germplasm under healthy conditions for six months, with no subcultures, using the MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 13.8 mM spermidine, 2% sorbitol and 2% dextrose.Mandevilla velutina (Mart. Woodson (Apocynaceae é uma planta medicinal de espécie nativa de regiões do Cerrado brasileiro com propriedades anti-ofídicas. Devido a alta exploração e devastação deste bioma, M. velutina está em perigo de extinção. Como uma iniciativa para a conservação desta espécie ameaçada e economicamente importante, um protocolo de micropropagação foi desenvolvido e genótipos foram colocados no Banco de Germoplasma "Cerrado In vitro". Para a propagação in vitro de M. velutina, segmentos nodais foram inoculados no meio Murashige and Skoog (MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BA, zeatina, 2ip, DTT e TDZ. A melhor resposta de multiplicação foi obtida em meio suplementado com 0.44 µM BA na razão 1: 6.7. Pl

  6. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  7. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  8. Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and return using an international sample of 1334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases

  9. Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and return using an international sample of 1334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases th

  10. Legal Instruments of Regulation of Development of Banking Activity in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyshch Pavlo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main approaches to identification of essence of legal instruments of regulation of development of the banking activity, identifies the mechanism of legal regulation of the banking activity and its elements and justifies the system and form of legal regulation of the banking activity in Ukraine. It describes subjects of legal regulation of the banking activity at the international level, which are the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, European Central Bank, IMF, International Financial Reporting Standards Foundation and others. The article considers specific features of the regulatory requirements of Basel II and Basel III and specific features of their introduction into the banking activity. It describes anti-cyclic measures offered by the Basel Committee, which should facilitate formation of such conditions, under which the banking sector could have a lower level of leverage and stability with respect to influence of system risks. Significant attention is paid to international instruments of regulation of the banking activity, which include the following legal acts: Uniform Rules for Collections, Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, and Unified Rules for Loan Guarantees. The article shows that the share of subordinate legal acts is significant in the Ukrainian system of banking regulatory and legal acts since the state cannot operatively react to the changing processes in banking at the legislative level and, that is why, basic provisions on carrying out banking activity should be fixed in law.

  11. Stimulating Investment Development through Transformation of State Banks Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpinska Lidiya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significance of state corporations and state financial institutions in stimulation of investments into the fixed capital of the country and considers problems of increase of efficiency of activity of these institutions in the world and Ukraine. It considers the state sector of the developing countries through the prism of activity of state financial and non-financial corporations. It analyses theories of positive and negative features of carrying out state investing through state-owned banks. It analyses the role of state financial corporations in Ukraine, in particular, in crediting and expansion of the portfolio of acquired governmental bonds and offers ways of its increase in the context of necessity of directing funds into investment development.

  12. UPDATE AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC BANKING ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    NEGRUŞ, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    The context of the financial crisis started has triggered a flow of funds towards the Islamic financial market, which has turned itself into an alternative to the traditional banking structures. The paper herein includes: stages in the evolution of the Islamic banks; the Islamic principles and how they referred to the international banking standards; the impact of the informational technology on the funds segregation and diversification of the Islamic financial products for non-Muslim customers.

  13. Banking activity. Management by risk assessment and measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Gotcu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovations in financial markets and the internationalization of the financial flows have created opportunities for developing some new products and supplying a wider product and service range to the banks. Liberalization of the financial markets , the severe competition and the diversification of the offered products expose banks to new risks and provocations. This new approach confirms the fact that the banking management generally and the risk management especially represents essential concern for the security and the stability both of each bank and the entire bankingsystem.

  14. Optimizing the Banking Activity Using Assets & Liabilities Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the actual study, starting from the international experience, we revealed the role that should be taken by the Assets and Liabilities Committee (ALCO within the Romanian commercial banks. ALCO became one of the tools used by the executive management of the banks to take decisions regarding the future policy of assets and liabilities management, relying on the synthetic information prepared by well trained technicians but without voting right (usually middle management staff. We consider that the implementation of an assets and liabilities management strategy cannot be done without an appropriate corporate governance structure, even though the bank is having highly specialized staff. Models of some western banking institutions may be considered as benchmarks by the Romanian banks.

  15. 12 CFR 7.5001 - Electronic activities that are part of, or incidental to, the business of banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incidental to customer use of electronic banking services; and (iv) Sale of equipment that is convenient or useful to customer's use of related electronic banking services, such as specialized terminals for... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic activities that are part of, or...

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  17. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  18. Improving of methods and organization of the inspection activity of The Bank of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedulov Vladislav Igorevich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the main causes of bank failures at present, that has been taken to find some lacks of modern organization of the Bank of Russia inspection activity. In order to eliminate the revealed lacks we supplied some methods for increasing the effectiveness of the unscheduled narrowly focused thematic inspections that are held to update opinions of supervisor about the risks and to obtain quickly reliable information about specific areas of the bank. Such an approach to organization of inspection activities is more in line with the concept of risk-focused supervision.

  19. Measuring everyday functional competence using the Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Study

  20. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INSPECTION AND SUPERVISING ACTIVITY OF BANK OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Макарович Заернюк

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article established practices of the organization of control and supervision of Bank of Russia of activity of the Russian commercial banks are considered.  The analysis is carried out and the assessment of a level of development of a substantial component of bank regulation and supervision is given.Purpose: Research of tendencies and problems in the organization of control and supervising activity of Bank of Russia at the present stage.Methodology: General scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach. In the course of use of the actual material methods of the economical and statistical analysis were used.Results: The conclusion that the excessive and bureaucratized control from the Central bank interferes with dynamic development of the banking sector is drawn. It is required to generation of the new thinking which is expressing in transfer of accent from need of strict, in many respects of formal, application of bank instructions and regulations on formation of professional opinion of the controler, increase of its responsibility for results of checks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-1

  2. Fraudulent Activities and Forensic Accounting Services of Banks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appah Ebimobowei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of frauds and financial malpractices in the Nigerian banking industry in recent times have made financial institutions to develop means of facing these challenges with the use of forensic accounting services. Forensic accounting is the use of accounting, auditing and investigative skills to determine whether fraud has occurred in any organization. The study examines the effect of forensic accounting services on fraud detection in Nigerian banks. To achieve this objective, data was collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected with the help of a well structured questionnaire of three sections administered to twenty four banks in Port Harcourt the capital of Rivers State and the data collected from the questionnaires were analysed with descriptive statistics, Augmented Dickey-fuller, ordinary least square and Granger Causality. The result reveals that the application of forensic accounting services affects the level of fraudulent activities of banks. On the basis of this finding, the paper concludes that forensic accounting services provide banks with the necessary tools to deter fraudulent activities. Therefore, the study suggests among others that banks should invest on human capital development of their personnel, government and regulatory authorities should ensure the provision of standards and guidelines to regulate forensic activities and above all Nigerians should embrace integrity, objectivity, fairness and accountability in their day-to-day activities.

  3. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  4. The impact of credit risk assessment on credit activity of commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As banks have great social responsibility and are a subject to a specific and extensive regulations, one of the being Basel, the authors of this paper focus on the impact of credit risk assessment on credit activity of commercial banks. The authors of this paper provide a standard for risk management and an insight into directions on how to manage credit risk in the most efficient way and how to assess credit rating of a borrower.

  5. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

    OpenAIRE

    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowad...

  6. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  7. 12 CFR 347.206 - Domestic retail deposit activity requiring deposit insurance by U.S. branch of a foreign bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic retail deposit activity requiring... Banks § 347.206 Domestic retail deposit activity requiring deposit insurance by U.S. branch of a foreign bank. (a) Domestic retail deposit activity. To initiate or conduct domestic retail deposit...

  8. Stability in Bank Income through Fee-based Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Uppal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to study the trends in non-interest income which is a vital source of stability in bank income. For this, the study takes some parameters like interest and non-interest income as a percentage to total income, share of non-interest income components like exchange & brokerage, sale in investment and exchange transaction. On the basis of these parameters the study concludes that interest income is continuously declining due to deregulation in interest rates and non-interest income is rising. Among the non-interest income components, commodity exchange & brokerage witnessed a large share while exchange transaction witnessed a meager part. The paper also gives some ways and means to bring stability in the total income.

  9. 30 CFR 57.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions-Surface Only § 57.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.3430 - Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activity between machinery or equipment and the... NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Precautions § 56.3430 Activity between machinery or equipment and the highwall or bank. Persons shall not work or travel between machinery or equipment and the highwall or...

  11. Iranian Breast Cancer Bio-Bank: the activity and challenging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Kaviani, Ahmad; Esmaeili, Rezvan; Farahmand, Leila; Shojamoradi, Mohammad Hossein; Zare, Ali Akbar; Eini, Leila; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Olfatbakhsh, Asieh; Moazen, Hadi

    2013-03-01

    The information gained from the Human Genome Project has facilitated molecular as well as cellular studies not only to find the origins of Breast Cancer (BC), but also to create novel, and effective treatments. In order to provide an infrastructure for local and international research in this area, Iranian Center for Breast Cancer (ICBC) has established a Bio-Bank (BB) for BC. This article describes the aim, structure, and activities in general, and the challenging issues confronting the bank as a model for the establishment of Bio-Banks in developing countries in particular. The methods employed by the Bank could be explained in the following categories: Blood and Tissue sampling, Preparation and Banking of collected Samples, Clinical and Histopathology data collection, Collaboration Protocol, Challenging issues, and the programs to confront the problems. During the five-year activity of the bank, 110 families were enrolled for genetic counseling, from whom 600 biologic samples were obtained, including 387 blood samples and 213 tissue samples. Of 387 blood samples, 317 (82%) were found to belong to the BC patients and the remaining 70 (18%) belonged to their available relatives. The number of samples increased over the study period partly as a result of the programs designed to confront the problems. During the study period, there were some finished research studies using the samples of BB, and many other studies which are still ongoing. ICBC-BB is a model of biologic sample banking which provides a significant number of biological samples for local and international collaborative research projects regarding molecular and cellular aspects of BC. In establishing the ICBC-BB we have experienced problems and challenges, some general and some local. Some were expected and others not, but we have identified solutions.

  12. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO

    2015-01-01

    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  13. Change of Coagulation Factor Ⅷ and Antithrombin Ⅲ Activity in Bank-Stored Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coagulation factor Ⅷ and antithrombin Ⅲ activity were detected in 15 health donors. It was found that antithrombin Ⅲ activity decreased obviously 12 h after blood drawing. It lost 56 % of the activity at the 3rd day, and 70 % of the activity at the 7th day. FⅧ:c showed no obvious change after 24 h, until the 3rd day. It lost 40 %-60 % of the activity after 36 h and was reduced to the 30 % of the original activity at the 5th day. Our results suggested that at the 3rd day coagulation factor Ⅷ of bank-stored blood can be used to replenish antithrombin Ⅲ, while bank-stored blood in one day can be used to replenish FⅧ.

  14. LEGISLATIVE COLLISIONS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT WITHIN ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE AND METHODS OF THEIR ELIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Pyvovar

    2016-11-01

    bank liquidation decision. Furthermore is concluded that the legal status of the NBU in the banking sector (related to banking activity has peculiarities, which – in total – consecutively define this state authority as: 1 a regulator; 2 a controlling and supervising body; 3 a body with judicial powers. Discussion: Comparative legal research contributed to the conclusion that the legal model that is formulated by legislative acts and is a legal basis for the banking sector conflicts with the Constitution of Ukraine. To solve the detected legal conflict is proposed to implement two main methods.

  15. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizeng Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR or “Genoplasmics” is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  16. Concentration of credit exposure as a significant source of risk in banking activities: the idea and methods of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Kozak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous activation of many sources of risk can slow bank operations and even lead to bankruptcy. Credit risk is the greatest threat to the orderly functioning of a bank. To protect against its materialization banks spend nearly 90% of their total capital requirement. Concentration of credit exposure to single entities, as well as to single economic sectors, can be a source of additional risks. Estimation of the additional portion of the capital requirement in selected banks in Poland in 2008-2013 indicates that banks should assign additional 4% and 2% of the capital requirement to cover the risk of exposure concentrations in: respectively, individual entities and individual economic sectors. For banks with a retail profile more important was the risk of large exposures in individual economic sectors, and for banks with a corporate profile in individual entities. Estimates were carried out according to the procedure used by the Bank of Spain and the Bank of Slovenia, and the data derived from the annual financial reports of selected banks listed on the WSE.

  17. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowadays the banks are not only offerers of factoring services and finance factoring operations of other market participants, but also take an active part in establishment of factoring branches and are consumers of factoring services. In order to accelerate development of international factoring in Ukraine, the article offers such forms of state support of banks, which render factoring services to domestic exporters. The article recommends to focus banks’ attention, under modern conditions that are characterised with volatility of financial markets, on factoring servicing of those clients, whom they have long business relations with, without jeopardising themselves through provision of factoring services to a big number of small debtors. The article provides schemes of banks’ co-operation in the sphere of “non-classic” factoring with accredited factoring companies.

  18. A study on relationship between no-interest based activities on performance of Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Daghighi Asl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the effects of no-interest activities on return of some Iranian banks over the period of 2006-2011 using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis. The paper uses two independent variables where the first one is obtained as a difference between other no-interest incomes with commission fee and the second one is the commission fee income. There are three dependent variables including return on investment, return of assets and risk, leading us to setup three regressions analysis. The result of our survey indicates that no-interest based activities have meaningful effects on the performances of banks. In addition, there are some meaningful relationships among interest free activities, which are mostly in terms of negative relations.

  19. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that

  20. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that spatia

  1. Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Lending Activity of Banks in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Violeta DRAGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As important part of the financial system, the banking sector has undergone negative in terms of quality loan portfolio, changes resulting from the difficult economic climate, particularly by the slowdown of economic activity and national currency depreciation. Regarding credit policy is discussed certain measures aimed to restore the economic balance in order to achieve a certain level of economic growth. The paper approaches the ways of continuous improvement of loan portofolio quality and achieving achieving efficient lending policy effects.

  2. 77 FR 47119 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...; Bank Collective Investment Funds Prohibited Transaction Class Exemption ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Bank Collective Investment Funds Prohibited Transaction Class... INFORMATION: The Bank Collective Investment Funds Prohibited Transaction Class Exemption exempts from the...

  3. FACTORES FINANCIEROS LOCALES INFLUYEN LAS ACTIVIDADES DE LOS BANCOS COOPERATIVOS GRIEGOS / LOCAL FINANCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACTIVITIES OF GREEK COOPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE KONTEOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la influencia de las condiciones locales en las actividades bancarias centrandose en el caso de los 14 bancos cooperativos en Grecia durante el período 1999-2007. Estos bancos han sido seleccionados por su carácter local y en consecuencia, están más influenciadas por las condiciones locales, en comparación con los bancos con red nacional e incluso internacional. Las condiciones locales pueden ser endógenas y exógenas al banco. Las endógenas al banco es la red bancaria que se desarrolla a nivel local o regional asi como a los miembros de los bancos que son la parte principal de la clientela de estas. Una macroeconómica y exógena condición del banco es la cantidad de ahorros en la localidad donde opera. Las actividades bancarias que han sido examinadas incluyen los depósitos y los préstamos que constituyen la parte principal de las actividades bancarias de los bancos cooperativos en Grecia. El crecimiento de la red bancaria es el principal factor de aumento de las actividades del banco; el crecimiento de los miembros de las cooperativas y el aumento de las economías locales tienen una influencia positiva, pero menos importante en las actividades de los bancos cooperativos./This paper examines the influence of local conditions on banking activities focusing on the case of 14 cooperative banks in Greece for the period 1999-2007. These banks have been chosen because of their local character and consequently they are more influenced by local conditions in comparison to banks having a national and even international network. Local conditions could be endogenous and exogenous to the bank. The endogenous to the bank are the banking network developed locally or regionally, and the members of the banks who are the main part of the banks’ clientele. A macroeconomic and exogenous to the bank condition is the amount of savings in the prefecture in which the cooperative bank operates. The banking activities which have

  4. ariação e parâmetros genéticos em dois bancos de germoplasma de Tabebuia heptaphilla (Velloso Toledo. Variation and genetic parameters in two germplasm banks of Tabebuia heptaphilla (Velloso Toledo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz Menezes FREITAS

    2008-06-01

    bancos degermoplasma.The aim of this study was to investigatethe genetic variation and to estimate geneticparameters for growth, form and survival traits at22 and 21 years of age in two progeny tests ofTabebuia heptaphylla, established in Luiz AntônioExperimental Station, belonging to the ForestryInstitute of the State of São Paulo. The test I wasestablished with 19 progenies from Bauruprovenance and the test II by 15 progenies fromAssis provenance. Significant differences amongprogenies were observed in the test I for form andsurvival and in test II for survival. The survival inboth tests was relatively high (> 77%, indicatingthat both populations present good adaptationto environmental condition of Luiz Antônio.The coefficient of genetic variation ( g CV wasgenerally low (£ 4.6%, suggesting that theadopted sampling strategy to conserve the geneticvariation of the populations was not efficientor both population have low genetic variation.The coefficients of heritability at individual plants( 2i h and within progenies levels ( 2d h were equallylow (maximum of 0.09. The coefficient ofheritability at progeny means level ( 2m h was highfor stem form (minimum 0.43 and survival (0.78,showing that both tested material have geneticpotential for selection. The estimative of the statusnumber before the selection in test I and II indicatedthat the 570 and 450 individuals, respectively,correspond to 39 and 31 not endogamic and relativetrees. After selection of six plants per progeny, thestatus number was reduced and the 114 and 90selected trees in test I and II, respectively, correspondto 32 and 25 trees non endogamic and withoutrelatedness. In general terms, the results indicatedthat low genetic variation and small status numberwas retained in both germoplasm banks.

  5. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira Genetic characterization using microsatellites of 34 accessions of the orange, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank of Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.To characterize 34 orange accessions Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank Corpoica- Palmira, 19 microsatellite markers were used. Six markers were polymorphic; the highest heterozygosity was obtained by CCSM-19 (0.4097 and CCSM-3 (0.3254. Thirty-three accessions were differentiated; with 85% of similarity, Nei-Li´s index and the UPGMA clustering method were formed fi ve groups. In the first one, two accessions were white (Lerma and Valencia Olinda 2, in the second one most of the white (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1, García Valencia and Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington

  6. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  7. 12 CFR 211.4 - Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign branches of member banks. 211.4 Section 211.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... powers, and to the extent consistent with its charter, a foreign branch of a member bank may engage in... been improved; (5) Insurance. Act as insurance agent or broker; (6) Employee benefits program. Pay...

  8. Modelling Strategy of Loan and Deposit Activity of a Commercial Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilchenko Kseniia O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of strategy of loan-deposit strategy of a bank, which could be presented by relevant rates. Bank activity is described with goodwill and liquidity indicators that characterise tangible and intangible resources of an institution. Goodwill indicator is calculated on the basis of the previous period data. Liquidity is a relation of assets to liabilities at a certain moment of time. On the basis of these indicators the article develops a mathematical model, which includes an assumption about dependence of the rate of growth of deposits on liquidity and goodwill functions. There is a task of two criteria optimisation, the solution of which is a set of rates. The article considers cases when a bank does not change rates during a set period of time and when a bank changes them frequently under condition that rates are independent from each other. If we make an assumption that each change of rates is accompanied with costs, which are not reflected in the model, changing rates is inexpedient. The article offers to use partially constant average values of rates. The article considers the use of the ideal point for selection of one value out of the set of Pareto efficient solutions. Using presentation of the task of one criterion optimisation with respect to the liquidity ratio, the article shows that the use of the goodwill indicator influences the rate of growth of deposits. This task is a special case of the previous one, which means that this solution is within the set of the presented Pareto efficient point. But in the event of non-strict correspondence with the extreme value of the liquidity ratio, the solution worsens. The necessity of use of both criteria is important and improves the south for solution.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  10. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Chinese waxy maize germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Zheng

    Full Text Available Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh, with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F* were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection.

  11. Genetic structure and diversity of the Neem Germplasm Bank from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... in agricultural, medical, cosmetic and livestock production. (NRC, 1992; Schmutterer, 1995). ... Biotechnology (Brasília, Brazil); and 32 of A. indica, donated by ... of blue juice (0.01% bromophenol blue, 40% glycerol). We used.

  12. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  13. The effect of monetary policy of Central Bank on activities of Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifehdust

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between monetary policy and activity of the Tehran Stock Exchange. The statistical population of the research consists of all companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange and central bank monetary policy variables including time series generated by the central bank seasonally. For the purpose of data analysis, econometric autoregressive system models, and two-stage ADF regression with unit roots test, co-integration and reliability were used to determine level of effect and type of effect of the four components of monetary policy on exchange activity. The results of this study show that there is a strong relation between share price index and monetary policy variables and between monetary policy variables and trading volume. However, the relation between monetary policy variables and cash yield index was not so strong, but monetary policy variables’ effect on stock exchange activity was acceptable considering strong relation between the two first variables. It is suggested that if this work is done using non-linear models, it will yield better results.

  14. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Prasanna

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. ‘Seeds of Discovery’ (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this

  15. Diversity in global maize germplasm: characterization and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, B M

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. 'Seeds of Discovery' (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this is

  16. Esmeralda Bank: Geochemistry of an active submarine volcano in the Mariana Island Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Bibee, L. D.

