WorldWideScience

Sample records for active galaxy unification

  1. Active galaxy unification in the era of X-ray polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dorodnitsyn, A

    2010-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), Seyfert galaxies and quasars, are powered by luminous accretion and often accompanied by winds which are powerful enough to affect the AGN mass budget, and whose observational appearance bears an imprint of processes which are happening within the central parsec around the black hole (BH). One example of such a wind is the partially ionized gas responsible for X-ray and UV absorption ('warm absorbers'). Here we show that such gas will have a distinct signature when viewed in polarized X-rays. Observations of such polarization can test models for the geometry of the flow, and the gas responsible for launching and collimating it. We present calculations which show that the polarization depends on the hydrodynamics of the flow, the quantum mechanics of resonance line scattering and the transfer of polarized X-ray light in the highly ionized moving gas. The results emphasize the three dimensional nature of the wind for modeling spectra. We show that the polarization in the 0.1-10 keV...

  2. Probing AGN Unification with galaxy neighbours: pitfalls and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, B.

    2015-09-01

    Statistical tests of AGN unification harbour many caveats. One way of constraining the validity of the AGN unification is through studies of close neighbours to Type-1 and Type-2 AGN. Examining thousands of AGN- galaxy pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and the Galaxy Zoo project, we found that Type-2 AGN appear to reside in more star-forming environments than Type-1 AGN.

  3. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the Unification Scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veeresh Singh; Prajval Shastri; Ramana Athreya

    2011-12-01

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert subtypes can be understood as due to the differing orientations of anisotropically distributed obscuring material having a torus-like geometry around the AGN. We investigate the radio continuum emission properties of a sample of Seyfert galaxies in the framework of the unification scheme.

  4. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingwen Wu; Ya-Di Xu; Xinwu Cao

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the relation between black hole mass, bh, and jet power, jet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in bh-jet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR I/BL Lac and FR II/radio quasar. The Eddington ratio distribution of BL Lacs and radio quasars exhibits a bimodal nature with a rough division at bol/Edd ∼ 0.01, which imply that they may have different accretion modes. We calculate the jet power extracted from advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), and find that it requires dimensionless angular momentum of black hole ≃ 0.9 - 0.99 to reproduce the dividing line between FR I/II or BL Lac/radio quasar if dimensionless accretion rate $\\dot{m} = 0.01$ is adopted, which is required by the above bimodal distribution of Eddington ratios. Our results suggest that black holes in radio galaxies are rapidly spinning.

  5. On Asymmetries in Powerful Radio Sources and the Quasar/Galaxy Unification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. I. Onah; A. A. Ubachukwu; F. C. Odo

    2014-12-01

    We utilize the distributions of fractional separation difference () as asymmetry parameter, linear size () and core-to lobe luminosity ratio () as orientation indicators, to investigate a consequence of radio source orientation and relativistic beaming effects in a sample of powerful non-symmetric extragalactic radio sources. In this scenario, radio sources viewed at small orientation angles to the line-of-sight are expected to show a high degree of asymmetry in observed radio structures due to relativistic beaming, with foreshortened projected linear sizes. A simple consequence of this is the - anti-correlation. Results show a tight correlation ( > 0.8) between the total and core radio luminosities and a clear - anti-correlation ( ∼ -0.5). The observed - anti-correlation is consistent with average orientation angle ≈ 48° and a maximum Lorentz factor ∼ 2 for the sample, with minimum angular separation of 26° between radio galaxies and quasars. However, there is no clear - correlation. While the results are consistent with quasar/galaxy unification via orientation, intrinsic asymmetry also seems to play a major role.

  6. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    is sufficiently powerful, energy feedback from the AGN blows away the gas fuel and shuts off both the star formation and the black hole growth. In this thesis I study local AGN and ULIRGs. I address 2 different studies of AGN: one is related to the potential use of AGN to measure cosmic distances and the other...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...... on a single-epoch spectrum. Recently, it has been shown that the R - L  relationship can also be used to measure cosmic distances beyond redshifts that can be probed by supernovae. The current local (z

  7. Jet/accretion and Unification for FSRQs/FRII and BL Lac objects/FRI radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yongyun; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Yu, Xiaoling; Cha, Yongjuan; Li, Bijun; Huang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a sample of 24 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 21 BL Lacs, 13 FRI and 12 FRII radio galaxies to study the jet power and broad-line luminosity relation, and the jet power and black hole mass relation. Furthermore, we obtain the histograms of key parameters. Our main results are as the follows:(i) We found that the FSRQs are roughly separated from BL Lacs by the Ledlow-Owen FRI/FRII dividing line in the $\\rm{\\log{P_{jet}}-\\log{M}}$ plane. This result supports the unification model that BL Lacs unify with FRI radio galaxies and FSRQs unify with FRII radio galaxies.(ii)We found that the coefficient of the best-fit linear regression equation of $\\rm{\\log{L_{BLR}}-\\log{P_{jet}}}$ relation is very close to 1 for our sample. The correlation between broad line luminosity and jet power is significant which supports that jet power has a close link with accretion.

  8. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan const

  9. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the work on X-ray and gamma-ray data of AGN I contributed significantly to the progress in the unification of AGN since I finished my PhD in 2000. The study of the evolutionary behaviour of X-ray selected N blazars (Beckmann and Wolter 2001; Beckmann et al. 2002, 2003b; Beckmann 2003) shows that their evolution is not as strongly negative as indicated by previous studies. The overall luminosity function is consistent with no evolution in the 0.1-2.4 keV band as seen by ROSAT/PSPC. There is still a difference compared to the luminosity function of FSRQ and LBL, which seem to show a positive evolution, indicating that they have been more luminous and/or numerous at cosmological distances. We indicated a scenario in order to explain this discrepancy, in which the high luminous FSRQ develop into the fainter LBL and finally into the BL Lac objects with high frequency peaks in their spectral energy distribution but overall low bolometric luminosity. Studying the variability pattern of hard X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies, we actually found differences between type 1 and type 2 objects, in the sense that type 2 seemed to be more variable (Beckmann et al. 2007a). This breaking of the unified model is caused by the different average luminosity of the absorbed and unabsorbed sources, as discussed in Sect. 4.7.3. This can be explained by a larger inner disk radius when the AGN core is most active (the so-called receding disc model). The work on the sample characteristics of hard X-ray detected AGN also led to the proof that the average intrinsic spectra of type 1 and type 2 objects are the same when reflection processes are taken into account (Beckmann et al. 2009d). This also explains why in the past Seyfert 2 objects were seen to have harder X-ray spectra than Seyfert 1, as the stronger reflection hump in the type 2 objects makes the spectra appear to be flatter, although the underlying continuum is the same. Further strong evidence for the unification scheme comes

  10. Nuclear Activity In Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Ibarra, Francisco; Krongold, Yair; Del Olmo, Ascencion; Perea, Jaime; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the incidence of AGN nuclear activity in two samples of isolated galaxies (Karachentseva, V.E. & Varela, J.). Our results show that the incidence of non-thermal nuclear activity is about 43% and 31% for galaxies with emission lines and for the total sample 40% and 27% respectively. For the first time we have a large number of bona-fide isolated galaxies (513 objects), with statistically significant number of all types. We find a clear relation between bulge mass and the incidence of nuclear activity in the sample with emission lines. This relation becomes flatter when we take into account the complete sample with no emission line galaxies. A large fration ($\\sim$70%) of elliptical galaxies or early type spirals have an active galactic nucleus and $\\sim$70% of them are LINERs. Only 3% of the AGN show the presence of broad lines (a not a single one can be classified as type 1 AGN). This is a remarkable result which is completely at odds with the unified model even if we c...

  11. Searching the Future for the Legal Regime of Space Activities: the Need for Unification of National Space Legislation' Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoda, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    space activities. For the future legal regime of space activities it is vital to preserve the existed principles and main provisions of the international space law. related legislations are developing rapidly. They become serious instrument for legal regulation of space activities. those projects with a foreign party involvement. Quite often partners in international space projects agree to choice a domestic law of one of them. They do this for defining a certain organizational and/or contractual issue (disputes settlement, for example) of the project. that such practice will spread widely. could help to preserve the existed important provisions of international space law (responsibility of states for their national activities, for instance). development of international space private law. We believe that solely special laws and regulations of national legislations could not regulate modern space activities. Being more and more commercial, space activities are becoming a real part of "downed to Earth" commercial activities. Therefore, in many countries provisions of civil, commercial, investment and other branches of national law are applied to such activities. which could low possible risks of such activities and to control them. Such unification seems to be suitable in the following fields: 1)implementation of provisions of international space law in national space laws; 2)definition of unified terminology, accepted by national laws of all parties; 3)unification in national legislations of a certain standards (insurance rates and rules, for instance); 4)unification in national laws of issues related to liability (for instance, a mutual wave of liability in certain types of 5)implementation in national laws of unified rules and procedures of space-related commercial disputes settlement; 6)unification of mechanisms for protection of space-related intellectual property. unification of their provisions. Special attention is paid to provisions of private law

  12. Unification of X-ray winds in Seyfert galaxies: from ultra-fast outflows to warm absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Nemmen, R. S.; Braito, V.; Gaspari, M.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    a sufficiently high mechanical power (at least ˜0.5 per cent of the bolometric luminosity) to provide a significant contribution to active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback and thus to the evolution of the host galaxy. In this regard, we find possible evidence for the interaction of the AGN wind with the surrounding environment on large scales.

  13. Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Bergmann Storchi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss some recent observational results in the research of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN. These results cover three main topics: (i evidences for the current paradigm for AGN´s, which includes a nuclear supermassive blackhole (SMBH fed via an accretion disk; (ii evidence that this paradigm may also apply to LINER´s, the lowest luminous AGN´s and to normal galaxies; (iii evidences of how the fueling of the SMBH occurs and its relation to recent and intermediate age (106 to 108 yrs old episodes of star formation.

  14. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Through the work on X-ray and gamma-ray data of AGN I contributed significantly to the progress in the unification of AGN since I finished my PhD in 2000. The study of the evolutionary behaviour of X-ray selected blazars (Beckmann & Wolter 2001; Beckmann et al. 2002, 2003b; Beckmann 2003) shows that their evolution is not as strongly negative as indicated by previous studies. The overall luminosity function is consistent with no evolution in the 0.1−2.4 keV band as seen by ROSAT/PSPC. There ...

  15. Unification of X-ray winds in Seyfert galaxies: from ultra-fast outflows to warm absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Nemmen, R S; Braito, V; Gaspari, M; Reynolds, C S

    2012-01-01

    The existence of ionized X-ray absorbing layers of gas along the line of sight to the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies is a well established observational fact. This material is systematically outflowing and shows a large range in parameters. However, its actual nature and dynamics are still not clear. In order to gain insights into these important issues we performed a literature search for papers reporting the parameters of the soft X-ray warm absorbers (WAs) in 35 type 1 Seyferts and compared their properties to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) detected in the same sample. The fraction of sources with WAs is >60%, consistent with previous studies. The fraction of sources with UFOs is >34%, >67% of which also show WAs. The large dynamic range obtained when considering all the absorbers together allows us, for the first time, to investigate general relations among them. In particular, we find significant correlations indicating that the closer the absorber is to the central black hole, the higher the ioniza...

  16. ISO Images of Starbursts and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    1999-01-01

    We present some highlights from the mid-infrared (5-16 micron) images of mergers of massive galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We have observed: 1) ultraluminous infrared nuclei, 2) luminous dust-enshrouded extranuclear starbursts, and 3) active galaxy nuclei (AGNs). In this contribution we discuss the observations of Arp 299, a prototype for very luminous infrared galaxies, the Antennae which is a prototype of mergers, and Centaurus A which is the closest AGN to Earth. From these observations we conclude the following: 1) the most intense starbursts in colliding systems of galaxies and the most massive stars are dust-enshrouded in regions that appear inconspicuous at optical wavelengths, 2) the most intense nuclear infrared sources are a combination of AGN and starburst activity, 3) the hosts of radio loud AGNs that trigger giant double-lobe structures may be symbiotic galaxies composed of barred spirals inside ellipticals.

  17. Nuclear Activity in Circumnuclear Ring Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aguero, M P; Dottori, H

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the frequency and properties of the nuclear activity in a sample of galaxies with circumnuclear rings and spirals (CNRs). This sample was compared with a control sample of galaxies with very similar global properties but without circumnuclear rings. We discuss the relevance of the results in regard to the AGN feeding processes and present the following results: (i) bright companion galaxies seem not to be important for the appearance of CNRs, which appear to be more related to intrinsic properties of the host galaxies or to minor merger processes; (ii) the proportion of strong bars in galaxies with an AGN and a CNR is somewhat higher than the expected ratio of strongly barred AGN galaxies from the results of Ho and co-workers; (iii) the incidence of Seyfert activity coeval with CNRs is clearly larger than the rate expected from the morphological distribution of the host galaxies; (iv) the rate of Sy 2 to Sy 1 type galaxies with CNRs is about three times larger than the expected ratio for gala...

  18. AGN Zoo and Classifications of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-07-01

    We review the variety of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) classes (so-called "AGN zoo") and classification schemes of galaxies by activity types based on their optical emission-line spectrum, as well as other parameters and other than optical wavelength ranges. A historical overview of discoveries of various types of active galaxies is given, including Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, Starbursts, LINERs, etc. Various kinds of AGN diagnostics are discussed. All known AGN types and subtypes are presented and described to have a homogeneous classification scheme based on the optical emission-line spectra and in many cases, also other parameters. Problems connected with accurate classifications and open questions related to AGN and their classes are discussed and summarized.

  19. Infrared Observations of Active Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guichard

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report medium resolution, spectroscopic observations of a selected sample of AGNs and Starburst galaxies, at wavelengths ranging from 1.1 to 2.4 microns . Strong HI, HeI, H2 and [FeII] emission lines have been detected, as well as stellar features, such as the CO bandheads in both H- and K-band, and SiI, NaI, and CaI lines. The excitation mechanisms for the H2 emission are discussed.

  20. Fugitive stars in active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate in detail the escape dynamics in an analytical gravitational model which describes the motion of stars in a quasar galaxy with a disk and a massive nucleus. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. In order to distinguish safely and with certainty between ordered and chaotic motion we apply the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins through the openings around the collinear Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ and relate them with the corresponding spatial distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Our exploration takes place both in the configuration $(x,y)$ and in the phase $(x,\\dot{x})$ space in order to elucidate the escape process as well as the overall orbital properties of the galactic system. Our numerical analysis reveals the strong dependence of the properties of the con...

  1. The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, H R

    2002-01-01

    We study the percentage of active, HII and quiescent galaxies with companions in the Palomar survey. We find that when we separate the galaxies by their morphological types (ellipticals or spirals), to avoid morphology-density effects, there is no difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions among the different activity types.

  2. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report contains presentations of teaching activities in stellar astrophysics and extragalactic astronomy and cosmology, of student supervision activities in different academic places, and of various publications and participations to conferences and meetings. After a brief text highlighting the relevance and originality of his research works, the author proposes a large overview of his research works which dealt with different aspects of active galactic nuclei and related issues. Future projects are evoked. The report also contains numerous publications (press articles, conference proceedings, and so on)

  3. Towards Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, Burra G

    2016-01-01

    Sidharth had shown that gravitation can be reconciled with electromagnetic and other forces if we start from a Landau-Ginzburg phase transition. This is further remarked upon and a unification of all forces of nature is proposed.

  4. Emission Line Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in WINGS clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Bettoni, D; Poggianti, B M; Moretti, A; Fasano, G; Fritz, J; Cava, A; Varela, J; Omizzolo, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low redshift (0.04 < z < 0.07) clusters observed by WINGS (WIde-field Nearby Galaxy cluster Survey, Fasano et al. 2006). Emission line galaxies were identified following criteria that are meant to minimize biases against non-star forming galaxies and classified employing diagnostic diagrams. We have examined the emission line properties and frequencies of star forming galaxies, transition objects and active galactic nuclei (AGNs: LINERs and Seyferts), unclassified galaxies with emission lines, and quiescent galaxies with no detectable line emission. A deficit of emission line galaxies in the cluster environment is indicated by both a lower frequency with respect to control samples, and by a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity (up to one order of magnitude in equivalent width with respect to control samples for transition objects) that implies a lower amount of ionised gas per unit mass and a lower s...

  5. Centaurus A - The nearest active galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. O.; Price, R. M.

    1983-11-01

    Observed features of the active galaxy Centaurus A are described, and attention is given to the physical processes responsible for the two detected radio lobes. Data have been taken in visible, X ray, and radio wavelengths. Most of the radiation emitted has originated from the loss of energy by electrons through thermal processes in the interstellar gas, synchrotron radiation, and by randomly polarized atomic emission. Cen A displays features of both elliptical and spiral galaxies, with a dust lane in the middle of the ellipse holding hot, newly formed blue stars. Spectroscopic studies of the emission lines of hot gas in Cen A indicate that the source of excited gas is in the center of the galaxy. The radio region has a 2,700,000 light year extent, with a plasma jet directed from the center into the north radio lobe. X ray maps of Cen A suggest a black hole with a mass of a billion suns is the source of the jet. Electrons in the beam could be accelerated by shock waves, turbulence, or collisions with protons.

  6. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  7. Exploring active galaxies with integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E. H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Gerssen, Joris; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2004-11-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy provides a powerful new tool for disentangling the complex structure of Active Galactic Nuclei& -- allowing 2D mapping of the distribution, kinematics and excitation of ionized gas and of stellar velocity profiles and populations. Such comprehensive datasets are likely to reveal important clues about the physics of the narrow line region, interactions with the host galaxy and central dynamical forces. Here we present observations of the central regions of NGC1068, obtained using the visible-wavelength GMOS-IFU at Gemini North and NGC4151, taken with a prototype near-infrared fibre IFU at the UK Infrared Telescope.

  8. The role of active galactic nuclei in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, P A

    2009-01-01

    We use Monte-Carlo Markov chain techniques to constrain acceptable parameter regions for the Munich L-Galaxies semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is required to limit star-formation in the most massive galaxies. However, we show that the introduction of tidal stripping of dwarf galaxies as they fall into and merge with their host systems can lead to a reduction in the required degree of AGN feedback. In addition, the new model correctly reproduces both the metallicity of large galaxies and the fraction of intracluster light.

  9. Unveiling multiple AGN activity in galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, A; Bogdanovic, T; Decarli, R; Heidt, J; Herrero-Illana, R; Husemann, B; Komossa, S; Kun, E; Loiseau, N; Guainazzi, M; Paragi, Z; Perez-Torres, M; Piconcelli, E; Schawinski, K; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the MAGNA (Multiple AGN Activity) project aiming at a comprehensive study of multiple supemassive black hole systems. With the main goal to characterize the sources in merging systems at different stages of evolution, we selected a sample of objects optically classified as multiple systems on the basis of emission line diagnostics and started a massive multiband observational campaign. Here we report on the discovery of the exceptionally high AGN density compact group SDSS~J0959+1259. A multiband study suggests that strong interactions are taking place among its galaxies through tidal forces, therefore this system represents a case study for physical mechanisms that trigger nuclear activity and star formation. We also present a preliminary analysis of the multiple AGN system SDSS~J1038+3921.}

  10. A submillimetre-selected, ultraluminous, active galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Le Borgne, J F; Blain, A W; Kneib, J P; Bézecourt, J; Kerr, T H; Davies, J K; Ivison, Rob; Smail, Ian

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed study of SMM 02399-0136, an ultraluminous, active galaxy selected from a sub-mm survey of the distant Universe. This object is the brightest source in the fields of 4 rich, lensing clusters that we have mapped with a sensitivity better than 2 mJy/beam at 850um. We identify a compact optical counterpart with B ~ 23 and a LSB companion about 3" away. Our spectroscopy shows that components have the same redshift; z = 2.803 +/- 0.003. The narrow emission lines, FWHM ~ 1000-1500 km/s, and line ratios along with the compact morphology and high luminosity (M_B ~ -24.0) of the galaxy indicate that SMM 02399-0136 contains a rare dust-embedded, narrow-line or type-2 AGN. The source is gravitationally lensed by the foreground cluster, amplifying its apparent luminosity by a factor of 2.5. Taking the amplification into account, we estimate that SMM 02399-0136 is intrinsically 5 times more luminous than F10214+4724. Its far-IR and H-alpha luminosities and LSB radio emission all indicate an extremely ...

  11. The Roadmap for Unification in Galaxy Group Selection. I. A Search for Extended X-ray Emission in the CNOC2 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finoguenov, A.; Connelly, J. L.; Parker, L. C.; Wilman, D. J.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Saglia, R. P.; Balogh, M. L.; Bower, R. G.; McGee, S. L.

    2009-10-01

    X-ray properties of galaxy groups can unlock some of the most challenging research topics in modern extragalactic astronomy: the growth of structure and its influence on galaxy formation. Only with the advent of the Chandra and XMM-Newton facilities have X-ray observations reached the depths required to address these questions in a satisfactory manner. Here we present an X-ray imaging study of two patches from the CNOC2 spectroscopic galaxy survey using combined Chandra and XMM-Newton data. A state of the art extended source finding algorithm has been applied, and the resultant source catalog, including redshifts from a spectroscopic follow-up program, is presented. The total number of spectroscopically identified groups is 25 spanning a redshift range 0.04-0.79. Approximately 50% of CNOC2 spectroscopically selected groups in the deeper X-ray (RA14h) field are likely X-ray detections, compared to 20% in the shallower (RA21h) field. Statistical modeling shows that this is consistent with expectations, assuming an expected evolution of the LX -M relation. A significant detection of a stacked shear signal for both spectroscopic and X-ray groups indicates that both samples contain real groups of about the expected mass. We conclude that the current area and depth of X-ray and spectroscopic facilities provide a unique window of opportunity at z ~ 0.4 to test the X-ray appearance of galaxy groups selected in various ways. There is at present no evidence that the correlation between X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion evolves significantly with redshift, which implies that catalogs based on either method can be fairly compared and modeled. Based on observations with the ESA/NASA XMM-Newton science mission; the European Southern Observatory, Chile; NASA/ESA Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  12. The roadmap for unification in galaxy group selection:. I. A search for extended X-ray emission in the CNOC2 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Parker, L C; Wilman, D J; Mulchaey, J S; Saglia, R P; Balogh, M L; Bower, R G; McGee, S L

    2009-01-01

    X-ray properties of galaxy groups can unlock some of the most challenging research topics in modern extragalactic astronomy: the growth of structure and its influence on galaxy formation. Only with the advent of the Chandra and XMM facilities have X-ray observations reached the depths required to address these questions in a satisfactory manner. Here we present an X-ray imaging study of two patches from the CNOC2 spectroscopic galaxy survey using combined Chandra and XMM data. A state of the art extended source finding algorithm has been applied, and the resultant source catalog, including redshifts from a spectroscopic follow-up program, is presented. The total number of spectroscopically identified groups is 25 spanning a redshift range 0.04-0.79. Approximately 50% of CNOC2 spectroscopically selected groups in the deeper X-ray (RA14h) field are likely X-ray detections, compared to 20% in the shallower (RA21h) field. Statistical modeling shows that this is consistent with expectations, assuming an expected e...