    1984-05-01

    Esmeralda Bank is the southernmost active volcano in the Izu-Volcano-Mariana Arc. This submarine volcano is one of the most active vents in the western Pacific. It has a total volume of about 27 km3, rising to within 30 m of sea level. Two dredge hauls from Esmeralda recovered fresh, nearly aphyric, vesicular basalts and basaltic andesites and minor basaltic vitrophyre. These samples reflect uniform yet unusual major and trace element chemistries. Mean abundances of TiO2 (1.3%) and FeO* (12.6%) are higher and CaO (9.2%) and Al2O3 (15.1%) are lower than rocks of similar silica content from other active Mariana Arc volcanoes. Mean incompatible element ratios K/Rb (488) and K/Ba (29) of Esmeralda rocks are indistinguishable from those of other Mariana Arc volcanoes. On a Ti-Zr plot, Esmeralda samples plot in the field of oceanic basalts while other Mariana Arc volcanic rocks plot in the field for island arcs. Incompatible element ratios K/Rb and K/Ba and isotopic compositions of Sr (87Sr/86Sr=0.70342 0.70348), Nd (ɛND=+7.6 to +8.1), and O(δ18O=+5.8 to +5.9) are incompatible with models calling for the Esmeralda source to include appreciable contributions from pelagic sediments or fresh or altered abyssal tholeiite from subduction zone melting. Instead, incompatible element and isotopic ratios of Esmeralda rocks are similar to those of intra-plate oceanic islands or “hot-spot” volcanoes in general and Kilauean tholeiites in particular. The conclusion that the source for Esmeralda lavas is an ocean-island type mantle reservoir is preferred. Esmeralda Bank rare earth element patterns are inconsistent with models calling for residual garnet in the source region, but are adequately modelled by 7 10% equilibrium partial melting of spinel lherzolite. This is supported by consideration of the results of melting experiments at 20 kbars, 1,150° C with CO2 and H2O as important volatile components. These experiments further indicate that low MgO (4.1%), MgO/FeO*(0.25) and

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF BANKS WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The privatization has as purpose to reestablish the functionality of a type of property under the public agreement. The privatization of banks brings both positive and beneficial aspects, but also some notions with a negative impact that influence the capital markets and banking system. Among the benefits we can include: the increase of the effectiveness and performance of the banking operations, the implementation of some effective structures that lead to the gradual integration of the banking system into the greatly developed economies, the improvement and perfecting of the bank services. In Romania, the privatization of banks started rather late and in some cases it turned up to be very difficult. Romanian banking system is dominated by the Austrian and Greek investors. The Romanian banking system is very concentrated, but the intermediation level is still lower than in other European or Eastern European countries.

  18. Genetic diversity of pomegranate germplasm collection from Spain determined by fruit, seed, leaf and flower characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Martinez-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Miguel Hernandez University (Spain created a germplasm bank of the varieties of pomegranate from different Southeastern Spain localities in order to preserve the crop’s wide genetic diversity. Once this collection was established, the next step was to characterize the phenotype of these varieties to determine the phenotypic variability that existed among all the different pomegranate genotypes, and to understand the degree of polymorphism of the morphometric characteristics among varieties. Methods. Fifty-three pomegranate (Punica granatum L. accessions were studied in order to determine their degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities in their genotypes. Thirty-one morphometric characteristics were measured in fruits, arils, seeds, leaves and flowers, as well as juice characteristics including content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and maturity index. ANOVA, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that there was a considerable phenotypic diversity (and presumably genetic. Results. The cluster analysis produced a dendrogram with four main clusters. The dissimilarity level ranged from 1 to 25, indicating that there were varieties that were either very similar or very different from each other, with varieties from the same geographical areas being more closely related. Within each varietal group, different degrees of similarity were found, although there were no accessions that were identical. These results highlight the crop’s great genetic diversity, which can be explained not only by their different geographical origins, but also to the fact that these are native plants that have not come from genetic improvement programs. The geographic origin could be, in the cases where no exchanges of plant material took place, a key criterion for cultivar clustering. Conclusions. As a result of the present study, we can conclude that among all the parameters analyzed, those related to fruit and seed

  19. Identification of a Simple Sequence Repeat molecular-marker set for large-scale analyses of pear germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dequigiovanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR are molecular markers suitable to assess the genetic variation of germplasm resources; however, large-scale SSR use requires protocol optimization. The present work aimed to identify SSR markers, developed for pear and other fruit species that are effective in characterizing pear germplasm collections and in demonstrating their use in providing support for genetic breeding programs. From a total of 62 SSR markers investigated, 23 yielding reproducible and polymorphic patterns were used to genotype a sample of 42 pear accessions of the Brazilian Pear Germplasm Bank (PGB. When compared to these 23 SSR markers, a subset of eleven markers, selected based on He, PIC and PId, was used to distinguish individual accessions and perform cluster analysis with similar efficacy. Genetic diversity analysis clustered the European, Japanese and Chinese accessions in distinct groups. This markers subset constitutes a valuable tool for several applications related to pear genetic resources management and breeding.

  20. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México; 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P. americana var. guatemalensis, plantados en los bancos de germoplasma en Michoacán. Se analizó la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases-masas. Hubo alta variabilidad química entre los árboles del banco de germoplasma con los 64 compuestos detectados. El análisis de cúmulos mostró 2 grandes grupos químicos con 100% disimilitud y 22 grupos a 10% de disimilitud. Los híbridos se agruparon de manera diferente a los árboles con características típicas de criollo y difieren en su altitud de origen. Corroboramos que los volátiles foliares sirven como marcadores para diferenciar los criollos típicos de sus híbridos y que mucha variación atribuida a la variedad criolla proviene de hibridaciones en zonas de contacto de esta variedad con otras variedades o especies de Persea.Persea americana var. drymifolia (mexican creole avocado is used as rootstock in Hass avocado orchards and it is a source of genes for resistance to pests and pathogens for this and other cultivars. The Mexican varieties are being replaced by commercial cultivars or lost by the destruction of ecosystems. Therefore, we studied 250 avocado trees of 52 accessions from 14 Mexican states; 247 mexican creole avocado and 3 hybrids of that tree with P. shiedeana, P. americana var. americana or P. americana var. guatemalensis, planted at germplasm banks, Michoacán. Foliar chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. High chemical variability among the trees was found

  1. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  2. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  3. THE IMPLICATIONS OF MARKETING ACTIVITY IN RISK ANALYSIS, CORE ELEMENT OF LENDING POLICY TO COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Florin-Mihai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present financial context first affected by the lack of trust generated by the important bankruptcies in the USA and secondly by the global economic crisis, financial institutions are more than ever focused on applying market research, customer segmentation procedures and based upon them adapted credit strategies. The process is based on the fundaments of the marketing mix, much more carefully than before in order to maximize efficiency and market position or to consolidate, increase market share by taking advantage of opportunities or diminishing the effects of the present unfavorable economic climate. Analysis procedures based on differential risk models can be identified, the starting point being precisely the involvement of marketing by the market segmentation process and the concepts of “customer centricity” and “client relationship management”, specific credit policies being based upon them. The present paper intends to bring forth the client segmentation criteria practiced by top Romanian commercial banks, as the right segmentation process will reflect on the typology of financing over time. Furthermore, client segmentation tends to influence banking management in order to administer the risks arising from the credit activities, as it is in strict connection to the elements and processes involved in determining a correct rating of the applicants for funding.

  4. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  5. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  6. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  7. Genetic variability analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia germplasm collected in Pará State using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S M; Moura, E F; Ramos, G K S; Oliveira, M S P

    2016-10-17

    Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Pará State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccard's coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarapé Açu-2 and Augusto Corrêa-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.

  8. 12 CFR 940.2 - Mission of the Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission of the Banks. 940.2 Section 940.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.2 Mission of the Banks. The mission of the Banks is to provide to their members' and...

  9. Formation of the Project Team on Introduction of Financial Controlling into Banking Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Iryna M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies order and content of stages of formation of the project team of introduction of financial controlling into banking activity. It offers a procedure of identification of the qualitative team composition, which envisages selection of candidates with the use of rules of fuzzy logical conclusion for assessing three groups of competences: personal (initiative, communication ability, creative ability, purposefulness and responsibility; common managerial (ability to work in a team, ability to manage conflicts, ability to manage, strategic thinking ability, ability to plan team work and distribute rights and obligations and co-ordinate work; special managerial (ability to justify and make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and dynamism, analytical abilities, ability to master new directions and methods of work and use them, skills and ability to form justified recommendations, special knowledge – theoretical grounds and recommendations of modern science with respect to introduction of controlling.

  10. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  11. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  12. Evaluation of an Item Bank for a Computerized Adaptive Test of Activity in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Stephen M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Dumas, Helene M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Tucker, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contemporary clinical assessments of activity are needed across the age span for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has the potential to efficiently administer items for children across wide age spans and functional levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new item bank and simulated computerized adaptive test to assess activity level abilities in children with CP. Design: This was a cross-sectional item calibration study. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 308 children and youth with CP, aged 2 to 20 years (X=10.7, SD=4.0), recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals. We collected parent-report data on an initial set of 45 activity items. Using an Item Response Theory (IRT) approach, we compared estimated scores from the activity item bank with concurrent instruments, examined discriminate validity, and developed computer simulations of a CAT algorithm with multiple stop rules to evaluate scale coverage, score agreement with CAT algorithms, and discriminant and concurrent validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported scale unidimensionality, local item dependence, and invariance. Scores from the computer simulations of the prototype CATs with varying stop rules were consistent with scores from the full item bank (r=.93–.98). The activity summary scores discriminated across levels of upper-extremity and gross motor severity and were correlated with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) physical function and sports subscale (r=.86), the Functional Independence Measure for Children (Wee-FIM) (r=.79), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory–Cerebral Palsy version (r=.74). Limitations: The sample size was small for such IRT item banks and CAT development studies. Another limitation was oversampling of children with CP at higher functioning levels. Conclusions: The new activity item bank appears to have promise for use in a CAT

  13. Parcelling activity of the National Bank for Agriculture in interwar Poland in the years 1924-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Kłusek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature related to the problem in focus is exceptionally poor. The only book publication concerns the National Bank for Agriculture in the twenty-year interwar period is book position of Marek Nowak’s authorship [Nowak 1988]. But, on account of its modest range, bank agrarian activity has been treated too generally. In this publication author’s opinion is that this activity needs deeper analysis. Parcelling is an economic process which took part in Poland and lasted from the moment of grant freehold. It ran with special intensification towards the end of XIX century and at the beginning of XX century. In inter-war period, on account of source of parcelled soil, parcellation was divided into private and governmental. Governmental parcellation, which related to public property, included lands by Regional District Councils and territories included by military settlement. However, lands allocated by the National Bank for Agriculture and by individual people made private parcellation. The beginning of the National Bank for Agriculture’s agrarian activity’ was enabled by Poland President’s directive from 1924. One of the main tasks put against NBA was support: parcellation and settlement, agricul-tural regulations by landed estates purchase for parcelling aims and giving long-term credits for land purchase. However, according to status, the National Bank for Agriculture was able to parcel out landed properties, both purchased for private property and entrusted to commission state. Tasks put against parcellation conducted by the National Bank for Ag-riculture were not carried out in a satisfactory way. The Bank’s activity did not contribute to shopping the process of farms fragmentation at serious level and process of agrarian overpopulation’s growth among fewer ownership. Similarly, it also was not an essential source of establishing new farms capable of competing with vast-land ownership.

  14. 甜瓜种质鉴定的高效引物(引物组合)适用性分析%Suitability Analysis on Highly Active Primers ( Primer Combinations) of Germplasm Identification in Cucumis melo L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王掌军; 王建设; 刘生祥; 蒋全熊; 张晓岗; 马宏玮

    2012-01-01

    以30份甜瓜种质资源为材料,采用RAPD(random amplified polymorphic DNA)、DAMD(directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA)和SRAP(sequence-related amplified polymorphism)3 种分子标记构建各自的DNA指纹图谱.针对图谱上扩增的条带分子量大小和分布,用统计软件逐一聚类,根据不同引物(引物组合)所得聚类图鉴别的品种数目,筛选出高分辨率的4个RAPD引物、3个DAMD引物和6个SRAP引物组合.同时,利用高效引物(引物组合)评价了甜瓜遗传多样性,将30份甜瓜分为薄皮和厚皮两类,厚皮甜瓜包括网纹和无网纹两种类型.%The study constructed each DNA fingerprint map by RAPD, DAMD and SRAP molecular markers in 30 melon germplasms. Statistical software was used to cluster one by one in collection with the dimension and distribution of the molecular weight in the map amplified. Based on the cultivar numbers identified by the clustering map from different primers (primer combinations) , four RAPD primers, three DAMD primers and six SRAP primer combinations with highly distinguished rate were screened. At the same time,the genetic diversity of melons were evaluated by these high active primers (primer combinations) ,30 melons were divided to two kinds, ie,C. melo sp. cono-mom and C. melo sp. melo, C. melo sp. melo included C. melo cantalupo and C. melo reticulatus.

  15. Construction of Transgenic Crop Germplasm Effective Function and Characteristic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guangzhou; WANG Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Germplasm effect reflects the quantitative relation between production ability of gennplasm elements and yield (quality) of a certain crop, which can be shown by mathematic function, namely, germplasm effect function. Germplasm effect of a crop variety is an aggregation of many effective factors, and is restrained by different effective factors;constant increase of any one effect of germplasm elements would lead to law of effect decline, therefore, possible modes of transgenic crops effect function were deduced according to the law of effect decline. The possible modes of single transgenic germplasm effect function and multi-transgenic germplasm effect regression equation were discussed, and the characteristics of germplasm effect regression equation were analyzed in this paper.

  16. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  17. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  18. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  19. POST-LAUNCHING MONITORING ACTIVITIES FOR NEW TRANSACTIONAL BANKING PRODUCTS ADDRESSED TO SMES (CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuca Simona-Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for post-launching monitoring activities and steps related to new transactional banking products addressed to SMEs. While the pre-launching activities have the purpose of accurately defining the objectives, assumptions and estimations, the purpose of the post-launching plan is to identify: if the final objectives of a product launching have been met, on one hand, to analyze results in the sense of identifying an efficient action plan in order to overcome the lack of results (if case, but most important, to identify opportunities for optimizing the products and for communicating properly the value proposition. This paper also presents schemes for monitoring the results from a business case and for motivating the sales force, as an essential step in increasing the sales. Therefore, alternatives of incentive campaigns are presented, as sustainable campaigns with to purpose to achieve an expected success rate. As an additional support guideline for the sales force, some scenarios and post-sales actions are presented, together with an example of portfolio analysis considering potential per client. Considering the methods and details presented in the current paper, one can identify the importance and find out how to monitor the results after launching a new transactional product addressed to SMEs, can understand and design an incentive scheme and also define actions to be taken in order to increase revenues from a newly launched transactional product.

  20. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.              JEL Codes: G21, F23Keywords: Bank, Banking

  1. Cost leadership and bank internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...

  2. Molecular diversity in Coffea canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize accessions that represent the C. canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil. A total of 130 accessions from germplasm banks of IAC (São Paulo, UFV (Minas Gerais and also collected in plantations of the State of Espírito Santo and Rondônia were evaluated with a set of 20 new microsatellite primers. Multivariate methods were used to estimate the relationship among the accessions. High level of polymorphism and two major diversity clusters were identified. First cluster was composed by the accessions conserved in the IAC and UFV collections and the second was formed by accessions collected in areas under cultivation. Accessions from Espírito Santo and Rondônia were clear separated, composing two subclusters. Despite the great polymorphism found in Brazilian plantations, the diversity may be increased, because a new threshold in the genetic gains is expected on breeding programs with the intensification of the use of conserved germplasm.

  3. 77 FR 70544 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ..., existing products and services change, and banks expand through mergers and acquisitions, management's... reporting of products, services, and customers (PSCs) related to prepaid access or prepaid cards, a growth...

  4. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  6. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  7. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Quality management banking perspective is extremely interesting, from the point of view of the activities specific, and of the permanent area competition improvement. Banks being aware of the quality problems also lead to the appearance and requirement of

  8. Genetic diversity of a brazilian wine grape germplasm collection based on morphoagronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of cultivars, to quantify the variability and to estimate the genetic distances of 66 wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of the EMBRAPA Semi-Arid, in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, through the characterization of discrete and continuous phenotypic variables. Multivariate statistics, such as, principal components, Tocher's optimization procedure, and the graphic of the distance, were efficient in grouping more similar genotypes, according to their phenotypic characteristics. There was no agreement in the formation of groups between continuous and discrete morpho-agronomic traits, when Tocher's optimization procedure was used. Discrete variables allowed the separation of Vitis vinifera and hybrids in different groups. Significant positive correlations were observed between weight, length and width of bunches, and a negative correlation between titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. The major part (84.12% of the total variation present in the original data was explained by the four principal components. The results revealed little variability between wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semi-Arid.

  9. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  10. Innovative strategies of bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Peresadko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.

  11. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a t

  12. 78 FR 15121 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... information related to risk management processes. The OCC's evaluation of the institution's full risk... expertise. The commenter observed that risk management is not a universal exercise and that management may tailor its risk assessment process to meet a bank's unique needs. The other commenter indicated expanding...

  13. THE COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TURKISH ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM AND THE HUNGARIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Talos, Livia

    2016-01-01

    After the 2008 economic crisis, special attention was given to alternative financing techniques, and so to Islamic banks. During the crisis the stability of the Islamic banks was higher than the stability of the conventional banks.The major source of revenue of the conventional banks is interest and other income from speculative transactions, so a conventional bank can shows higher results than an Islamic bank. Islamic banks operate on religious principles, so many activities are forbidden to...

  14. L'attività internazionale delle banche italiane: una sintesi degli ultimi dieci anni (The International Activity of Italian Banks: A Synthesis of the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo De Bonis

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the developments of the Italian banking system during the Nineties from two related points of view: net external position and degree of internationalisation, i.e. branches and subsidiaries abroad. These themes seem particularly interesting in the light of the widespread belief that the euro area will significantly increase banking competition and cross-border operations in coming years. We find two major forces driving banks' external net position: the growth in loans to domestic borrowers and the convergence in interest rate levels across European countries. The development of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been influenced by two counterbalancing forces; the big banking groups reduced their presence abroad while some medium-sized banks opened their first branches; the focus of foreign branches and subsidiaries has been on specific segments of banking activities, very often exploiting "localization" advantages. Despite the improvement in the Nineties, Italian banks have tended to show a relatively low degree of internationalisation compared with the main European banking system.

  15. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant'Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio

    2016-01-01

    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  16. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  17. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  18. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  19. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  20. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  1. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  2. The future role of the professional associations in the promotion of tissue banking activities in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin America regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Vajaradul, Yongyudh; Alvarez, Ines

    2011-11-01

    There are several important roles that the established professional associations [Asia-Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB) and Latin American Association of Tissue Banks (ALABAT)] could play for the promotion of tissue banking activities in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin American regions in the future. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) could also play an important role in supporting the activities of both professional associations in the field of training, exchange of scientific information, the standardisation of national norms and regulations, the use of the IAEA documents, particularly the "Radiation Sterilisation of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A Code of Practice", with the purpose to improve the quality of the activities carried out by the established tissue banks and the nuclear facilities in charge of the sterilisation of the processed tissues, and to increase tissue donations. The role of APASTB and ALABAT could be relevant and important for the improvement of the work of the established tissue banks in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin American regions, and could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their works, the improvement of management good practices and for increasing the awareness of the community on the importance of the activities carried out by the tissue banks, among others.

  3. 12 CFR 7.1005 - Credit decisions at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit decisions at other than banking offices. 7.1005 Section 7.1005 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1005 Credit decisions at other than banking offices. A...

  4. 12 CFR 7.1004 - Loans originating at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originating at other than banking offices. 7.1004 Section 7.1004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1004 Loans originating at other than banking offices. (a) General...

  5. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  6. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  7. A study on relationship between electronic banking and liquidity management on Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available E-banking has been extensively developed in recent decades and most banks need to have such services in their daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary that banks do a better management on banks’ liquidity risks. Electronic banking and the expansion of its scale from POSs and ATMs to telephone banking, mobile banking and internet banking have increased banking transactions, significantly. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the relationship between the development of e-banking and liquidity management using liquidity ratios. The focus of this investigation has been on the amounts of transaction of ATM machines, POSs and PIN PADs as the most important means of electronic banking. In this respect, the data obtained from 14 private and public bank representatives of banking system over the period 2007-2012 are considered. Our survey indicates that the characteristics of electronic banking significantly influence on liquidity.

  8. Corporate Governance, Opaque Bank Activities, and Risk/Return Efficiency : Pre- and Post-Crisis Evidence from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Disli, M.; Schoors, K.

    2011-01-01

    Does better corporate governance unambiguously improve the risk/return efficiency of banks? Or does either a re-orientation of banks' revenue mix towards more opaque products, an economic downturn, or tighter supervision create off-setting or reinforcing effects? The authors relate bank efficiency

  9. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  10. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  11. Evaluation of banks’ foreign banking groups financial condition in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Дмитрівна Вовчак

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explored and analyzed the banks' activities of foreign banking groups in 2013-2015 on a number of absolute and relative indicators, which allowed to determine their place in the banking system of Ukraine and evaluate the effectiveness of their activities. Also the ratings of banks of foreign banking groups in Ukraine's banking are compared on the basis of information from official sources, and their impact in the banking sector in Ukraine is identified

  12. BANKING ETHICS: MAIN CONCEPTIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Banking ethics is a specialized set of ethical standards and rules that should be followed in the activities of financial institutions and employees of the banking sector. But despite the simplicity of the definition, in the modern world, this concept becomes complex and ambiguous. The importance of studying this subject is defined by the fact that the ethical behavior of the bank and bank employees promotes banking. At present there are several conceptions of banking ethics: general ethics, regulated ethics and ethical bank. The most common practice is to regulate internal and external relations of banks and bank workers with ethical codes. At the same time, studies show the existence of problems in the banking standards of ethics, which negatively affects the financial institution. This article is intended to reflect main tendencies and problems of banking ethics at international level and experience of Republic of Moldova in this field.