  13. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  14. Prospects for further unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions (QAD), the prevalent color gauge theory of the strong interactions (QCD) and attempts to embed both these theories in a further Unified Gauge Theory. We discuss the related advances in cosmology and touch upon other approaches to the understanding of particles and fields. 44 references

  15. Spherical Accretion in Nearby Weakly Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moscibrodzka, M A

    2005-01-01

    We consider the sample of weakly active galaxies situated in 'Local Universe' collected in the paper of Pellegrini (2005) with inferred accretion efficiencies from $10^{-2}$ to $10^{-7}$. We apply a model of spherically symmetrical Bondi accretion for given parameters ($M_{BH}$,$T_{\\infty}$,$\\rho_{\\infty}$,) taken from observation. We calculate spectra emitted by the gas accreting onto its central objects using Monte Carlo method including synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons as seed photons. We compare our results with observed nuclear X-ray luminosities $L_{X,nuc}$ (0.3-10 keV) of the sample. Model is also tested for different external medium parameters ($\\rho_{\\infty}$ and $T_{\\infty}$) and different free parameters of the model. Our model is able to explain most of the observed nuclear luminosities $L_X$ under an assumption that half of the compresion energy is transfered directly to the electrons.

  16. The Role of Host Galaxy for the Environmental Dependence of Active Nuclei in Local Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, R I; Erwin, P; Burtscher, L; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Janssen, A; Koss, M; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Maciejewski, W; Mueller-Sanchez, F; de Xivry, G Orban; Ricci, C; Riffel, R; Riffel, R A; Rosario, D; Schartmann, M; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Shimizu, T; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Tacconi, L; Veilleux, S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disk-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies is related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle, and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  17. A dark matter gravitational accretion scenario for E galaxy activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of gravitational accretion into massive galaxies is reviewed. A strong correlation between central radio activity, optical and X-ray luminosity over five decades in both the radio and the X-ray bands and ranging from ordinary elliptical to D and cD type galaxies is reported and the i

  18. The Rise and Fall of Galaxy Activity in Dark Matter Haloes

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, Anna; Bosch, Frank C. van den; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu; Somerville, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    We use a SDSS galaxy group catalogue to study the dependence of galaxy activity on stellar mass, halo mass, and group hierarchy (centrals vs. satellites). We split our galaxy sample in star-forming galaxies, galaxies with optical AGN activity and radio sources. We find a smooth transition in halo mass as the activity of central galaxies changes from star formation to optical AGN activity to radio emission. Star-forming centrals preferentially reside in haloes with M

  19. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  20. Upholding the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei: VLT/FORS2 Spectropolarimetry of Seyfert 2 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, A Asensio; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Hönig, S F; Alonso-Herrero, A; Tadhunter, C N; González-Martín, O

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the unification model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) was the detection of broad hydrogen recombination lines in the optical polarized spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy (Sy2) NGC 1068. Since then, a search for the hidden broad-line region (HBLR) of nearby Sy2s started, but polarized broad lines have only been detected in 30-40% of the nearby Sy2s observed to date. Here we present new VLT/FORS2 optical spectropolarimetry of a sample of 15 Sy2s, including Compton-thin and Compton-thick sources. The sample includes six galaxies without previously published spectropolarimetry, some of them normally treated as non-hidden BLR (NHBLR) objects in the literature, four classified as NHBLR, and five as HBLR based on previous data. We report >=4{\\sigma} detections of a HBLR in 11 of these galaxies (73% of the sample) and a tentative detection in NGC 5793, which is Compton-thick according to the analysis of X-ray data performed here. Our results confirm that at least some NHBLRs are misclassified, bringing p...

  1. Direct mediation, duality and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call 'deflected-unification', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call 'dual-unification', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.

  2. Large scale environments of z<0.4 active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lietzen, H; Nurmi, P; Liivamägi, L J; Saar, E; Tago, E; Takalo, L O; Einasto, M

    2011-01-01

    Properties of galaxies depend on their large-scale environment. As the influence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxy evolution is becoming more evident, their large scale environments may help us understand the evolutionary processes leading to activity. The effect of activity can be seen particularly by showing if different types of active galaxies are formed by similar mechanisms. Our aim is to study the supercluster-scale environments of active galaxies up to redshift 0.4. Our data includes quasars, BL Lac objects, Seyfert and radio galaxies. We use a three-dimensional low-resolution luminosity-density field constructed of a sample of luminous red galaxies in the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We calculate the average density of this field in a volume of a 3\\,$h^{-1}$Mpc sphere around each AGN for estimating the environmental density levels of different types of AGN. This analysis gives us the distribution of AGN in the global environment of superclusters, filaments, and voids....

  3. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  4. Unification with mirror fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new framework unifying interactions in nature by introducing mirror fermions, explaining the hierarchy between the weak scale and the coupling unification scale, which is found to lie close to Planck energies. A novel process leading to the emergence of symmetry is proposed, which not only reduces the arbitrariness of the scenario proposed but is also followed by significant cosmological implications. Phenomenology includes the probability of detection of mirror fermions via the corresponding composite bosonic states and the relevant quantum corrections at the LHC.

  5. LABOCA observations of nearby, active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A; Guesten, R; Menten, K M; Schuller, F; Siringo, G; Kreysa, E

    2008-01-01

    We present large scale 870 micron maps of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC253, NGC4945 and the nearest giant elliptical radio galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained with the newly commissioned Large Apex Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) operated at the APEX telescope. Our continuum images reveal for the first time the distribution of cold dust at a angular resolution of 20" across the entire optical disks of NGC253 and NGC4945 out to a radial distance of 10' (7.5 kpc). In NGC5128 our LABOCA image also shows, for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, the synchrotron emission associated with the radio jet and the inner radio lobes. From an analysis of the 870 micron emission in conjunction with ISO-LWS, IRAS and long wavelengths radio data we find temperatures for the cold dust in the disks of all three galaxies of 17-20 K, comparable to the dust temperatures in the disk of the Milky Way. The total gas mass in the three galaxies is determined to be 2.1, 4.2 and 2.8 x 10^9 solar masses for NGC253, NGC4945 and N...

  6. Active galaxies can make axionic dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Cormack, Sam

    2016-01-01

    AGN jets carry helical magnetic fields, which can affect dark matter if the latter is axionic. This preliminary study shows that, in the presence of strong helical magnetic fields, the nature of the axionic condensate may change and become dark energy. Such dark energy may affect galaxy formation and galactic dynamics, so this possibility should not be ignored when considering axionic dark matter.

  7. Warped Supersymmetric Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, W D; Smith, D R; Goldberger, Walter D.; Nomura, Yasunori; Smith, David R.

    2003-01-01

    We construct a realistic model of grand unification in AdS_5 truncated by branes, in which the unified gauge symmetry is broken by boundary conditions and the electroweak scale is generated by the AdS warp factor. We show that the model preserves the successful gauge coupling unification of the 4D MSSM at leading-logarithmic level. Kaluza-Klein towers, including those of XY gauge and colored Higgs multiplets, appear at the TeV scale, while the extra dimension provides natural mechanisms for doublet-triplet splitting and proton decay suppression. In one possible scenario supersymmetry is strongly broken on the TeV brane, in which case the lightest SU(3)_C x SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y gauginos are Dirac fermions, with universal masses at the weak scale, and the mass of the lightest XY gaugino is pushed well below that of the lowest gauge boson KK mode, improving the prospects for its production at the LHC. The bulk Lagrangian possesses a symmetry that we call GUT parity. If GUT parity is exact, the lightest GUT particle,...

  8. Nuclear Activity is more prevalent in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; Lutz, D; Netzer, H; Bauer, F E; Berta, S; Magnelli, B; Popesso, P; Alexander, D; Brandt, W N; Genzel, R; Maiolino, R; Mullaney, J R; Nordon, R; Saintonge, A; Tacconi, L; Wuyts, S

    2013-01-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-to-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called "Green Valley", a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing star-formation quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel. PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) with redshifts, stellar masses and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U-V color distributions and SFR distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z~2, but we show that such colors ar...

  9. High redshift radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fosbury, R A E

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that powerful radio quasars and radio galaxies are orientation-dependent manifestations of the same parent population: massive spheroids containing correspondingly massive black holes. Following the recognition of this unification, research is directed to the task of elucidating the structure and composition of the active nuclei and their hosts to understand the formation and evolution of what we expect to become the most massive of galaxies. In contrast to the quasars, where the nucleus can outshine the galaxy at optical/near infrared wavelengths by a large factor, the radio galaxies contain a 'built-in coronograph' that obscures our direct view to the nucleus. These objects present our best opportunity to study the host galaxy in detail. Of particular interest are those sources with redshifts greater than about 2 that represent an epoch when nuclear activity was much more common that it is now and when we believe these objects were in the process of assembly. In combination wi...

  10. The Nuclear Activities of Nearby S0 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Mengyuan; Chen, Yanmei; Zhou, Luwenjia

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of nuclear activities in nearby S0 galaxies. After cross-matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) and visually checking the SDSS images, we derive a sample of 583 S0 galaxies with the central spectrophotometric information. In order to separate nebular emission lines from the underlying stellar contribution, we fit the stellar population model to the SDSS spectra of these S0 galaxies. According to the BPT diagram, we find that $8\\%$ of S0 galaxies show central star-forming activity, while the fractions of Seyfert, Composite and LINERs are 2\\%, 8\\%, and 21.4\\%, respectively. We also find that star-forming S0s have the lowest stellar masses, over one magnitude lower than the others, and that the active S0s locate mainly in the sparse environment, while the normal S0s in the dense environment, which might suggest that the environment plays an important role in quenching star formation and/or AGN activity in S0 gal...

  11. Unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, provides an accessible overview of modern particle physics and the quest for the unification of the fundamental forces, the electromagnetic, strong nuclear weak nuclear and gravitational. A major theme of the lecture is the way in which the theoretical physicists approach the task of imposing orders on a seemingly chaotic universe. A secondary theme is that the electroweak force is most likely to be the force of life. The theme of the philosophy behind the work of theorists is continued in two additional lectures by Werner Heisenberg and Paul Dirac which give fascinating insights into the modus operandi and work of two of the founders of quantum mechanics. (author)

  12. Supersymmetry, supergravity, and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran

    2016-01-01

    This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.

  13. Renormalizable SU(5) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Pavel Fileviez

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple renormalizable grand unified theory based on the SU(5) gauge symmetry where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level through the Zee mechanism. In this model the same Higgs needed to correct the mass relation between charged leptons and down-type quarks plays a crucial role to generate neutrino masses. We show that in this model one can satisfy the constrains coming from the unification of gauge couplings and the mechanism for neutrino masses is discussed in detail. We find an interesting relation between the neutrino masses and the charged fermion masses. The predictions for proton decay are discussed in order to understand the testability at current and future experiments such as Hyper-Kamiokande. This simple theory predicts a light colored octet which could give rise to exotic signatures at the LHC.

  14. Atomic hydrogen properties of active galactic nuclei host galaxies: H I in 16 nuclei of galaxies (NUGA) sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive spectroscopic imaging survey of the distribution and kinematics of atomic hydrogen (H I) in 16 nearby spiral galaxies hosting low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with high spectral and spatial resolution (resolution: ∼20'', ∼5 km s–1) using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA). The sample contains a range of nuclear types ranging from Seyfert to star-forming nuclei, and was originally selected for the NUclei of GAlaxies project (NUGA)—a spectrally and spatially resolved interferometric survey of gas dynamics in nearby galaxies designed to identify the fueling mechanisms of AGN and the relation to host galaxy evolution. Here we investigate the relationship between the H I properties of these galaxies, their environment, their stellar distribution, and their AGN type. The large-scale H I morphology of each galaxy is classified as ringed, spiral, or centrally concentrated; comparison of the resulting morphological classification with the AGN type reveals that ring structures are significantly more common in low-ionization narrow emission-line regions (LINER) than in Seyfert host galaxies, suggesting a time evolution of the AGN activity together with the redistribution of the neutral gas. Dynamically disturbed H I disks are also more prevalent in LINER host galaxies than in Seyfert host galaxies. While several galaxies are surrounded by companions (some with associated H I emission), there is no correlation between the presence of companions and the AGN type (Seyfert/LINER).

  15. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.;

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster...... fields spanning the redshift range 0.2 z ..., both of which are also suppressed near cluster centres to a comparable extent. These results strongly support the idea that X-ray AGN activity and strong star formation are linked through their common dependence on available reservoirs of cold gas. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University...

  16. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth L; Clarke, T E; Sarazin, Craig L; Randall, Scott W; McNamara, Brian R

    2010-04-20

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves. PMID:20351250

  17. Active galaxies may harbour wormholes if dark matter is axionic

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    AGN jets carry helical magnetic fields, which can affect dark matter if the latter is axionic. This preliminary study shows that the nature of the axionic condensate may change and instead of dark matter may behave more like exotic matter, which violates the null energy condition. If the central supermassive black hole of an active galaxy is laced with exotic matter then it may become a wormhole. In general, the presence of exotic matter may affect galaxy formation and galactic dynamics, so this possibility should not be ignored when considering axionic dark matter.

  18. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, Elizabeth L; Sarazin, Craig L; Randall, Scott W; McNamara, Brian R; ),

    2010-01-01

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves.

  19. Properties of Active Galaxies Deduced from H I Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C; Greene, Jenny E

    2008-01-01

    We completed a new survey for H I emission for a large, well-defined sample of 154 nearby (z < 0.1) galaxies with type 1 AGNs. We make use of the extensive database presented in a companion paper to perform a comprehensive appraisal of the cold gas content in active galaxies and to seek new strategies to investigate the global properties of the host galaxies and their relationship to their central black holes (BHs). We show that the BH mass obeys a strong, roughly linear relation with the host galaxy's dynamical mass. BH mass follows a looser, though still highly significant, correlation with the maximum rotation velocity of the galaxy, as expected from the known scaling between rotation velocity and central velocity dispersion. Neither of these H I-based correlations is as tight as the more familiar relations between BH mass and bulge luminosity or velocity dispersion, but they offer the advantage of being insensitive to the glare of the nucleus and therefore are promising new tools for probing the host g...

  20. Upholding the unified model for active galactic nuclei: VLT/FORS2 spectropolarimetry of Seyfert 2 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Hönig, S. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Tadhunter, C. N.; González-Martín, O.

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the unification model for active galactic nuclei (AGN) was the detection of broad hydrogen recombination lines in the optical polarized spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy (Sy2) NGC 1068. Since then, a search for the hidden broad-line region (HBLR) of nearby Sy2s started, but polarized broad lines have only been detected in ˜30-40 per cent of the nearby Sy2s observed to date. Here we present new VLT/FORS2 optical spectropolarimetry of a sample of 15 Sy2s, including Compton-thin and Compton-thick sources. The sample includes six galaxies without previously published spectropolarimetry, some of them normally treated as non-hidden BLR (NHBLR) objects in the literature, four classified as NHBLR, and five as HBLR based on previous data. We report ≥4σ detections of a HBLR in 11 of these galaxies (73 per cent of the sample) and a tentative detection in NGC 5793, which is Compton-thick according to the analysis of X-ray data performed here. Our results confirm that at least some NHBLRs are misclassified, bringing previous publications reporting differences between HBLR and NHBLR objects into question. We detect broad Hα and Hβ components in polarized light for 10 targets, and just broad Hα for NGC 5793 and NGC 6300, with line widths ranging between 2100 and 9600 km s-1. High bolometric luminosities and low column densities are associated with higher polarization degrees, but not necessarily with the detection of the scattered broad components.

  1. Supersymmetric exceptional gauge unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, N.S.

    1980-12-15

    We discuss the accommodation of quark-lepton generations, classified by SU(5), in the adjoint representations of simple Lie groups. We find SO(11), E/sub 6/, E/sub 7/, and E/sub 8/ as the only possible embedding groups, with the respective contents of one, one, three, and five conventional generations, together with their (V+A) conjugates and other particles. SU(4) supersymmetric unification models based on these gauge groups and which unify, via one coupling constant, the interactions of one vector boson, four spin-1/2 fermion, and six Higgs scalar multiplets, all being in the adjoint representation, are considered. Attention is focused on E/sub 7/ and E/sub 8/. The latter algebras are represented in the familiar SU(8) and SU(9) basis. We discuss quark-lepton assignments and propose patterns of symmetry breaking which can be triggered by the adjoint Higgs scalars, and which are compatible with the observed values of the strong and the weak couplings, as well as the weak mixing angle. Remarks are given with regard to the breaking of supersymmetry and the possible role of radiative corrections and renormalization effects in generating the gauge hierarchy.

  2. Line and Continuum Variability in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Y E; Valencia-S., M; García-Marín, M; Busch, G; Zuther, J; Horrobin, M; Zhou, H

    2015-01-01

    We compared optical spectroscopic and photometric data for 18 AGN galaxies over 2 to 3 epochs, with time intervals of typically 5 to 10 years. We used the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and compared the spectra to data taken from the SDSS database and the literature. We find variations in the forbidden oxygen lines as well as in the hydrogen recombination lines of these sources. For 4 of the sources we find that, within the calibration uncertainties, the variations in continuum and line spectra of the sources are very small. We argue that it is mainly the difference in black hole mass between the samples that is responsible for the different degree of continuum variability. In addition we find that for an otherwise constant accretion rate the total line variability (dominated by the narrow line contributions) reverberates the continuum variability with a dependency $\\Delta L_{line} \\propto (\\Delta L_{cont.})^{\\frac{3}{2}}$. Since this dependency is prominently e...

  3. QSO Pairs across Active Galaxies: Evidence of Blueshifts?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2006-12-01

    Several QSO pairs have been reported and their redshifts determined, where the two objects in each pair are located across an active galaxy. The usually accepted explanation of such occurrences is that the pair is ejected from the parent galaxy. Currently interpreted redshifted spectra for both the QSOs imply that both the objects are receding from the observer. However, ejection can occur towards and away from the observer with equal probability. We argue that for a system with two QSOs lying across the parent galaxy, ejection should have occurred in opposite directions, whereby one object will be approaching us and the other will be receding from us. The former would exhibit a blueshifted spectrum. We analyse here a sample of four such pairs and show that the observed spectrum of one QSO in each pair can be interpreted as blueshifted. The other exhibits the usual redshifted spectrum. A scenario based on the ‘sling-shot’ mechanism of ejection is presented to explain the occurrences of the pairs in opposite sides of the active galaxies moving in opposite directions.

  4. An atlas of Calcium triplet spectra of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Rissmann, A; Asari, N V; Fernandes, R C; Schmitt, H; González-Delgado, R M; Storchi-Bergmann, T

    2005-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering the region around the 8498, 8542, 8662 Calcium triplet (CaT) lines. The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26 Seyfert 1s, 3 Starburst and 6 normal galaxies. The spectra pertain to the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematics and stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measure stellar velocity dispersions (sigma_star) both with cross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements are found to be in good agreement with each-other and with those in previous studies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is also measured. We find average values and sample dispersions of W_CaT of 4.6+/-2.0, 7.0 and 7.7+/-1.0 angstrons for Seyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We further present an atlas of [SIII]\\lambda 9069 emission line profiles for a subset of 40 galaxies. These data are analyzed in a companion paper which addresses the connection between ...

  5. Height unification using GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    2012-12-01

    With the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) (preferably combined with the gravity field and climate experiment (GRACE)) a new generation of geoid models will become available for use in height determination. These models will be globally consistent, accurate (3 cm) and with a spatial resolution up to degree and order 200, when expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion. GOCE is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first satellite equipped with a gravitational gradiometer, in the case of GOCE it measures the gradient components Vxx , Vyy, Vzzand Vxz. The GOCE gravitational sensor system comprises also a geodetic global positioning system (GPS)-receiver, three star sensors and ion-thrusters for drag compensation in flight direction. GOCE was launched in March 2009 and will fly till the end of 2013. Several gravity models have been derived from its data, their maximum degree is typically between 240 and 250. In summer 2012 a first re-processing of all level-1b data took place. One of the science objectives of GOCE is the unification of height systems. The existing height offsets among the datum zones can be determined by least-squares adjustment. This requires several precise geodetic reference points available in each height datum zone, physical heights from spirit levelling (plus gravimetry), the GOCE geoid and, in addition, short wavelength geoid refinement from terrestrial gravity anomalies. GOCE allows for important simplifications of the functional and stochastic part of the adjustment model. The future trend will be the direct determination of physical heights (orthometric as well as normal) from precise global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-positioning in combination with a next generation combined satellite-terrestrial high-resolution geoid model.

  6. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  7. The star formation rates of active galactic nuclei host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Rosario, David J; Mendel, J Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Using artificial neural network (ANN) predictions of total infra-red luminosities (LIR), we compare the host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) of ~21,000 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), 466 low excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and 721 mid-IR selected AGN. SFR offsets (Delta SFR) relative to a sample of star-forming `main sequence' galaxies (matched in M*, z and local environment) are computed for the AGN hosts. Optically selected AGN exhibit a wide range of Delta SFR, with a distribution skewed to low SFRs and a median Delta SFR = -0.06 dex. The LERGs have SFRs that are shifted to even lower values with a median Delta SFR = -0.5 dex. In contrast, mid-IR selected AGN have, on average, SFRs enhanced by a factor ~1.5. We interpret the different distributions of Delta SFR amongst the different AGN classes in the context of the relative contribution of triggering by galaxy mergers. Whereas the LERGs are predominantly fuelled through low accretion rate secular processes which are not accompanied ...