  13. THE CASE FOR UNIVERSAL BANKING AS A COMPONENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    AL-JARHI, MABID ALI

    2005-01-01

    Universal banking is one of the main components of Islamic banking. Islamic banks provide finance to enterprises through either sharing directly in the net results of their activities or financing their purchases of assets, goods and services on credit. We can therefore expect Islamic banks to hold equity in corporations and sit on their boards of directors. This paper aims to put forward the case of universal banking as a part of Islamic banking. A large amount of literature is surveyed that...

  14. 12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than... TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1003 Money lent at banking offices or at other than...(j) and 12 CFR 5.30, “money” is deemed to be “lent” only at the place, if any, where the borrower in...

  15. PCR-DGGE Analysis: Unravelling Complex Mixtures of Badnavirus Sequences Present in Yam Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaki, Aliyu A; Bömer, Moritz; Silva, Gonçalo; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E

    2017-07-11

    Badnaviruses (family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus) have emerged as serious pathogens especially affecting the cultivation of tropical crops. Badnavirus sequences can be integrated in host genomes, complicating the detection of episomal infections and the assessment of viral genetic diversity in samples containing a complex mixture of sequences. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species, and recent findings have suggested that mixed infections occur frequently in West African yam germplasm. Historically, the determination of the diversity of badnaviruses present in yam breeding lines has been achieved by cloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. In this study, the molecular diversity of partial reverse transcriptase (RT)-ribonuclease H (RNaseH) sequences from yam badnaviruses was analysed using PCR-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). This resulted in the identification of complex 'fingerprints' composed of multiple sequences of Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs). Many of these sequences show high nucleotide identities to endogenous DBV (eDBV) sequences deposited in GenBank, and fall into six monophyletic species groups. Our findings highlight PCR-DGGE as a powerful tool in badnavirus diversity studies enabling a rapid indication of sequence diversity as well as potential candidate integrated sequences revealed by their conserved nature across germplasm.

  16. ANFIS Based Time Series Prediction Method of Bank Cash Flow Optimized by Adaptive Population Activity PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy and real-time of all kinds of information in the cash business, and solve the problem which accuracy and stability is not high of the data linkage between cash inventory forecasting and cash management information in the commercial bank, a hybrid learning algorithm is proposed based on adaptive population activity particle swarm optimization (APAPSO algorithm combined with the least squares method (LMS to optimize the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model parameters. Through the introduction of metric function of population diversity to ensure the diversity of population and adaptive changes in inertia weight and learning factors, the optimization ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is improved, which avoids the premature convergence problem of the PSO algorithm. The simulation comparison experiments are carried out with BP-LMS algorithm and standard PSO-LMS by adopting real commercial banks’ cash flow data to verify the effectiveness of the proposed time series prediction of bank cash flow based on improved PSO-ANFIS optimization method. Simulation results show that the optimization speed is faster and the prediction accuracy is higher.

  17. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  18. Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... performance and resistance against corm rot disease. Tariq Riaz, Salik ..... varieties with long floral stalk, greater number of flowers and longer floral life are ..... Brassica juncea germplasm from Australia, China and India. Field.

  19. Liquidity of Czech and Slovak commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Vodová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasized, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to evaluate comprehensively the liquidity positions of Czech and Slovak commercial banks via different liquidity ratios in the period of 2001–2010 and to find out whether the strategy for liquidity management differs by the size of the bank. We used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2001 to 2010 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech and Slovak banks. The sample includes significant part of Czech and Slovak banking sector (not only by the number of banks, but also by their share on total banking assets. We have calculated five different liquidity ratios for each bank in the sample. The results showed that liquidity of Czech banks has declined during last ten years. On the contrary, liquidity of Slovak banks fluctuated only slightly during the period 2001–2008. Bank liquidity has fallen due to the financial crisis in both countries; the impact is worse for Slovak banks. Both Czech and Slovak banks have become less liquid also as a result of increase in lending activity. Czech and Slovak banks have the same strategies how to insure against liquidity crises: big banks rely on the interbank market or on a liquidity assistance of the Lender of Last Resort, small and medium sized banks hold buffer of liquid assets.

  20. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  1. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  2. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  3. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  4. Banking on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?

  5. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  6. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  7. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The medicinal value of opium poppy (2n = 22, Papaver somniferum L. is due to presence of more than two dozen alkaloids. The genetic origin and diversity of cultivars used in the breeding collection is not fully known. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the 24 germplasm currently cultivated in the state to provide genetic information about heterogeneity, using RAPD and ISSR markers. Approach: Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification using either random or ISSR markers. The amplified fragments were scored and matrix was prepared. Jaccard similarity coefficients were calculated and dendogram was generated. Results: RAPD with 12 primers gave 46 scorable fragments out of which 32 bands were polymorphic (69.52% with 2.6 polymorphic band per primer, while in ISSR analysis 9 primer gave good amplification with DNA of 24 opium poppy germplasm. They gave 27 scorable polymorphic with 3.0 bends per primer. Dendrogram constructed revealed that the based on RAPD the germplasm cultivated comprised of one major group A and one minor group B, while two clusters of two germplasm each stands apart, on the basis of ISSR they fall into one major group A and one minor groups B, while one germplasm clusters of UOP-60 stands apart. Based on combined RAPD and ISSR analysis these germplasm were divided into 1 major group A and 3 minor group B, C, D whereas one genotype UOP-6 stood apart. Conclusion: These results showed that the majority of cultivated germplasm fall in one cluster and have low genetic diversity.

  9. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  10. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  11. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  12. URJC GB dataset: Community-based seed bank of Mediterranean high-mountain and semi-arid plant species at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Patricia; Iriondo, José María

    2014-01-01

    they are all active subcollections in continuous growth, data is updated regularly every six months and the latest version can be accessed through the GBIF data portal at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=germoplasma-urjc. This paper describes the URJC Germplasm Bank and its associated dataset with the aim of disseminating the dataset and explaining how it was derived.

  13. Methods of marketing research in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kraevskiy, B.; Makukhina, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the nature of marketing research in banking activities, the main directions of marketing research in the banking sector, identified tasks that can be solved based on the methods of marketing research. 

  14. Essays in Banking and Corporate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wang (Teng)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation bundles three empirical studies in the area of corporate finance and banking. These studies investigate corporates’ financing activity with a special focus on the interaction between the banking industry and corporate borrowers. By showing how

  15. Methods of marketing research in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kraevskiy, B.; Makukhina, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the nature of marketing research in banking activities, the main directions of marketing research in the banking sector, identified tasks that can be solved based on the methods of marketing research. 

  16. Analysis Of The Relevance Of Non-Traditional Activities Items Upon The Efficiency Of Chinese Banks: A Non-Stochastic Frontier DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan SUFIAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the performance of the China banking sector have concentrated on analyzing the impact of ownership since reforms. However, little is known about the impact of change in behavior of the State Owned and Joint Stock Commercial Banks towards non-traditional activities on their performance. The present study employs the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the impact of non¬traditional activities on the technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of the China banking sector during the period 2000-2005. Additionally, a battery of parametric and non-parametric univariate tests are employed to examine the difference in the efficiency levels of the China banking sector under the traditional and alternative DEA models. The empirical findings suggest that the State Owned Commercial Banks’ technical efficiency enhances with the inclusion of non-traditional activities attributed to improvement in scale efficiency, while the Joint Stock Commercial Banks’ technical efficiency is higher attributed to improvement in pure technical efficiency.

  17. How developments in cryobiology, reproductive technologies and conservation genomics could shape gene banking strategies for (farm) animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Windig, J.J.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many local breeds are currently at risk because of replacement by a limited number of specialized commercial breeds. Concurrently, for many breeds, allelic diversity within breeds declines because of inbreeding. Gene banking of germplasm may serve to secure the breeds and the alleles for any future

  18. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  19. 12 CFR 5.35 - Bank service companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank service companies. 5.35 Section 5.35 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.35 Bank service companies. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C. 93a and 1861-1867. (b)...

  20. Ensuring the Process of Realisation of Financial Planning of Banking Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkach Svitlana M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies theoretical aspects of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity and identifies and justifies its six main stages: 1 goal formation stage; 2 preparation stage; 3 assessment; 4 financial plan approval; 5 financial plan execution, and 6 stage of the financial plan monitoring, control and adjustment. The above sequence of stages of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity allows a trustworthy assessment of the bank’s activity environment, formation of specific goals and tasks of the bank’s activity, and also to determine the ways of their achievement, and so on. The result of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity is the bank’s financial plan, which is proposed to divide into four sub-sections: plan of the bank’s assets and liabilities; plan of the bank’s receipts and expenditures; plan of the bank’s cash flows; and plan of forecast values of basic financial indicators of the bank’s activity.

  1. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  2. REVENUE DIVERSIFICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND BANK RISK: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Nur Hafidiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of revenue diversification on bank performance and bank risk by studying 101 conventional commercial banks in Indonesia over the period of 2010-2014 resulting in 505 observations. By employing panel least square technique, our results show that revenue diversification negatively affects bank performance. Moreover, it is found that diversified banks are riskier than specialized banks. The risk is diminished when state-owned banks diversify their business. Joint venture banks are riskier than other banks when they engage in non-interest income activities.

  3. NGOs' Active Roles in the Process of Using Mudaraba as Financing Model in Interest-free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salih KUMAŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is commonly accepted fact that conventional banking fails in the fair distribution of economic wealth and in the provision of sustainable economic development. It seems almost impossible for Islamic Banking to be a strong alternative to interest-based banking with its current practice.  That is the reason why the alternative financing methods of Islamic Finance should be improved. In this context, the major obstacle for Islamic Banking to be an alternative to conventional counterpart is that it confines itself to murâbaha financing. Although the Mudaraba financing model suits better to the spirit of Islamic Banking and its historic advancement, it is observed that it is nearly not practiced or cannot be practiced. The reason behind this and major problem of Mudaraba model is having lack of enough entrepreneurs and not being able to raise them. In this sense, we believe that NGOs like MUSIAD and ASKON can contribute for the enhancement of the Islamic Banking as we have witnessed that many NGOs had considerable contributions by taking important roles in the past. This process which sort of means the integration of NGOs and Islamic Banking can be carried out in three stages.

  4. Bank capital management : International evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management (redu

  5. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micuda Ion Dan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality management banking perspective is extremely interesting, from the point of view of the activities specific, and of the permanent area competition improvement. Banks being aware of the quality problems also lead to the appearance and requirement of

  6. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  7. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  8. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Planning for Cometary Observations with the Green Bank Telescope and Its Application to Chemistry Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Christopher; Lockman, F. J.; Lovell, A.

    2010-01-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will describe the development of a Python program as a further expansion of a previous mathematical model3 designed to simulate cometary data collected by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The program allows for user interaction to change parameters such as the comet's distance from the sun, the rate of production of gaseous outflows, lifetime of these gaseous particles and maximum limit for how many gas particles are generated. Furthermore this paper will present results of how students can write their own Python programming code to manipulate these parameters to generate velocity profiles of the out gassed chemical species. Students should be enlightened that Science can be cross disciplinary. Several concepts in Chemistry: sublimation, electromagnetic spectrum, quantum mechanics, gas behavior and chemical kinetics play an important role in the formation of a comet cloud and how that cloud could be observed using radio astronomy. Chemical species such as HCN, CS and HCO+1 have been observed in cometary clouds. The chemical composition of the cloud and its size are a function of its distance from the sun and the radial location from the center of the comet cloud. High-school students at the Louisiana School for Math, Science and the Arts, LA will learn Python programming language to create a mathematical model of a cometary cloud. The students will have formulated models for rate of sublimation, rate of photo-dissociation, and velocity of gas particles as the fundamental framework to determine frequencies and intensities of the molecular spectra. The students will be able to manipulate their code to create various comet cloud scenarios as it might be observed by the GBT.

  9. Evaluation and characterization of sunflower germplasm accessions for quantitative characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kulkarni, I.Shankegoud and M.R. Govindappa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower germplasm accessions (143 were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to study the extentof variation for different quantitative traits. The germplasm accessions were also characterized on qualitative traits. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield per plant (53.4 % and 46.9% respectively followed by head diameter, test weight, plant height,volume weight and oil content. High heritability was noticed for all the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean has been recorded for seed yield per plant (77 and 65.1 followed by head diameter, test weight and plant height. It was noticed that sunflower germplasm accessions exhibited wide range of variability for all the morphological characters studied like leaf shape, leaf color, leaf serrations, leaf hairiness, stem hairiness, indicator leaf, petiole anthocyanin, branching, leaf angle, petiole length, stem pigmentation and pollen color.

  10. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  11. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li

    2007-04-01

    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  12. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > For Parents > Cord-Blood Banking Print A ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  13. The active components of milk in human milk bank%人乳库人乳有效成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恩萍

    2011-01-01

    人乳是新生儿喂养的最佳选择。人乳除了含乳糖、乳清蛋白、脂肪等营养物质,还含有免疫球蛋白、乳铁蛋白、溶菌酶、维生素等有效成分,但人乳库的保存和消毒等处理过程对人乳中的有效成分产生影响。许多研究对不同保存和消毒条件下人乳库中人乳的有效成分进行检测,希望能找到影响最小的保存和消毒方法,尽可能的保留人乳中的有效成分。%Human milk is the optimal feeding choice for neonats, especialy for premature infants. Besides lactose, protein and fat, human milk also contains many kinds of active components, such as immunoglobins,lacferrins, lysozymes, vitamins and so on. Human milk bank has been well developed worldwide, but after cold storage and Pasteurization, many different microcomponents in milk have been affected. There is still controversy on how to preserve and sterilize human milk

  14. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    the financial risk associated with are normally established in advance, mitigation permitted activities. banks eliminate the lag time between loss and...management natural state or to an enhanced condition and techniques. None of the traditional wetlands begin to amass bankable credits has also been management

  15. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    positive relation with profitability (ROA/ROE but statistically insignificant for the model. [1] According to the Bank of Albania, in December 2014, banks in the Albanian sector are divided by size of activity: 1 The bank group 1 (0-2% of total banking sector assets include United Bank of Albania, Veneto Bank, International Commercial Bank, First Investment Bank, Credit Bank of Albania; 2 The bank group 2 (2-7% of total banking sector assets include Procredit Bank, Credit Agricole Bank, National Bank of Greece, Societe Generale Bank - Albania, Alpha Bank - Albania, Union Bank; and 3 The banks group 3 (about 7% of total banking sector assets include Raiffeisen Bank, Credins Bank, National Commercial Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo Bank-Albania, Tirana Bank.

  16. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  17. Online Banking on E-Commerce in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navpreet Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Online Banking is becoming an important aspect of worldwide commerce. Online Banking is also known as ebanking, cyber banking, virtual banking, net banking, and internet banking. Online banking includes various banking activities conducted from home business, instead of at a physical bank location Customer relationship management worked as a tool increased use of e-commerce makes CRM. Online banking is based on internet or web- based interaction to create a high volatile relationship in the banking sector .Questions are related to online banking in which given options are Satisfied, Unsatisfied ,Neutral, Yes, No . After analysis and comparison of traditional banking of online banking, it is revealed that it is quite difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that which online banking is best. Online banking provide the flexibility, efficiency of work, provide the better security of net banking than net banking incresed. The future of web-based e-banking in developed areas appears bright but consumers and merchants in developing countries face in number of barriers to successful ebanking, including less reliable telecommunications infrastructure and power supplies, less access to online payment mechanisms and relatively high costs for personal computers and Internet access . The Future scope of the study of Online banking is use to reduce transaction costs.

  18. Bank Regulation and Market Discipline around the World

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of depositor discipline and its relationship with various bank regulations and supervisions using a panel of about 17,000 bank-year data during 1992-2002 around 60 countries. We first theoretically show that bank regulations affect deposit interest rate and its sensitivity to bank risk through the bank insolvency risk and the fraction of deposit protection, among others. Then we find empirical evidence that strict regulations on bank activities and po...

  19. The risks of trading by banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Ratnovski, L.; Danielson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Liikanen, Vickers, and Volcker all question current banking-trading links. This chapter offers analytic scaffolding for thinking about the separation of banking and trading. Banking generates low risk returns from relationship-based activities; trading generates high-risk returns from short-term con

  20. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  1. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... related investments, loans, or indebtedness, as described in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section....

  2. Corporate governance and banks : How justified is the match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Banks and bank governance are different. We critically assess the arguments used to pervade these divergences in operational activities. We also question if and how, in light of the specificity of banking activities, bank governance translates the operational peculiarities in different governance

  3. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  4. Level of habitual physical activity and behaviors related to the health of bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú - BA

    OpenAIRE

    Malú Oliveira Freire; Sheilla Tribess; Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha; Jair Sindra Virtuoso Júnior

    2007-01-01

    The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits) they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of th...

  5. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  6. Characterization of indigenous Pyrus germplasm of Azad Jammu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2University College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. ..... origin of Pyrus germplasm, it seems quite logical that. Btangi and its other kind .... classifications of East Asian pears by the principal component analysis of ... Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of ...

  7. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  8. Genetic diversity and germplasm resource research on tung tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Tung tree is an important woody oil-rich plant in the world. ... marker system also yielded useful strategies for germplasm collection and conservation of tung. ..... and oils. In Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 1: 289-477.

  9. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  10. Sully's Hill NGP : 2006 bison germplasm conservation plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Logistics for the plan to carry out germplasm conservation of bison in Region 6 and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It starts out with an effort to move all...

  11. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  12. Identification of Tsuga Germplasm by Morphological Characters and RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROH Mark S; DE BENEDETTI Laura; JOUNG Young Hee; LEE Nam Sook

    2007-01-01

    Germplasm collection is important to preserve and maximize genetic diversity for germplasm conservation. Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler in Engler & Prantl. and T. chinensis var. forrestii (Downie) Silba germplasm was collected from three localities in China: Mt. Yulong, Wenfeng Temple and Mt. Dishiergu, Yunnan Province. Accessions were identified based on morphological characters and RAPD markers. The shapes of the apices and margins of needles were examined, and the length and width of needles, cones and seeds from accessions of mature plants were used to compare the morphological differences and to identify the germplasm. Molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were also used to characterize the taxa. Although the clustering based on RAPD markers was inconsistent with the morphological characters of the needles, based on the overall morphological characters and on RAPD markers, the accessions from Mt. Yulong and Wenfeng Temple were identified as T. chinensis var. forrestii, and those from Mt. Dishiergu identified as T. dumosa. Taxonomic identification of the accessions was made based on morphology and by RAPD markers concurred. The results indicate that the shapes of the apices and margins of needles particularly from young plants could not be used as a possible key to identify T. dumosa and T. chinensis var. forrestii. Fig 6, Tab 3, Ref 24

  13. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  14. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  15. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  16. Evaluation of the box and blocks test, stereognosis and item banks of activity and upper extremity function in youths with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Kozin, Scott; Merenda, Lisa; Gaughan, John; Tian, Feng; Gogola, Gloria; James, Michelle A; Ni, Pengsheng

    2012-09-01

    One of the greatest limitations to measuring outcomes in pediatric orthopaedics is the lack of effective instruments. Computer adaptive testing, which uses large item banks, select only items that are relevant to a child's function based on a previous response and filters items that are too easy or too hard or simply not relevant to the child. In this way, computer adaptive testing provides for a meaningful, efficient, and precise method to evaluate patient-reported outcomes. Banks of items that assess activity and upper extremity (UE) function have been developed for children with cerebral palsy and have enabled computer adaptive tests that showed strong reliability, strong validity, and broader content range when compared with traditional instruments. Because of the void in instruments for children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and the importance of having an UE and activity scale, we were interested in how well these items worked in this population. Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 200 children with BPBP was conducted. The box and block test (BBT) and Stereognosis tests were administered and patient reports of UE function and activity were obtained with the cerebral palsy item banks. Differential item functioning (DIF) was examined. Predictive ability of the BBT and stereognosis was evaluated with proportional odds logistic regression model. Spearman correlations coefficients (rs) were calculated to examine correlation between stereognosis and the BBT and between individual stereognosis items and the total stereognosis score. Six of the 86 items showed DIF, indicating that the activity and UE item banks may be useful for computer adaptive tests for children with BPBP. The penny and the button were strongest predictors of impairment level (odds ratio=0.34 to 0.40]. There was a good positive relationship between total stereognosis and BBT scores (rs=0.60). The BBT had a good negative (rs=-0.55) and good positive (rs=0.55) relationship with

  17. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  18. 12 CFR 347.115 - Permissible activities for a foreign branch of an insured state nonmember bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.115 Permissible... documents, if: (1) The guarantee or agreement specifies a maximum monetary liability; and (2) To the extent... applying any legal lending limits. (b) Government obligations. Engage in the following types...

  19. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  20. The Impact of US and CGIAR Germplasm on Maize Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-ming; HU Rui-fa; ZHANG Shi-huang

    2006-01-01

    Wide adoption of a few kinds of homogeneous germplasm would reduce crop genetic diversity, increase crop vulnerability to stresses, and reduce the stability of crop production. The introduction and utilization of foreign germplasm is a sustainable solution for broadening the genetic diversity and promoting periodical replacement of varieties. The genetic contribution and economic impact of foreign germplasm, particularly those of US and CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, referred to as the CG system) materials, on China's maize production are evaluated on the basis of an analysis of variety pedigree information from 20 major maize-producing provinces in China from 1982 to 1997. The results indicated that the contribution of US and CG germplasm to Chinese maize production continues to increase, particularly CG germplasm, which has shown a rapid increasing trend since the 1990s. If the genetic contribution of US germplasm is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.2% (0.01 t ha-1). If contribution of CG germplasm, which has greater production potential, is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.025 t ha-1. A policy should be implicated by the government in this direction to encourage breeders to focus more on the use and improvement of CG germplasm. The US germplasm has been utilized extensively in China so that it can offer germplasm resources for maize breeding efforts.

  1. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  2. The World Bank as an International Financial Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Rasul

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank is a prestigious and large international financial institution. Since its foundation it has widened the scope and the size of its activities. One interpretation of what the World Bank is doing is the provision of public goods. If we take this interpretation seriously the comprehensiveness of the Bank's activity suggests that the Bank is assuming more and more the functions of a world government in the making. An alternative interpretation would look at the World Bank as a huge ...

  3. Interest and Hazard Rates of Russian Saving Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe number of (registered) commercial banks in Russia increased at a fast pace after the 1988 banking reform. Many of these banks lacked supervision and operated with dangerously low funding capital. In this paper we investigate the determinants of the hazard rates of banks active on the

  4. E-Banking in Malaysia: Opportunity and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Lee Goi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking has to be a delivery channel that replicates and replaces many of the physical functions a bank currently performs. Hence, the E-banking now becomes a virtual banking counter that the individual and corporate customer to carry out the regular activities. Even E-banking services more to electronic-based, but, it still strongly support banking activities, therefore communication, transaction and distribution (Peterson, Balasubramanian and Bronnenberg, 1997. There are number of challenges need to be faced by Malaysian banks, however, the opportunity in this industry is high due to the current trend especially application and development of ICT.

  5. Optical identification of radio-loud active galactic nuclei in the ROSAT-Green-Bank sample with SDSS spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Liang Wang; Jian-Guo Wang; Xiao-Bo Dong

    2009-01-01

    Results of extended and refined optical identification of 181 radio/X-ray sources in the RASS-Green Bank (RGB) catalog are presented (Brinkmann et al.1997)which have been spectroscopically observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)DR5.The SDSS spectra of the optical counterparts are modeled in a careful and selfconsistent way by incorporating the host galaxy's starlight.Optical emission line parameters are presented,which are derived accurately and reliably,along with the radio 1.4-5 GHz spectral indices estimated using (non-simultaneous) archival data.For 72 sources,the identifications are presented for the first time.It is confirmed that the majority of strong radio/X-ray emitters are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs),particularly blazars.Taking advantage of the high spectral quality and resolution and our refined spectral modeling,we are able to disentangle narrow line radio galaxies (NLRGs),as vaguely termed in most previous identification work,into SeyfertⅡgalaxies and LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission regions),based on the standard emission line diagnostics.The NLRGs in the RGB sample,mostly belonging to'weak line radio galaxies',are found to have optical spectra consistent predominantly with LINERs,and only a small fraction with SeyfertⅡgalaxies.A small number of LINERs have radio power as high as 1023-1026W Hz-1 at 5 GHz,being among the strongest radio emitting LINERs known so far.Two sources are identified with radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSIs),a class of rare objects.The presence is also confirmed of fiat-spectrum radio quasars whose radio-optical-X-ray effective spectral indices are similar to those of High-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBLs),as suggested by Padovani et al.,although it is still a debate as to whether this is the case for their actual spectral energy distributions.

  6. Effects of water treatments on the activation of soil seed banks - A case study on the lower reaches of the Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengru Wang; Hailiang Xu; Linke Yin; Jimei Li; Zhanjiang Zhang; Yuan Li

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seedling emergence is a common method used to investigate the vegetation restoration potential of soil seed banks. Previous studies have primarily been conducted in the laboratory using a single water treatment. However, when this method is used, it is difficult to optimize the water conditions for the needs of the individual species of seeds. Additionally, the germination conditions for seedlings in the laboratory are different from those in nature. To avoid these issues, we conducted experiments to activate soil seed banks in the field using different water treatments. The results revealed that: (1) generally, the number of species and quantity of seedlings decrease gradually as the water supply decreases, but that for several species most seedlings did not appear when they were provided with the greatest amount of water, and (2) different species present different germination characteristics. According to the rate of seedling emergence, the species were classified into two germination types: fast and slow. In addition, each species also had a unique climax period of emergence, which was delayed with a decrease in water supply. Therefore, the amount of water provided is vital to seedling emergence, and various water treatments should be evaluated when studying the characteristics of different species in soil seed banks. For the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the optimal soil moisture for seedling emergence ranged from 23% to 28%, and seedling conservation should be strengthened during the climax period of emergence (9-15 days from the day when water became available). These results highlight the importance of the use of an optimal water treatment and demonstrate the danger of using a single treatment method. Our results also emphasize the need for a preliminary study prior to conducting studies to evaluate seed banks.

  7. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  8. Banking Reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  9. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  10. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  11. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  12. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... However, the revolution in the banking industry in Nigeria started .... with the banks overall strategic and business plans, and adequate expertise should be employed to operate and ..... 2010 from http://www.bis./pub/bcbs/pdf.

  13. Multinational banks and development finance

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Christian E.; Scher, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Financial market recommendations for less industrialized economies, particularly in the wake of the recent financial crises, have included a push for more international financial competition. The entry of multinational banks (MNBs) into developing economies is supposed to create more market discipline for domestic banks, thus making them more efficient, and enhancing financial stability. Using data from the BIS and the IMF, we look at the determinants of MNB presence, at MNB activities, and t...

  14. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  15. Current trends of banking innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Karminskiy

    2013-06-01

    -traditional market segments (business insurance, financial leasing, real estate investment, trust operations, innovations of the monetary and financial markets (derivatives market, innovations on traditional segments of capital market (increasing of the efficiency of financial intermediation, certificates of deposit, bonds with floating interest rates, etc. and tries to explane the sufficient interdependence with the IT-Sector. The paper also considers such products as Siebel CRM, FICO Score, SaS, Diasoft, internet banking, etc.Conclusions and directions of further researches. The classification and the main trends of innovations on Russian banking sector allow to see certain patterns of occurrence of innovation activity and highlights the direction of innovation strategy based on the predominance of a certain types of innovation. Further investigations will examine the diffusion process of different types of banking innovations.

  16. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  17. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  18. Molecular characterization of apricot germplasm from an old stone collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martín

    Full Text Available Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved.

  19. Operational risk and e-banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerbu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banking involves a variety of risks. Under Basel II, the main risks are the monitored credit risk, market risk and operational risk. Frequently, operational risks are underestimated, considering that they would not affect the optimal activity of a bank. However, past experience of some credit institutions have shown that operational risk is an important cause of financial losses in the banking sector. Operational risk is generated by a complex of factors that manifests primarily as a result of direct customer interaction with the credit institution. In this context, the provision of e-banking services reduces direct contact with bank customers and thus reduces potential losses arising from operational risk. In sum, we consider it necessary to be aware of the link between operational risk and e-banking services promoted by banks and of the importance of this connection especially in a financial environment affected by the financial crisis.

  20. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pecina‑Quintero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers revealed robust amplification profiles and were able to differentiate the 41 genotypes of sweet sorghum evaluated. Analysis of the frequency and distribution of polymorphic fragments allowed for the detection of unique (AFLP and rare (SSR alleles in several genotypes (RBSS‑8, RBSS‑9, RBSS‑25, RBSS‑32, and RBSS‑37, indicating that these markers may be associated with a feature that has not yet been determined or may be useful for the identification of these genotypes. The genetic relationships indicated the presence of at least two types of sweet sorghum: a group of modern genotypes used for sugar and biofuel production, and another group consisting of historic and modern genotypes used for the production of syrups. Sweet sorghum genotypes may be used to develop new varieties with higher sugar and juice contents.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COWPEA GERMPLASMS DIVERSITY FROM GHANA AND MALI USING MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Z. Doumbia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea improvement can be enhanced by knowledge of genetic diversity available between and within local and regional gene banks. This variability is the foundation of all cowpea improvement programs. A total of 94 accessions (47 from Ghana and 47 from Mali was used for this study. Twelve qualitative and twenty quantitative traits such as flower color, growth habit, raceme position, seed shape, day 50% flowering, day 50% maturity, plant height, seed length and seed weight were used to assess collections. Data collected from different morphological traits were analyzed using XLSTAT 2013. Principal component analysis, scatter plot matrix and clustering separated the accessions according to some qualitative and quantitative traits. Accessions were classified based on their morphological relationships using un-weighted pair-group average Cluster Analysis. Results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity between and within both germplasm; levels of similarity ranged between 0.95 to 0.069 for combined qualitative and quantitative data. However, some morphological traits discriminated more efficiently between the accessions than others. Few groups of the accessions were different from other accessions for some important traits. Implications of the variability in cowpea improvement are discussed.

  2. Croatian banking sector research: relationship between ownership structure, concentration, owners’ type and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important financial intermediaries of any national economy, and corporate governance has an important role in banking sector; especially due to processes of the globalization and the internationalization, and also because of the sensitivity of the activities between the interest groups. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between ownership structure, concentration, owners’ type and bank performance. The authors made a research of banks' ownership structure using publicly available data. Using statistical tools authors discovered relationships between bank ownership structure and bank performance indicators (average asset, total asset, average equity, profit (loss before taxes, profit (loss after taxes, ROAA, ROAE. Further they discuss the relationships between ownership structure and a number of consequences for the bank performance. The authors discovered significant correlation between bank ownership structure and performance indicators variables that are described in the paper.

  3. Bank Regulation and Market Discipline around the World

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of depositor discipline and its relationship with various bank regulations and supervisions using a panel of about 17,000 bank-year data during 1992-2002 around 60 countries. We first theoretically show that deposit interest rate and its sensitivity to bank risk depend on the bank insolvency risk and the fraction of deposit protection, among others. Then we find evidence that strict regulations on bank activities and powerful supervisory authorities t...

  4. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BANK MARKETING IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevak U. Nersisyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of brief investigation of bank marketing in Armenia including its history, development and the current situation. The study objects are the commercial banks in the Republic of Armenia and their marketing activity. The competitiveness of the local and foreign banks is examined as well. Comparison of the market before and after the entry of foreign banks is performed. The role of the advertising in bank marketing is outlined.

  5. Indexação biológica de genótipos de bananeira para o Banana streak virus Germplasm biological indexing for Banana streak virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma (BAG de bananeira é a base do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi indexar os acessos do BAG para o vírus das estrias da bananeira (Banana streak virus, BSV. Cada amostra foliar, coletada dos 220 acessos do BAG foi utilizada na inoculação de três plantas de bananeira 'Caipira' produzidas por micropropagação. As plantas foram inoculadas, através da cochonilha vetora Planococcus citri Risso, fornecendo-se um acesso de aquisição de 24 horas e de transmissão de 48 horas. Como controle positivo e negativo foram utilizadas plantas previamente analisadas por PCR, quanto a presença de BSV. Entre 15 e 70 dias após a inoculação, as plantas indicadoras apresentaram os primeiros sintomas. Desta forma, verificou-se que 44 dos 220 acessos estavam infectados com BSV.The Germplasm Active Bank (BAG of banana is the base of the genetic breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. The objective of this work was to index the accessions of the BAG for Banana streak virus (BSV. Each sample collected in the 220 accessions of BAG was used to inoculate three 'Caipira' banana plants, produced by micropropagation. The plants were inoculated using the mealybug Planococcus citri Risso as vector. The vector being allowed an access of acquisition of 24 hours and 48 hours of transmission. Plants were previously analysed by PCR for the presence or absence of BSV were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Between 15 and 70 days after inoculation the test plants showed the first disease symptoms. Using this methodology, it was observed that 44 of the 220 accesses were infected with BSV.

  6. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry R Jacob

    Full Text Available Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607 are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73% have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744 of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More

  7. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  8. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT’s ongoing ‘Seeds of Discovery’ project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change. PMID:26176697

  9. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  10. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284 than elites (DI = 0.267 and landraces (DI = 0.245. GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  11. Theoretical Considerations on the Organisation of Banking Supervision and Internal Banking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana CIURLAU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prudential supervision of the entities wich make up the banking system from Romania constitute one of the main tasks of the National Bank of Romania which are characterized by a specificity that distinguishes it from its control activities in other areas of social and economic activity. This attribution becomes essential in the activity of the National Bank of Romania as long as the legislature authorizes this institution with an exclusive quality of national authority in this area.

  12. FRAUDULENT TRANSACTIONS WITH BANK PLASTIC CARDS AS A THREAT TO ECONOMIC SECURITY IN THE BANKING SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ilinich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks active development of cashless payments by plastic cards, the growing number of fraudulent transactions and the damage they cause, create new challenges and threats to economic security in the sphere of banking activity. The latest information technologies are active used by organized crime groups, the methods of committing crimes are changing and are not yet adequately reflected by banks and law enforcement agencies.

  13. Predicting Small Bank Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heyliger, Wilton E.; Don P. Holdren

    1991-01-01

    There are many studies of bank performance and bank failure in the literature. Most of these studies used banking ratios as variables in their models without giving consideration to their appropriateness, nor was much consideration given to the stability of those ratios through time and across asset size. Many studies also failed to recognize that bank structure may differ by asset size. This study evaluates a large number of banking variables in order to identify stable ratios. These ratios ...

  14. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  15. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  16. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  17. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  18. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  19. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  20. Level of habitual physical activity and behaviors related to the health of bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sindra Virtuoso Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (2=6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  1. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND BEHAVIORS RELATED TO THE HEALTH OF BANK CLERKS OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF IPIAÚ - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú Oliveira Freire

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (χ 2 =6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  2. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN TRADE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tamara Ye. Kononenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper clarifies the concepts of «risk», «financial risk» in banking business, and considers the main problems of financial risk management in trade banks while financing borrowers. The authors single out the most relevant problems, and conduct the analysis of overdue payment in case of OJSC “Sberbank of Russia”. The authors also offer a number of measures to minimize financial risks in trade bank activities in modern conditions.

  3. Tanggung Jawab Bank terhadap Nasabah yang Mengalami Kerugian dalam Penggunaan Elektronik Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selly Maulina

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT. The strong development economy requires a bank as a financial institution that is safe for undertaking various financial activities.The positive impact of developments on financial services is the use of e-bankingis also known as internet banking is the bank services that enable customers to obtain information, communicate and conduct banking transactions through the internet, quickly, can be done anywhere and anytime. Internet banking transactions can also pose some risk, Article 1, paragraph (2 of Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 5/8/PBI/2003 on the Application of Risk Management for Commercial Bank said that the risk is the potential for the occurrence of an event  that can cause harm. Risks experienced by customers of PT. BNIS and PT. BCA. According to the Bank Indonesia Regulation Number 10/10/PBI/2008 on the Settlement of customer complaints,customers who suffered the financial  losses can lodge a complaint by means of submitting a complaint to the bank. The protection from a legal perspective rule has no detail rules yet about internet banking so bank makes initiave on internet banking terms and condition.The agreement prioritize customer client obligations rather than rights.

  4. The World Bank's ECB Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the evaluation capacity building (ECB) outreach activities of the World Bank with regard to provision of advice and assistance to individual governments. The primary story is that of the ECB lessons learned through working with a range of governments; the secondary story is how ECB is becoming a recognized and valued activity within the…

  5. Spacial analysis of avocado sunblotch disease in an avocado germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first visual symptoms of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) were observed in a few plants of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the germplasm collection at the National Germplasm Repository at Miami in the early 1980s. However, the extent of the infection was unknown because infected trees can re...

  6. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  7. A new method to select the drought resistance azuki bean germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Peerasak Srinives

    2006-01-01

    120 azuki bean germplasms from different regions of China were selected for drought-resistance. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between drought-resistance and photooxidation-resistance. So, the detecting technique for photooxidation-resistance should be suggested as a reference method to select the drought-resistance germplasms in azuki bean.

  8. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  10. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  11. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  12. Six Dimension Strategy As A Basis Of Banking Standard Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulanmas Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia banking based on Article 4 of Act No.10, 1998, aims at supporting the implementation of national development in order to improve equity, economic growth and national stability in the direction of improving people’s welfare. Therefore, to show how important is banking role in supporting the implementation of development, the 6 (six Strategic Dimensions as the foundation of Banking Standards Contract are: (1. Prudent Banking Supervision and Good Corporate Governance (GCG in banking activities, (2. Refunctionalization the principle of Contract Law in Banking Standards Contract, (3. Ethics Value in Business, (4. The Act No. 8, 1999 on Consumer Protection, (5. Enforcement of Human Rights Principles in banking activities, (6. Abuse of Circumstances implementations (Misbruik van Omstandigheden in banking Contract. Based on the 6 (six Strategic Dimension as the foundation of Banking Standard Contract, it will undoubtedly create justice, equity and assurance of the rights and obligations of the parties framed in the contractual and law bonds.

  13. "Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2014-01-01

    Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...

  14. Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371

  15. The effect of socio-economic and demographic factors of Turkish provincies on the number of active customers using internet banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent improvements in Internet Banking or Online Banking, there are still some constraints, mainly security related issues and some other factors, which contribute to the hesitations of individuals’ Internet Banking adoption. Instead of widely used behaviorist models our study utilizes panel data and explores why Internet Banking is very common in some Turkish provinces but not in the others. To investigate the relationship among the data we employed correlation statistics and to study the differences better in Internet Banking adoption among the provinces we used Mann-Whitney U non-parametric statistical analyses.

  16. Genetic divergence among Brazilian turmeric germplasm using morpho-agronomical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Sigrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.

  17. Analyzing Factors Influencing Virtual Bank Acceptance as New Generation of e-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanayei

    2014-01-01

    Electronic banking is one of the electronic commerce tools that has been accepted by the banking industry. Development of electronic banking activities based on information and communication technology has caused the emergence of another type of bank, which is called virtual bank that performs its products and services through electronic distribution channels without branch. Due to the differences between virtual bank and electronic banking and the importance of virtual bank activities in the banking system, the aim of this study is to analyze factors influencing on acceptance of virtual bank in Iran. For this purpose, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM has been considered as the main model and in addition to perceived benefits and perceived ease of use, trust, government support and advertising have been also studied. An electronic questionnaire has been designed and the statistical population included Iranian electronic citizens that had received and completed the questionnaire via email in three months period. The results of analyzing 247 questionnaires imply that the perceived benefits, trust and government support have influence on acceptance of virtual bank. Also the effect of perceived ease of use on perceived benefits and trust is confirmed. Finally, some suggestions for future research have been presented.

  18. Nutritional Value Evaluation of Saccharum spontaneum L. Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianle LIU; Changjun BAI; Linling YAN; Shimeng CHEN; Yu ZHANG; Hubiao YANG

    2014-01-01

    The contents of dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude ash, Ca and P in 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms during the vegetative period were determined. Among them, the crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, P and Ca contents were treated as the judging indicators. The nutritional value evaluation was carried out with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed A49 (Guangxi) had the highest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.35%, 7.20%, 4.06%, 8.07%, 75.81%, 50.72%, 0.23% and 0.16% respectively. While A3 (Guangdong) had the lowest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.24%, 4.62%, 0.51%, 6.38%, 46.40%, 40.02%, 0.15% and 0.09% respectively. The crude protein content differed significantly among different germplasms. A48 had the highest crude protein content (9.11%), and A14 had the lowest crude protein content (3.72%). Based on the evaluation results, the 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms were divided into 3 groups: high-nutritional value type, moderate-nutri-tional value type and low-nutritional value type. We hoped to provide a theoretical reference for the application of Saccharum spontaneum L. as a forage grass.

  19. Characterising root trait variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinglong; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Siddique, Kadambot Hm

    2017-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes. The genotypes exhibited large variation in rooting patterns and branching manner. Thirty root-related traits were characterised, 17 of which had coefficients of variation ≥0.3 among genotypes and were selected for further examination. The Pearson correlation matrix showed a strong correlation among most of the selected traits (P≤0.05). Principal component analysis revealed three principal components with eigenvalues >1 capturing 81.5% of the total variation. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis, based on root trait variation, identified three genotype homogeneous groups (rescaled distance of 15) and 16 sub-groups (rescaled distance of 5). The chickpea genotypes characterised in this study with vastly different root properties could be used for further studies in glasshouses and field trials, and for molecular marker studies, gene mapping, and modelling simulations, ultimately aimed at breeding germplasm with root traits for improved adaptation to drought and other specific environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Seed banks in a degraded desert shrubland: Influence of soil surface condition and harvester ant activity on seed abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Kane, J.M.; Nicklas, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    We compared seed banks between two contrasting anthropogenic surface disturbances (compacted, trenched) and adjacent undisturbed controls to determine whether site condition influences viable seed densities of perennial and annual Mojave Desert species. Viable seeds of perennials were rare in undisturbed areas (3-4 seeds/m2) and declined to harvester ant explained annual seed densities better than any other surface characteristics that were examined. Surface disturbances can have a varied impact on the condition of the soil surface in arid lands. Nevertheless, the consistently positive relationship between ground cover of litter and viable seed density emphasizes the importance of litter as an indicator of site degradation and recovery potential in arid lands.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jong Walter S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  3. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  4. Genomic prediction contributing to a promising global strategy to turbocharge gene banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xianran; Guo, Tingting; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Yuye; Mitchell, Sharon E; Roozeboom, Kraig L; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Ming Li; Pederson, Gary A; Tesso, Tesfaye T; Schnable, Patrick S; Bernardo, Rex; Yu, Jianming

    2016-10-03

    The 7.4 million plant accessions in gene banks are largely underutilized due to various resource constraints, but current genomic and analytic technologies are enabling us to mine this natural heritage. Here we report a proof-of-concept study to integrate genomic prediction into a broad germplasm evaluation process. First, a set of 962 biomass sorghum accessions were chosen as a reference set by germplasm curators. With high throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we genetically characterized this reference set with 340,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A set of 299 accessions was selected as the training set to represent the overall diversity of the reference set, and we phenotypically characterized the training set for biomass yield and other related traits. Cross-validation with multiple analytical methods using the data of this training set indicated high prediction accuracy for biomass yield. Empirical experiments with a 200-accession validation set chosen from the reference set confirmed high prediction accuracy. The potential to apply the prediction model to broader genetic contexts was also examined with an independent population. Detailed analyses on prediction reliability provided new insights into strategy optimization. The success of this project illustrates that a global, cost-effective strategy may be designed to assess the vast amount of valuable germplasm archived in 1,750 gene banks.