  8. Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  9. Gauge Coupling Unification in Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all the four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  10. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  11. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reviewed briefly the last twenty years' progress in the theory of unification, with the twin aspects of development of a gauge theory of basic interactions linked with internal symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of these symmetries, the Nobel prize winners have summarized the present situation and the immediate problems. At the end, an extrapolation of the future is also given

  12. Low energy gauge unification theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li Tian Jun

    2002-01-01

    Because of the problems arising from the fermion unification in the traditional Grand Unified Theory and the mass hierarchy between the 4-dimensional Planck scale and weak scale, we suggest the low energy gauge unification theory with low high-dimensional Planck scale. We discuss the non-supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 and the supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 '). The SU(5) gauge symmetry is broken by the orbifold projection for the zero modes, and the gauge unification is accelerated due to the SU(5) asymmetric light KK states. In our models, we forbid the proton decay, still keep the charge quantization, and automatically solve the fermion mass problem. We also comment on the anomaly cancellation and other possible scenarios for low energy gauge unification.

  13. Problems in unification and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented

  14. The quenching of the star formation activity in cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Fossati, M; Buat, V; Boissier, S; Boquien, M; Burgarella, D; Ciesla, L; Gavazzi, G; Serra, P

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation quenching mechanism in cluster galaxies by fitting the SED of the Herschel Reference Survey, a complete volume-limited K-band-selected sample of nearby galaxies including objects in different density regions, from the core of the Virgo cluster to the general field. The SED are fitted using the CIGALE SED modelling code. The truncated activity of cluster galaxies is parametrised using a specific SFH with 2 free parameters, the quenching age QA and the quenching factor QF. These 2 parameters are crucial for the identification of the quenching mechanism which acts on long timescales if starvation while rapid and efficient if ram pressure. To be sensitive to an abrupt and recent variation of the star formation activity, we combine in a new way 20 UV to FIR photometric bands with 3 age-sensitive Balmer line absorption indices extracted from available medium-resolution integrated spectroscopy and with Halpha narrow band imaging data. The use of a truncated SFH significantly increases the...

  15. SAGACE: the Spectroscopic Active Galaxies And Clusters Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    De Bernardis, P; Bardi, A; Battistelli, E; Birkinshaw, M; Calvo, M; Colafrancesco, S; Conte, A; De Gregori, S; De Petris, M; De Zotti, G; Donati, A; Ferrari, L; Franceschini, A; Gatti, F; Gervasi, M; Giommi, P; Giordano, C; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Lamagna, L; Lapi, A; Luzzi, G; Maiolino, R; Marchegiani, P; Mariani, A; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Mauskopf, P; Nati, F; Nati, L; Natoli, P; Negrello, M; Piacentini, F; Polenta, G; Salatino, M; Savini, G; Schillaci, A; Spinelli, S; Tartari, A; Tavanti, M; Tortora, A; Vaccari, M; Vaccarone, R; Zannoni, M; Zolesi, V

    2010-01-01

    The SAGACE experiment consists of a mm/sub-mm telescope with a 3-m diameter primary mirror, coupled to a cryogenic multi-beam differential spectrometer. SAGACE explores the sky in the 100-760 GHz frequency range, using four diffraction-limited bolometer arrays. The instrument is designed to perform spectroscopic surveys of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects of thousands of galaxy clusters, of the spectral energy distribution of active galactic nuclei, and of the [CII] line of a thousand galaxies in the redshift desert. In 2008 a full phase-A study for a national small mission was completed and delivered to the Italian Space Agency (ASI). We have shown that taking advantage of the differential operation of the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, this ambitious instrument can operate from a Molniya orbit, and can be built and operated within the tight budget of a small mission.

  16. Misaligned Disks as Obscurers in Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, A.; Elvis, M.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-06-02

    We review critically the evidence concerning the fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) which appear as Type 2 AGN, carefully distinguishing strict Type 2 AGN from both more lightly reddened Type 1 AGN, and from low excitation narrow line AGN, which may represent a different mode of activity. Low excitation AGN occur predominantly at low luminosities; after removing these, true Type 2 AGN represent 58{-+}5% of all AGN, and lightly reddened Type 1 AGN a further {approx}15%. Radio, IR, and volume-limited samples all agree in showing no change of Type 2 fraction with luminosity. X-ray samples do show a change with luminosity; we discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. We test a very simple picture which produces this Type 2 fraction with minimal assumptions. In this picture, infall from large scales occurs in random directions, but must eventually align with the inner accretion flow, producing a severely warped disk on parsec scales. If the re-alignment is dominated by tilt, with minimal twist, a wide range of covering factors is predicted in individual objects, but with an expected mean fraction of Type 2 AGN of exactly 50%. This 'tilted disc' picture predicts reasonable alignment of observed nuclear structures on average, but with distinct misalignments in individual cases. Initial case studies of the few well resolved objects show that such misalignments are indeed present.

  17. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  18. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  19. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fueling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Melanie A; Fortson, Lucy F; Cardamone, Carolin N; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J; Masters, Karen L; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-01-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19,756 disc galaxies at $0.01galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8%) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1%). This difference is primarily due to known effects; that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16% of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the $L_{\\rm...

  20. High-resolution molecular line observations of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Gracia-Carpio, J

    2008-01-01

    The study of the content, distribution and kinematics of interstellar gas is a key to understand the origin and maintenance of both starburst and nuclear (AGN) activity in galaxies. The processes involved in AGN fueling encompass a wide range of scales, both spatial and temporal, which have to be studied. Probing the gas flow from the outer disk down to the central engine of an AGN host, requires the use of specific tracers of the interstellar medium adapted to follow the change of phase of the gas as a function of radius. Current mm-interferometers can provide a sharp view of the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the circumnuclear disks of galaxies through extensive CO line mapping. As such, CO maps are an essential tool to study AGN feeding mechanisms in the local universe. This is the scientific driver of the NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA) survey, whose latest results are here reviewed. On the other hand, the use of specific molecular tracers of the dense gas phase can probe the feedback influence...

  1. Feedback of Active Galactic Nuclei in Seyfert 2 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Peng Zhang; Wei-Hao Bian; Chen Hu; Wei-Ming Mao; ALi Luo; Yong-Heng Zhao

    2008-01-01

    It is well accepted that feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) plays an important role in the coevolution of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) and its host galaxy,but the concrete mechanism of feedback remains unclear.A considerable body of evidence suggests that AGN feedback suppresses star formation in the host galaxy.We assemble a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies with recent observational data of compact nuclear starbursts and estimate the gas surface density as a function of column density to illuminate the relation between feedback and AGN properties.Although there are some uncertainties,our data still imply the deviation from the star formation law (Kennicutt-Schmidt law).Further,they indicate that:(1) Feedback correlates with the Eddington ratio,rather than with the mass of SMBH,as a result of decreasing star formation efficiency.(2) The SMBH and the torus are probably undergoing coevolution.Conclusions presented here can be refined through future high resolution CO or HCN observations.

  2. Actively Star Forming Elliptical Galaxies at Low Redshifts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Fukugita, M; Turner, E L; Helmboldt, J; Nichol, R C; Fukugita, Masataka; Nakamura, Osamu; Turner, Edwin L.; Helmboldt, Joe

    2004-01-01

    We report discovery of actively star forming elliptical galaxies in a morphologically classified sample of bright galaxies at a low redshift obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The emission lines of these galaxies do not show the characteristics of active galactic nuclei, and thus their strong H$\\alpha$ emission is ascribed to star formation with a rate nearly as high as that is seen in typical late spiral galaxies. This is taken as evidence against the traditional view that all elliptical galaxies formed early and now evolve only passively. The frequency of such star forming elliptical galaxies is a few tenths of a percent in the sample, but increases to 3% if we include active S0 galaxies. We may identify these galaxies as probable progenitors of so-called E+A galaxies that show the strong Balmer absorption feature of A stars superimposed on an old star population. The approximate match of the abundance of active elliptical plus S0 galaxies with that of E+A galaxies indicates that the duration of su...

  3. EVIDENCE FOR WIDESPREAD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY AMONG MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew W., E-mail: karen@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-02-10

    We quantify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a mass-complete (M {sub *} > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5, using X-ray data from the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. 41% {+-} 7% of the galaxies are detected directly in X-rays, 22% {+-} 5% with rest-frame 0.5-8 keV luminosities consistent with hosting luminous AGNs (L {sub 0.5-8keV} > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). The latter fraction is similar for star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and does not depend on galaxy stellar mass, suggesting that perhaps luminous AGNs are triggered by external effects such as mergers. We detect significant mean X-ray signals in stacked images for both the individually non-detected star-forming and quiescent galaxies, with spectra consistent with star formation only and/or a low-luminosity AGN in both cases. Comparing star formation rates inferred from the 2-10 keV luminosities to those from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGNs. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70%-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGNs, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43%-65%). Our discovery of the ubiquity of AGNs in massive, quiescent z {approx} 2 galaxies provides observational support for the importance of AGNs in impeding star formation during galaxy evolution.

  4. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  5. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发

    1989-01-01

    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  6. Korean unification the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis will examine three potential scenarios for the unification of the Korean peninsula and discuss their pros and cons. 1. The collapse of the DPRK government followed by its absorption into the ROK's current governmental structure. 2. A possible Free Trade Area (FTA) encompassing the Korean peninsula with the potential to expand to neighboring nations. 3. The establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) within the DPRK using business practices from both the ROK and the PRC mo...

  7. German labour markets after unification

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a description and analysis of the labour market in East Germany and an econometric evaluation of some effects of German unification on the West German labour market. At the outset, recent developments of employment and unemployment in East Germany are summarized together with an attempt at evaluation of the sources of joblessness. Moreover,'wage determination and wage dynamics are discussed at some length. It is investigated to what extent wage theories can contribute to a...

  8. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  9. SAT Encoding of Unification in EL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Franz; Morawska, Barbara

    Unification in Description Logics has been proposed as a novel inference service that can, for example, be used to detect redundancies in ontologies. In a recent paper, we have shown that unification in EL is NP-complete, and thus of a complexity that is considerably lower than in other Description Logics of comparably restricted expressive power. In this paper, we introduce a new NP-algorithm for solving unification problems in EL, which is based on a reduction to satisfiability in propositional logic (SAT). The advantage of this new algorithm is, on the one hand, that it allows us to employ highly optimized state-of-the-art SAT solvers when implementing an EL-unification algorithm. On the other hand, this reduction provides us with a proof of the fact that EL-unification is in NP that is much simpler than the one given in our previous paper on EL-unification.

  10. Properties of hot gas in halos of active galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the inverse Compton effect in the X-ray emission of cluster galaxies is discussed; the X-ray origin problem from galaxy clusters (spectra and emission mechanisms) is studied. The insufficiency of the X-ray bremsstrahlung emission model in an isothermal gas is proved. The ionized halos in narrow-line galaxies (NLG) are studied; after some general points on NLG, one NLG is described and a brief view an emission mechanism models is given; a detailed study of the galaxy IC 5063 and its nebulosity is given: the ionized gas density is calculated together with the evaporation rate for such clouds

  11. Ultraviolet Diagnostics for the Emission Line Gas in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, M G; Tsvetanov, Z I

    1998-01-01

    Optical diagnostic diagrams are frequently ambiguous as a test of the photoionization or fast shock models of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. Here, we present a set of UV line ratio diagrams which can discriminate between pure shock and photoionization modes of excitation, and to some extent, also discriminate shocks with ionized precursors from photoionization. These diagrams use relatively bright emission lines and reddening insensitive ratios and provide a practical observational test for separating the excitation mechanisms of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. The most useful diagrams are those involving the various ionization stages of Carbon, [OIII]5007/H-beta vs. CIV 1550/ HeII 1640 and the purely UV ratio pair CII] 2326 / CIII] 1909 vs. CIV 1550 / CIII]909. Temperature sensitive FUV lines CIII 977 and NIII 991 also provide good discriminants. The models are compared to observations of nearby AGN, and also to high redshift objects where the UV lines are shifted into the optical.

  12. Gauge Coupling Unification in MSSM + 5 Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff L

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gauge coupling unification at 2-loops for theories with 5 extra vectorlike SU(5) fundamentals added to the MSSM. This is a borderline case where unification is only predicted in certain regions of parameter space. We establish a lower bound on the scale for the masses of the extra flavors, as a function of the sparticle masses. Models far outside of the bound do not predict unification at all (but may be compatible with unification), and models outside but near the boundary cannot reliably claim to predict it with an accuracy comparable to the MSSM prediction. Models inside the boundary can work just as well as the MSSM.

  13. Mid-infrared Spectral Indicators of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Normal Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; O'Dowd, Matt; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Martins, Lucimara; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 "normal" and local (z similar to 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra wer

  14. Formation, Evolution, and Revolution of Galaxies by SKA: Activities of SKA-Japan Galaxy Evolution Sub-SWG

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Iono, Daisuke; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Tee, Wei Leong; Wang, Wei-Hao; Momose, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    Formation and evolution of galaxies have been a central driving force in the studies of galaxies and cosmology. Recent studies provided a global picture of cosmic star formation history. However, what drives the evolution of star formation activities in galaxies has long been a matter of debate. The key factor of the star formation is the transition of hydrogen from atomic to molecular state, since the star formation is associated with the molecular phase. This transition is also strongly coupled with chemical evolution, because dust grains, i.e., tiny solid particles of heavy elements, play a critical role in molecular formation. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of neutral-molecular gas transition, star formation and chemical enrichment is necessary to clarify the galaxy formation and evolution. Here we present the activity of SKA-JP galaxy evolution sub-science working group (subSWG) Our activity is focused on three epochs: z \\sim 0, 1, and z > 3. At z \\sim 0, we try to construct a unified picture o...

  15. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, R S; Krone-Martins, A; Cameron, E; Coelho, P; Hattab, M W; de Val-Borro, M; Hilbe, J M; Elliott, J; Hagen, A

    2016-01-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, $M_{200}$, and the normalized cluster centric distance, $r/r_{200}$. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control for the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within a HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g., whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a...

  16. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fuelling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19 756 disc galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.05 which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8 per cent) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1 per cent). This difference is primarily due to known effects: that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16 per cent of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the L_{[O III]}/MBH ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGNs do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGNs at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fuelling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fuelling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  17. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  18. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  19. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  20. The detailed nature of active central cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Loubser, S I

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed integral field unit (IFU) observations of the central few kiloparsecs of the ionised nebulae surrounding four active central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters (Abell 0496, 0780, 1644 and 2052). Our sample consists of CCGs with H{\\alpha} filaments, and have existing data from the X-ray regime available. Here, we present the detailed optical emission-line (and simultaneous absorption line) data over a broad wavelength range to probe the dominant ionisation processes, excitation sources, morphology and kinematics of the hot gas (as well as the morphology and kinematics of the stars). This, combined with the other multiwavelength data, will form a complete view of the different phases (hot and cold gas and stars) and how they interact in the processes of star formation and feedback detected in central galaxies in cooling flow clusters, as well as the influence of the host cluster. We derive the optical dust extinction maps of the four nebulae. We also derive a range of different...

  1. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fogarty, Kevin; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-01-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains ten brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant ($>$5 $\\sigma$) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH HST observations. These measurements are supplemented with [OII], [OIII], and H$\\beta$ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. Reddening-corrected UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs are broadly consistent with H$\\alpha$-derived SFRs. Five BCGs exhibit SFRs $>$10 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and an additional two have a SFR $>$ 100 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence for a LINER-like contribution. Using Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation ...

  2. Hunting for Infrared Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Activity in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Kevin; Reines, Amy; Greene, Jenny; Stern, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In order to explore the origin of the relationship between the growth of a galaxy and its central supermassive black hole, evidence must be found for black holes in galaxies at a wide range in masses. Searching for supermassive black holes in dwarf galaxies is especially important as these objects have less complicated merger histories, and they may host black holes that are similar to early proposed ``seed'' black holes. However, this selection is complicated by the fact that star formation in these dwarf galaxies can often mask the optical signatures of supermassive black hole growth and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in these objects. The all-sky infrared coverage offered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has been used to great success to select AGNs in more massive galaxies, but great care must be used when using infrared selection techniques on samples of dwarf galaxies. In particular, compact, highly star-forming dwarf galaxies can have infrared colors that may lead them to be erroneously selected as AGNs. In this talk, I will discuss recent work exploring infrared selection of AGN candidates in dwarf galaxies, and present a set of potential IR dwarf-galaxy AGN candidates. I will also outline the importance in these results with respect to future selection of AGNs in low-metallicity galaxies at high-redshift.

  3. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  4. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-07-15

    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  5. Gauge coupling unification with extra Higgs doublets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Junpei [Research Center for Higher Education, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Gauge coupling unification is studied within the framework where there are extra Higgs doublets and E{sub 6} exotic fields. Supersymmetric models and nonsupersymmetric models are investigated, and a catalog of models with gauge coupling unification is presented. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. The Rise and Fall of Galaxy Activity in Dark Matter Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Anna; Mo, H J; Yang, Xiaohu; Somerville, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    We use a SDSS galaxy group catalogue to study the dependence of galaxy activity on stellar mass, halo mass, and group hierarchy (centrals vs. satellites). We split our galaxy sample in star-forming galaxies, galaxies with optical AGN activity and radio sources. We find a smooth transition in halo mass as the activity of central galaxies changes from star formation to optical AGN activity to radio emission. Star-forming centrals preferentially reside in haloes with M<10^{12} Msun, central galaxies with optical-AGN activity typically inhabit haloes with M \\sim 10^{13} Msun, and centrals emitting in the radio mainly reside in haloes more massive than 10^{14} Msun. Although this seems to suggest that the environment (halo mass) determines the type of activity of its central galaxy, we find a similar trend with stellar mass: central star formers typically have stellar masses below 10^{10} Msun, while optical-AGN hosts and central radio sources have characteristic stellar masses of 10^{10.8} Msun and 10^{11.6} M...

  7. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fausnaugh, M M; Bentz, M C; Denney, K D; De Rosa, G; Peterson, B M; Kochanek, C S; Pogge, R W; Adams, S M; Barth, A J; Beatty, Thomas G; Bhattacharjee, A; Borman, G A; Boroson, T A; Bottorff, M C; Brown, Jacob E; Brown, Jonathan S; Brotherton, M S; Coker, C T; Crawford, S M; Croxall, K V; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eracleous, Michael; Joner, M D; Henderson, C B; Holoien, T W -S; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T; Kaspi, Shai; Kim, S; King, Anthea L; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; MacInnis, F; Manne-Nicholas, E R; Mason, M; Montuori, Carmen; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Musso, R; Nazarov, S V; Nguyen, M L; Okhmat, D N; Onken, Christopher A; Ou-Yang, B; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Penny, Matthew T; Poleski, Radoslaw; Rafter, Stephen; Romero-Colmenero, E; Runnoe, Jessie; Sand, David J; Schimoia, Jaderson S; Sergeev, S G; Shappee, B J; Simonian, Gregory V; Somers, Garrett; Spencer, M; Starkey, D; Stevens, Daniel J; Tayar, Jamie; Treu, T; Valenti, Stefano; Van Saders, J; Villanueva, S; Villforth, C; Weiss, Yaniv; Winkler, H; Zhu, W

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014, targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGN) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a "changing look" AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-H$\\beta$ lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain H$\\gamma$ and He{\\sc ii}\\,$\\lambda 4686$ lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He{\\sc ii}\\,$\\lambda 4686$ lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100--300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  8. The Evolution of Galaxies (via SF activity and gas content) versus Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Ryan; Yun, Min Su

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation work concerns the accurate mapping of the large-scale structure (LSS), traced by galaxies, and the assessment of the dependence of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. star-formation activity, color, and gas content) on their environment. Mapping of the LSS is done with two complementary techniques, and together they provide both a local measure of the density field and a more global characterization of the environment of a galaxy, thereby allowing for a more complete measure of a galaxy's environment. I have applied this LSS mapping technique to the entire Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic galaxy sample at zdivided into multiple redshift bins, to explore the environmental dependence on galaxy evolution over a significant volume and a large dynamic range of environments. I will also present a more focused study looking at the molecular gas content of galaxies in two clusters at z~0.2, based on a program I am leading with the Large Millimeter Telescope that has obtained CO spectroscopy for ~70 galaxies with a range of stellar masses, atomic gas masses, and different parts of projected phase space around the two clusters. This molecular gas study provides a detailed statistical look at how the molecular and atomic gas contents of galaxies are affected by the environmental processes in their host clusters. I will summarize all of my results in these various aspects of my dissertation, with the overall theme of how galaxies are affected by their environment.

  9. Comparative Studies of Clustering Properties Between Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Host Galaxies and Star-Forming Ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the volume-limited Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6), we have explored the difference of clustering properties between Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) host galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Our results preferentially show that AGN host galaxies have a lower fraction in isolated, close double and multiple systems than star-forming galaxies. (authors)

  10. Class I methanol megamasers: a potential probe of starburst activity and feedback in active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Zhang, J.-S.; Wang, J.-Z.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Wu, Q.-W.; Wu, Z.-Z.

    2016-06-01

    Previous observations have shown that the distribution of 36.2-GHz class I methanol megamaser (MM) emission in Arp 220 is highly correlated with the diffuse X-rays. On this basis it was suggested that methanol MM may be produced either by the effects of galactic-outflow-driven shocks and/or cosmic rays. Here we report the results of a single-dish survey undertaken with the Greenbank Telescope (GBT) to improve our understanding of the pumping conditions of extragalactic class I methanol masers and their relationship to starburst and feedback processes within the host galaxies, towards a sample which includes 16 galaxies which show both extended soft X-ray emission, and either OH or H2O MM emission. Large baseline ripples in the GBT spectra limited our results to tentative detections towards 11 of the target galaxies. Analysis of these tentative detections shows that there are significant correlations between the methanol intensity and the host-galaxy infrared, radio and OH MM emission, but no correlation with the X-ray and H2O MM emission. Some sources show methanol emission significantly offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (by up to 1000 km s-1) and we propose that these are associated with galactic-scale outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback. The combined observational properties suggest that class I methanol MMs are related to significant starburst and molecular outflow activity and hence may provide a potential probe of AGN feedback and starburst processes in the host galaxies.

  11. Nuclear activity in galaxy pairs: a spectroscopic analysis of 48 UZC-BGPs

    CERN Document Server

    Focardi, Paola; Marinoni, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Galaxy pairs are ideal sites in which to investigate the role of interaction on nuclear activity. For this reason we have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of a large homogeneous sample of galaxy pairs (UZC-BGP) and we present the results of the nuclear spectral classification of 48 pairs (more than half of the whole sample). The fraction of emission line galaxies is extremely large, especially among spirals (84 % and 95 %, for early and late spirals respectively). SB is the most frequent type of nuclear activity encountered (30 % of galaxies) while AGNs are only 19%. The fractions raise to 45 % and 22 % when considering only spirals. Late spirals are characterized by both an unusual increase (35 %) of AGN activity and high luminosity (44 % have M_B <-20.0 + 5log h). LLAGNs are only 8% of the total number of galaxies, but this activity could be present in another 10 % of the galaxies (LLAGN candidates). Absorption line galaxies reside mostly (61 %) in S0 galaxies and display the lowest B luminosity in the ...

  12. The Broad Line Radio Galaxy J2114+820

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, W D; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G; Marcaide, J M; Venturi, T

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the study of a new sample of large angular size radio galaxies selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, we have made radio observations of J2114+820, a low power radio galaxy with an angular size of 6'. Its radio structure basically consists of a prominent core, a jet directed in north-west direction and two extended S-shaped lobes. We have also observed the optical counterpart of J2114+820, a bright elliptical galaxy with a strong unresolved central component. The optical spectrum shows broad emission lines. This fact, together with its low radio power and FR-I type morphology, renders J2114+820 a non-trivial object from the point of view of the current unification schemes of radio loud active galactic nuclei.

  13. X-ray emission from spiral galaxies with normal and low-activity nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuricin, G. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Astronomia); Bertotti, G. (Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics, Trieste (Italy)); Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Astronomia Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (CIRAC), Trieste (Italy))

    1991-05-15

    A statistical analysis of the soft X-ray emission from spiral galaxies with normal and low-luminosity active nuclei (LINERs and Seyfert 2) - derived from published observations obtained with the Einstein Observatory - has revealed a number of previously unrecognised characteristics of the X-ray emission. Seyfert 2 galaxies (the least powerful X-ray sources of the Seyfert class) turn out to be, on average, stronger X-ray emitters (per unit light) than non-Seyfert galaxies, whereas galaxies with LINER nuclei and H II-region-like nuclei exhibit X-ray emissions of comparable strength. We have verified that the X-ray luminosity (per unit light) is linked to the total H {alpha} emission-line strength. Remarkably, more enhanced X-ray emission (per unit light) has been found in Arp atlas galaxies, in galaxies included in the Atlas and Catalogue of Interacting Galaxies of Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov, and in interacting galaxies compared to normal galaxies. (Author).

  14. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yoshioka, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2008-04-15

    We present a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where gaugino masses are naturally unified and scalar partners of quarks and leptons have no mass hierarchy. The low-energy mass spectrum is governed by the mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. We also study several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification. (orig.)

  15. Unification of Force and Substance

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as "dynamical systems". That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: The physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.

  16. Grand Unification in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to `isolated neutron stars,' from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in celebration of its tenth anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical `grand unification' of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  17. Unification of force and substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-08-28

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as 'dynamical systems'. That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: the physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458259

  18. Galaxy gas as obscurer: II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Buchner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The "torus" obscurer of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, substructure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors $f_{\\text{cov}}$. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host galaxy obscuration. In Paper I we discovered a relation of $N_H \\propto M_{\\star}^{1/3}$ for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining, nuclear obscurer which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component ($f_{\\text{cov}}\\sim35\\%$) and a Compton-thin component ($f_{\\text{cov}}\\sim40\\%$), which d...

  19. Radiatively induced Fermi scale and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework, where the hierarchy between the unification and the Fermi scale emerges radiatively. This work tackles the long-standing question about the connection between the low Fermi scale and a more fundamental scale of Nature. As a concrete example, we study a Pati-Salam-type unification of Elementary-Goldstone-Higgs scenario, where the Standard Model scalar sector is replaced by an SU(4)-symmetric one, and the observed Higgs particle is an elementary pseudo-Goldstone boson. We construct a concrete model where the unification scale is fixed to a phenomenologically viable value, while the Fermi scale is generated radiatively. This scenario provides an interesting link between the unification and Fermi scale physics, and opens up prospects for exploring a wide variety of open problems in particle physics, ranging from neutrinos to cosmic inflation.

  20. The Search for signals of technological activities in the galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    In this article an analysis of the fundamentals used to search for extraterrestrial artificial signals in the galaxy, which have been developing for more than five decades, is presented. It is shown that the key factor for the success of these research projects is given by the technological civilizations lifetimes. Assuming the Principle of Mediocrity, estimations are made to determine the minimum number of civilizations that may co-exist in the galaxy and the probability of detecting a signal from them.

  1. The Search for signals of technological activities in the galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article an analysis of the fundamentals used to search for extraterrestrial artificial signals in the galaxy, which have been developing for more than five decades, is presented. It is shown that the key factor for the success of these research projects is given by the technological civilizations lifetimes. Assuming the Principle of Mediocrity, estimations are made to determine the minimum number of civilizations that may co-exist in the galaxy and the probability of detecting a signa...

  2. Ultra Fast Outflows: Galaxy-Scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, A Y; Bicknell, G V

    2012-01-01

    We show, using global 3D grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that Ultra Fast Outflows (UFOs) from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous hot hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the inter-cloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically, rather than in a disc. In the latter case the turbulent backflow...

  3. MAXI and GLAST Studies of Jets in Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejski, Greg; Kataoka, Jun; Sikora, Marek

    2008-10-13

    The recent launch of GLAST--coinciding with the MAXI workshop--opens a new era for studies of jet-dominated active galaxies, known as blazars. While the emission processes operating in various spectral bands in blazars are reasonably well understood, the knowledge of the details of the structure of the jet, location of the dissipation region with respect to the accreting black hole, and coupling of the jet to the accretion process are known only at a rudimentary level. Blazars are variable, and this provides an opportunity to use the variability in various bands--and in particular, the relationship of respective time series to each other--to explore the relative location of regions responsible for emission in the respective bands. Observationally, this requires well-sampled time series in as many spectral bands as possible. To this end, with its all-sky, sensitive monitoring capability, the recently launched GLAST, and MAXI, to be deployed in 2009, are the most promising instruments bound to provide good sampling in respectively the energetic gamma-ray, and the soft X-ray band. This paper highlights the inferences regarding blazar jets that can be gleaned from such joint observations.

  4. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca II triplet in absorption at λλ8498,8542,8662 A is the strongest feature in the infrared spectrum of late-type stars and normal galaxies. Its strength has been found to be a good luminosity indicator for metal-rich stellar populations. We present high signal-to-noise near-IR spectroscopic data for the nuclear region of 42 normal and active galaxies. We have explored the behaviour of the Ca II triplet strength and found that it shows a small spread around a mean value of 7 A for our sample of normal galaxies. We also found that, in all the Seyfert type 2 galaxies measured and even in some Seyfert type 1, while the optical stellar features show substantial dilution, the strength of the IR Ca II triplet is equal to and in some cases larger than that in normal elliptical galaxies. (author)

  5. The economic implications of Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jonathan L.

    2002-01-01

    A major area of concern for Korean unification is the immense cost it will impose on South Korea. To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea. At the same time, North Korea will need to create an environment that is conducive to economic integration by accepting and adopting reform measures that can build the foundation for a market econo...

  6. Crosschecks for Unification at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Löwen, Valéri

    2009-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might test the picture of supersymmetric Grand Unification in particle physics. We argue that the identification of gaugino masses is the most promising step in this direction. Mass predictions for gauginos are pretty robust and often related to the values of the gauge couplings constants. They might allow a meaningful crosscheck for grand unification, at least in simple schemes like gravity, anomaly or mirage mediation.

  7. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small {mu} parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  8. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids. PMID:21217688

  9. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  10. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof-the-art...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star formation in active and normal galaxies (Tsai+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M.; Hwang, C.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We selected 104 active galaxies from the lists of Melendez et al. (2010MNRAS.406..493M), Condon et al. 1991 (cat. J/ApJ/378/65), and Ho & Ulvestad 2001 (cat. J/ApJS/133/77). Most of the sources are identified as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), and a few of them are classified as Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (LIRGs). We obtained 3.6 and 8μm infrared images of these galaxies from the Spitzer Archive (http://sha.ipac.caltech.edu/applications/Spitzer/SHA/) and 8GHz images from the VLA archive (http://archive.nrao.edu/archive/archiveimage.html). We also selected a nearby AGN sub-sample containing 21 radio-selected AGNs for further spatial analysis. We selected 25 nearby AGNs exhibiting no detected radio emission in order to compare with the results of the radio-selected sources. For comparison, we also selected normal galaxies with distances less than 15Mpc from the catalog of Tully 1994 (see cat. VII/145). We only selected the galaxies that have Spitzer archive data and are not identified as AGNs in either the Veron-Cetty & Veron 2006 (see cat. VII/258) AGN catalog or in the NED database (http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/). Our results for the radio-selected and the non-radio-selected active galaxies are listed in Table1, and those for the normal galaxies are listed in Table2. (2 data files).

  12. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, STAR FORMATION, AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN BALMER BREAK GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Tello, J.; Donzelli, C. [IATE, Observatorio Astronomico de Cordoba, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Padilla, N. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Fujishiro, N.; Yoshikawa, T. [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan); Hanami, H. [Physics Section, Iwate University (Japan); Hatsukade, B., E-mail: jdiazt@oac.uncor.edu [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic study with the derivation of the physical properties of 37 Balmer break galaxies, which have the necessary lines to locate them in star-forming-active galactic nuclei (AGNs) diagnostic diagrams. These galaxies span a redshift range from 0.045 to 0.93 and are somewhat less massive than similar samples of previous works. The studied sample has multiwavelength photometric data coverage from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer bands. We investigate the connection between star formation and AGN activity via optical, mass-excitation (MEx), and MIR diagnostic diagrams. Through optical diagrams, 31 (84%) star-forming galaxies, two (5%) composite galaxies, and three (8%) AGNs were classified, whereas from the MEx diagram only one galaxy was classified as AGN. A total of 19 galaxies have photometry available in all the IRAC/Spitzer bands. Of these, three AGN candidates were not classified as AGN in the optical diagrams, suggesting they are dusty/obscured AGNs, or that nuclear star formation has diluted their contributions. By fitting the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies, we derived the stellar masses, dust reddening E(B - V), ages, and UV star formation rates (SFRs). Furthermore, the relationship between SFR surface density ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) and stellar mass surface density per time unit ({Sigma}{sub M{sub */{tau}}}) as a function of redshift was investigated using the [O II] {lambda}3727, 3729, H{alpha} {lambda}6563 luminosities, which revealed that both quantities are larger for higher redshift galaxies. We also studied the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) versus stellar mass and color relations, with the more massive galaxies having higher SFR values but lower SSFR values than less massive galaxies. These results are consistent with previous ones showing that, at a given mass, high-redshift galaxies have on average larger SFR and SSFR values than low-redshift galaxies. Finally, bluer galaxies have larger SSFR values than redder

  13. Accretion/jet activity and narrow [O III] kinematics in young radio galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew; HUMPHREY

    2010-01-01

    We estimate black hole masses and Edenton ratios for a sample of 81 young radio galaxies,which includes 42 compact steep-spectrum(CSS) and 39 gigahertz-peaked spectrum(GPS) sources.We find that the average black hole(BH) mass of these young radio galaxies is〈log Mbh〉-8.3,which is less than that of radio loud QSOs and low redshift radio galaxies(〈 log Mbh〉-9.0).The CSS/GPS sources have relatively high Eddington ratios,with an average value of〈log Lbol/LEdd〉=-0.75,which are similar to those of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies(NLS1s).This suggests that young radio galaxies may not only be in the early stages of their radio activity,but also in the early stage of their accretion activity.We find that the young radio galaxies,as a class,systematically deviate from the Mbh-σ relation defined by nearby inactive galaxies,when using σ[O III] as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion σ.We also find that the deviation of the [O III] line width,Δσ =σ[O III]-σ[pred],is correlated with the Eddington ratio;sources with Lbol/LEdd-1 have the largest deviations,which are similar to those of radio quiet QSOs/NLS1s(i.e.,sources in which the radio jets are absent or weak),and where σ[pred] is calculated from the Tremaine et al.relation using our estimated BH masses.A similar result has been obtained for 9 linear radio Seyfert galaxies.On the basis of these results,we suggest that,in addition to the possible jet-gas interactions,accretion activities may also play an important role in shaping the kinematics of the narrow [O III] line in young radio galaxies.

  14. On the Host Galaxy of GRB 150101B and the Associated Active Galactic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of $\\sim 5.7\\ Gyr$, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy (XBONG), and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). Our work explores interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help understand the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  15. Accretion/Jet Activity and Narrow [O III] Kinematics in Young Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qingwen; Humphrey, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios for a sample of 81 young radio galaxies (42 CSS +39 GPS). We find that the average black hole (BH) mass of these young radio galaxies is ~8.3, which is less than that of radio loud QSOs and low redshift radio galaxies. The CSS/GPS sources have relatively high Eddington ratios, with an average value of =-0.75, which are similar to those of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). This suggests that young radio galaxies may not only be in the early stages of their radio activity, but also in the early stage of their accretion activity. We find that the young radio galaxies as a class deviate systematically from M_bh-\\sigma relation defined by nearby inactive galaxies, when using [O III] as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion, \\sigma_* . We also find that the deviation of the [O III] line width is correlated with the Eddington ratio and sources with Lbol/LEdd~1 have the largest deviations, which are similar to those of radio quiet QSOs/NLS1s (radio jets i...

  16. The nature and origin of Narrow Line AGN activity in a sample of isolated SDSS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Coziol, R; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Islas-Islas, J M; Ortega-Minakata, R A; Larios, D M Neri; Andernach, H

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the nature and origin of the nuclear activity observed in a sample of 292 SDSS narrow-emission-line galaxies, considered to have formed and evolved in isolation. All these galaxies are spiral like and show some kind of nuclear activity. The fraction of Narrow Line AGNs (NLAGNs) and Transition type Objects (TOs; a NLAGN with circumnuclear star formation) is relatively high, amounting to 64% of the galaxies. There is a definite trend for the NLAGNs to appear in early-type spirals, while the star forming galaxies and TOs are found in later-type spirals. We verify that the probability for a galaxy to show an AGN characteristic increases with the bulge mass of the galaxy (Torre-Papaqui et al. 2011), and find evidence that this trend is really a by-product of the morphology, suggesting that the AGN phenomenon is intimately connected with the formation process of the galaxies. Consistent with this interpretation, we establish a strong connection between the astration rate--the efficiency with which the ga...

  17. Mid-Infrared Colors of Dwarf Galaxies: Young Starbursts Mimicking Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Greene, Jenny E; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Searching for active galactic nuclei (AGN) in dwarf galaxies is important for our understanding of the seed black holes that formed in the early Universe. Here, we test infrared selection methods for AGN activity at low galaxy masses. Our parent sample consists of ~18,000 nearby dwarf galaxies (M*< 3 x 10^9 Msun, $z<0.055$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with significant detections in the first three bands of the AllWISE data release from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). First, we demonstrate that the majority of optically-selected AGNs in dwarf galaxies are not selected as AGNs using WISE infrared color diagnostics and that the infrared emission is dominated by the host galaxies. We then investigate the infrared properties of optically-selected star-forming dwarf galaxies, finding that the galaxies with the reddest infrared colors are the most compact, with blue optical colors, young stellar ages and large specific star formation rates. These results indicate that great care must be tak...

  18. The radio halo and active galaxies in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cambridge Low-Frequency Synthesis Telescope has been used to map the Coma cluster at 151 MHz. Two new extended sources are found, associated with the cluster galaxies NGC4839 and NGC4849. The central halo radio source is shown not to have a simple symmetrical structure but to be distorted, with separate centres of brightening near the radio galaxies NGC4874 and IC4040. The structure cannot be accounted for by cluster-wide acceleration processes but implies a close connection with current radio galaxies and, in particular, models requiring diffusion of electrons out of radio sources seem to be favoured. The other large source, near Coma A, is detected and higher resolution data at 1407 MHz are used to clarify its structure. (author)

  19. The Incidence of Active Galactic Nuclei in Pure Disk Galaxies: The Spitzer View

    CERN Document Server

    Satyapal, S; Mcalpine, W; Gliozzi, M; Abel, N P; Heckman, T

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study using Spitzer of 18 bulgeless (Sd/Sdm) galaxies that show no definitive signatures of nuclear activity in their optical spectra. This is the first systematic mid-IR search for weak or hidden AGNs in a statistically significant sample of bulgeless disk galaxies. Based on the detection of the high-ionization [NeV] line, we report the discovery of an AGN in one out of the 18 galaxies in the sample. This galaxy, NGC 4178, is a nearby edge-on Sd galaxy, which likely hosts a prominent nuclear star cluster (NSC). The bolometric luminosity of the AGN inferred from the [NeV] luminosity is ~ 8e41 ergs/s. This is almost two orders of magnitude greater than the luminosity of the AGN in NGC 4395, the best studied AGN in a bulgeless disk galaxy. Assuming that the AGN in NGC 4178 is radiating below the Eddington limit, the lower mass limit for the black hole is ~ 6e3M_sun. The fact that none of the other galaxies in the sample shows any evidence for an AGN demonstrates...

  20. Investigating the AGN activity and black hole masses in Low Surface brightness galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian., Smitha; Das., Mousumi; George., Koshy; Sivarani, T; Prabhu, T P

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad H$\\alpha$ emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of H$\\alpha$ is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in H$\\alpha$, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad H$\\alpha$ parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range $10^{5}-10^{7} M_{\\odot}$. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion $\\sigma_{e}$...

  1. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Interacting Galaxies: A Near-UV Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We study nearby galaxies in close pairs to study the key factors affecting star formation and AGN activity triggered during galaxy interactions. Close pairs are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey assuming a projected separation of $<$30kpc and recessional velocity difference $<$500km s$^{-1}$. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) fluxes from GALEX are used to estimate specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We find a factor of $\\sim$5.3 increase in SSFR for low mass (10$^{8}-10^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) close pair galaxies and a factor of $\\sim$2.1 increase in SSFR for high mass mass (10$^{11}-10^{13}$M$_{\\odot}$) close pairs compared to the general galaxy population. Considering galaxies of all masses, we find a factor of $\\sim$1.8 enhancement in SSFR for close pairs in field environments compared to non-pairs, with no significant increase for pairs in group and cluster environments. A modest decrease of a factor of $\\sim$1.4 is found in the Seyfert fraction in close pair galaxies when compared to isolated galaxies, ...

  2. A hybrid model for the evolution of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Xia, Jun-Qing; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Negrello, Mattia; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Rigby, Emma; Castex, Guillaume; Delabrouille, Jacques; Danese, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a comprehensive investigation of the cosmological evolution of the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the infrared (IR). Based on the observed dichotomy in the ages of stellar populations of early-type galaxies on one side and late-type galaxies on the other, the model interprets the epoch-dependent LFs at z \\geq 1.5 using a physical model for the evolution of proto-spheroidal galaxies and of the associated AGNs, while IR galaxies at z<1.5 are interpreted as being mostly late-type 'cold' (normal) and 'warm' (starburst) galaxies. As for proto-spheroids, in addition to the epoch-dependent LFs of stellar and AGN components separately, we have worked out the evolving LFs of these objects as a whole (stellar plus AGN component). The model provides a physical explanation for the observed positive evolution of both galaxies and AGNs up to z \\simeq 2.5 and for the negative evolution at higher redshifts, for the sharp transition from Euclidean to extremely...

  3. Unification: Not Just a Thing of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Votsis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We often hear that simplicity, explanatory power and unification, though aesthetically pleasing or beautiful qualities, are at best pragmatic considerations in matters of choosing between rival hypotheses. This paper aims to offer a novel conception and an associated measure of unification, both of which are demonstrably more than just pragmatic considerations. The discussion departs from a brief survey of some failed attempts to carve out adequate conceptions of unification. It then proceeds to an analysis of the notions of confirmational connectedness and disconnectedness. Roughly speaking, these notions attempt to capture the way support propagates or fails to propagate between the content parts of a hypothesis or, equivalently, between the contents of two or more hypotheses. The two notions are instrumental in helping to tackle the problem of ad hoc, and in particular monstrous, hypotheses. More importantly for the purposes of this paper, they are essential ingredients in the proposed conception of unification and its associated measure. In simple terms, the more the content of a hypothesis (or, equivalently, the content of a set of hypotheses is confirmationally connected the more that content is unified. Since the confirmational connectedness of two content parts is determined by purely objective matters of fact, the proposed notion and measure of unification are themselves strictly objective, i.e. not merely pragmatic considerations in matters of hypothesis choice. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the proposed measure handles real and hypothetical examples but also how it stands up to various objections.

  4. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3galaxies, indicating a physical link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection. These proceedi...

  5. The Far-Infrared Energy Distributions of Seyfert and Starburst Galaxies in the Local Universe: Infrared Space Observatory Photometry of the 12 Micron Active Galaxy Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Andreani, Paola; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2002-06-01

    New far-infrared photometry with ISOPHOT aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is presented for 58 galaxies with homogeneous published data for another 32 galaxies, all belonging to the 12 μm galaxy sample-in total, 29 Seyfert 1 galaxies, 35 Seyfert 2 galaxies, and 12 starburst galaxies, or about half of the 12 μm active galaxy sample, plus 14 normal galaxies for comparison. ISO and Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data are used to define color-color diagrams and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Thermal dust emission at two temperatures (one cold at 15-30 K and one warm at 50-70 K) can fit the 60-200 μm SED, with a dust emissivity law proportional to the inverse square of the wavelength. Seyfert 1 galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable longward of 100 μm, while, as already seen by IRAS, the former have flatter SEDs shortward of 60 μm. A mild anticorrelation is found between the [200-100] color and the ``60 μm excess.'' We infer that this is due to the fact that galaxies with a strong starburst component and thus a strong 60 μm flux have a steeper far-infrared turnover. In non-Seyfert galaxies, increasing the luminosity corresponds to increasing the star formation rate, which enhances the 25 and 60 μm emission. This shifts the peak emission from around 150 μm in the most quiescent spirals to shorter than 60 μm in the strongest starburst galaxies. To quantify these trends further, we identified with the IRAS colors three idealized infrared SEDs: pure quiescent disk emission, pure starburst emission, and pure Seyfert nucleus emission. Even between 100 and 200 μm, the quiescent disk emission remains much cooler than the starburst component. Seyfert galaxies have 100-200 μm SEDs ranging from pure disks to pure starbursts, with no apparent contribution from their active nuclei at those wavelengths. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France

  6. A consequence of the asymmetry of jets in quasars and active nuclei of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklovsky, I. S.