  5. Efficiency of the Macedonian banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumovska Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to measure the efficiency of the Macedonian banking sector by applying two approaches: firstly, comparative analysis on the efficiency indicators of the banking sector in the Republic of Macedonia and the countries of Central and Southeastern Europe (CSEE and secondly, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The aim is to provide directions and guidelines for further strengthening of the Macedonian banking sector. According to the comparative analysis of the efficiency indicators (net interest margin and operating costs of the Macedonian banking sector and the countries of CSEE, the countries whose banking sector shows lower operating costs are characterized with a higher level of financial deepening and greater degree of financial intermediation. The high interest margins direct towards unsuitable allocation of financial resources and insufficient competitiveness in the domestic banking sector. When applying the DEA approach, it can be stated that the group of large banks marks the highest efficiency within the Macedonian banking sector. The high concentration degree of banking activities within the group of large banks with a leading role in determining the interest rates, results in a rigid interest policy of the banks. In the direction of strengthening the efficiency of the Macedonian banking sector as a whole, the obtained results show that it is necessary for the banks to be further consolidated so as to utilize the advantages of the economies of scale, increase competitiveness, offer a diversified structure of products, invest in new contemporary software solutions that will allow reinforcement of their employees’ productivity and long-term reduction of the operating costs, as well.

  6. Una contabilidad especial para una actividad no bancaria. La recaudación de contribuciones en el Banco de España (1867-1888). (A special accounting applied to a non-banking activity. Tax collection in the Bank of Spain (1867-1888))

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fernández, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Siendo una actividad atípica, dentro del negocio bancario, la recaudación de impuestos directos por parte del Banco de España, a cambio de una comisión a percibir de Hacienda, logró alcanzar una importancia extraordinaria en su organización. A este objeto dedicamos el presente trabajo. The direct tax collection by the Bank of Spain on a commission basis on behalf of the Royal Treasury was an atypical activity with regard to its banking business, but it achieved an extraordinary importance. To...

  7. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  8. Idea Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Eight activities for use in the science classroom are presented. Included are insect collecting, laboratory procedures and safety, recycling, current events, variable manipulation, scientific method, electricity, and mechanics (Newton's Second Law of Motion). (KR)

  9. Survey of Italian human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, Giuseppe; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ambruzzi, Amalia M; Biasini, Augusto; Profeti, Claudio; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    At present, the Italian Association of Donor Human Milk Banks (Associazione Italiana Banche del Latte Umano Donato, AIBLUD) consists of 31 milk banks, whose management is based on Italian Guidelines. In 2013, AIBLUD performed a systematic survey to collect data on the activities of banks operating in Italy in the years previous to this date. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the operational procedures of Italian Human Milk Banks in order to identify both areas of strength and room for improvement. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain national data from the 28 banks active in the year 2012 in order to evaluate the number of donors, volume of human milk collected, and other information relating to the period 2007 to 2012. In all, 89% of the banks (25/28) responded to the survey. Data received primarily concerned the number of donors, volume of milk collected, and average amount of milk from each donor in the period 2007 to 2012. It was evident that in 2012 human milk banks collected a higher volume of milk than in 2007. Further, the average amount of milk from each donor was higher. Most of the milk banks were following the Italian Guidelines for traceability, control of donors, bacteriological checks, method of pasteurization, storage, thawing, type of containers, and utilization of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system. This survey identified both areas of strength and room for improvement in the Italian human milk banks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  11. Essays in Banking and Corporate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wang (Teng)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation bundles three empirical studies in the area of corporate finance and banking. These studies investigate corporates’ financing activity with a special focus on the interaction between the banking industry and corporate borrowers. By showing how changes

  12. Banking Postal Savings Bank in Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.

  13. Kewenangan Bank Indonesia Dalam Likuiditas Bank Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana R

    2008-01-01

    Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...

  14. Agro-Morphological, Physico-Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Rice Germplasm with Similar Names of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sharf Uddin Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one duplicate and similar named rice germplasms of Bangladesh were studied to assess the genetic variation for the agro-morphological and physico-chemical traits and simple sequence repeat banding patterns during 2009–2012 at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute. The range of variations within the cultivar groups showed higher degree. The principal component analysis showed that the first five components with vector values > 1 contributed 82.90% of the total variations. The cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into four clusters, where no duplicate germplasm was found. The highest number (11 of genotypes was constellated in cluster I and the lowest (3 in cluster II. The intra- and inter-cluster distances were the maximum in cluster I (0.93 and between clusters I and IV (24.61, respectively, and the minimum in cluster IV (0.62 and between clusters I and III (5.07, respectively. The cluster mean revealed that the crosses between the genotypes of cluster I with those of clusters II and IV would exhibit high heterosis for maximum good characters. A total of 350 alleles varied from 3 (RM277 to 14 (RM21 with an average of 7.8 per locus were detected at 45 microsatellite loci across the 31 rice accessions. The gene diversity ranged from 0.48 to 0.90 with an average of 0.77, and the polymorphism information content values from 0.44 (RM133 to 0.89 (RM206 with an average of 0.74. RM206, RM21, RM55, RM258 and RM433 were considered as the best markers on the basis of their higher polymorphism information content values. The dendrogram from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average clustering also classified the genotypes into four groups, where group IV comprised of 20 genotypes and group III of one genotype, but no duplicate was found. Finally, similar and duplicate named rice germplasms need to be conserved in gene bank as are distinct from each other.

  15. 作业成本法在我国商业银行中应用的探讨%Discussion on Applying of Activity-based Costing in the Commercial Banks of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凡; 常路; 周碧波

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based Costing has been applied in the commercial banks of China in the essay.And the contrasting Activity-based Costing and traditional Costing has been analyzed in the example of the affair of silver draft acceptance in credit department of a commercial bank.%本文将作业成本法应用于我国商业银行,并以某商业银行信贷部银票承兑业务为案例,将作业成本法与传统成本计算法进行了对比分析.

  16. Methods of Analysis of Electronic Money in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies methods of analysis of electronic money, formalises its instruments and offers an integral indicator, which should be calculated by issuing banks and those banks, which carry out operations with electronic money, issued by other banks. Calculation of the integral indicator would allow complex assessment of activity of the studied bank with electronic money and would allow comparison of parameters of different banks by the aggregate of indicators for the study of the electronic money market, its level of development, etc. The article presents methods which envisage economic analysis of electronic money in banks by the following directions: solvency and liquidity, efficiency of electronic money issue, business activity of the bank and social responsibility. Moreover, the proposed indicators by each of the directions are offered to be taken into account when building integral indicators, with the help of which banks are studied: business activity, profitability, solvency, liquidity and so on.

  17. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  18. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  19. Systemic banking crises

    OpenAIRE

    O. Emre Ergungor; James B. Thomson

    2005-01-01

    Systemic banking crises can have devastating effects on the economies of developing or industrialized countries. This Policy Discussion Paper reviews the factors that weaken banking systems and make them more susceptible to crises.

  20. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  1. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  2. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  3. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective.......The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  4. Analysis and Assessment of Financial Indicators of Banks in the Context of Ensuring Functioning of the Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samorodov Borys V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies methods of analysis and assessment of financial indicators of activity of banks, which characterise their solvency, keeping which at a relevant level for each bank ensures functioning of the banking system in general. It offers a number of financial indicators, which should be assessed when determining the credit rating of competitor banks. It demonstrates an approach to identification of the degree of influence of indicators upon the solvency level. It reveals a necessity of comparing when conducting analysis of values of financial indicators of bank activity, which are rated, with relevant values by the group of banks and the whole banking system. In the result of application of the proposed methods it seems possible to assess positive and negative sides of activity of a specific bank compared to its competitors. Moreover, rather high values of analysed financial indicators, compared to other studied banks, could be used as weighty information when conducting PR campaigns carried out by the bank. The bank management should pay attention to low values of financial indicators, which are determined through comparison with competitor banks, and build up a relevant strategy of measures on improvement of the bank activity.

  5. Idea Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of activities and programs that have been successful with secondary science students. Includes ideas related to repairing radio-controlled cars, cooperative science-library center, observation exercises, recordkeeping skills and peer grading, DC power supply, chemistry of poison ivy, spore science, and a tic-tac-toe review…

  6. REFORM, ORGANISATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION Gr. IONESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking system, making the economic environment and the resources it provides, the subsystem consists of macro economic and social. He is in continuous interaction with the economic environment, which takes "input" in various forms - human, financial, information they process into "outputs" - products and banking services, financial derivatives used in banking, financial and banking information, etc. In other words, and the banking system is now an open system. What is specific to open systems, and hence the banking system is that it regulates activity by reverse connection (feed back, so they are capable of self.

  7. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  8. Time banking som ledelsesteknologi

    OpenAIRE

    Steensberg, Maja; Nielsen, Nadia Holm; Thomsen, Søren Tolshave

    2014-01-01

    This project examines how the English time banks Timber Wharf, Echo and Fair Shares affect their members and local environments. Based on Nikolas Rose’s theory on governmentality it is discussed, whether the time banks, understood as political actors, are challenging or reproducing neo-liberal governance. It is concluded that the way the time banks facilitates the concept of timebanking differs greatly. These different conducts are shaping the way in which the time banks are used by their mem...

  9. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  10. Essays on banking

    OpenAIRE

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations. The last chapter is joint work with Hans Degryse, Jose Liberti and Steven Ongena and studies how banks use ‘soft information’ to monitor small firms. This dissertation uses hand collected internal...

  11. Easier Bank Access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Loosened banking regulations may spur an increase of foreign banks in China Foreign banks will soon have a much easier time setting up outlets in China.According to regulations recently amended by the State Council,as of January 1,foreign

  12. A BANK MANAGER SPEAKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.

  13. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  14. Banking on Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc

  15. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  16. ESSENTIAL PRACTICE OF SYSTEMICALLY IMPORTANT BANKS REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Trokhymenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes specific features of establishment of new regulatory standards of systemically important banks as one of the most priority directions of post-crisis improvement of supranational financial regulation. The essense of active and prearranged initiatives to secure constant activity of global and domestic powerful super-big banking institutions is investigated as well as some approaches as to recovery measures implementation without involvement of taxpayers' funds in case of their financial failure are considered. In particular, the main points are focused on introduction of additional requirements to the sufficiency of capital of global systemically important banks, development of the regulatory mechanisms of domestic systemically important banks by domestic authorities taking into account the specific peculiarities of certain national economies, structural reforms as to separation of traditional banking from the securities transactions for the depositors protection (Volcker rule, USA; Vickers rule, UK, establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism for the Eurozone banks, and declaration of necessity to form the Single mechanism for bank bankruptcy resolution etc. Some proposals concerning transformation of domestic system of financial regulation and supervision in Ukraine, like strengthening control of systemically important banks activity and introduction of mega-regulator model are characterized.

  17. Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Among Internet Banking Users of Philippine National Bank in Batangas City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWARD KERVIN B. MOJARES

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most vital challenges of the Internet as a service delivery channel is providing and maintaining service quality. This study aimed to describe the profile of the respondents with regards to socio-demographic and bank-related variables; to identify the effects of internet banking among its clients in Batangas City; to determine the level of customer’s satisfaction in terms of speed and accuracy, accessibility and convenience, and security features; to determine the respondents level of loyalty; to test the relationship between effects of internet banking service and customer satisfaction and loyalty variables; and lastly, to propose effective measures on how to enhance the quality of internet banking service offered by PNB in Batangas City. The descriptive-correlation method was utilized in the conduct of the study. The respondents of the study are the top 100 or 30% of the three hundred thirty four active users of internet banking service of Philippine National Bank in Batangas City during the period of October 2012 as generated by the bank’s system. The study revealed that the respondents are generally satisfied with the speed and accuracy, accessibility and convenience, and security features of the internet banking service facility. It was also found out that only speed and accuracy showed significant relationship on the effect of internet banking. Internet banking users are still considering the speed and accuracy of the banks service to make them satisfied despite that internet banking provides lower cost delivery channel, gives customers to almost any type of banking transactions and gives breadth and depth customer service. However, customers’ level of loyalty is not affected by the effects of internet banking services. This proves that as long as the customers are being provided with an excellent service, customer loyalty/retention could still be possibly attained by the bank

  18. THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM DURING THE ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA RĂDULESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian banking system was hit by the financial crisis in 2008 and the banking credit activity almost stopped for a few years. National Bank of Romania tighted the credit conditions and imposed strong regulations for banks. After the peak of the crisis, the credit conditions become lax again, trying to re-launch the economic activity by credit, but the effects in the economy didn’t appear until the end of 2013. Our banking system exposure to the foreign capital banks (Greek or Austrian and the political crisis in some European countries (Greece and Ukraine didn’t help either and increased the banking risks. Although the fundamentals of the Romanian banking system were sound, it faced the crisis well but it couldn’t support the recovery of our economy.

  19. FOREIGN BANKS APPETITE FOR LIQUIDITY RISK AND THE BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY. CASE STUDY FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Horaţiu Lovin

    2013-01-01

    Foreign banks own a large share of Romanian banking system and proved to be a direct contagion channel for external financial turbulences into the Romanian financial system since September 2008. From the financial stability point of view, liquidity risk emerged as a major source of turmoil for the banking system, being able to cause disruptions in lending activity. Empirical evidence points out a significant impact of credit growth and government fiscal position on liquidity risk management f...

  20. Banking Sector Crises and Related New Regulations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Kibritcioglu

    2005-01-01

    In Turkey, the financial sector is traditionally dominated by banking activities, and the banking sector experienced several systemic crises since late 1970s. This paper reviews and summarizes the major banking sector problems in the country. It also outlines the latest regulations and reform attempts in Turkey, with particular reference to Turkey's future EU membership.

  1. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  2. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  3. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; CLAUDIA ISAC

    2014-01-01

    Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wid...

  4. International Banking and Liquidity Risk Transmission: Lessons from Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia M. Buch; Goldberg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Activities of international banks have been at the core of discussions on the causes and effects of the international financial crisis. Yet, we know little about the actual magnitudes and mechanisms for transmission of liquidity shocks through international banks, including the reasons for heterogeneity in transmission across banks. The International Banking Research Network (IBRN), established in 2012, brings together researchers from around the world with access to micro-data on individual ...

  5. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of flowers of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mateos, Rosario; Aguilar-Santelises, Leonor; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Nieto-Angel, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts of flowers from some Mexican accessions of Crataegus were studied using six accessions with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the nutraceutical properties of the accessions of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC-MS. Among the flavonoids, the quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (4), quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)-glucoside (2) and quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)]-glucoside (1) were assigned. Flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity explain some of the medicinal properties attributed to flowers of Mexican hawthorns.

  6. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient...

  7. Internet Banking: An Interaction Building Channel for Bank-Customer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Madhumita

    This chapter examines the weakening and strengthening of relationships in technology determined bank-customer interactions. It focuses on the use of Internet banking for long-term service maintenance in a multiple channel usage context. The research findings from a study conducted with retail banking customers in the UK, indicate how customers combine the concepts of ‘convenience’ and ‘control’ in performing banking activities through Internet banking. In addition, while the users demand enhanced functionalities, the non-users seek innovation in customer service to aid their understanding and initiate their use of Internet banking. Such a scenario creates situations that transfer work back from the customers to the bank employees with likely changes in the roles and responsibilities of the frontline staff. As a social consequence of Internet banking usage, issues about the dichotomy of convenience and stress are also discussed. The potential of a virtual and remote channel like Internet banking in creating enhanced bank-customer relationships becomes salient with implications for organisational strategies.

  8. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Cargill

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  9. DIVERSITY OF EAR CHARACTERISTICS OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of ear were used for estimation of genetic diversity in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding programs. Field trials were set at two locations in two vegetation years (2008/09 and 2009/10. Observations in field trials and laboratory were done on 13 ear characteristics used in DUS testing. Genetic diversity research of Croatian wheat germplasm according to ear morphological characteristics, showed a high level of dissimilarity (0.625 among the tested varieties. Varieties Super Žitarka and AFZG Karla are pointed out with highest coefficient of dissimilarity (0.94. Application of UPGMA method showed that all varieties in different groups had significant genetic diversity. On the basis of data analysis the most distant varieties with the best morphological characteristics of ear were determined and it will be help in the selection of new parent combinations in future breeding programs.

  10. DEVELOPING THE iPBS STRATEGY FOR YAKON GERMPLASM EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two yacon varieties PER05 and ECU45 were used for iPBS method developing for yacon - Smallanthus sonchifolius, (Poepp. et Endl. germplasm evaluation. Because of high level of polyphenols in yacon, four DNA extraction methods were tested for the best results in the iPBS method. Using a set of universal primers that anneal to the conserved regions of retrotransposons, polymorphism of amplified fragments of DNA was analysed and for the development of iPBS protocol primers that produce PCR fragments within the whole possible range of PCR were chosen. Selected primers were subsequently used in a set of gradient PCR for finding of optimal annealing temperatures for each of them and three groups of primers according to the optimal annealing temperature were found - primers with a optimum at 53°C (1845, 1875 and 1886, at 56°C (1846 and 61 °C (1880 and 2078.

  11. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2005-01-01

    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.

  12. The effect of socio-economic and demographic factors of Turkish provincies on the number of active customers using Internet banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent improvements in Internet Banking or Online Banking, there are still some constraints, mainly security related issues and some other factors, which contribute to the hesitations of individuals’ Internet Banking adoption. Instead of widely used behaviorist models this study utilizes panel data compiled from different sources and explores why Internet Banking is very common in some Turkish provinces but not in the others. The panel data was comprised of the antecedents that were drawn from the relevant literature. To investigate the relationship among the data we employed correlation statistics and to study the Internet Banking adoption differences better among the provinces we used Mann-Whitney U non-parametric statistical analyses. The results of correlation analysis demonstrate strong relationship among the variables. And the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test results indicate that the differences of mean ranks are statistically significant. According to these results each of the hypotheses are confirmed significantly.

  13. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  14. Low temperature wheat germplasm and its leaf photosynthetic traits and structure characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Songwu; MIAO Fang; WANG Changfa

    2004-01-01

    Low temperature germplasm with constant low plant temperature was found in the nature through a long-time observation on wheat canopy temperature and traits; correspondingly, high temperature germplasm with constant high plant temperature also exists. Compared with the high temperature germplasm, the chlorophyll content and the net photosynthetic rate of the three functional leaves on the top of the low temperature wheat germplasm are higher and the structure tends to be more complicated, which is characterized by smaller mesophyll cells and more closely arranged cell layers, more and denser chloroplasts with thick stroma, more granas and well developed grana lamellae, a larger vascular bundle area with smaller interspace. All these characteristics embody the consistency of structure and function and provide the theoretical bases for looking for and cultivating the new low temperature materials in agricultural practice.

  15. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  16. What Role Have Banks in Financial Crises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius ANDRIES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises mainly manifest themselves at the level of financial institutions. Although financial crises can also be generated within non-financial institutions, the role of banking institutions in the occurrence, transmitting and solving of financial crises is a deciding one. Banks play a deciding role in the development of financial crises as financial intermediaries who contribute to the efficient transfer of funds from the abundant agent towards the deficit agents. Banks can facilitate the financial crises through the activities performed on the financial markets that can influence the interest rates, the uncertainty on the market and the price of assets, but moreover bank crises can occur that transform financial crises. This paper aims to analyze the role of banks in the emergence, the propagation, the prevention or solving financial crises.

  17. Trade Openness and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of trade openness on bank risk-taking behavior. Using a panel dataset of 291 banks from 37 emerging countries over the period from 1998 to 2012, we find that higher trade openness decreases bank risk-taking. The results are robust when we use alternative bank risk-taking proxies and alternative estimation methods. We argue that trade openness provides diversification opportunities to banks in lending activities, which decrease overall bank risk. Further to this end, we observe that higher trade openness helps domestic banks to smooth out income volatility and decreases the impact of a financial crisis on banks.

  18. Banking System in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  19. KEDUDUKAN HUKUM KARYAWAN BANK PASCA DILAKUKAN MERGER, KONSOLIDASI DAN AKUISISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misranto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the terms of economic crisis in Indonesia is monetary crisis. Monetary crisis or economic up to now still occur in Indonesia, which is noted by banks which undergo liquidity that causes the banks “willing or not, wanting or not” have to throw away its stirring and shake hands with the other banks to build cooperation or to look for strategic partner in order to survive by doing merger consolidation, and bank acquisition. However, the member of merger banks should notice the effects of law appeared due to merger consolidating, and that acquisition, in addition to its bank employees, because the employees have the full control as the bank operational. Bank is impossible having its activity well without full supports of its employees.