    The possibility that radio emission of quasars and radio galaxies is a result of ejections of plasmoids issuing from the supercritical accretion on massive black holes at the center of galaxies is discussed. Evidence from observations of Cygnus A, Centaurus A, and Fornax A are cited to suggest that one-sided and two-sided jets occur near the center of galaxies. The ejection of a jet is shown to be a nonsymetrical event, thus allowing the possibility that all jets are one-sided, with two-sided jets actually being evidence for one remnant jet in the company of another remnant or an active event. The recoil velocity acquired by a black hole because of the ejection of plasmoids is modeled numerically. The black hole is determined to necessarily escape from the parent galaxy, which then ceases being a compact source. Short-lived quasars are therefore extinguished when super-critically accreting regimes end.

  7. Bulges and disks in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    CERN Document Server

    Morselli, L; Erfanianfar, G; Concas, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy morphology and star formation activity are strictly linked, in the way that bulge-dominated galaxies are in general quiescent, while disk dominated galaxies are actively star-forming. In this paper, we study the properties of bulges and disks as a function of the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) plane. Our sample is built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue, and the bulge-disk decomposition is the one of Simard et al. (2011). We find that at a given stellar mass the Main Sequence (MS) is populated by galaxies with the lowest B/T ratios. The B/T on the MS increases with increasing stellar mass, thus confirming previous results in literature. In the upper envelop of the MS, the average B/T is higher than that of MS counterparts at fixed stellar mass. This indicates that starburst galaxies have a significant bulge component. In addition, bulges above the MS are characterised by blue colours, whereas, if on the MS or below it, they are mostly red and dead. The disks ...

  8. Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  9. Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    4D Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. $SO(5) \\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for $\\theta_H < 0.1$, and predicts $Z'$ bosons around 6 - 10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is genelarized to $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  10. Yukawa unification in heterotic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Constantin, Andrei; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Yukawa unification in the context of E8×E8 heterotic Calabi-Yau models which rely on breaking to a grand unified theory (GUT) via a nonflat gauge bundle and subsequent Wilson line breaking to the standard model. Our focus is on underlying GUT theories with gauge group S U (5 ) or S O (10 ). We provide a detailed analysis of the fact that, in contrast to traditional field theory GUTs, the underlying GUT symmetry of these models does not enforce Yukawa unification. Using this formalism, we present various scenarios where Yukawa unification can occur as a consequence of additional symmetries. These additional symmetries arise naturally in some heterotic constructions, and we present an explicit heterotic line bundle model which realizes one of these scenarios.

  11. Unification and explanation in early Kaluza-Klein theories

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Ioan Lucian

    2009-01-01

    Unifying distinct domains of phenomena is one of the most important non-empirical virtues of scientific theories. However, what counts as unification and what makes it important are philosophically controversial. I canvass two positions toward unification (the enthusiasts and the dissenters) as well as two methods to approach unification : the general approach and the specific approach based on case studies. Some philosophers take unification to be truth conducive (Friedman), others to be cen...

  12. China’s unification: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Mario Arturo Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the prospect of a possible unification between People’s Republic of China (Mainland China and Republic of China (Taiwan from a multi-dimensional perspective which encompasses the political, social, economic, and technological dimensions. The underlying idea is to evaluate the possibility of a partial or total reunification between the two countries in a more comprehensive way than just assessing the economic costs and benefits. Our evaluation is based on the application of the GDRI-Model, which looks at unification and regional integration simultaneously from the political, economic, social and technological perspectives.

  13. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  14. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, amon...... the nations, a common core of legal values? If there is, this will facilitate legal unification. It will also make the international law-making easier if, in exceptional cases, a court is permitted to disregard a legal rule....

  15. Peaceful unification by antinuclear and antiwar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of three parts. The first part is to make a new recognition of unification. It deals with articles, which are situation of the Korean peninsula by Lee, Jung Sick, nuclear strategy of and peace of the Korean peninsula by Glen page. The making peace, which includes three principles for national unification by student association of Seoul University, Changing international circumstances and the Korean peninsula by Hong, hyeongi. The third part is for major unified plan in 1980's. The includes many articles, which are 7.4 North and South joint statement and 7.7 presidential special declaration and so on.

  16. Infrared Signature of Active Massive Black Holes in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, Francine R; Bianconi, Matteo; Habas, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We have identified 314 nearby galaxies that display the infrared signature of black hole activity. Of these, twelve lie within a distance of 11 Mpc, the nearest being EW Eri located only 50 kpc away. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Release Source Catalog, we examine the IR colors of a sample of known nearby dwarf galaxies in order to identify both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) active galactic nuclei in these low-mass systems. We estimate the stellar and black hole masses for our nearby dwarf galaxy sample and find that activity is detected in galaxies with stellar masses from 10^5 to 10^9 M_sun and that this activity is due to black holes with masses in the range 10^2-10^6 M_sun. The black hole masses probed here are several orders of magnitude smaller than previously reported for centrally located massive black holes. We examine the stellar mass versus black hole mass relationship in this low galaxy mass regime, and find that the existing relation extends to these low...

  17. Cosmic web and star formation activity in galaxies at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected Hα emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large-scale structure at z = 0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments, and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific SFR, the mean SFR-mass relation, and its scatter for both Hα emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of Hα emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z ∼ 1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible physical agent for the elevation of the fraction of Hα star-forming galaxies in filaments. Our results show that filaments are the likely physical environments that are often classed as the 'intermediate' densities and that the cosmic web likely plays a major role in galaxy formation and evolution which has so far been poorly investigated.

  18. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES AROUND RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worpel, Hauke [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Brown, Michael J. I.; Jones, D. Heath; Floyd, David J. E. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Beutler, Florian [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2013-07-20

    We examine the hypothesis that mergers and close encounters between galaxies can fuel active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by increasing the rate at which gas accretes toward the central black hole. We compare the clustering of galaxies around radio-loud AGNs with the clustering around a population of radio-quiet galaxies with similar masses, colors, and luminosities. Our catalog contains 2178 elliptical radio galaxies with flux densities greater than 2.8 mJy at 1.4 GHz from the Six Degree Field Galaxy Survey. We find tentative evidence that radio AGNs with more than 200 times the median radio power have, on average, more close (r < 160 kpc) companions than their radio-quiet counterparts, suggesting that mergers play a role in forming the most powerful radio galaxies. For ellipticals of fixed stellar mass, the radio power is neither a function of large-scale environment nor halo mass, consistent with the radio powers of ellipticals varying by orders of magnitude over billions of years.

  19. Evidence for Widespread AGN Activity among Massive Quiescent Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Karen Pardos; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the presence of Active Galactic nuclei (AGN) in a mass-complete (M_* >5e10 M_sun) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 3e42 ergs/s). The latter fraction is similar for star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and does not depend on galaxy stellar mass, suggesting that perhaps luminous AGN are triggered by external effects such as mergers. We detect significant mean X-ray signals in stacked images for both the individually non-detected star-forming and quiescent galaxies, with spectra consistent with star formation only and/or a low luminosity AGN in both cases. Comparing star formation rates inferred from the 2-10 keV luminosities to those from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGN. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGN, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43-65%). The ubiquitous presence of AGN in massive, q...

  20. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1 < z < 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouart, G.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; De Breuck, C.; Fioc, M.; Lehnert, M.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Vernet, J.

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1 relative contribution of the AGN and star formation by combining the galaxy evolution code PÉGASE.3 with an AGN torus model. We find that three components are necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs: an evolved and massive stellar component, a submm bright young starburst, and an AGN torus. We find that powerful radio galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1 mass of the associated starburst varies from 5 to 50% of the total mass of the system. The properties of star formation differ from source to source, indicating no general trend of the star formation properties in the most infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and no correlation with the AGN bolometric luminosity. Moreover, we find that AGN scattered light have a very limited impact on broad-band SED fitting on our sample. Finally, our analysis also suggests a wide range in origins for the observed star formation,which we partially constrain for some sources.

  1. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  2. Mechanical Feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei in Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R

    2012-01-01

    The radiative cooling timescales at the centers of hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters are much shorter than their ages. Therefore, hot atmospheres are expected to cool and to form stars. Cold gas and star formation are observed in central cluster galaxies but at levels below those expected from an unimpeded cooling flow. X-ray observations have shown that wholesale cooling is being offset by mechanical heating from radio active galactic nuclei. Feedback is widely considered to be an important and perhaps unavoidable consequence of the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. We show that cooling X-ray atmospheres and the ensuing star formation and nuclear activity are probably coupled to a self-regulated feedback loop. While the energetics are now reasonably well understood, other aspects of feedback are not. We highlight the problems of atmospheric heating and transport processes, accretion, and nuclear activity, and we discuss the potential role of black hole sp...

  3. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations

  4. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  5. Can a Satellite Galaxy Merger Explain the Active Past of the Galactic Center?

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Meagan; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Sesana, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the Galactic Center (GC) have accumulated a multitude of "forensic" evidence indicating that several million years ago the center of the Milky Way galaxy was teaming with starforming and accretion-powered activity -- this paints a rather different picture from the GC as we understand it today. We examine a possibility that this epoch of activity could have been triggered by the infall of a satellite galaxy into the Milky Way which began at the redshift of 10 and ended few million years ago with a merger of the Galactic supermassive black hole with an intermediate mass black hole brought in by the inspiralling satellite.

  6. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  7. The Evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Clusters of Galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bufanda, E; Jeltema, T E; Rykoff, E S; Rozo, E; Martini, P; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Levy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Melchior, P; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Rooney, P; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Tucker, D L; Walker, A R

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 10^43 ergs s^-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.10.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 and 2 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship betwe...

  8. The Relationship of Active Galactic Nuclei & Quasars With Their Local Galaxy Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Natalie Erin

    2009-01-01

    We explore how the local environment is related to properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of various luminosities. Recent simulations and observations are converging on the view that the extreme luminosity of quasars, the brightest of AGNs, is fueled in major mergers of gas-rich galaxies. In such a picture, quasars, the highest luminosity AGNs, are expected to be located in regions with a higher density of galaxies on small scales where mergers are more likely to take place. However, in this picture, the activity observed in low-luminosity AGNs is due to secular processes that are less dependent on the local galaxy density. To test this hypothesis, we compare the local photometric galaxy density on kiloparsec scales around spectroscopic type I and type II quasars to the local density around lower-luminosity spectroscopic type I and type II AGNs. To minimize projection effects and evolution in the photometric galaxy sample we use to characterize AGN environments, we place our random control sample at the ...

  9. Multiple tidal disruption flares in the active galaxy IC 3599

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; Colpi, M; Lodato, G; D'Avanzo, P; Evans, P A; Moretti, A

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events occur when a star passes too close to a massive black hole and it is totally ripped apart by tidal forces. Alternatively, if the star does not get close enough to the black hole to be totally disrupted, a less dramatic event might happen with the star surviving the encounter and loosing only a small fraction of its mass. In this situation if the stellar orbit is bound and highly eccentric, just like some stars in the centre of our own Galaxy, repeated flares should occur. When the star approaches the black hole tidal radius at periastron, matter might be stripped resulting in lower intensity outbursts recurring once every orbital period. We report on Swift observations of a recent bright flare from the galaxy IC 3599 hosting a middle-weight black hole, where a possible tidal disruption event was observed in the early 1990s. By light curve modelling and spectral fitting we can consistently account for the events as the non-disruptive tidal stripping of a star into a highly eccentric orb...

  10. Star formation activities in early-type brightest cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F S; Meng, X M

    2012-01-01

    We identify a total of 120 early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) at 0.1galaxy stellar mass). We also compare their statistical properties with a control sample selected from X-ray luminous c...

  11. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows). PMID:25810204

  12. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, P. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA); NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1989-06-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs.

  13. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs

  14. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud.

  15. Where the active galaxies live: a panchromatic view of radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Trichas, Markos

    2013-01-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of radio sources in the AKARI-North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field, using an ensemble of multi-wavelength datasets. We identify both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and study their host galaxy properties by means of SED fitting. We investigate the relative importance of nuclear and star-formation activity in radio-AGN and assess the role of radio-AGN as efficient quenchers of star-formation in their host galaxies.

  16. J1216+0709: A Radio Galaxy with Three Episodes of AGN Jet Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a “triple-double radio galaxy,” J1216+0709, detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly coaxial middle pair of lobes, and a pair of outer lobes that is bent with respect to the axis of the inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40″ (∼95 kpc), 1.‧65 (∼235 kpc), and 5.‧7 (∼814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes, both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm lengths and flux densities, but in the opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter than the western sides, thus, suggesting the possibility of the jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to a relativistic beaming effect. The host galaxy is a bright elliptical (m r ∼ 16.56) with M SMBH ∼ 3.9 × 109 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of ∼{4.66}-1.61{{+4.65}} M ⊙ yr‑1. The host galaxy resides in a small group of three galaxies (m r ≤ 17.77) and is possibly going through an interaction with faint dwarf galaxies in the neighborhood, which may have triggered the recent episodes of AGN activity.

  17. Simulations of spiral galaxies with an active potential: molecular cloud formation and gas dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Clare; Bonnell, Ian

    2008-01-01

    We describe simulations of the response of a gaseous disc to an active spiral potential. The potential is derived from an N-body calculation and leads to a multi-armed time-evolving pattern. The gas forms long spiral arms typical of grand design galaxies, although the spiral pattern is asymmetric. The primary difference from a grand-design spiral galaxy, which has a consistent 2/4-armed pattern, is that instead of passing through the spiral arms, gas generally falls into a developing potentia...

  18. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Terlevich, Elena; Angeles I. Díaz; Terlevich, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Terlevich, E., Díaz, A.I., Terlevich, R. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 242 (1990): 271-284

  19. Active galactic nuclei and their role in galaxy evolution : The infrared perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which

  20. Mid- to far infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, G E; Helou, G; Farrah, D; Hurley, P; Alonso-Herrero, A; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Chapman, S; Charmandaris, V; Cooray, A; Dai, Y S; Dale, D; Elbaz, D; Feltre, A; Hatziminaoglou, E; Huang, J-S; Morrison, G; Oliver, S; Page, M; Scott, D; Shi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24um-selected flux-limited sample (S24 > 5mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (~0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5MUSES survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the HerMES program, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Md) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2um PAH emission (EW0.2um more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500um Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8um luminosity ratio, IR8 = LIR\\L8, and the strength of PAH features. ...

  1. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.3 1027 W Hz-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4 GHz ˜ 1023.7-1028.3 W Hz-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the μe-Reff relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the MK,nuclear -MK,bulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, which could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi-analytical models where low-luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high-luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Unveiling the nature of kinematically offset active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T; Scott, N; Fogarty, L M R; Ho, I -T; Medling, A M; Leslie, S K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bryant, J J; Croom, S M; Goodwin, M; Green, A W; Konstantopoulos, I S; Lawrence, J S; Owers, M S; Richards, S N; Sharp, R

    2015-01-01

    We have observed two kinematically offset active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose ionised gas is at a different line-of-sight velocity to their host galaxies, with the SAMI integral field spectrograph (IFS). One of the galaxies shows gas kinematics very different to the stellar kinematics, indicating a recent merger or accretion event. We demonstrate that the star formation associated with this event was triggered within the last 100 Myr. The other galaxy shows simple disc rotation in both gas and stellar kinematics, aligned with each other, but in the central region has signatures of an outflow driven by the AGN. Other than the outflow, neither galaxy shows any discontinuity in the ionised gas kinematics at the galaxy's centre. We conclude that in these two cases there is no direct evidence of the AGN being in a supermassive black hole binary system. Our study demonstrates that selecting kinematically offset AGN from single-fibre spectroscopy provides, by definition, samples of kinematically peculiar objects, bu...

  3. Tracing the evolution of active galactic nuclei host galaxies over the last 9 Gyr of cosmic time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A. D.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Paggi, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Kraft, R.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Coil, A. L. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Newman, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Weiner, B. J., E-mail: agoulding@cfa.harvard.edu [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Boötes, and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared, and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-forming galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remained as separate galaxy populations throughout the last 9 Gyr. Furthermore, it appears that galaxies hosting AGN have evolved along the same path as galaxies that are not hosting AGN with little evidence for distinctly separate evolution.

  4. The Main Sequences of Starforming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, Claudia; Shi, J; Gonzàlez-Nuevo, J; Bèthermin, M; Danese, L

    2016-01-01

    We provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, the average shape, the scatter, and the cosmic evolution for the main sequences of starforming galaxies and active galactic nuclei at high redshift z $\\gtrsim$ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting: (i) the redshift-dependent SFR functions based on the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and re- lated statistics of strong gravitationally lensed sources; (ii) deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Eddington ratio distribution. We further validate these ingredients by showing their consistency with the observed galaxy stellar mass functions and AGN bolometric luminosity functions at different redshifts via the continuity equation approach. Our analysis of the main sequence for high-redshift galaxies and AGNs highlights that the present data are consistently interpreted in terms of an in...

  5. Active Galactic Nuclei and their Role in Galaxy Evolution: The Infrared Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which IR observations provide a wealth of complementary information that cannot be derived from data in other wavelength regimes. In this review, I summarize the unique contribution that IR astronomy has recently made to our understanding of AGN and their role in galaxy evolution, including both physical studies of AGN at IR wavelengths, and the search for AGN among IR galaxies in general. Finally, I identify and discuss key open issues that it should be possible to address with forthcoming IR telescopes.

  6. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AT z ∼ 2 AND THE MUTUAL EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE AND INACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimatti, A.; Brusa, M.; Talia, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-30127 Bologna (Italy); Mignoli, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Kurk, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrial Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Cassata, P. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Halliday, C. [23 rue d' Yerres, F-91230 Montgeron (France); Renzini, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E., E-mail: a.cimatti@unibo.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-12-10

    The relationship between galaxies of intermediate stellar mass and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1 < z < 3 is investigated with a Galaxy Mass Assembly ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS) sample complemented with public data in the GOODS-South field. Using X-ray data, hidden AGNs are identified in unsuspected star-forming galaxies with no apparent signs of non-stellar activity. In the color-mass plane, two parallel trends emerge during the ∼2 Gyr between the average redshifts z ∼ 2.2 and z ∼ 1.3: while the red sequence becomes significantly more populated by ellipticals, the majority of AGNs with L(2-10 keV) > 10{sup 42.3} erg s{sup –1} disappear from the blue cloud/green valley where they were hosted predominantly by star-forming systems with disk and irregular morphologies. These results are even clearer when the rest-frame colors are corrected for dust reddening. At z ∼ 2.2, the ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies (including two Type 1 AGNs) show possible gas outflows with velocities up to about –500 km s{sup –1}, which are observed neither in inactive systems at the same redshift, nor at lower redshifts. Such outflows indicate the presence of gas that can move faster than the escape velocities of active galaxies. These results suggest that feedback from moderately luminous AGNs (log L{sub X} < 44.5 erg s{sup –1}) played a key role at z ≳ 2 by contributing to outflows capable of ejecting part of the interstellar medium and leading to a rapid decrease in star formation in host galaxies with stellar masses 10 < log(M/M{sub ⊙})< 11.

  7. Galaxy Zoo: The properties of merging galaxies in the nearby Universe - local environments, colours, masses, star-formation rates and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Darg, D W; Lintott, C J; Schawinski, K; Sarzi, M; Bamford, S; Silk, J; Andreescu, D; Murray, P; Nichol, R C; Raddick, M J; Slosar, A; Szalay, A S; Thomas, D; Vandenberg, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the study of Darg et al. (2009; hereafter D09a) we explore the environments, optical colours, stellar masses, star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 3003 merging galaxies drawn from the SDSS using the Galaxy Zoo project. While D09a found that the spiral-to-elliptical ratio in (major) mergers appeared higher than that of the global galaxy population, no significant differences are found between the environmental distributions of mergers and a randomly selected control sample. This makes the high occurrence of spirals in mergers unlikely to be an environmental effect and must, therefore, arise from differing time-scales of detectability for spirals and ellipticals. We find that merging galaxies have a wider spread in colour than the global galaxy population, with a significant blue tail resulting from intense star-formation in spiral mergers. Galaxies classed as star-forming using their emission-line properties have average star-formation rates approximately doubled by the merger process thoug...

  8. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  9. Einstein's quest for unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theory Division at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-01-01

    The last 30 years of his life were spent on a fruitless search for a unified field theory, but as John Ellis explains, Einstein put this 'holy grail' of modern physics on the theoretical map. The definitive scientific biography of Einstein, Subtle is the Lord..., which was written by Abraham Pais in 1982, delivered an unequivocal verdict on Einstein's quest for a unified field theory. Pais wrote that the time for unification had not come, and that Einstein's work 'led to no results of physical interest'. But a lot of water has flowed under the bridge of unification since then, allowing us to look back with perhaps more indulgence as we celebrate the centenary of Einstein's 1905 papers. (U.K.)

  10. Unification and New Particles at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Low, Matthew; Pinner, David

    2016-01-01

    Precision gauge coupling unification is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies. In this work we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with unification, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and confine quickly after the superpartners are decoupled. For a range of scalar masses compatible with both moderately tuned and minimally split supersymmetry, the confining dynamics happen at the multi-TeV scale, leading to a spectrum of multiple spin-0 and spin-1 resonances accessible to the LHC, with unusual quantum numbers and striking decay patterns.

  11. Gauge Unification from Split Supersymmetric String Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kokorelis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the unification of gauge coupling constants in non-supersymmetric open string vacua that possess the properties of Split Supersymmetry, namely the Standard Model with Higgsinos at low energies and where the Standard model spectrum is always accompanied by right handed neutrinos. These vacua achieve partial unification of two out of three (namely SU(3)$_c$, SU(2), U(1)) running gauge couplings, possess massive gauginos and light Higgsinos at low energies and also satisfy $sin^2\\theta_w (M_s) = 3/8$. These vacua are based on four dimensional orbifold $Z_3 \\times Z_3$ compactifications of string IIA orientifolds with D6-branes intersecting at angles, where the (four dimensional) chiral fermions of the Standard Model appear as opens strings streching between the intersections of seven dimensional objects the so called D6-branes.