  20. E- BANKING (BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES IN AN EMERGING ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovedeep Singh Sidhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New Information technology has taken important place in future development of financial services, especially banking sector transition are affected more than any other financial provider groups. Increased use of mobile services and use of internet as new distribution channel for banking transactions and international trading requires more attention towards e-banking security against fraudulent activities. The development and the increasing progress that is being experienced in the Information and Communication Technology have brought about a bunch of changes in almost all facets of life. In the Banking Industry, it has been in the form of E-banking, which is now replacing the traditional banking practice. E-banking has a lot of benefits which add value to customers’ satisfaction in terms of better quality of service offerings and at the same time enable the banks gain more competitive advantage over other competitors. This paper discusses challenges in an emerging economy.

  1. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Qionglin Huang; Zhonggang Duan; Jinfen Yang; Xinye Ma; Ruoting Zhan; Hui Xu; Weiwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces represen...

  2. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  3. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  4. A Discussion on Possible Indicators Related to Genetic Structure Changes in Plant Germplasm Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI Jun-yi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to study and develop indicators and procedures for the evaluation of genetic structure changes in germplasm conservation due to social and natural environment reasons.Some basic concepts in germplasm study were introduced at first. Then, six kinds of indicators for genetic diversity as a measure of genetic potential of a germplasm collection were presented, i.e.,numbers of different entities at certain level, evenness of the entity distribution, genetic similarityand genetic distance, genetic variance and genetic coefficient of variation, multivariate genetic variation indices, and coefficient of parentage. It was pointed out that genetic dispersion did not provide a complete concept of genetic diversity if without any information from genetic richness. Based on the above, the indicators for genetic erosion as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to social reasons, the indicators of genetic vulnerability as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to environmental stresses, the measurement of genetic drift and genetic shift as the genetic structure changes of germplasm collection during reproduction or seed increase were reviewed and developed. Furthermore, the estimation procedures of the indicators by using molecular markers were suggested. Finally, the case studies on suitable conservation sample size of self-pollinated and open-pollinated populations were given for reference.

  5. COMMERCIAL BANK LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KOREKOV A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Bank liquidity management and optimal resource allocation of commercial bank Nostro accounts balances receive much less attention from the scientists compared to the questions on capital structure, funding, credit risk analysis and stress testing. Optimal liquidity management is a way to lower bank costs and risks, which are going to increase over time, especially when money markets are dry of free funds. There are two sides of the issue to be analyzed. The optimal resource allocation and cor...

  6. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  7. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  8. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  9. Essays on banking and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, R.I.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions

  10. Ethical banking and finance : a theoretical and empirical framework for the cross-country and inter-bank analysis of efficiency, productivity, and financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Alkheil, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Islamic banking is a growing worldwide phenomenon involving a variety of institutions and instruments. Previously, Islamic banks? transactions made up a small part of the total banking industry. Recently, Islamic banks have significantly expanded their network, and have been able to mobilize a large amount of funds and upgrade many economic ventures. Given the unique behavior of Islamic banks and their involvement in both social and economic activities, there has always been a question about ...

  11. Ethical banking and finance : a theoretical and empirical framework for the cross-country and inter-bank analysis of efficiency, productivity, and financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Alkheil, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Islamic banking is a growing worldwide phenomenon involving a variety of institutions and instruments. Previously, Islamic banks? transactions made up a small part of the total banking industry. Recently, Islamic banks have significantly expanded their network, and have been able to mobilize a large amount of funds and upgrade many economic ventures. Given the unique behavior of Islamic banks and their involvement in both social and economic activities, there has always been a question about ...

  12. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at Glu-1 Loci in Chinese Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; PANG Bin-shuang; YOU Guang-xia; WANG Lan-fen; JIA Ji-zeng; DONG Yu-chen

    2002-01-01

    Wheat processing quality is greatly influenced by the seed proteins especially the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) components, the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) components and gliadin components. Genes encoding the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components were located on the long arms and the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, respectively. HMW-GS components in 5 129 accessions of wheat germplasms were analyzed systematically, including 3 459 landraces and 1 670 modern varieties. These accessions were chosen as candidate core collections to represent the genetic diversity of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) germplasms documented and conserved in the National Gene Bank. These candidate core collections covered the 10 wheat production regions in China. In the whole country, the dominating alleles at the three loci are Glu-A1b (null), Glu-B1b (7 + 8), and Glu- D1a (2 + 12), respectively. The obvious difference between the land race and the modern variety is the dramatic frequency increase of alleles Glu-A1a (1), Glu-B1c (7 + 9), Glu-B1h (14 + 15), Glu-D1d (5 + 10) and allele cording 5 + 12 subunits in the later ones. In the whole view, there is minor difference on the genetic(allelic)richness between the landrace and the modern variety at Glu-1, which is 28 and 30 respectively. However, the genetic dispersion index (Simpson index) based on allelic variation and frequencies at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 suggested that the modern varieties had much higher genetic diversity than the landraces. This revealed that various isolating mechanisms (such as auto-gamous nature, low migration because of undeveloped transposition system) limited the gene flow and exchange between populations of the landraces, which led up to some genotypes localized in very small areas. Modern breeding has strongly promoted gene exchanges and introgression between populations and previous isolated populations. In the three loci, Glu-B1 has the highest

  13. Factors Determining Mergers of Banks in Malaysia's Banking Sector Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubi Ahmad; Mohamed Ariff; Michael Skully

    2007-01-01

    What was termed government-guided merger was a unique banking sector reform implemented in 2002 by the central bank of Malaysia guiding a larger number of depository institutions to form 10 large banks...

  14. BAGI HASIL DAN BANK SYARI’AH (Solusi terhadap Bunga Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto Rudy Haryanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To save money in terms of investation is one of bank’s functions. Interest and production sharing are kinds of investation in banking system. Interest is a marketable entry in conventional banking, however production sharing is known in syari’ah banking system. Some people argue that interest cannot be seperated from the banking activity, in fact Islam recommends the followers to avoid it; hence it could be substituted with term of production sharing. It matches the priciple of musyarakah and mudharabah as being taught by Rasûlullâh SAW. Bank interest is considered ribâ (excessive interest and it is forbidden in Islam. Moreover, production sharing is more useful and beneficial for people. Unfortunately, the value of production sharing (syarî’ah banking product is lower than the value of banking interest (conventional banking product due to the fact that the ralationship established by syari’ah banking and its customer is based on the principle of gotong royong (mutual coorporation and production sharing partnership. Key Words: ribâ, musyarakah, mudharabah, dan bagi-hasil  

  15. Stress Testing of the Montenegrin Banking System with Aggregated and Bank-Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many different approaches to the process of stress testing and two of them will be investigated in this paper. The first one is a stress test performed on aggregated data i.e. the banking system as a whole. The variable of interest in both exercises is the Loan Loss Provision ratio (hereinafter: the LLP. The main goal of the thesis is to find an answer to the following question: what are the macroeconomic variables that influence LLP the most and how will LLP, as a variable of interest, behave in a situation when all these variables were to experience negative performance at the same time? The resilience of the banking system to such scenario will be tested through the capital adequacy ratio. In order to find out more about the management practices of banks, microlevel data on banks were also used in the analysis. The focus was to see which of the variables are able to explain the LLP ratio for each bank individually and how is this information helpful for possible improvements in the banking sector. The relations between these variables will be able to explain some of the banks’ losses and some of the banks’ practices regarding credit activities. The analysis there will provide for some recommendations for the banks but also for the Central Bank and its way to influence the practices in the banking sector.

  16. Reverse osmosis followed by activated carbon filtration for efficient removal of organic micropollutants from river bank filtrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, F Schoonenberg; Rietman, B M; Verliefde, A R D

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities in Europe are faced with a growing presence of organic micropollutants in their water sources. The aim of this research was to assess the robustness of a drinking water treatment plant equipped with reverse osmosis and subsequent activated carbon filtration for the removal of these pollutants. The total removal efficiency of 47 organic micropollutants was investigated. Results indicated that removal of most organic micropollutants was high for all membranes tested. Some selected micropollutants were less efficiently removed (e.g. the small and polar NDMA and glyphosate, and the more hydrophobic ethylbenzene and napthalene). Very high removal efficiencies for almost all organic micropollutants by the subsequent activated carbon, fed with the permeate stream of the RO element were observed except for the very small and polar NDMA and 1,4-dioxane. RO and subsequent activated carbon filtration are complementary and their combined application results in the removal of a large part of these emerging organic micropollutants. Based on these experiments it can be concluded that the robustness of a proposed treatment scheme for the drinking water treatment plant Engelse Werk is sufficiently guaranteed.

  17. Prioritization of key ecosystem components based on the risk of harm from human activities within the Placentia Bay/Grand Banks large ocean management area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, L.E; Beresford, L.A; Kissler, E

    2011-01-01

    .... Within the Placentia Bay/Grand Banks (PB/GB) LOMA, this process started with the identification of ninety-four key ecosystem components which were ranked high, medium or low, based on the ecological significance of the component, without...

  18. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A

    2008-12-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at 30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and stratification existing in cotton germplasm

  19. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  20. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  1. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  2. Bank Lending and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Chilean Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Repetto; Sergio Rodríguez; Rodrigo O. Valdés

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we empirically study bank-client relationships using a sample of manufacturing Chilean firms. We examine whether concentration and the duration of bank-firm relationships affect the terms of bank financing, evaluating both the volume of bank lending and bank loan costs. Our results indicate that lower concentration, measured by the number of banks a firm borrows from, is associated with lower costs of loans and with a large and positive non-lincar effect on borrowing. The length...

  3. Dual Banking Systems and Interest Rate Risk for Islamic Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    In introducing Islamic banking in Malaysia, the basic strategy was to replicate the products/ services offered by conventional banks. The successful implementation of such a strategy has meant that Malaysia today has a truly dual banking system. Islamic banks in Malaysia not only have product similarity with conventional banks but share the same overall economic environment and a common customer base. The ability of non Muslim customers/depositors to switch between the two banking syste...

  4. Bank Units. Assessment and Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.

  5. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  6. UNINSURED DEPOSITOR RIGHTS PROTECTION IN BANK INSOLVENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ambrasas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is legal instruments protecting uninsured depositor in bank insolvency. The paper is focused and reviews issues relating to the unprofessional depositor with typology of insolvent Lithuanian bank “Snoras”. According to this view, the paper analyses legal aspects of the bank’s specific obligations to the depositor under Lithuania’s bank insolvency rules and regulations. The purpose is, by means of different methods, to investigate depositor’s rights protection concept covering uninsured bank’s product - deposit certificates. This paper reveals the content of legal norms regulating uninsured depositors in bank insolvency (laws, secondary legislation, especially court decisions of Lithuania, analyzes what problems arise in an attempt to ensure depositor rights and discusses the impact for uninsured depositor ex ante and ex post bank insolvency. The main issue of the paper: what are the legal techniques protecting uninsured depositor rights under bank insolvency frameworks? The issue based on the typology of insolvent bank “Snoras” which actively disseminated deposit certificates to the customers in order to improve the bank's financial stability, without increasing the share capital of the bank, for that reason, bank misinformed the owners of deposit certificates that such a product is treated as insurance object. The paper is written from the Lithuanian law perspective. Purpose – to investigate depositors’ rights protection terms covering uninsured bank’s product- deposit certificates. Design/methodology/approach – Purposely to explore the actual meaning of legal norms and legislations as well as content and to analyze the literature and jurisprudence the systematic, analyses, synthesis, comparative methods were used. Findings – all depositors have full interest to be treated as insured with the consequent of compensation. Deposit protection is designed to compensate some classes of depositors

  7. Assessment of Genetic Stability Among In Vitro Plants of Arachis retusa Using RAPD and AFLP Markers for Germplasm Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel Fatima Gagliardi; Luiz Ricardo Hanai; Georgia Pacheco; Carlos Alberto Oliveira; Leonardo Alves Carneiro; José Francisco Montenegro Valls; Elisabeth Mansur; Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Arachis retusa Krapov. et W. C. Gregory et Valls is endemic in the West-central region of Brazil, occurring in areas endangered by human actions. The establishment of in vitro preservation methods for wild species of Arachis isan alternative to seed banks for germplasm storage, multiplication and distribution. The risk of genetic changesinduced by tissue culture and the monitoring of the genetic stability of the biological material before, during andafter storage must be considered in the context of conservation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) andamplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting were used to evaluate the genetic stability of invitro plants originated from cotyledons and embryo axes of A. retusa. Cotyledons originated shoots through directorganogenesis and embryo axes displayed multishoot formation induced by 110 mmol/L and 8.8 mmol/L BAP,respectively. Ninety genomlc regions (loci) generated from RAPD and 372 from AFLP analyses were evaluated. Allamplified fragments detected by both techniques in plants derived from the two explant types were monomorphic.The results indicate that the recovered shoots are genetically stable at the assessed genomic regions.

  8. Germplasm Collection from Last Remnants of Rice Landrace Genetic Diversity in High Altitude Areas of Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd SULTAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to know about past and present cultivation and status of rice landraces in Kashmir province of Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Tremendous genetic diversity has existed in past in paddy fields throughout Kashmir especially in remote high altitude areas and more than 4 dozen named landraces have been recorded in the literature. Elderly farmers in their sixties and beyond still fondly remember these landraces and often recall quality attributes in many of these genetic resources. Most of the landraces have now disappeared from the local production system and only few are presently being cultivated and that too in a very small area. The reasons as to why farmers lost interest in these genetic resources and why few landraces are still popular in farmer fields have been discussed. Our study has revealed that variability in paddy fields has now been drastically reduced to few high altitude areas where also it is seriously endangered. We argue that collection of well adapted traditional varieties from these ‘last remnants of rice genetic diversity’ in Kashmir is an important task especially under prevailing uncertain social and climatic conditions to ensure a sustainable environment. 32 germplasm accessions of some landraces have been collected during our survey in these areas. These have been deposited in National Seed Gene Bank at NBPGR, New Delhi for conservation and characterization.

  9. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  10. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  11. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly el

  12. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, G.J. Van der; Maas, A.

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the ba

  13. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  14. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  15. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital constrain

  16. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  17. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. A. Maas; G.J. Van der Star

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the

  18. THE BANKING SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Sotnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The features and current trends in the development of the banking system of the Russian Federation are highlighted in the article. The authors propose an original method of evaluation of activities of credit organizations with the use of statistical data and rating agencies. The concept of the banking system is summarized in this article. Also its structure is analyzed by the number of credit institutions and the quality of their operations. The authors identifie differences between the concepts of banking service, banking operation and banking product and propose classification according to different characteristics of banking institutions and operations that they carry out. Then the authors go to estimating the volume of banking services in Russia and their patterns in total. Separately the main passive (deposits and loans and active operations (lending to legal entities and individuals are characterized. The authors identifie the major developments in the banking system of the Russian Federation in 2014 due to political and economic sanctions by the U.S. and Eurozone countries. The article provides a vision of the authors on the further development of the banking activity in Russia and proposes specific measures to adapt the banking system of the Russian Federation in a constantly changing political and economic conditions (financial sanctions, a change of key Central Bank rates, devaluation, etc.. According to the authors' opinion the expected prospects of development of the banking system of the Russian Federation to 2015 are: the growth in savings accounts in banks; sanctions will be of a personal nature and will not affect the largest credit institutions; the active growth of the corporate loan portfolio will continue; the growth of retail lending portfolio will continue to slow; mortgage lending will increase in the total loan portfolio of the banking sector of Russia.

  19. Foreign Funds for City Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.

  20. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  1. Effect of Electronic Interactive Technologies Usage on Services Marketing Activities Empirical Study on Banking Sector in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A. Azzam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of new technology in marketing of financial services can't be ignored. Interactive technology helpsmarketers to inexpensively engage consumers in one- to- one relationships fueled by two way conversation via mouse click oncomputer. Several organizations especially in services businesses are increasingly strengthening their marketing function byeffectively interacting with their customers with the help of sophisticated interactive technologies in an integrated manner.Enough research in the usage or adoption of electronic data interchange (EDI can be found both in information systems andmarketing literature. Therefore; it appears that different interactive technologies have been studied individually by differentresearchers. This motivates researchers to find out studies related to interactive technologies and their usage or adoptionespecially in the field of marketing activities in a developing country like Jordan. This paper attempts to understand the effectof the usage of interactive technologies in financial services businesses with the intention to derive implications for thedevelopment of interactive technologies to suit its intended users.

  2. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weißleder Knuth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of

  3. Securities and banking: bridges and walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between banking and securities activities in the light of financial market developments (securitisation, institutionalization of investment, emergence of complex financial instruments, conglomeration and consolidation, with particular reference to Europe. The enhanced links between banking and securitiesbusinesses have generated increased and new risks to financial institutions. However, banks' stability remains crucial for the stability of the financial system as a whole, because of their unique role as provider of liquidity. The paper also addresses the implications of the banking-securities combination for regulatory and supervisory arrangements. The exporting of prudential requirements traditional in banking (such as capital ratios into the securities field, and the importing of securities regulation (such as transparency requirements into the banking sector, can be deemed mutually beneficial. As regards supervision, there is a need to monitor the continued effectiveness of the current framework. This entails strengthening co-operation both at the national level and on a cross-border basis among sectoral supervisors in the micro-prudential field, and between them and central banks in the macro-prudential field.

  4. Genomic Prediction of Gene Bank Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Crossa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines genomic prediction within 8416 Mexican landrace accessions and 2403 Iranian landrace accessions stored in gene banks. The Mexican and Iranian collections were evaluated in separate field trials, including an optimum environment for several traits, and in two separate environments (drought, D and heat, H for the highly heritable traits, days to heading (DTH, and days to maturity (DTM. Analyses accounting and not accounting for population structure were performed. Genomic prediction models include genotype × environment interaction (G × E. Two alternative prediction strategies were studied: (1 random cross-validation of the data in 20% training (TRN and 80% testing (TST (TRN20-TST80 sets, and (2 two types of core sets, “diversity” and “prediction”, including 10% and 20%, respectively, of the total collections. Accounting for population structure decreased prediction accuracy by 15–20% as compared to prediction accuracy obtained when not accounting for population structure. Accounting for population structure gave prediction accuracies for traits evaluated in one environment for TRN20-TST80 that ranged from 0.407 to 0.677 for Mexican landraces, and from 0.166 to 0.662 for Iranian landraces. Prediction accuracy of the 20% diversity core set was similar to accuracies obtained for TRN20-TST80, ranging from 0.412 to 0.654 for Mexican landraces, and from 0.182 to 0.647 for Iranian landraces. The predictive core set gave similar prediction accuracy as the diversity core set for Mexican collections, but slightly lower for Iranian collections. Prediction accuracy when incorporating G × E for DTH and DTM for Mexican landraces for TRN20-TST80 was around 0.60, which is greater than without the G × E term. For Iranian landraces, accuracies were 0.55 for the G × E model with TRN20-TST80. Results show promising prediction accuracies for potential use in germplasm enhancement and rapid introgression of exotic germplasm

  5. Germplasm of breeding Pseudosciaena crocea as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yumei; DING Lei; LI Mingyun; XUE Liangyi; LIANG Liqun; HE Jianguo; LEI Qingquan

    2008-01-01

    The germplasm of breeding large yellow croaker(Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson)was revealed using 12 microsatellite markers.The results showed that the genetic diversities were on a mediated level in the bred Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks and two hybrid groups,as represented by 4.83 of the mean number of alleles and 0.561 of the average observed heterozygosity.The value of pair-wise differentiation coefficient(Fst)was only 13.1% between Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks,demonstrating the low level of differcn-tiation and a close relationship.However,STRUCTURE simulations and phylogenetie tree based on the UPGMA method supported that they are geographically different populations of the same species with distinct genetic structures.Examinations of individual ad-mixture showed that Min-Yue stock had been contaminated by alien individuals.Moreover,the genetic structures of the two hybridgroups resembled those of their parents,especially affected more by their female parents.Finally,the values of average observed beterozygasity between parents and their ascendants were compared and tested,as a result of no detectable differences(P>0.05).