  12. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  13. Supersymmetry and Supergravity: Phenomenology and Grand Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, Pran

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of $SU(2) \\times U(1)$, proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. Wh...

  14. Evidence for widespread active galactic nucleus activity among massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.P.; Rasmussen, J.; Toft, S.;

    2013-01-01

    from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGNs. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70%-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGNs, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43...

  15. A GMRT Study of Seyfert Galaxies NGC4235 & NGC4594: Evidence of Episodic Activity ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Singh, V; Gallimore, J F; Ishwara-Chandra, C H; Hota, Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency observations at 325 and 610 MHz have been carried out for two "radio-loud" Seyfert galaxies, NGC4235 and NGC4594 (Sombrero galaxy), using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The 610 MHz total intensity and 325-610 MHz spectral index images of NGC4235 tentatively suggest the presence of a "relic" radio lobe, most likely from a previous episode of AGN activity. This makes NGC4235 only the second known Seyfert galaxy after Mrk6 to show signatures of episodic activity. Spitzer and Herschel infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling using the clumpyDREAM code predicts star formation rates (SFR) that are an order of magnitude lower than those required to power the radio lobes in these Seyferts (~0.13-0.23 M_sun/yr compared to the required SFR of ~2.0-2.7 M_sun/yr in NGC4594 and NGC4235, respectively). This finding along with the detection of parsec and sub-kpc radio jets in both Seyfert galaxies, that are roughly along the same position angles as the radio lobes, strongly support th...

  16. The connection between radio loudness and central surface brightness profiles in optically selected low-luminosity active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, A. J.; Uttley, P.; Körding, E.

    2011-08-01

    Recent results indicate a correlation between nuclear radio loudness of active galaxies and their central stellar surface-brightness profiles, in that 'core' galaxies (with inner logarithmic slope γ≤ 0.3) are significantly more radio loud than 'power-law' galaxies (γ≥ 0.5). This connection, which indicates possible links between radio loudness and galaxy formation history (e.g. through black hole spin), has so far only been confirmed for a radio-selected sample of galaxies. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the Nuker law, which was used to parametrize the brightness profiles in these studies, gives a poor description of the brightness profile, with its parameters varying systematically with the radial fitted extent of the profile. Here, we present an analysis of the central surface brightness profiles of the active galaxies of Hubble type T≤ 3, that were identified by the optically selected Palomar spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. We fit the brightness profiles using Sérsic, Core-Sérsic and, where necessary, Double-Sérsic models, which we fit to the semimajor axis brightness profiles extracted from high-resolution images of the galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these fits to classify the galaxies as 'Core', 'Sérsic' or 'Double-Sérsic'. We compare the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their host galaxies with this classification, and we recover the already established trend for Core galaxies to be more luminous and contain a higher mass supermassive black hole. Defining the radio loudness of an AGN as the ratio of the nuclear radio luminosity to [O III] line luminosity, which allows us to include most of the AGN in our sample and prevents a bias against dim nuclei that are harder to extract from the brightness profiles, we find that AGN hosted in Core galaxies are generally more radio loud than those hosted in Sérsic galaxies, although there is a large overlap between the two subsamples. The correlation

  17. The Hidden Lives of Galaxies: An Information & Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 2000-2001. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evolution of the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, James C.; Williamson, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Ethel

    This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) document presents activities on the properties of galaxies for additional curriculum support. The activities presented in this document include: (1) "How Big Is the Universe"; (2) "Identifying Galaxies"; (3) "Classifying Galaxies Using Hubble's Fork Diagram"; (4) "Identifying Unusual…

  18. Simulating the formation of disk galaxies: The impact of Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Bower, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    Recent semi-analytic models have highlighted the role of AGN jets in regulating the formation of galaxies. In this paper, we present a new implementation of feedback due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation in which AGN feedback is assumed to heat the halo gas through the production of jets. Combining a theoretical model of mass accretion onto black holes with a multiphase description of star-forming gas, we self-consistently follow evolution of both galaxies and their central black holes. The novelty in our model is that we consider the two distinct accretion modes: standard radiatively efficient thin accretion disks and radiatively inefficient accretion flows which we will generically refer to as RIAFs; motivated by the theoretical modelsfor jet production in accretion disks, we assume that only the RIAF is responsible for the production of powerful jets. The focus of this paper is to investigate the interplay between galaxies and their central black h...

  19. AGN Activity and Black Hole Masses in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, S; Das, M

    2011-01-01

    We present medium resolution optical spectroscopy of a sample of nine Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies. For those that show clear signatures of AGN emission, we have disentangled the AGN component from stellar light and any Fe I and Fe II contribution. We have decomposed the H_alpha line into narrow and broad components and determined the velocities of the broad components; typical values lie between 900--2500 km/s. Of the galaxies in our study, UGC 6614, UGC 1922, UGC 6968 and LSBC F568-6 (Malin~2) show clear signatures of AGN activity. We have calculated the approximate black hole masses for these galaxies from the H_alpha line emission using the virial approximation. The black hole masses are ~3x10^{5} M_sun for three galaxies and lie in the intermediate mass black holes domain rather than the supermassive range. UGC 6614 harbors a BH of mass 3.8x10^{6} M_sun; it also shows an interesting feature blueward of H_alpha and H_beta implying outflow of gas or a one-sided jet streaming towards us. We have al...

  20. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Drouart, Guillaume; De Breuck, Carlos; Fioc, Michel; Lehnert, Matthew; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Dan; Vernet, Joel

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1

  1. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D; Juneau, Stephanie; Weiner, Benjamin J; Faber, S M; McLean, Ian S; Yan, Renbin; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Villar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z~1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in two hour exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional "BPT" line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [OIII]/\\Hb ratio is insufficient as an AGN indicator at z>1. For the four X-ray detected galaxies, the classic BPT diagnostic ([OIII]/Hb vs. [NII]/Ha and [SII]/Ha) remains consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona-fide AGNs. Nearly 2/3 of the z~1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or...

  2. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  3. The discovery of five new H2O megamasers in active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, J. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Henkel, C.

    1994-01-01

    H2O megamasers with (isotropic) luminosities between 60 and 200 solar luminosity (H(sub 0) = 75 km/s/Mpc) have been detected in the Seyfert 2 galaxies Mrk 1, Mrk 1210, and NGC 5506 and in the LINERs NGC 1052 and NGC 2639. No megamasers have been found in Seyfert 1's. The galaxies have redshifts between 1500 and 4800 km/s and are the most distant H2O sources reported to date. NGC 1052 is also the first elliptical galaxy known to contain an H2O maser. The intensity distribution of an H2O five-point map obtained toward NGC 5506 shows that the H2O emission is pointlike compared to the 40 sec telescope beam. The lack of CO emission in NGC 1052 implies a conservative lower limit to the H2O brightness temperature of 1000 K, thus ruling out a thermal origin for the H2O emission. The success of this survey relative to other recent searches makes it evident that H2O megamasers are preferentially found in galaxies with active nuclei.

  4. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East-California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Mendel, J. Trevor [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Patton, David R., E-mail: ekhabibo@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  5. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  6. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Bonning, Erin W. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Oh, Kyuseok [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cardamone, Carolin N. [Harriet W. Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning, Brown University, P.O. Box 1912, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 206 Gallalee Hall, 514 University Boulevard, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-034 (United States); Simmons, Brooke D. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  7. Dissecting Galaxies: Spatial and Spectral Separation of Emission Excited by Star Formation and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rebecca L; Kewley, Lisa J; Dopita, Michael A; Hampton, Elise J; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwachter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stephanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and AGN activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion onto an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (> 85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated...

  8. RADIO ACTIVE GALAXY NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: HEATING HOT ATMOSPHERES AND DRIVING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH OVER COSMIC TIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the average radio active galactic nucleus (AGN, mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1 44 erg s–1 exceeds the X-ray luminosity of 44% of the clusters, indicating that the accumulation of radio-AGN energy is significant in these clusters. Integrating the AGN mechanical power to redshift z = 2.0, using simple models for its evolution and disregarding the hierarchical growth of clusters, we find that the AGN energy accumulated per particle in low luminosity X-ray clusters exceeds 1 keV per particle. This result represents a conservative lower limit to the accumulated thermal energy. The estimate is comparable to the level of energy needed to 'preheat' clusters, indicating that continual outbursts from radio-AGN are a significant source of gas energy in hot atmospheres. Assuming an average mass conversion efficiency of η = 0.1, our result implies that the supermassive black holes that released this energy did so by accreting an average of ∼109 M ☉ over time, which is comparable to the level of growth expected during the quasar era.

  9. Herschel observed Stripe 82 quasars and their host galaxies: connections between the AGN activity and the host galaxy star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of $10^{46.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The redshift range of this sample is within $z<4$, with a mean value of $1.5\\pm0.78$. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, FIR luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 $M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mean gas mass is $\\sim 10^{11.3}$ $M_{\\odot}$. All these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Comparing with star format...

  10. Starburst or Seyfert? Adding a radio and far-infrared perspective to the investigation of activity in composite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, T L; Norris, R P; Reynolds, J E; Hunstead, R W; Hill, Tanya L.; Heisler, Charlene A.; Norris, Ray P.; Reynolds, John E.; Hunstead, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    It was once common to regard Seyfert and starburst galaxies as completely different types of object, but there is growing recognition that these classifications refer to the extremes of a continuous spectrum of galaxy types. In a previous study we investigated a sample of galaxies with ambiguous optical emission-line ratios and concluded from near-infrared spectroscopic observations that the sample consisted of composite galaxies, containing both a starburst and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We now extend our study using radio synthesis and long-baseline interferometer observations made with the Australia Telescope, together with far-infrared IRAS observations, to discuss the relative contribution of starburst and AGN components to the overall luminosity of the composite galaxies. We find that only a small fraction of the radio emission (90%) is probably due to the starburst component. We also show that an AGN contribution to the optical emission of as little as 10% is sufficient to account for the ambigu...

  11. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  12. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx < 1.1 10(exp 22)/sq cm) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (< 40 counts per nucleus; (sub -10) keV approx < 1.2 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  13. The Fermi Bubbles. I. Possible Evidence for Recent AGN Jet Activity in the Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50 degrees (~ 10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR) - gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1 - 3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of ~ ...

  14. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of 7 M☉ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ∼1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  15. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  16. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  17. MUC (Memory, Unification, Control and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHagoort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A neurobiological model of language is discussed that overcomes the shortcomings of the classical Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model. It is based on a subdivision of language processing into three components: Memory, Unification, and Control. The functional components as well as the neurobiological underpinnings of the model are discussed. In addition, the need for extension of the model beyond the classical core regions for language is shown. Attentional networks as well as networks for inferential processing are crucial to realize language comprehension beyond single word processing and beyond decoding propositional content. It is shown that this requires the dynamic interaction between multiple brain regions.

  18. Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    exactly near the upper end of the conformal window (Conformal S-parameter) with relevant consequences on the selection of nature's next strong force. We will then introduce the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) models. In the second part of this review we consider the interesting possibility to marry...... supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle...

  19. Unification as a Measure of Natural Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gijsbers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the idea that there can be scientific understanding without explanation lends new relevance to Duhem's notion of natural classification. According to Duhem, a classification that is natural teaches us something about nature without being explanatory. However, Duhem's conception of naturalness leaves much to be desired. In this paper, I argue that we can measure the naturalness of classification by using an amended version of the notion of unification as defined by Schurz and Lambert. If this thesis is correct, it both leads to a better conceptual understanding of scientific understanding, and also gives the nascent literature on this topic some much-needed precision.

  20. Relativistic jet production and propagation in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of the phenomena of active galactic nuclei are beginning to identify the most likely physical processes involved in the galactic nuclei cores which give rise to a fast moving plasma that emerges in directed beams and energizes radio sources. In particular, the formation of the beams appears to be a generic property of the flow pattern around collapsed objects, where there is a relativistically deep potential well. These beams are relevant to extended radio sources, superluminal variations in compact sources, and the injection of high-energy plasma into the intergalactic medium. There is a physical similarity, and not merely a superficial analogy, between the physical mechanisms of such objects as SS 433 and Sco X-1 and the processes in active galactic nuclei. The exploration of fluid dynamic and electrodynamic effects around black holes is envisaged as a fruitful line of inquiry in the present field of study

  1. A Search for "Dwarf" Seyfert Nuclei; 5, Demographics of Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    1997-01-01

    We use the sample of emission-line nuclei derived from a recently completed optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies to quantify the incidence of local (z = 0) nuclear activity. Consistent with previous studies, we find detectable amounts of ionized gas in the central few hundred parsecs of most (86%) galaxies. Half of the objects can be classified as H II or star-forming nuclei and the other half as some form of AGN, of which we distinguish three classes --- Seyfert nuclei, LINERs, and transition objects. The population of AGNs consequently is very large; approximately 43% of the galaxies in our survey can be regarded as "active." Most of the objects have much lower luminosities than AGNs commonly studied; the median luminosity of the narrow H-alpha line, after correcting for extinction, is only 2 x 10^39 erg/s. Our sample therefore occupies the extreme faint end of the AGN luminosity function. We detect signatures of a broad-line region, as revealed by visible broad H-alpha emission, in $\\sim$ 20% of...

  2. COLA. III. RADIO DETECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN COMPACT MODERATE LUMINOSITY INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from 4.8 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) and global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the northern half of the moderate FIR luminosity (median LIR = 1011.01 Lsun) COLA sample of star-forming galaxies. VLBI sources are detected in a high fraction (20/90) of the galaxies observed. The radio luminosities of these cores (∼1021 W Hz-1) are too large to be explained by radio supernovae or supernova remnants and we argue that they are instead powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These sub-parsec scale radio cores are preferentially detected toward galaxies whose VLA maps show bright 100-500 parsec scale nuclear radio components. Since these latter structures tightly follow the FIR to radio-continuum correlation for star formation, we conclude that the AGN-powered VLBI sources are associated with compact nuclear starburst environments. The implications for possible starburst-AGN connections are discussed. The detected VLBI sources have a relatively narrow range of radio luminosity consistent with models in which intense compact Eddington-limited starbursts regulate the gas supply onto a central supermassive black hole. The high incidence of AGN radio cores in compact starbursts suggests little or no delay between the starburst phase and the onset of AGN activity.

  3. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: The MBH - sigma* Relation For Reverberation-Mapped Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Barth, Aaron J; Wright, Shelley A; Walsh, Jonelle L; Bentz, Misty C; Martiny, Paul; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; FIlippenko, Alex V; Gate, Ellinor; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Mattew A; Stern, Daniel; Minezaki, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the black hole mass vs. stellar velocity dispersion (\\msigma) relation of active galaxies, we measured the velocity dispersions of a sample of local Seyfert 1 galaxies, for which we have recently determined black hole masses using reverberation mapping. For most objects, stellar velocity dispersions were measured from high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra centered on the \\ion{Ca}{2} triplet region ($\\sim 8500$ \\AA), obtained at the Keck, Palomar, and Lick Observatories. For two objects, in which the \\ion{Ca}{2} triplet region was contaminated by nuclear emission, the measurement was based on high-quality $H$-band spectra obtained with the OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph at the Keck-II Telescope. Combining our new measurements with data from the literature, we assemble a sample of 24 active galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {\\it and} reverberation-based black hole mass measurements in the range of black hole mass $10^{6}< \\mbh/\\msun < 10^{9}$. We use this sample ...

  4. Herschel/SPIRE Sub-millimeter Spectra of Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D; Glenn, Jason; Isaak, Kate G; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Schirm, Maximilien R P; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-01-01

    We present the sub-millimeter spectra from 450 GHz to 1550 GHz of eleven nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) onboard Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J_up = 4 to 12, as well as the two [CI] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [NII] 461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs). The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n_H2 ~ 10^3.2 - 10^3.9 cm^-3 and T_kin ~ 300 - 800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H2 emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however it is possibly related to the star-formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [CI] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T_kin 1...

  5. Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-02-01

    There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under SU(3) C with masses lower than 1 TeV, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than 2.6 TeV.

  6. Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under $SU(3)_C$ with masses lower than $1\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than $2.6\\,{\\rm TeV}$.

  7. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_1.4GHz > 10^24 W Hz^-1) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest ...

  8. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot BH) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M ☉ yr–1 kpc–2) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot BH and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  9. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...... black-hole demographics at high redshift as well as to statistically study the fundamental properties of AGNs. The broad line region size - luminosity relationship is key to the calibrations presented here. The fact that its intrinsic scatter is also the main source of uncertainty in the calibrations...

  10. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vestergaard, M

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated to recently measured reverberation masses of low-redshift AGNs and quasars. An empirical relationship between single-epoch rest-frame optical spectrophotometric measurements and the central masses is also presented. The UV relationship allows reasonable estimates of the central masses to be made of high-redshift AGNs and quasars for which these masses cannot be directly or easily measured by the techniques applicable to the lower luminosity, nearby AGNs. The central mass obtained by this method can be estimated to within a factor of ~3 for most objects. This is reasonable given the intrinsic uncertainty of a factor less than 2 in the primary methods used to measure the central masses of nearby inactive and active galax...

  11. SUGRA Grand Unification, LHC and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent developments related to the Higgs signal and its implications for supersymmetry in the supergravity grand unification framework. The Higgs data indicates that the allowed parameter space largely lies on focal curves and focal surfaces of the Hyperbolic Branch of radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry where TeV size scalars naturally arise. The high mass of the Higgs leads to a more precise prediction for the allowed range of the spin independent neutralino -proton cross section which is encouraging for the detection of dark matter in future experiments with greater sensitivity. Also discussed is the status of grand unification and a natural solution to breaking the GUT group at one scale and resolving the doublet-triplet problem. It is shown that the cosmic coincidence can be compatible within a supersymmetric framework in a muticomponent dark matter picture with one component charged under $B-L$ while the other component is the conventional supersymmetric dark matter...

  12. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) ∼> 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  13. Les galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  14. Dynamical Delays Between Starburst and AGN Activity in Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2011-01-01

    Observations of AGN have suggested a possible delay between the peak of star formation (on some scale) and AGN activity. Feedback from fast stellar winds has been invoked to explain this, but this is not likely to be viable in bright systems accreting primarily cold dense gas. We show that such a delay can arise even in bright quasars for purely dynamical reasons. If some large-scale process produces rapid inflow, smaller scales will quickly become gas-dominated. As the gas density peaks, so does the SFR. However, gravitational torques which govern further inflow are relatively inefficient in gas-dominated systems; as more gas is turned into stars, the stars provide an efficient angular momentum sink allowing more rapid inflow. Moreover, the gas provided to the central regions in mergers or strong disk instabilities will typically be ~100 times larger than that needed to fuel the BH; the system is effectively in the 'infinite gas supply' limit. BH growth can therefore continue for some time while the gas supp...

  15. Investigating the nuclear activity of barred spiral galaxies: the case of NGC 1672

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, L P; Colbert, E J M; Koribalski, B; Kuntz, K D; Levan, A J; Ojha, R; Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Zezas, A

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ATCA ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy, many of which correlate spatially with star-formation in the bar and spiral arms, while two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ULXs, with the three brightest (LX > 5E39 erg/s) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a hard (Gamma~1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4E38 erg/s. This is surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources an...

  16. Submillimetre observations of galaxy clusters with BLAST: the star-formation activity in Abell 3112

    CERN Document Server

    Braglia, Filiberto G; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Edge, Alastair; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Ngo, Henry; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We present observations at 250, 350, and 500 um of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 3112 (z=0.075) carried out with BLAST, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope. Five cluster members are individually detected as bright submillimetre sources. Their far-infrared SEDs and optical colours identify them as normal star-forming galaxies of high mass, with globally evolved stellar populations. They all have B-R colours of 1.38+/-0.08, transitional between the blue, active population and the red, evolved galaxies that dominate the cluster core. We stack to determine the mean submillimetre emission from all cluster members, which is determined to be 16.6+/-2.5, 6.1+/-1.9, and 1.5+/-1.3 mJy at 250, 350, and 500 um, respectively. Stacking analyses of the submillimetre emission of cluster members reveal trends in the mean far-infrared luminosity with respect to cluster-centric radius and Ks-band magnitude. We find that a large fraction of submillimetre emission comes from the boundary of the inner, viria...

  17. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  18. Galaxy Zoo: Are Bars Responsible for the Feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, E; Bamford, Steven P; Bell, Eric F; Bosma, A; Cardamone, Carolin N; Casteels, Kevin R V; Faber, S M; Fang, Jerome J; Fortson, Lucy F; Kocevski, Dale D; Koo, David C; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  19. The formation of the brightest cluster galaxies in cosmological simulations: the case for active galactic nucleus feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Martizzi, Davide; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We use 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a Virgo-like galaxy cluster to study the properties of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) that forms at the centre of the halo. We compared two simulations; one incorporating only supernova feedback and a second that also includes prescriptions for black hole growth and the resulting active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback from gas accretion. As previous work has shown, with supernova feedback alone we are unable to reproduce any of the obse...

  20. Constraints on Accretion Disk Physics in Low Luminosity Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Stefi; Noel-Storr, Jacob; O'Dea, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    It is currently believed that essentially all galaxies harbor a massive black hole in their nuclei. If this is true, then it becomes hard to understand why we do not see the luminosity released by the inevitable accretion of the galaxy ISM onto the black hole in all galaxies. The differences in AGN output between the two classes of narrow-line radio galaxies (FRI and FRII) may hold the vital clue. High radio luminosity FRIIs generally show strong high-excitation narrow lines and are believed to be the obscured counterparts of radio loud quasars. Low radio luminosity FRIs by contrast have weaker, low-ionization lines and low ratios of optical to radio luminosities. A large difference in accretion rate and radiative efficiency between FRI and FRIIs would explain the difference in the optical properties and also provide a new unification between different classes of active galaxies in which the dominant parameter is accretion rate. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations already exist for most of a well defined sample of FRIs. However, the previously observed objects are the 'famous' ones, e.g., M87, M84, NGC315, 3C264, 3C31. Thus, the existing datasets are highly selected. Here we propose a very small request to complete the sample. We propose IRAC observations in all 4 bands, and MIPS photometry at 24 and 70 microns of 8, and 7 sources, respectively, for a total request of 1.7 hrs. These observations will complete the sample at very little cost in observing time. The large amount of existing complmentary data at multiple wavebands will greatly enhance the legacy value of the proposed observations. By completing the sample, the proposed IRAC and MIPS observations will produce a well defined and very well studied sample of nearby low luminosity radio galaxies. We will use the completed sample to investigate the properties of the accretion disk radiation, and the circumnuclear obscuring material.

  1. Grand unification and low scale implications: D₂ parity for unification and neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavartkiladze, Zurab [Center for Elementary Particle Physics, ITP, Ilia State University, 0162 Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia (Georgia)

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Unified SU(5)-SU(5)´ model, augmented with D₂ Parity, is considered. The latter play crucial role for phenomenology. The model has several novel properties and gives interesting phenomenological implications. The charged leptons together with right handed (or sterile) neutrinos emerge es composite states. Within considered scenario, we study the charged fermion and neutrino mass generation. Moreover, we show that the model gives successful gauge coupling unification.

  2. X-ray Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies at $0

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Kristina; Greene, Jenny E; Somerville, Rachel S; Gallo, Elena; Hickox, Ryan C; Miller, Brendan P; Reines, Amy E; Silverman, John D

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in low-mass galaxies at $z200$ ks) archival \\textit{Chandra} X-ray data. From our sample of $\\sim 600$ low-mass galaxies, $10$ exhibit X-ray emission consistent with that arising from AGN activity. If black hole mass scales roughly with stellar mass, then we expect that these AGN are powered by SMBHs with masses of $\\sim 10^5-10^6 \\ M_{\\odot}$ and typical Eddington ratios $\\sim 5\\%$. Furthermore, we find an active fraction consistent with extrapolations of other searches of $\\sim 0.006-3\\%$ for $10^9 \\ M_{\\odot} \\leq M_{\\star} \\leq 3\\times 10^{9} \\ M_{\\odot}$ and $0.1active fraction has been directly measured outside of the local universe for these SMBH mass ranges. We find good agreement with semi-analytic models, suggesting that as we search larger volumes we may use comparisons between observed active fractions and models to understand seeding mechanisms in the early universe.

  3. Dissecting galaxies: spatial and spectral separation of emission excited by star formation and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion on to an AGN. We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (>85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated spectrum. We separate the Hα, Hβ, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λλ6716, 6731, [O III]λ5007 and [O II]λλ3726, 3729 luminosities of every spaxel into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. The decomposed emission line images are used to derive the star formation rates and AGN bolometric luminosities for NGC 5728 and NGC 7679. Our calculated values are mostly consistent with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The recovered star-forming and AGN components also have distinct spatial distributions which trace structures seen in high-resolution imaging of the galaxies, providing independent confirmation that our decomposition has been successful.

  4. Korean unification and United States security alternatives in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasell, Edward L.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has removed the external restraints placed on the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea that in the past have proved to be a barrier to unification of the two states on the Korean peninsula. An inter-Korea Cold War lingers on, frustrating both governments plans for unification of the peninsula. North and South Korea have made unification a major goal of their governments, and they will eventually succeed in unifying the Korean peninsula. Unifi...

  5. Gauge and Yukawa Unification with Broken R-Parity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A; Romão, J C; Valle, José W F; Diaz, Marco A.; Romao, Jorge C.; Valle, Jose W.F.

    1999-01-01

    We study gauge and Yukawa coupling unification in the simplest extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which incorporates R-Parity violation through a bilinear superpotential term. Contrary to what happens in the MSSM, we show that bottom-tau unification at the scale M_GUT where the gauge couplings unify can be achieved for any value of tan(beta) by choosing appropriately the sneutrino vacuum expectation value. In addition, we show that bottom-tau-top unification occurs in a slightly wider tan(beta) range than in the MSSM.

  6. Gauge Coupling Constant Unification With Planck Scale Values Of Moduli

    OpenAIRE

    Bailin, D.; A. Love; Sabra, W. A.; Thomas, S.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA)

    1996-01-01

    Convergence of the standard model gauge coupling constants to a common value at around $2\\times 10^{16}$ GeV is studied in the context of orbifold theories where the modular symmetry groups for $T$ and $U$ moduli are broken to subgroups of $PSL(2, Z)$. The values of the moduli required for this unification of coupling constants are studied for this case and also for the case where string unification is accompanied by unification to a gauge group larger then $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1).$

  7. Gauge coupling constant unification with Planck scale values of moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Bailin, David; Sabra, W A; Thomas, S

    1996-01-01

    Convergence of the standard model gauge coupling constants to a common value at around 2\\times 10^{16} GeV is studied in the context of orbifold theories where the modular symmetry groups for T and U moduli are broken to subgroups of PSL(2, Z). The values of the moduli required for this unification of coupling constants are studied for this case and also for the case where string unification is accompanied by unification to a gauge group larger then SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1).

  8. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  9. Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects from Observations of TeV Flares in Active Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Biller, S. D.; Breslin, A. C.; Buckley, J.; Catanese, M.; Carson, M.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Finley, J.; Gaidos, J. A.; Hillas, A.M.; Krennrich, F.; Lamb, R. C.; Lessard, R.; Masterson, C.

    1998-01-01

    We have used data from the TeV gamma-ray flare associated with the active galaxy Markarian 421 observed on 15 May 1996 to place bounds on the possible energy-dependence of the speed of light in the context of an effective quantum gravitational energy scale. The possibility of an observable time dispersion in high energy radiation has recently received attention in the literature, with some suggestions that the relevant energy scale could be less than the Planck mass and perhaps as low as 10^1...

  10. Natural Supersymmetry and Unification in Five Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalgabar, Ammar; Deandrea, Aldo; McGarrie, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    We explore unification and natural supersymmetry in a five dimensional extension of the standard model in which the extra dimension may be large, of the order of 1-10 TeV. Power law running generates a TeV scale A_ term allowing for the observed 125 GeV Higgs and allowing for stop masses below 2 TeV, compatible with a natural SUSY spectrum. We supply the full one-loop RGEs for various models and use metastability to give a prediction that the gluino mass should be lighter than 3.5 TeV for A_t <= 2.5 TeV, for such a compactification scale, with brane localised 3rd generation matter. We discuss why models in which the 1st and 2nd generation of matter fields are located in the bulk are likely to be ruled out. We also look at electroweak symmetry breaking in these models.

  11. Local grand unification and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2009-09-15

    The low energy effective action of string theory depends strongly on the process of compactification and the localization of fields in extra dimensions. Explicit string constructions towards the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) reveal interesting results leading to the concept of local grand unification. Properties of the MSSM indicate that we might live at a special location close to an orbifold fixed point rather than a generic point in Calabi-Yau moduli space. We observe an enhancement of (discrete) symmetries that have various implications for the properties of the MSSM such as proton stability as well as solutions to the flavor problem, the m-problem and the strong CP-problem. (orig.)

  12. Minimal flavour violation and SU(5)-unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimal flavour violation in its strong or weak versions, based on U(3)3 and U(2)3, respectively, allows suitable extensions of the standard model at the TeV scale to comply with current flavour constraints in the quark sector. Here we discuss considerations analogous to minimal flavour violation (MFV) in the context of SU(5)-unification, showing the new effects/constraints that arise both in the quark and in the lepton sector, where quantitative statements can be made controlled by the CKM matrix elements. The case of supersymmetry is examined in detail as a particularly motivated example. Third generation sleptons and neutralinos in the few hundred GeV range are shown to be compatible with current constraints. (orig.)

  13. Gauge and space-time symmetry unification

    CERN Document Server

    Besprosvany, J

    2000-01-01

    Unification ideas suggest an integral treatment of fermion and boson spin and gauge-group degrees of freedom. Hence, a generalized quantum field equation, based on Dirac's, is proposed and investigated which contains gauge and flavor symmetries, determines vector gauge field and fermion solution representations, and fixes their mode of interaction. The simplest extension of the theory with a 6-dimensional Clifford algebra predicts an SU(2)_L X U(1) symmetry, which is associated with the isospin and the hypercharge, their vector carriers, two-flavor charged and chargeless leptons, and scalar particles. A mass term produces breaking of the symmetry to an electromagnetic U(1), and a Weinberg's angle theta_W with sin^2(theta_W)=.25 . A more realistic 8-d extension gives coupling constants of the respective groups g=1/sqrt 2~.707 and g'=1/sqrt 6~.408, with the same theta_W.

  14. Seminatural Gauge Mediation from Product Group Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Hajime; Yanagida, Tsutomu T; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a focus point gauge mediation model based on the product group unification (PGU), which solves the double-triplet splitting problem of the Higgs multiplets. In the focus point gauge mediation, the electroweak symmetry breaking scale can be naturally explained even for multi-TeV stops. It is known that the focus point behavior appears if a ratio of the number of SU(2) doublet messengers to that of SU(3) triplet messengers is close to 2.5. Importantly, this ratio (effectively) appears in our scenario based on the PGU, if the messenger field is an adjoint representation of SU(5) gauge group. Therefore, our focus point scenario is very predictive. It is also pointed out the gravitino can be dark matter without spoiling the success of the thermal leptogenesis.

  15. Minimal flavour violation and SU(5)-unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo, E-mail: barbieri@sns.it; Senia, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.senia@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Minimal flavour violation in its strong or weak versions, based on U(3){sup 3} and U(2){sup 3}, respectively, allows suitable extensions of the standard model at the TeV scale to comply with current flavour constraints in the quark sector. Here we discuss considerations analogous to minimal flavour violation (MFV) in the context of SU(5)-unification, showing the new effects/constraints that arise both in the quark and in the lepton sector, where quantitative statements can be made controlled by the CKM matrix elements. The case of supersymmetry is examined in detail as a particularly motivated example. Third generation sleptons and neutralinos in the few hundred GeV range are shown to be compatible with current constraints.

  16. Unification of speaker and meaning in language comprehension: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Petersson, K.M.; van Berkum, J.J.A.; Brink, D. van den; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    When interpreting a message, a listener takes into account several sources of linguistic and extralinguistic information. Here we focused on one particular form of extralinguistic information, certain speaker characteristics as conveyed by the voice. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural structures involved in the unification of sentence meaning and voice-based inferences about the speaker's age, sex, or social background. We found enhanced activation in the infe...

  17. Common Origin of $3.55$ keV X-ray line and Gauge Coupling Unification with Left-Right Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2016-01-01

    We present a minimal left-right dark matter framework that can simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV X-ray line from several galaxy clusters and gauge coupling unification at high energy scale. Adopting a minimal dark matter strategy, we consider both left and right handed triplet fermionic dark matter candidates which are accidentally stable due to their high $SU(2)$ dimension forbidding their decay into standard model particles. A scalar bitriplet field is incorporated whose...

  18. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s-1. The redshift range of this sample is within z luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr-1 and the mean gas mass is ˜1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH-M * scaling relation.

  19. The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog (ν2GC): An updated semi-analytic model of galaxy and active galactic nucleus formation with large cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, Ryu; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Okoshi, Katsuya; Oogi, Taira; Shirakata, Hikari

    2016-04-01

    We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, ν2GC, as an updated version of our previous model νGC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune some free parameters related to the astrophysical processes using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc h-1 box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies, and the scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also reproduced well the cosmic star formation history and redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity functions. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.

  20. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  1. Synchronizability Analysis of Harmonious Unification Hybrid Preferential Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The harmonious unification hybrid preferential model uses the dr ratio to adjust the proportion of deterministic preferential attachment and random preferential attachment, enriched the only deterministic preferential network model,

  2. The Best Possible Unification for any Collection of Physical Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, R A

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the set of all finitary consequence operators defined on any nonempty language is a join-complete lattice. This result is applied to various collections of physical theories to obtain an unrestricted supremum unification.

  3. Gauge Coupling Unification with Hidden Photon, and Minicharged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Daido, Ryuji; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-01-01

    We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around $10^{16.5}$ GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification depends only on the kinetic mixing, but not on the hidden gauge coupling nor the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)$_H$ and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)$_H$ are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.

  4. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Goulding, Andy D.

    2016-07-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.

  5. The search for active black holes in nearby low-mass galaxies using optical and mid-IR data

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, Lia F; Treister, Ezequiel; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Koss, Michael; Shirazi, Maryam; Oh, Kyuseok

    2015-01-01

    We investigated AGN activity in low-mass galaxies, an important regime that can shed light onto BH formation and evolution, and their interaction with their host galaxies. We identified 336 AGN candidates from a parent sample of $\\sim 48,000$ nearby low-mass galaxies ($M_{\\rm \\star} \\leq 10^{9.5}M_\\odot$, $z < 0.1$) in the SDSS. We selected the AGN using the classical BPT diagram, a similar optical emission line diagnostic based on the HeII$\\lambda$4686 line, and mid-IR color cuts. Different criteria select host galaxies with different physical properties such as stellar mass and optical color, and only 3 out of 336 sources fulfill all three criteria. This could be in part due to selection biases. The resulting AGN fraction of $\\sim 0.7 \\%$ is at least one order of magnitude below the one estimated for more massive galaxies. At optical wavelengths, the HeII-based AGN selection appears to be more sensitive to AGN hosted in star-forming galaxies than the classical BPT diagram, at least in the low-mass regime...

  6. X-Ray Properties Expected from Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed hydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus feedback have been performed including the effects of radiative and mechanical momentum and energy input on the interstellar medium (ISM) of typical elliptical galaxies. We focus on the observational properties of the models in the soft and hard X-ray bands: nuclear X-ray luminosity; global X-ray luminosity and temperature of the hot ISM; and temperature and X-ray brightness profiles before, during, and after outbursts. After ~10 Gyr, the bolometric nuclear emission L BH is very sub-Eddington (l = L BH/L Edd ~ 10-4), and within the range observed, though larger than typical values. Outbursts last for ≈107 yr, and the duty cycle of nuclear activity is a few × (10-3 to 10-2), over the last 6 Gyr. The ISM thermal luminosity L X oscillates in phase with the nuclear luminosity, with broader peaks. This behavior helps statistically reproduce the observed large L X variation. The average gas temperature is within the observed range, in the upper half of those observed. In quiescence, the temperature profile has a negative gradient; thanks to past outbursts, the brightness profile lacks the steep shape of cooling flow models. After outbursts, disturbances are predicted in the temperature and brightness profiles (analyzed by unsharp masking). Most significantly, during major accretion episodes, a hot bubble of shocked gas is inflated at the galaxy center (within ≈100 pc) the bubble would be conical in shape in real galaxies and would be radio-loud. Its detection in X-rays is within current capabilities, though it would likely remain unresolved. The ISM resumes its smooth appearance on a timescale of ≈200 Myr the duty cycle of perturbations in the ISM is of the order of 5%-10%. While showing general agreement between the models and real galaxies, this analysis indicates that additional physical input may still be required including moving to two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulations, input of

  7. Non-thermal radiation from collisions of compact objects with intermediate scale jets in active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2015-01-01

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late type stars in the galactic bulges and also early type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical several kpc scale halos containing from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster and globular clusters with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to the multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to the X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar clus...

  8. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Wang, Yiping; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3x10^7 M_sun using [NeIII]15.56micron and optical [OIII]5007A gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3micron PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios highe...

  9. Unification as a method to increase NPP component quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of unifjcation of standard sizes of applied materials (rolled stock, tubes) of structural elements (threads, radii, grooves), detail and equipment units in the course of reactors development is investigated. Examples of unification of the WWER-1000 reactor pipe connections, equipment units, NPP equipment unification level with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors are indicated. Coefficients of equipment applicability which in author's opinion must be 30-70% are given

  10. Experiences with Monetary Integration and Lessons for Korean Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Goohoon Kwon

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the timing of monetary integration and supporting economic policies during a rapid and largely uncontrolled process of Korean unification. The paper concludes that the transitory use of a separate currency in each region and supporting economic policies would help limit the initial costs of unification although the extent of the eventual cost reduction would depend critically on the success of ensuing economic reforms in the North during the transition. Maintaining the co...

  11. The proactive grand strategy for consensual and peaceful Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungsoo

    2007-01-01

    This thesis assesses the reasons for the continuous division of the two Koreas and proposes necessary policies for Korean unification. In modern times, Koreans have been unable to determine their own destiny. Many examples show that Koreaαs circumstances have been influenced by other countries. Koreaαs division and the North Korean nuclear standoff are not only Korean problems but also international issues. In these contexts, Korean unification requires not only domestic efforts but also in...

  12. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  13. Role of active galactic nuclei in the luminous infrared galaxy phase at z ≤ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    To understand the interactions between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation during the evolution of galaxies, we investigate 142 galaxies detected in both X-ray and 70 μm observations in the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field. All of our data are obtained from the archive X-ray point-source catalogues from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, and the far-infrared 70 μm point-source catalogue from Spitzer-MIPS observations. Although the IRAC [3.6 μm]-[4.5 μm] versus [5.8 μm]-[8.0 μm] colours of our sample indicate that only ˜63 per cent of our sources would be classified as AGNs, the ratio of the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity to the total infrared luminosity (8-1000 μm) shows that the entire sample has comparatively higher X-ray luminosity than that expected from pure star-forming galaxies, suggesting the presence of an AGN in all of our sources. From an analysis of the X-ray hardness ratio, we find that sources with both 70 μm and X-ray detection tend to have a higher hardness ratio relative to the whole X-ray-selected source population, suggesting the presence of more X-ray absorption in the 70 μm detected sources. In addition, we find that the observed far-infrared colours of 70 μm detected sources with and without X-ray emission are similar, suggesting the far-infrared emission could be mainly powered by star formation.

  14. Discovery of ultra-steep spectrum giant radio galaxy with recurrent radio jet activity in Abell 449

    CERN Document Server

    Hunik, D

    2016-01-01

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed.

  15. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-STEEP SPECTRUM GIANT RADIO GALAXY WITH RECURRENT RADIO JET ACTIVITY IN ABELL 449

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunik, Dominika; Jamrozy, Marek, E-mail: dominika.hunik@uj.edu.pl [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-01-20

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed.

  16. On the Possibility of Optical Unification in Heterotic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Cleaver, G; Hanson, H; Perkins, J; Robbins, D; Shields, S; Cleaver, Gerald; Desai, Virendra; Hanson, Heather; Perkins, John; Robbins, David; Shields, Scot

    2003-01-01

    Recently J. Giedt discussed a mechanism, entitled optical unification, whereby string scale unification is facilitated via exotic matter with intermediate scale mass. This mechanism guarantees that a virtual MSSM unification below the string scale is extrapolated from the running of gauge couplings upward from M_Z^o when an intermediate scale desert is assumed. In this letter we explore the possibility of optical unification within the context of weakly coupled heterotic strings. In particular, we investigate this for models of free fermionic construction containing the NAHE set of basis vectors. This class is of particular interest for optical unification, because it provides a standard hypercharge embedding within SO(10), giving the standard k_Y = 5/3 hypercharge level, which was shown necessary for optical unification. We present a NAHE model for which the set of exotic SU(3)_C triplet/anti-triplet pairs, SU(2)_L doublets, and non-Abelian singlets with hypercharge offers the possibility of optical unificat...

  17. No more active galactic nuclei in clumpy disks than in smooth galaxies at z ∼ 2 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Hopkins, Philip F. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McIntosh, Daniel H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3 < z < 2.4. We select galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that despite being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z ∼ 2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z ∼ 2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratios (in the mass-excitation method), but the spatially resolved line ratios indicate this is likely due to extended phenomena rather than nuclear AGNs. Meanwhile, the X-ray data show that clumpy, smooth, and intermediate galaxies have nearly indistinguishable AGN fractions derived from both individual detections and stacked non-detections. The data demonstrate that AGN fueling modes at z ∼ 1.85—whether violent disk instabilities or secular processes—are as efficient in smooth galaxies as they are in clumpy galaxies.

  18. Height System Unification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  19. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. III. Accurate Masses of Seven Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galaxies with Circumnuclear Megamaser Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of H2O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC 1194, NGC 2273, NGC 2960 (Mrk 1419), NGC 4388, NGC 6264 and NGC 6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central ~0.3 pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 × 1010 and 61 × 1010 M sun pc-3. For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominantly to a supermassive BH. The seven BHs have masses ranging between 0.75 × 107 and 6.5 × 107 M sun, with the mass errors dominated by the uncertainty of the Hubble constant. We compare the megamaser BH mass determination with BH mass measured from the virial estimation method. The virial estimation BH mass in four galaxies is consistent with the megamaser BH mass, but the virial mass uncertainty is much greater. Circumnuclear megamaser disks allow the best mass determination of the central BH mass in external galaxies and significantly improve the observational basis at the low-mass end of the M-σsstarf relation. The M-σsstarf relation may not be a single, low-scatter power law as originally proposed. MCP observations continue and we expect to obtain more maser BH masses in the future.

  20. J1216+0709 : A radio galaxy with three episodes of AGN jet activity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Veeresh; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a `Triple-Double Radio Galaxy (TDRG)' J1216+0709 detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of AGN jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly co-axial middle pair of lobes and a pair of outer lobes that is bent w.r.t. the axis of inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40$^{{\\prime}{\\prime}}$ ($\\sim$ 95 kpc), 1$^{\\prime}$.65 ($\\sim$ 235 kpc) and 5$^{\\prime}$.7 ($\\sim$ 814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm-lengths and flux densities, but in opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter that the western sides, thus suggesting the possibility of jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to rela...

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectral Measures of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Johnson, B D; O'Dowd, M; Martin, C D; Wyder, T; Charlot, S; Heckman, T; Martins, L; Seibert, M; van der Hulst, J M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of MIR PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 'normal' and local (z~0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The continuum and features were extracted using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), a decomposition code which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Despite the lack of extreme objects in our sample (such as strong AGNs, low metallicity galaxies or ULIRGs), we find significant variations in PAH, continuum and emission line properties and systematic trends between these MIR properties and optically derived physical properties such as age, metallicity and radiation field hardness. We revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH equival...

  2. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Young Galaxies from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine; Hainline, Kevin Nicholas; DiPompeo, Michael A.

    2016-04-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates, i.e. the Eddington ratio distribution, of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, it is matter of debate whether AGN follow a broad distribution in accretion rates, or if the distribution is more strongly peaked at characteristic Eddington ratios. Using a sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7, we test whether an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a broad Schechter function is in fact consistent with previous work that suggests instead that young galaxies in optical surveys have a more strongly peaked lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. Furthermore, we present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution of optically selected AGN is consistent with a power law with an exponential cutoff, as is observed in the X-rays. This work was supported in part by a NASA Jenkins Fellowship.