  6. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ugurtan YILMAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(incompatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign found within the National Apricot Germplasms of Apricot Research Institute in Malatya, Turkey was studied. Analyses were carried out by using four primer pairs (SRc-F and SRc-R, EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD, AprSC8-R and PaConsI-F, AprFBC8-F and AprFBC8-R. A total of 11 S-RNase alleles (S2, S3, S6, S7, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13, S20 and Sc were determined in the 236 apricot genotypes. As Turkish and foreign apricot genotypes are determined mostly self-incompatible, the data obtained hereby might be of good use for apricot breeding programs and more practically, for apricot new plantations; thus pollinator cultivars should be considered when self-incompatible apricot cultivars are being used.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2013-08-15

    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Strategies and Challenges in Plant Germplasm Conservation%种质资源保存的战略问题和面临的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德铢; 杨湘云; Hugh W.Pritchard

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses scientific issues, action plans and strategies for plant germplasm eonservation in general and seed banking in particular. Germplasm conservation is an insurance policy against extinction, and currently preserves tens of thousands of wild plant species. In this report, we introduce the background and current status of the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, and compare its strategy with that of other major ex situ conservation facilities in the world, e. g. , the Millennium Seed Bank. In the context of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation,we also discuss the estimated number of threatened species in China, which could be greater than 25% of the flora.Some scientific conservation-related techniques, such as cryopreservation, are described in brief. Seed banking is the most cost-effective approach in all ex situ conservation approaches. Cryopreservation will become increasingly important in accomplishing the ex situ conservation goal and in enabling the long-term preservation of seeds, including recalcitrant ones. This paper also highlights the necessity of increased efforts to train young scientists in taxonomy and seed biology to improve efficiency, validity of seed identification, and long-term management prospects of seed banks.%植物种质资源保存,特别是种子库保存是各种迁地保护措施中最为经济有效的方法.通过对成千上万个物种的有效保存,种子库为减缓物种的灭绝和气候变化对生物多样性的影响发挥了特别关键的作用.本文较为详细地介绍了"中国西南野生生物种质资源库"的立项背景和最新进展,同时介绍了世界上其它几个主要的植物迁地保存设施,特别是英国皇家植物园的"千年种子库".结合"全球植物保护策略"讨论了中国植物濒危状况,估计我国受威胁的物种比例达20-25%,甚至更高.本文还简要讨论了种子保存中的一些科学问题,包括超低温保存,并强调了植物分类学和种

  9. Analisis Hubungan Kelembagaan Antara Otoritas Jasa Keuangan Dengan Bank Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sigalingging, Bisdan

    2013-01-01

    The independent Financial Service Authority was established to materialize a national economy that can sustainably grow and be stable, especially for the activities in banking sector, to materialize an healthy banking system and to protect the customers’ interest in particular and that of community members in general. The Financial Service Authority has a closed relationship with the other institutions to run its function, duty, authority of regulating and controlling banking activities integ...

  10. Bank Specific and Macroeconomics Dynamic Determinants of Credit Risk in Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Waeibrorheem Waemustafa; Suriani Sukri

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes macroeconomic and bank specific determinants of credit risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks. Multivariate Regression analysis is applied on the sample of 15 conventional banks and 13 Islamic Banks in Malaysia over the period between 2000 and 2010. The finding shows that the banks specific determinants of credit risk are uniquely influenced the credit risk formation of Islamic and Conventional banks. The study found that risky sector financing; regulatory capital (REGCAP) ...

  11. The FIGS (Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy) Approach Identifies Traits Related to Drought Adaptation in Vicia faba Genetic Resources: e63107

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid Khazaei; Kenneth Street; Abdallah Bari; Michael Mackay; Frederick L Stoddard

    2013-01-01

    .... The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed...

  12. OVERVIEW OF THE CAAMPL EARLY WARNING SYSTEM IN ROMANIAN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform bank rating system is a specific instrument for the supervising activity and has its origins in the USA; it has later been borrowed by German, Italian, Great Britain authorities, which use influential components in their banking system; later on, their system was adopted by most central banks within the European Union. In Romania, the uniform bank rating system has been implemented by NBR (the National Bank of Romania since 2000; the specific components are: the capital adequacy (C, the quality of assets (A, the quality of the stock holding (A, the management (M, profitability (P, liquidities (L and sensitivity (S starting from the year 2005. For short, this system is called CAAMPL. The evaluation of these specific elements represents an important criterion for establishing a compound rating, which means assigning scores to each bank. The compound rating for the banking system is established based on economic – financial indicators and prudence indicators.

  13. GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  14. Soundness of Ethiopian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdu Kedir Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-functioning financial institution will sustain a countries economic development and play a great role in reduction of poverty. One of the major participants in the financial institution is the banking industry. However, the mal-functioning of the banking system can be extremely costly to the real economy. As Bank is one of the participants and major key player in the financial institutions, it needs a continuous assessment by its supervisory and management. Mere ratio analyses are commonly used Performance measurement among the banking industry in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, these financial ratios are more of traditional as well as partial measurements. As such this study conducted using CAMEL framework set by bank for international settlement. The study takes secondary data which are gathered from audited annual reports of all banks. The result shows CAMEL framework is the best fit measurement for Ethiopian Banks and it give a comprehensive result which is very helpful for the governor to set a well determined policy and procedure.

  15. An update on USDA swine gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) collects, preserves, evaluates and utilizes germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA) from all of the agricultural species in the US in order to create a secure collection. The material can be released for any of a number...

  16. Community in Credit Unions: Has banking regulationimpaired CSR in Australian Customer Owned Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne McGrath

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sector scan of a sample of Australian Credit Unions and Mutual Banks to examine the CSR reporting from the perspective of the three pillars model proposed by vanOorschot, de Hoog, van der Steen and van Twist (2013. It is argued that the pillar requiringco-operatives to ensure activities which ‘aim for change’, should promote increasing adoptionof CSR. The paper theorises that regulatory requirements imposed in Australia on all bankinginstitutions carry a higher proportional cost to the customer owned banking sector than theshareholder based commercial banks. This consumption of the limited financial resourcesavailable in this sector of banking services, are inhibiting regional Customer Owned Bankingproviders, as co-operative organisations, to fulfil the required co-operative principle to instigatechange for the betterment of communities. This failure could signal the demise of some entitiesin the jurisdiction of Customer Owned Banking.

  17. Large-Scale Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Low-Phosphorus Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Ruineng; Xie, Chuanxiao; Huang, Changling; Liao, Hong; Xu, Yunbi; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Low-phosphorus (LP) stress is a global problem for maize production and has been exacerbated by breeding activities that have reduced the genetic diversity of maize. Although LP tolerance in maize has been previously evaluated, the evaluations were generally performed with only a small number of accessions or with samples collected from a limited area. In this research, 826 maize accessions (including 580 tropical/subtropical accessions and 246 temperate accessions) were evaluated for LP tolerance under field conditions in 2011 and 2012. Plant height (PH) and leaf number were measured at three growth stages. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fresh ear weight (FEW) were also measured. Genetic correlation analysis revealed that FEW and NDVI were strongly correlated with PH, especially at later stages. LP-tolerant and -sensitive accessions were selected based on the relative trait values of all traits using principal component analysis, and all the 14 traits of the tolerant maize accessions showed less reduction than the sensitive accessions under LP conditions. LP tolerance was strongly correlated with agronomic performance under LP stress conditions, and both criteria could be used for genetic analysis and breeding of LP tolerance. Temperate accessions showed slightly better LP tolerance than tropical/subtropical ones, although more tolerant accessions were identified from tropical/subtropical accessions, which could be contributed by their larger sample size. This large-scale evaluation provides useful information, LP-tolerant germplasm resources and evaluation protocol for genetic analysis and developing maize varieties for LP tolerance. PMID:25938641

  18. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  19. EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC AND EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The collaboration and interchange of breeding materials between breeding programs worldwide is important and necessary to increase the amount of genetic diversity by incorporating unique exotic germplasm into existing domestic germplasm. The objective of this study was to measure and compare the agronomic performance of 15 soybean cultivars released by the Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia (OS-cultivars and 15 cultivars released by the University of Guelph (Canada (CA-cultivars in Croatia. Based on the comparison, parental combinations could be designed to introgress exotic germplasms from the CA-cultivars into Croatian. Agronomic performance was determined in field trials that were conducted at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during the period from 2002 to 2005. Quantitative traits were measured and analyzed for maturity, grain yield components, level and stability of grain yield, adaptability, lodging resistance and field tolerance to Peronospora manshurica. The results indicated higher agronomic performance of OS-cultivars compared to CA- cultivars. However, comparison of yield is only tentative because all but one OS cultivar were later maturing than the CA-cultivars. Among 15 tested CA-cultivars, five cultivars (OAC Millennium, OAC Champion, OAC Bayfield, OAC Auburn, OAC Wallace were identified as the most favorable for parental combinations in hybridization with OS-cultivars. The results of this study will enable strategic incorporation of diversity from exotic Canadian germplasm into the domestic Croatian germplasm to develop segregating populations from which new, genetically more diverse improved soybean line, could be released.

  20. PERBANDINGAN PENGHASILAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH NASABAH BANK SYARIAH (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    ALIMULA, YULIANA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Perbandingan Penghasilan Tabungan Mudharabah Nasabah Bank Syariah (Studi Kasus pada Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, dan Bank Muamalat Indonesia di Makassar) Profit Sharing Comparison of Mudharabah Saving of Islamic Banking (A Case Study at Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah, and Bank Muamalat Indonesia in Makassar) Yuliana Alimula Alimuddin Muhammad Ashari Penelitian ini bertujuan un...

  1. Intellectual Bank Locker Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Tejesvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In today's modern world, security plays an important role. Every person has precious accessories like gold, documents or cash. The main goal of this project is to design and implement a bank locker security system based on fingerprint and GSM technology. It reduces wastage of time for both banker as well as customer and provides advanced security. In this system, only authentic persons can recover money or accessories from bank locker. In this system the user’s name, fingerprint and mobile number are enrolled. If the fingerprint matches, then four digit code will be sent to the authorized person’s mobile through GSM modem and the locker door will be opened then, otherwise it will be in locked position and gives an alarm when any mismatch occurs. The sensors will be active during night times to provide security against thefts.

  2. Bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon

    2004-01-01

    The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.

  3. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafas Furqani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support ‘demand following’ hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  4. Stimulation of serotonin (5-HT) activity reduces spontaneous stereotypies in female but not in male bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) Stereotyping female voles as a new animal model for human anxiety and mood disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønecker, Bryan; Heller, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders......Bank voles, Stereotypies, Sex differences, Clozapine, Citalopram, Animal model, Anxiety, Mood disorders...

  5. Metamorphosis of Banking Products - A Perception of Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.

  6. Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepková Vodová Pavla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.

  7. Study on collection, conservation and propagation techniques of Paulownia fortunei superior trees germplasm resources%白花泡桐优树种质资源收集保存及繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 李芳东; 乔杰; 李荣幸

    2011-01-01

    In order to save, protect and utilize comprehensively the germplasm resources of Paulownia, the investigation and collection of the germplasm resources of Paulownia in 20 provinces(municipalities) of China were conducted,and the conservation and propagation techniques were studied.The results are as follows:by the end of the year 2009, there were 388 of Paulownia germplasm resources to be collected, including 50 Paulownia fortunei superior trees germplasm resources which grew faster and had stronger resistance and good trunk form; Paulownia gene banks total area of 27.73 hm2 were built in Wenxian of Henan and Chibi of Hubei and Jiujiang of Jiangxi provinces.And the collected germplasm resources was conserved; and the experiments of grafting,cutting, tissue culture and burning root were carried, then the rejuvenation and propagation techniques of the old Paulownia fortunei superior tree material were successfully developed.%为了挽救、保护和综合利用珍贵的泡桐Paulownia种质资源,对全国20个省(直辖市)进行泡桐种质资源调查收集,并对其保存和繁殖技术进行了研究.到2009年底,共搜集到338份泡桐种质资源,其中包括50个生长量大、干形好、抗性强的白花泡桐Paulownia fortune 优良单株资源;在河南温县、湖北赤壁和江西九江共营建21.73 hm3泡桐基因库,对搜集的资源进行保存;进行了嫁接,扦插,组织培养和埋根等幼化繁殖试验,成功地探索出了白花泡桐老龄优树的幼化繁殖技术.

  8. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  9. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  10. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  11. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  12. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood banks may capitalize on the fears of vulnerable new parents by providing misleading information about the statistics of stem cell transplants. Parents of children of ethnic or racial minorities, adopted children, or ...

  13. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance ... April - June 2009 . 9. NIGERIA'S BANKING SECTOR REFORMS: THE JOURNEY SO FAR ..... implementation of a code of sound corporate governance in ...

  14. Varying Impacts of Electronic Banking on the Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Bakare

    2015-01-01

    The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT). Electronic banking (EB) is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans ...

  15. Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M Shabri Abd Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...

  16. STUDY ON GERMPLASMIC RESOURCES OF LYCORIS LONGITUBA USING RAPD AND ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng CHUANLIANG

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The perianth DNA extraction methods were discussed as Lycoris longituba for example. By means of RAPD and ISSR, germplasmic resources of Lycoris longituba were primarily studied. The results were as follow: by RAPD, a total of 77 discernible loci were obtained using 12 primers, of which 53 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 68.8%; by ISSR, 67 discernible loci were got using 9 primers, of which 62 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 92.5%. So, genetic diversity of Lycoris longituba was abundant, whose germplasmic resources could be stored for breeding. From UPGMA dendrogram of Lycoris longituba using RAPD or ISSR method, three Lycoris longituba types were supported with molecular evidence, which were originally distinguished by flower color. Therefore, in the future use of Lycoris longituba germplasmic resources, different varieties of Lycoris longituba could be cultivated.

  17. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  18. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  19. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization.......In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...

  20. Bank Lending, Inflation, and China's Stock Market (2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. K. Burdekin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 surge in bank lending in China was accompanied by allegations of substantial funds being funneled into the nation's stock and property markets. This paper uses 2004–2010 People's Bank survey data to examine the possible linkages between banking activity and the stock market as well as the associated inflation risks. In general, stock market strength in China seems to be accompanied by rising inflationary concerns, increased bank lending activity, and reduced banker confidence that stable conditions will be maintained. This suggests that the Shanghai market could serve as a useful indicator variable for Chinese monetary policy.

  1. METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya A Prodanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of banking activities, objectives and functions of banks, they are fundamentally different from the activity of the company any other independent of the economic sphere, the role of credit institutions in society and the need for their existence in order to maintain the country’s economy as a whole. The author stresses that banks should not only be multi-functional and operational, but also to meet all the requirements of reliability and stability. The article provides a method for analyzing the nancial condition of banks.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL AND METHODIC SUPPORT TO COMMERCIAL BANK STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Korostyliov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational and methodic support to bank activity strategic planning comprises making prospects for main bank finance activity indices, their correction and examination as well as control over their dynamics. There are specific features of organization of bank strategic planning at present stage of development of Russian economics. Main stages of this process and principles on which this study should be based are discussed. Banking environment information level should be taken into account, feasibility testing of organizational planning systems having to be undertaken in practice.

  3. Opaqueness and Bank Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Behr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between opaqueness and bank risk taking. Using a sample of 199 banks from 38 countries over the period January 1996 to December 2006, I analyze whether more opaque banks are riskier than less opaque banks. I find suggestive evidence that commonly used proxies for bank opaqueness are significantly related to bank risk taking as measured by the Merton PD and the bank-individual Z-score, even after accounting for potential simultaneity between risk taking and opaqueness. More opaque banks seem to engage more in risk taking than less opaque banks. This result provides support to the common view that bank opaqueness is problematic and that transparency among financial institutions should be increased.

  4. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  5. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  6. The Systemic Banking Crisis of 2014-2015 in Ukraine: Causal Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska Nataliya V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the concept of systemic banking crisis in scientific and practical literature as well as determine the causes and consequences of systemic banking crises on the example of the Ukrainian banking system for the last two years. The definitions of “banking crisis”, “systemic banking crisis” have been considered and our own vision of the theoretical aspect of a systemic banking crisis has been suggested. The features of systemic banking crises, in particular the crisis of 2014—2015, through the prism of social, political, economic, micro- and macroeconomic factors have been identified. The consequences, to which it led the Ukrainian banking system, and its impact on the population living standards have been examined. The dynamics of main indicators of the banking activity in Ukraine over the last five years has been analyzed, and a few basic points, which require the investors’ attention when choosing a bank, have been suggested.

  7. Monitoring the Quality of Services in Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovovic Radislav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of electronic banking is in direct correlation with the quality of services in electronic banking. Therefore, it is necessary that the banks are familiar with the attributes of electronic services on which clients assess the bank’s quality and client’s satisfaction with them, in order to be able to monitor, correct and improve the performance of electronic banking. We start from the hypothesis that there are already developed theoretical models for measuring the quality of e-banking services but they must be adjusted to the specific environment that is analysed in order to obtain reliable and quality information. The qualitative and quantitative research methods are applied in this paper in order to a get adjusted theoretical model (instrument for measuring the quality of electronic banking services. As a result of the conducted analysis, the initial theoretical model has been modified, so that the final version of the model (instrument for measuring quality of online banking allows obtaining reliable data, and information in the particular environment. And the results are: significant information about the quality of e-banking, modified theoretical model, information about the dimensions of quality of e-banking, customer satisfaction, and pathways and guidelines for the improvement of e-banking. The measuring of quality of electronic banking services in not one time activity but repeated one, as permanent monitoring strategy. This research is widely applicable even though it was conducted in the context of Montenegrin e-banking, since most of the banks in Montenegro are owned by well-known European banks, and it is expected that the obtained knowledge and information can be generalized.

  8. Acquisition and observation logs for seabed video and sediment samples from Stellwagen Bank on U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2015-062-FA, aboard the R/V Auk, Oct. 21 and 22 and Nov. 3 and 4 2015 (PDF files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This field activity is part of the effort to map geologic substrates of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts. The overall...

  9. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  10. The Ethical Stance in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...

  11. Study on Diversity of Soybean Germplasm with Drought Resistance in Huang-Huai-Hai Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Gui-he; LIU Xue-yi; REN Xiao-jun; SHI Hong

    2002-01-01

    Fifty soybean germplasms with drought resistance selected from Huang-Huai-Hai Region were studied under field drought condition. The results showed that there was a diversity of drought resistance at different growth stages. Some varieties had drought resistance in whole growing period, but some only at one stage or several stages. Some varieties had both drought resistance and higher yield characters, some with drought resistance but lower yield. It was also found in present study that some drought resistant germplasms showed higher yield potentials under irrigation condition.

  12. The establishment of an in vitro gene bank in Dianthus spiculifolius Schur and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus (Schott Nym. et Kotschy Tutin: I. The initiation of a tissue collection and the characterization of the cultures in minimal growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Holobiuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the plants have to cope with the warming of the climate. As a consequence of this process more than half of the plant species could become vulnerable or threatened until 2080. Romania has a high plant diversity, with endemic and endangered plant species, the measures of biodiversity conservation being necessary. The integrated approach of biodiversity conservation involves both in situ and ex situ strategies. Among ex situ methods of conservation, besides the traditional ones (including field and botanic collection and seed banks, in vitro tissues techniques offer a viable alternative. The germplasm collections can efficiently preserve the species (of economic, scientific and conservative importance, in the same time being a source of plant material for international exchanges and for reintroduction in the native habitats.The "in vitro gene banking" term refers to in vitro tissues cultures from many accessions of a target species and involves the collection of plant material from field or from native habitats, the elaboration of sterilization, micropropagation and maintaining protocols. These collections have to be maintained in optimal conditions, morphologically and genetically characterized. The aim of our work was to characterize the response of the plant material to the minimal in vitro growth protocol for medium-term cultures achievement as a prerequisite condition for an active gene bank establishment in two rare Caryophyllaceae taxa: Dianthus spiculifolius and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus. Among different factors previously tested for medium-term preservation in Dianthus genus, mannitol proved to be more efficient for minimal cultures achievement. In vitro, the cultures were evaluated concerning their growth, regenerability and enzyme activity (POX, SOD, CAT as a response to the preservation conditions in the incipient phase of the initiation of the in vitro collection. The two species considered in this study showed a

  13. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  14. 基于基因组学的作物种质资源研究:现状与展望%Genomics-Based Crop Germplasm Research: Advances and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎裕; 李英慧; 杨庆文; 张锦鹏; 张金梅; 邱丽娟; 王天宇

    2015-01-01

    样性分析、新基因发掘和种质创新等方面的应用情况及其发展趋势.提出了今后的发展方向和工作重点,强调把基因组学理论和方法与作物种质资源研究紧密结合,为种质资源的有效保护和高效利用提供强有力的理论、技术、材料与信息支撑.%The scale of activities related to crop germplasm is massive, including basic work (germplasm collecting, documentation, multiplication, conservation, regeneration, distribution and information system establishment, etc.), basic research (studies on crop origin, domestication and dispersal, germplasm classification, ethnobotany, indigenous knowledge, etc.), and applied basic research (genetic diversity assessment, precise phenotypic evaluation of important traits, germplasm genotyping, gene discovery and allele mining, germplasm enhancement etc.). With the efforts in the last century, the basic work on crop germplasm has been very fruitful and the system of crop germplasm conservation and utilization has been established in the world. Because the traditional ideas and methodologies based on morphology had their innate disadvantages, however, the basic research and the applied basic research had developed along at an agonizingly slow pace before genomics appeared. With rapid development of molecular marker technology and next-generation sequencing technology, theories and techniques of genomics have extended to multi-faceted germplasm research, resulting in revolutionary changes of conception and methodology in germplasm conservation, in-depth research and utilization. The achievements made in genomics provide not only theoretical guidance to collecting and conservation of crop germplasm, but also core theories and techniques to clarify crop origin and evolution. Meanwhile, genomics has the power to promote the efficiency of gene discovery and germplasm enhancement. Especially, the rapid development of whole genome sequencing, genome re-sequencing and

  15. Foreign trends in the evaluation of sustainability of banking system

    OpenAIRE

    SUROVNEVA K.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study foreign practice of banking sector stability assessment, as well as identifying trends shaping systems of assessing the state of the financial system. Special place in the article is given to active development of international organizations and supervisory authorities of countries for estimating reliability of credit institutions, as well as models of stress-testing for banking sector. The estimation of financial stability of the banking system based on mark...

  16. Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

  17. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  18. SEGMENTATION OF SME PORTFOLIO IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namolosu Simona Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs represent an important target market for commercial Banks. In this respect, finding the best methods for designing and implementing the optimal marketing strategies (for this target are a continuous concern for the marketing specialists and researchers from the banking system; the purpose is to find the most suitable service model for these companies. SME portfolio of a bank is not homogeneous, different characteristics and behaviours being identified. The current paper reveals empirical evidence about SME portfolio characteristics and segmentation methods used in banking system. Its purpose is to identify if segmentation has an impact in finding the optimal marketing strategies and service model and if this hypothesis might be applicable for any commercial bank, irrespective of country/ region. Some banks are segmenting the SME portfolio by a single criterion: the annual company (official turnover; others are considering also profitability and other financial indicators of the company. In some cases, even the banking behaviour becomes a criterion. For all cases, creating scenarios with different thresholds and estimating the impact in profitability and volumes are two mandatory steps in establishing the final segmentation (criteria matrix. Details about each of these segmentation methods may be found in the paper. Testing the final matrix of criteria is also detailed, with the purpose of making realistic estimations. Example for lending products is provided; the product offer is presented as responding to needs of targeted sub segment and therefore being correlated with the sub segment characteristics. Identifying key issues and trends leads to further action plan proposal. Depending on overall strategy and commercial target of the bank, the focus may shift, one or more sub segments becoming high priority (for acquisition/ activation/ retention/ cross sell/ up sell/ increase profitability etc., while

  19. River Bank Erosion at the Intra-Event Timescale: Implications for Bank Sediment Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Rinaldi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Bank erosion is often a significant contributor to catchment sediment yield. However, it has proved difficult to gain insight into the relationship between erosion events that supply bank material to river systems, and associated variations in fluvial sediment flux. One of the difficulties has been that there is a mismatch in our capability to quantify processes at relevant timescales. Thus, while fluvial flux can readily be monitored quasi-continuously during competent flow events, studies of bank erosion processes have largely been focused at the event timescale. A lack of sub-event scale data is understandable given the difficulties involved in accessing river banks during competent flows. Nevertheless, bank sediment delivery processes involve a combination of (quasi-continuous) fluvial erosion and (quasi-discrete) mass-wasting processes. Moreover, relatively little research has been focused on the dynamic interactions between these two groups of processes, especially in terms of quantifying the extent to which different bank erosion processes might dominate in different environments. To address these issues, we have been investigating bank sediment delivery processes at two study sites. The Fiume Cecina (central Italy) is an actively migrating (c. 10 m/yr) gravel-bed river, which constrasts with the River Asker (southern UK), a gravel-bed river with relatively slow (c. 0.1 m/yr) retreat rates. At each site we have developed simulation models to predict modes of bank sediment delivery during observed flow events. Our approach follows previous investigations in that event hydrographs are initially discretised into a series of time steps. Finite-element seepage analysis and slope-stability modelling software packages are then used to simulate bank pore water pressure and mass-failure conditions at each time step, to quantify their evolution throughout the flow event. Where our approach differs from previous studies is that we have used Computational Fluid Dynamics

  20. Cost and profit efficiency of banks in Haiti: do domestic banks perform better than foreign banks?

    OpenAIRE

    Cadet, Raulin Lincifort

    2008-01-01

    I use the stochastic frontier methodology to estimate a cost and a profit frontier functions. The Fourier-flexible form is used in this paper because of its flexibility. Results show that, although foreign banks are more cost efficient than domestic banks, domestic banks are more profit efficient than foreign banks, in Haiti. The paper reveals also that, although treasury bills constitute an alternative source of profit for banks in Haiti, a growth of interest rate on treasury bills incre...

  1. Latest Developments in China's Banking Reform, Opening-up and Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) was authorized by law to regulate and supervise all the banking institutions in China and their business activities. CBRC plays an active role in China's banking reform. According to a press release by the State Council on December 5, under the leadership of the central government and the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of" Three Represents," the CBRC continues to practise the scientific concept of development, deepen the banking reform, further the opening up and enhance banking supervision, so as to ensure a safe and sound development of China's banking sector.……

  2. Latest Developments in China's Banking Reform, Opening-up and Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) was authorized by law to regulate and supervise all the banking institutions in China and their business activities. CBRC plays an active role in China's banking reform. According to a press release by the State Council on December 5, under the leadership of the central government and the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of" Three Represents," the CBRC continues to practise the scientific concept of development, deepen the banking reform, further the opening up and enhance banking supervision, so as to ensure a safe and sound development of China's banking sector.

  3. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  4. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON BANKING SERVICE QUALITY IN ZIMBABWE (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to investigate the impact of globalization on the quality of products in a developing economy banking sector. The objectives of the research were to ascertain whether globalisation helps restore or maintain confidence in the banking sector; ensure a sound financial sector; helps reduce fraudulent activities and whether the implementation of global measures improves the quality of products in the banking sector. Zimbabwe banking sector was used as a case study. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data in addition to documentary review. It was found that globalization ensures efficient service delivery as human bank tellers; long queues and underutilisation of internetwere still in existence in the banking system. Globalisation of the banking sector is essential in that it brings new technology which help improve banking services and infrastructure hence reduce fraudulent activities, new risk management techniques and increased confidence in the banking sector.

  5. Modelling of Systemic Risk of Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to evaluate the general networking and simulation approaches of modelling of systemic risk and the financial contagion and their ability to assess the banking sector resilience in the case of external economic shocks and collapse of idiosyncratic financial institutions.Design/methodology/approach – a general overview of research papers presenting concepts and methodologies of assessment of systemic risk of the banking sector.Findings – limitations of the networking approach and possible ways to improve modelling of systemic risk. The network approach cannot explain the causes of initial default of bank. On the other hand, assumptions made on LGD and interbank exposures are very strong. These features are important limitations of network and simulation approaches.Research limitations/implications – the application of reviewed methods in the case of Lithuanian banking sector falls, however, due to the lack of exhaustive data. On the other hand, until now, applied methods for systemic risk due to the lack of data have been limited. Also, because of this reason, there are difficulties to create adequate dynamic assessment for systemic risk models. Therefore, in assessing systemic risk of the banking sector, the same problem remains: is it possible to parameterize the financial crisis, its spread and speed and other characteristics according to quantitative methods. Knowing the liquidity, credit risk and other standards set in Basel Accords, it is also not enough to properly manage the systemic risk of the whole banking sector because for the proper activity of the banking sector not only characteristics related to capital requirements have influence on it, but also external (mostly the macroeconomic, political factors.Practical implications – determination of the explicit connection based on quantitative methods determining the systemic risk of the banking sector would be exact and objective assessment and useful not only for the

  6. Competition and bank risk: the effect of securitization and bank capital

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Ibáñez, David; Altunbas, Yener; van Leuvensteijn, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    We find that the increased use of securitisation activity in the banking sector prior to the 2007- 2009 crisis augmented the effect of competition on realised bank risk (i.e. more intense competition and greater use of securitisation is correlated with higher levels of realised risk) during the crisis. In contrast, higher levels of capital did not buffer the impact of competition on realised risk. It follows that cooperation between supervisory and competition authorities is warranted to acco...

  7. The Bank Lending Channel and Monetary Policy Rules for European Banks: Further Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Apergis; Miller, Stephen M.; Effrosyni Alevizopoulou

    2012-01-01

    The monetary authorities affect the macroeconomic activity through various channels of influence. This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how central bank actions affect deposits, loan supply, and real spending. The monetary authorities influence deposits and loan supplies through its main indicator of policy, the real short-term interest rate. This paper employs the endogenously determined target interest rate emanating from the central bank’s monetary policy rule to ex...

  8. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  9. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  10. 12 CFR 250.143 - Member bank purchase of stock of foreign operations subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sections taken together already give member banks a great deal of organizational flexibility in conducting... engaged in activities that the bank itself could perform directly as an alternative organizational...

  11. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  12. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  13. Electronic Banking, Its Use and Safety. Are There Differences in the Access of Bank Customers by Gender, Education and Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belás Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking is an important area of banking activities, under which the commercial banks try to retain existing clients or attract new customers through a better quality of service and decrease in prices of these services. The aim of the article was to examine selected attributes of security and the use of electronic banking and quantify differences in approach of the bank customers by gender, education and age. Our research confirmed that the dominant part of banking customers use electronic access when managing their personal finances. We found out that there are some differences in the approach of the bank customers in terms of their education. The customers with higher education to a greater extent and more intensively use electronic banking. In the safety area, we did not find any significant differences between banking clients by gender, education and age. The only exception is the finding that clients up to 35 years are significantly more confident in the use of electronic banking through public networks.

  14. 中国西南野生生物种质资源库%Germplasm bank of wildspecies, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德铢; 杨湘云; 王雨华; 蔡杰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 生物多样性和生物资源的保护、保藏、研究与利用是当前人类共同关心的话题,联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)曾将2001-2002年列为国际生物多样性观察年(International Biodiversity Observation Year,IBOY);2001年在澳大利亚召开的国际培养物保藏大会呼吁建立生物资源中心(Biological Resource Center,BRC),以加强对生物资源的调查、收集、保护、保藏、研究和利用;由于生物多样性对环境、经济和社会持续发展中的重要性和意义,联合国更将2010年列为"国际生物多样性年"(International Year of Biologgical Diversity).

  15. Genetic Characterization and Relatedness among Cherry Cultivars in a Germplasm Bank by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Moreno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed on 38 cultivars of cherry (Prunus avium L. grown in the Jerte Valley, Cáceres, Spain. Thirty five selected decamer primers produced 69 reproducible polymorphic amplification products. The degree of polymorphism detected made possible the identification of all the cultivars by combining the RAPD banding patterns of only seven primers: OPK-08, OPQ-14, OPR-09, OPS-19, OPX-02, OPX-15 and OPZ-13. Eleven unique markers allowed identification of nine cultivars while 15 cultivars were identified by unique banding patterns. A similarity matrix derived from the RAPD amplification products generated by all the primers was obtained using the index of similarity of Jaccard. The similarity coefficients among cultivars ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 with an average of 0.50. A dendrogram based on UPGMA clustering method was constructed using the similarity matrix. The dendrogram showed a good correlation between the clustering of cherry cultivars and their geographic origin, especially revealing a stronger genetic proximity between some of the most characteristic cultivars of the Jerte Valley. This result supports the autochthonous origin hypothesis for these cultivars.

  16. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks...

  17. EFFECTIVE ANNUAL INTEREST SIGNIFIANCE ON BANKING PRODUCTS PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the products and services prices can be found in the reference price, that customer must compare it with the price of the last made acquisition. The price of the banking product, that includes the effective annual intrest rate (EAI, is a guide price including all the cost elements related to banking products and services. The price of the products promoted through lending activities, is affected by the exchange rate of national and foreign currency, available on the money market. The role of the banking fee is very important in the specific services and bank products price formation.

  18. 12 CFR 980.3 - New business activity notice requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... undertaking a new business activity, except as provided in § 980.4(b), a Bank shall submit to the Finance... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New business activity notice requirement. 980.3 Section 980.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES...

  19. Results of the 2009 ASBVd survey of avocado accessions in the national germplasm collection in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) infection among the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions in the National Germplasm Repository at Miami (NGR-Mia) was established in previous studies. An ASBVd specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was used t...

  20. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  1. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  2. Germplasm Management in the Post-genomics Era-a case study with lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genotyping platforms and next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized our ways in germplasm characterization. In collaboration with UC Davis Genome Center, we completed a project of genotyping the entire cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collection of 1,066 accessions ...

  3. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  4. Diversity of the breadfruit complex (Artocarpus, Moraceae): Genetic characterization of critical germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditional staple starch crop in Oceania and has been introduced throughout the tropics. This study uses microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of breadfruit and its wild relatives housed in the USDA National Plant Germplasm Syste...

  5. Evaluation of tribenuron-methyl on sulfonylurea herbicide tolerant lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide resistance discovered in a prickly lettuce population in Idaho was transferred to domestic lettuce by University of Idaho researchers. California researchers acquired the Idaho lettuce germplasm, “IDBR-1” and transferred the SU resistance gene to five common ...

  6. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  7. Rebuilding Hawaii’s Anthurium germplasm collection for cultivar and species preservation, breeding, and biotechnological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthurium is the third most important floriculture crop in Hawaii, grown mainly as a cut flower. The University of Hawaii (UH) has a well-established anthurium breeding program since 1950, with a germplasm collection assembled from backyard growers, hobbyists, researchers and collection trips from c...

  8. Genetic diversity of water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity in crop germplasm is an important resource for crop improvement, but information on genetic diversity is rare for Jerusalem artichoke, especially for traits related to water use efficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variations for water use and water...

  9. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  10. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  11. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  12. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  13. Developing maize germplasm lines with multiple insect and disease resistance and low aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield and quality losses caused BY insects, diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations are the critical impediments for maize production under warm climate. In order to develop maize germplasm lines with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of 13 reciprocal breeding cro...

  14. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite barley breeding germplasm from the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHOU; Gary MUEHLBAUER; Brian STEFFENSON

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated barley is known to have a complex population structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD).To conduct robust association mapping (AM) studies of economically important traits in US barley breeding germplasm,population structure and LD decay were examined in a complete panel of US barley breeding germplasm (3840 lines) genotyped with 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Nine subpopulations (sp1-sp9) were identified by the program STRUCTURE and subsequently confirmed by principle component analysis (PCA).Out of the nine subpopulations,seven were very similar to the respective subpopulations identified by Hamblin et al.(2010)which were based on half of the germplasm and half of the SN P markers,but two subpopulations were found to be new.One subpopulation was dominated by six-rowed spring lines from Utah State University (UT) and the other was composed of six-rowed spring lines from multiple breeding programs (USDA-ARS Aberdeen (AB),Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.(BA),UT,and Washington State University (WA)).LD was found to decay across a range from 4.0 to 19.8 cM.This result indicates that the germplasm genotyped with 3072 SNPs would be robust for mapping and possibly identifying the causal polymorphisms contributing to disease resistance and perhaps other traits.

  15. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  16. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying

    2006-01-01

    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  17. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  18. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  19. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  20. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  1. Confirming resistance in bottle gourd germplasm by quantifying powdery mildew conidia using a cellometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, an important foliar disease affecting cucurbit crops grown in the United States, commonly occurs on foliage, petioles, and stems. We have developed two highly resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm (USVL351 and USVL482) for use in o...

  2. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining seed quality parameters is an integral part of cultivar improvement and germplasm screening. However, quality tests are often time cnsuming, seed destructive, and can require large seed samples. This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to mea...

  3. Comparative diversity analysis of southeastern Rubus germplasm through molecular and pedigree techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Rubus germplasm collection contains hundreds of diverse blackberry, raspberry, and black raspberry (Rubus L.)selections, among which intra- and interspecific crosses were made to achieve breeding goals for expanding commercial production in the Southeast. For over 50 years, the b...

  4. Development prospects of the banking industry in the new EU member countries and forthcoming member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Košak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bank consolidation has substantially decreased the number of banks in European banking, which has had important implications for the banking sectors structure in all EU member countries. The consolidation processes have had a tremendous impact on the developments in banking sectors of new EU member countries, wheremajor structural changes have been initiated mostly by new entrant banks from the old EU member countries. The future banking development in new EU member countries will very likely follow some main patterns known from the old EU members. Rather speculative conjectures, which are based on a comparison with banking sectors in other EU member countries indicate, that the total-asset-to-GDPratio in new member countries should further improve in the future. The banking sector growth will be based mostly on the growth of the credit to non-banking sector, while banks are not expected anymore to use non-bank deposits as a predominant way of funding. Instead potentials for alternative funding possibilities should be activated. Although the non-bank financial intermediaries in new EU membersrepresent a serious competition to banks, their relative underdevelopment prevents them from impacting the developments in banking sectors as known from old EU member countries.

  5. Market discipline and incentive problems in conglomerate banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal conglomeration of bank activities. Weshow that the effectiveness of market discipline forstand-alone activities (divisions) is of crucial importance for thepotential benefits of conglomeration. We find thateffective market discipline reduces the potential benefits

  6. Market discipline and incentive problems in conglomerate banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; A. Schmeits

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal conglomeration of bank activities. Weshow that the effectiveness of market discipline forstand-alone activities (divisions) is of crucial importance for thepotential benefits of conglomeration. We find thateffective market discipline reduces the potential benefits ofc

  7. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders...

  8. Issues in Transformation from Conventional Banking to Islamic Banking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Usman Arshad; Mohammed Effandi Yusoff; Muhammad Sohail Tahir

    2016-01-01

    .... Islamic banking is the major constituent of the Islamic finance. In line with these transformations, Islamic banks and financial institutions are facing several problems due to non-existence of comprehensive framework...

  9. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  10. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FROM LOCAL CITRUS GERMPLASMS AVAILABLE IN THE SOUTH WESTERN REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Akhter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the physico-chemical characteristics of 20 selected citrus fruits germplasm of South Western region of Bangladesh during July 2010 to January 2012. There was significant variation among the germplasms in relation to fruit characteristics and organolaptic evaluation. Better performance was found in germplasm No. 20 in respect of total fruit weight, weight of seed and skin thickness of fruits. Germplasm No.1 showed better performance in respect of percentage of edible portion and germplasm No. 6 in respect of percentage of non edible portion. The total soluble solids found higher in germplasm No. 20 (12.23 % and titratable acidity in germplasm No. 16 (49.33 %. Vitamin C and carotenoids found maximum in germplasm No. 20 (442.70 mg/100g. Germplasm No. 4 and 12 was better in respect of anthocyanin (0.10 mg/100gm and flavonoids (0.19 gm content of fruit pulp. Considering desired fruit characteristics germplasam No. 20 (pummelo was found better. Citrus fruits' squash was successfully prepared by using 60 g sugar containing treatment consisting 50-80 g of sugar with 10 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jelly was successfully prepared by using 300 g sugar containing treatment consisting 250-350 g of sugar with 50 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jarok was successfully prepared by using 55 g salt containing treatment consisting 50-60 g of salt with 5 g variation of salt in three treatments without changing other ingredient.

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Deng

    Full Text Available Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies.This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers.Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms.The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  12. ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM EVOLUTION AND BASEL II REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOLAU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1989, Romanian Banking System was structured in the specific way of a centralized economy. Restructuring of the banking system took its first step at the end of 1990 when the newly- established bank, Banca Comercială Română, took over retail operations performed previously by the NBR. Simultaneously, some privately-owned banking companies were established and foreign banks’ branches were integrated into the domestic banking activity, the number of banks almost trebling. The unfriendly economic environment, the poor quality of bank managers and shareholders and cumbersome legal procedures led to an increase in tensions, the poor quality of credit portfolio representing the major difficulty of the banking sector. In the past years, NBR tried to control more thebanking activity by implementing international settlements. More over, since Romania is one of the European Union countries, it is absolutely necessary the harmonization of entire economic and financial system to EU regulations. The paper try to present the position of Romanian banking system in the framework of all these transformations.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  14. Genetic diversity and relationships in olive ( Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaj, A.; Satovic, Z.; Rallo, L.; Trujillo, I.

    2002-09-01

    Genetic diversity studies using the RAPD technique were carried out in a set of 103 olive cultivars from the World Germplasm Bank of the Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria (CIFA) "Alameda del Obispo" in Cordoba (Spain). A total of 126 polymorphisms (6.0 polymorphic markers per primer) out of 135 reproducible products (6.4 fragments per primer) were obtained from the 21 primers used. The number of bands per primer ranged from 4 to 11, whereas the number of polymorphic bands ranged from 3 to 10, corresponding to 83% of the amplification products. The dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group cluster analysis using Jaccard's index includes three major groups according to their origin: (1) cultivars from the Eastern and Central Mediterranean areas, (2) some Italian and Spanish cultivars, and (3) cultivars from the Western Mediterranean zone. The pattern of genetic variation among olive cultivars from three different Mediterranean zones (West, Centre and East) was analysed by means of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Although most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences of cultivars within Mediterranean zones (96.86%) significant phi-values among zones (phi(st) = 0.031; p < 0.001) suggested the existence of phenotypic differentiation. Furthermore, the AMOVA analysis was used to partition the phenotypic variation of Spain, Italy (Western region), Greece and Turkey (Eastern region) into four categories: among regions, among countries (within regions), within countries, and among and within countries of each region. Most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among genotypes within a country. These results are consistent with the predominantly allogamous nature of Olea europaea L. species. This paper indicates the importance of the study of the amount and distribution of genetic diversity for a better exploration of olive genetic resources and the design of plant breeding programmes.

  15. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  16. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring...

  17. PENGARUH DIMENSI BANKING SERVICE QUALITY (BSQ) TERHADAP KEPUASAN NASABAH BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Sumardiningsih; Wawan Sundawan; Lies Endarwati; Arif Wibowo; Yulia Ayriza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of Banking Service Quality (BSQ) Dimensions towards Bank Customer Satisfaction. This study aims to determine the effect of Banking Service Quality (BSQ) to the customer satisfaction of BPD Bank in DIY. This research is a survey research with a sample of 1.536 respondents. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. Data collection instrument was questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression. The results showed that six dimensions of BSQ simultaneously gave p...

  18. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks.Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  19. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  20. CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela SUDACEVSCHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is one of the main risks faced by a bank. This kind of risk is generated by the crediting activity of the clients. To manage the credit risk, banks should identify the sources of the risk and to monitor their exposures. These activities mean a better knowledge of the existing and potential clients and their financial situations, by implementing new scoring methods. Also, to avoid the credit risk or to reduce losses, the banks could increase the value of guarantees required in regular credit activities, their periodically reassessment and the periodical analysis of the ability of customers to generate cash flows (for corporate clients and get constant income (for retail customers to provide repayment of credits. This paper aims to prevent and to analyze several measures of credit risk management and it assume that banks on the Romanian banking market and to identify some indices used for customers analysis.