  3. Mid-Infrared Spectral Indicators of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 `normal' and local (z~0.1) galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer IRS as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The spectra were decomposed using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EW) up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Based on correlations between PAH, continuum and emission line properties and optically derived physical properties (gas phase metallicity, radiation field hardness), we revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [NeII]/[OIV] and find it more efficient as distinguishing weak AGNs from star-forming galaxies than when spline decompositions are used. The luminosity of individual MIR component (PAH, continuum, Ne and molecular hydrogen lines) are found to...

  4. Offset Active Galactic Nuclei as Tracers of Galaxy Mergers and Supermassive Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Comerford, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18314 Type 2 AGNs at z<0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km/s < |v| < 410 km/s. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4% - 8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric l...

  5. Intermittent Jet Activity in the Radio Galaxy 4C29.30?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamrozy, M.; /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Konar, C.; Saikia, D.J.; /NCRA, Ganeshkhind; Stawarz, L.; /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Mack,; /Bologna, Ist. Radioastronomia; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-04-02

    We present radio observations at frequencies ranging from 240 to 8460 MHz of the radio galaxy 4C29.30 (J0840+2949) using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Effelsberg telescope. We report the existence of weak extended emission with an angular size of {approx} 520 arcsec (639 kpc) within which a compact edge-brightened double-lobed source with a size of 29 arcsec (36 kpc) is embedded. We determine the spectrum of the inner double from 240 to 8460 MHz and show that it has a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index is {approx} 0.8. Its spectral age is estimated to be 33 Myr. The extended diffuse emission has a steep spectrum with a spectral index of {approx} 1.3 and a break frequency 240 MHz. The spectral age is {approx}>200 Myr, suggesting that the extended diffuse emission is due to an earlier cycle of activity. We reanalyze archival x-ray data from Chandra and suggest that the x-ray emission from the hotspots consists of a mixture of nonthermal and thermal components, the latter being possibly due to gas which is shock heated by the jets from the host galaxy.

  6. A complete census of silicate features in the mid-infrared spectra of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Feltre, Anna; Piñol-Ferrer, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the silicate features at 9.7 and 18 micron of a sample of almost 800 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with available spectra from the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). We measure the strength of the silicate feature at 9.7 micron, S9.7, before and after subtracting the host galaxy emission from the IRS spectra. The numbers of type 1 and 2 AGN with the feature in emission increase by 20 and 50%, respectively, once the host galaxy is removed, while 35% of objects with the feature originally in absorption exhibit it in even deeper absorption. The peak of S9.7, lambda_peak, has a bimodal distribution when the feature is in emission, with about 65% of the cases showing lambda_peak > 10.2 micron. Silicates can appear in emission in objects with mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity spanning over six orders of magnitude. The derived distributions of the strength of the silicate features at 9.7 and 18 micron provide a solid test bed for modeling the dust distribution in AGN. Clumpiness is n...

  7. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-infrared Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Meléndez, M; Weaver, K A; Mushotzky, R F

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV--soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 mm/[NeIII], [Ne V]24.32mm/[O IV]25.89mm and [O IV] 25.89mm/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV--soft X-ray slope, alpha_i, to be between 1.5 -- 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha_i ~ 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures b...

  8. A Distant Echo of Milky Way Central Activity closes the Galaxy's Baryon Census

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, F; Krongold, Y; Mathur, S; Elvis, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way's interstellar and circum-galactic medium. This gas (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60-200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy's baryon census. Moreover, we show that a vast, $\\sim 6$ kpc radius, spherically-symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane, has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of $\\sim 6$ kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy's center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our super-massive black-hole, occurred about 6 Myrs ago.

  9. LUMINOUS X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) overdensities in 16 Abell clusters, within the redshift range 0.073 x ≥ 1042 erg s-1 (at the redshift of the clusters) and within an area of 1 h -172 Mpc radius (excluding the core). To investigate the presence or absence of a true enhancement of luminous X-ray AGNs in the cluster area, we also derived the corresponding optical galaxy overdensities, using a suitable range of r-band magnitudes. We always find the latter to be significantly higher (and only in two cases roughly equal) with respect to the corresponding X-ray overdensities. Over the whole cluster sample, the mean X-ray point-source overdensity is a factor of ∼4 less than that corresponding to bright optical galaxies, a difference which is significant at a >0.995 level, as indicated by an appropriate student's t-test. We conclude that the triggering of luminous X-ray AGNs in rich clusters is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, searching for optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts of all the X-ray sources, associated with our clusters, we found that about half appear to be background QSOs, while others are background and foreground AGNs or stars. The true overdensity of X-ray point sources, associated with the clusters, is therefore even smaller than what our statistical approach revealed.

  10. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Shulevski, A; Barthel, P D; Murgia, M; van Weeren, R J; White, G J; Brüggen, M; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Jamrozy, M; Best, P N; Röttgering, H J A; Chyzy, K T; de Gasperin, F; Bîrzan, L; Brunetti, G; Brienza, M; Rafferty, D A; Anderson, J; Beck, R; Deller, A; Zarka, P; Schwarz, D; Mahony, E; Orrú, E; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; van der Horst, A J; Intema, H; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it ...

  11. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. III. Accurate Masses of Seven Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galaxies with Circumnuclear Megamaser Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, C Y; Condon, J J; Impellizzeri, C M V; Lo, K Y; Zaw, I; Schenker, M; Henkel, C; Reid, M J; Greene, J E

    2010-01-01

    Observations of H$_2$O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC~1194, NGC~2273, NGC~2960 (Mrk~1419), NGC~4388, NGC~6264 and NGC~6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central $\\sim0.3$ pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 and 60 $\\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$~pc$^{-3}$. For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominant...

  12. Studying the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. I. The nuclear activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Ciesla, L; Krongold, Y; Charmandaris, V; Zezas, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first -- of a series -- study of the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. This paper focuses on the evolution of the nuclear activity and how it has been affected by the dense environment of the groups. Our analysis is based on the largest multiwavelength compact group sample to-date, containing complete ultraviolet-to-infrared (UV-to-IR) photometry for 1,770 isolated groups (7,417 galaxies). We classified the nuclear activity of the galaxies based on optical emission line and mid-infrared diagnostic methods, as well as using spectral energy distribution fitting. We observe a 15% increase on the number of the AGN-hosting late-type galaxies found in dynamically old groups, over the past 3 Gyr, accompanied by the corresponding decrease of their circumnuclear star formation. Comparing our compact group results with those of local isolated field and interacting pair galaxies, we find no differences in the AGN at the same redshift range. Based on both optical and mid-IR colou...

  13. Toward realistic gauge-Higgs grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.

  14. Toward Realistic Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Furui, Atsushi; Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. $SO(11)$ is broken to $SO(4) \\times SO(6)$ by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to $SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y \\times SU(3)_C$ by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential $V_{\\rm eff} (\\theta_H)$, we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to $U(1)_{\\rm EM}$. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. The proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses ...

  15. Local grand unification in the heterotic landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jonas

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that the unification of the electroweak interactions and the strong force arises from string theory, at energies significantly lower than the string scale. As a tool, an effective grand unified field theory in six dimensions is derived from an anisotropic orbifold compactification of the heterotic string. It is explicitly shown that all anomalies cancel in the model, though anomalous Abelian gauge symmetries are present locally at the boundary singularities. In the supersymmetric vacuum additional interactions arise from higher-dimensional operators. We develop methods that relate the couplings of the effective theory to the location of the vacuum, and find that unbroken discrete symmetries play an important role for the phenomenology of orbifold models. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of the superpotential to arbitrary order is developed, based on symmetry arguments. We furthermore present a correspondence between bulk fields of the orbifold model in six dimensions, and the moduli fields that arise from compactifying four internal dimensions on a manifold with non-trivial gauge background. (orig.)

  16. NMSGUT-III: Grand Unification upended

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S

    2011-01-01

    We show that matter yukawa couplings of the New Minimal Supersymmetric (SO(10)) GUT(NMSGUT) are subject to very significant GUT scale threshold corrections. Including these threshold effects relaxes the constraint $ y_b-y_\\tau\\simeq y_s-y_\\mu$ operative in $\\textbf{10} -\\textbf{120} $plet generated tree level MSSM matter fermion yukawas $y_f$. We find accurate fits of the MSSM fermion mass-mixing data in terms of NMSGUT superpotential couplings and 5 independent soft Susy breaking parameters $M_0, M_{1/2}, A_0, M^2_{H,\\bar{H}}$ at $M_X$. The fits generally have elevated unification scale $M_X$ near $M_{Planck}$, viable values of $\\alpha_3(M_Z)$, and are consistent with current limits on B violation, $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$, muon magnetic moment anomaly and Standard Model $\\rho$ parameter. The associated novel and distinctive soft Susy spectra have light gauginos, a \\emph{normal} s-hierarchy and Bino LSP. The Bino LSP is accompanied by second and first generation right chiral sfermions light enough to mediate a...

  17. Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2016-02-01

    Starting with ‘high scale mixing unification’ hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization group equations. For both types of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution naturally results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle 13. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle 23 turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which this hypothesis works. The results can be tested by the present and future experiments.

  18. Shaping galaxy evolution with galaxy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5Hubble at 0.2active galaxies to a matched sample of inactive, control galaxies shows that there is no statistically significant excess of bars in active hosts. Our result shows that bars are not the primary fueling mechanism of supermassive black hole growth.

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  20. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  1. Active Galactic Nuclei in Groups and Clusters of Galaxies: Detection and Host Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Timothy J; Mulchaey, John S; Berti, Angela; Jeltema, Tesla E

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the field, groups, and clusters can provide new information about how these objects are triggered and fueled, similar to how these environments have been employed to study galaxy evolution. We have obtained new XMM-Newton observations of seven X-ray selected groups and poor clusters with 0.02 10^{41}; M_R2.5}(L_X>10^{41}; M_R

  2. The Need for Plasma Astrophysics in Understanding Life Cycles of Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Bellan, P; Colgate, S; Forest, C; Fowler, K; Goodman, J; Intrator, T; Kronberg, P; Lyutikov, M; Zweibel, E

    2009-01-01

    In this White Paper, we emphasize the need for and the important role of plasma astrophysics in the studies of formation, evolution of, and feedback by Active Galaxies. We make three specific recommendations: 1) We need to significantly increase the resolution of VLA, perhaps by building an EVLA-II at a modest cost. This will provide the angular resolution to study jets at kpc scales, where, for example, detailed Faraday rotation diagnosis can be done at 1GHz transverse to jets; 2) We need to build coordinated programs among NSF, NASA, and DOE to support laboratory plasma experiments (including liquid metal) that are designed to study key astrophysical processes, such as magneto-rotational instability (origin of angular momentum transport), dynamo (origin of magnetic fields), jet launching and stability. Experiments allowing access to relativistic plasma regime (perhaps by intense lasers and magnetic fields) will be very helpful for understanding the stability and dissipation physics of jets from Supermassive...

  3. The EVN view of the highly variable TeV active galaxy IC 310

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, R; Ros, E; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Bach, U; Elsässer, D; Grossberger, C; Kreykenbohm, I; Mannheim, K; Müller, C; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    Very-high-energy $\\gamma$-ray observations of the active galaxy IC 310 with the MAGIC telescopes have revealed fast variability with doubling time scales of less than 4.8min. This implies that the emission region in IC 310 is smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of the central supermassive black hole with a mass of $3\\times 10^8 M_\\odot$, which poses serious questions on the emission mechanism and classification of this enigmatic object. We report on the first quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency VLBI observations of IC 310 conducted with the EVN. We find a blazar-like one-sided core-jet structure on parsec scales, constraining the inclination angle to be less than $\\sim 20^\\circ$ but very small angles are excluded to limit the de-projected length of the large-scale radio jet.

  4. Host galaxies and environment of active galactic nuclei : a study of the XMM large scale structure survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasse, Cyril

    2008-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) result from the infall of matter onto the super-massive black holes that are situated at the centres of galaxies. This process releases an enormous amount of energy into the inter-stellar and inter-galactic medium. Hence, the study of AGN becomes essential in the context

  5. Far-infrared line spectra of active galaxies from the Herschel/PACS Spectrometer: the complete database

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Pereira-Santaella, M; Malkan, M A; Andreani, P; Dasyra, K M

    2016-01-01

    We present a coherent database of spectroscopic observations of far-IR fine-structure lines from the Herschel/PACS archive for a sample of 170 local AGN, plus a comparison sample of 20 starburst galaxies and 43 dwarf galaxies. Published Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/SPIRE line fluxes are included to extend our database to the full 10-600 $\\mu m$ spectral range. The observations are compared to a set of CLOUDY photoionisation models to estimate the above physical quantities through different diagnostic diagrams. We confirm the presence of a stratification of gas density in the emission regions of the galaxies, which increases with the ionisation potential of the emission lines. The new [OIV]25.9$\\mu m$/[OIII]88$\\mu m$ vs [NeIII]15.6$\\mu m$/[NeII]12.8$\\mu m$ diagram is proposed as the best diagnostic to separate: $i)$ AGN activity from any kind of star formation; and $ii)$ low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from starburst galaxies. Current stellar atmosphere models fail to reproduce the observed [OIV]25.9$\\mu m$/[OIII]8...

  6. The Black Hole-Bulge Relationship in Luminous Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J; Schneider, D P; Hall, P B

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (\\sigma_*) and estimated the central black hole (BH) masses for over 900 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The sample includes objects which have redshifts up to z=0.452, high quality spectra, and host galaxy spectra dominated by an early-type (bulge) component. The AGN and host galaxy spectral components were decomposed using an eigenspectrum technique. The BH masses (M_BH) were estimated from the AGN broad-line widths, and the velocity dispersions were measured from the stellar absorption spectra of the host galaxies. The range of black hole masses covered by the sample is approximately 10^6 < M_BH < 10^9 M_Sun. The host galaxy luminosity-velocity dispersion relationship follows the well-known Faber-Jackson relation for early-type galaxies, with a power-law slope 4.33+-0.21. The estimated BH masses are correlated with both the host luminosities (L_{H}) and the stellar velocity dispersions (\\sigma_*), s...

  7. A study of active galactic nuclei in low surface brightness galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Mei; Wei-Min Yuan; Xiao-Bo Dong

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) have received little attention in previous studies. We present a detailed spectral analysis of 194 LSBGs from the Impey et al. (1996) APM LSBG sample which has been observed spec-troscopically by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). Our elaborate spectral analysis enables us to carry out, for the first time, reliable spectral classification of nuclear processes in LSBGs based on the standard emission line diagnostic diagrams in a rigorous way. Star-forming galaxies are common, as found in about 52% of LSBGs. We find that, contrary to some previous claims, the fraction of galaxies that contain AGNs is significantly lower than that found in nearby normal galaxies of high surface brightness. This is qualitatively in line with the finding of Impey et al. This result holds true even within each morphological type from Sa to Sc. LSBGs that have larger central stellar ve-locity dispersions or larger physical sizes tend to have a higher chance of harboring an AGN. For three AGNs with broad emission lines, the black hole masses estimated from the emission lines are broadly consistent with the well known M-σ* relation established for normal galaxies and AGNs.

  8. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M L; Black, C S; Hainline, K N; DiPompeo, M A; Goulding, A D

    2016-01-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test if an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work that suggests that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGN using a broad instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observe...

  9. Star Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared OR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  10. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  11. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z equals 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  12. A Panchromatic View of Relativistic Jets in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D’Ammando

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi of variable γ-ray emission from radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1 galaxies revealed the presence of a possible third class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN with relativistic jets in addition to blazars and radio galaxies. Considering that NLSy1 are usually hosted in spiral galaxies, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects and the formation of relativistic jets. We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of a sample of radio-loud NLSy1, including the detection of new objects, using 7 years of Fermi-LAT data with the new Pass 8 event-level analysis. In addition we discuss the radio-to-very-high-energy properties of the γ-ray emitting NLSy1, their host galaxy, and black hole mass in the context of the blazar scenario and the unification of relativistic jets at different scales.

  13. A Panchromatic View of Relativistic Jets in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ammando, F; Finke, J; Larsson, J; Giroletti, M; Raiteri, C M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi of variable gamma-ray emission from radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies revealed the presence of a possible third class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets in addition to blazars and radio galaxies. Considering that NLSy1 are usually hosted in spiral galaxies, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects and the formation of relativistic jets. We report on a systematic investigation of the gamma-ray properties of a sample of radio-loud NLSy1, including the detection of new objects, using 7 years of Fermi-LAT data with the new Pass 8 event-level analysis. In addition we discuss the radio-to-very-high-energy properties of the gamma-ray emitting NLSy1, their host galaxy, and black hole mass in the context of the blazar scenario and the unification of relativistic jets at different scales.

  14. Testing Quasar Unification: Radiative Transfer in Clumpy Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, James H; Long, Knox S; Sim, Stuart A; Higginbottom, Nick; Mangham, Sam W

    2016-01-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to $10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of $\\sim0.01$ moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Ly \\alpha\\ and CIV 1550\\AA\\ at low inclinations. At high ...

  15. Induced nuclear activity in galaxy pairs with different morphologies (E+E), (E+S) and (S+S)

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ibarra, Francisco J; Dultzin, Deborah; del Olmo, Ascensión; Perea, Jaime; González, Jesús; Mendoza-Castrejón, Sandro; Bitsakis, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    We analysed 385 galactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) that belong to the catalog of isolated pairs of galaxies by Karachentsev. The spectra corresponds to physical pairs of galaxies as defined by V $\\leq$ 1200 Km/s and a pair separation $\\leq$ 100 kpc. We search for the incidence of nuclear activity, both thermal (star-forming) and non-thermal -Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). After a careful extraction of the nuclear spectra, we use diagnostic diagrams and find that the incidence of AGN activity is 48 \\% in the paired galaxies with emission lines and 40\\% for the total sample (as compared to $\\sim$ 43 \\% and 41\\% respectively in a sample of isolated galaxies). These results remain after dissecting the effects of morphological type and galactic stellar mass (with only a small, non significant, enhancement of the AGN fraction in pairs of objects). These results suggest that weak interactions are not necessary or sufficient to trigger low-luminosity AGN. Since the fraction of...

  16. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R. E. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Hamme, W., E-mail: rewilson@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: vanhamme@fiu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  17. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulevski, A.; Morganti, R.; Barthel, P. D.; Murgia, M.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Brüggen, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Best, P. N.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Chyzy, K. T.; de Gasperin, F.; Bîrzan, L.; Brunetti, G.; Brienza, M.; Rafferty, D. A.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Deller, A.; Zarka, P.; Schwarz, D.; Mahony, E.; Orrú, E.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Meulman, H.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.

    2015-07-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~ 4″), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~ 30″), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (α< - 1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated fluxdensity spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever

  18. COLLIMATION AND SCATTERING OF THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS EMISSION IN THE SOMBRERO GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: robertobm@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2013-03-10

    We present an analysis of a data cube of the central region of M104, the Sombrero galaxy, obtained with the GMOS-IFU of the Gemini-South telescope, and report the discovery of collimation and scattering of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission in the circumnuclear region of this galaxy. Analysis with PCA Tomography and spectral synthesis revealed the existence of collimation and scattering of the AGN featureless continuum and also of a broad component of the H{alpha} emission line. The collimation and scattering of this broad H{alpha} component was also revealed by fitting the [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6583 and H{alpha} emission lines as a sum of Gaussian functions. The spectral synthesis, together with a V-I image obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, showed the existence of circumnuclear dust, which may cause the light scattering. We also identify a dusty feature that may be interpreted as a torus/disk structure. The existence of two opposite regions with featureless continuum (P.A. = -18 Degree-Sign {+-} 13 Degree-Sign and P.A. = 162 Degree-Sign {+-} 13 Degree-Sign ) along a direction perpendicular to the torus/disk (P.A. = 72 Degree-Sign {+-} 14 Degree-Sign ) suggests that this structure is approximately edge-on and collimates the AGN emission. The edge-on torus/disk also hides the broad-line region. The proposed scenario is compatible with the unified model and explains why only a weak broad component of the H{alpha} emission line is visible and also why many previous studies detected no broad H{alpha}. The technique used here proved to be an efficient method not only for detecting scattered light, but also for testing the unified model in low-luminosity AGNs.

  19. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-10

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centres of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and their host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies, have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that, in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion. PMID:15703739

  20. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  1. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Armus, L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Kinney, A. L.; Koornneef, J.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    Submitted to: Astrophys. J. Abstract: (Abridged) We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 micron and 205 micron of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the ISO Photometer. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wavebands and these data are used, in conjunction with IRA

  2. Super-gravity unification with bilinear R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1998-01-01

    Bilinear R-parity violation (BRpV) provides the simplest and most meaningful way to include such effects into the Minimal Supersymmetrical Standard Model (MSSM). It is defined by a quadratic superpotential term $\\epsilon L H$ which mixes lepton and Higgs superfields and mimics the effects of models with spontaneous breaking. I review some of its main features and show how large fine-tuning. I discuss the effect of BRpV on gauge and Yukawa unification, showing how bottom--tau unification can be achieved at any value of solution is ruled out.

  3. Leptonic SU(3), grand unification, and higher-dimensionality gravidynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, N.S. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) Dahr el Chir Science Centre, Dhour el Choueir (Lebanon))

    1990-06-01

    Two considerations pertaining to the electroweak symmetry of leptons, and to higher-dimensionality gravidynamic spacetime-internal unification, lead us to suggest the gauging of SU(15), for each generation of leptons and quarks. On one hand, the electroweak leptonic sector is governed by SU(3), while the quark sector is standard. On the other hand, the Lorentz symmetry of Weyl fermions is generalized to spin-containing SU(2{ital n},C). Sketching the basic elements of the corresponding higher-dimensionality gravidynamics, we point out an associated quark-lepton unification scheme which does not require {ital V}+{ital A} generations.

  4. b-tau Yukawa (Non-)Unification in the CMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Supersymmetric Grand Unification usually provides unification of the bottom quark and the tau lepton Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. In the CMSSM this can be realised only for a very particular choice of parameters. In this letter we study the GUT scale ratio y_tau/y_b for less peculiar parameters in the large tan beta regime and identify one parameter region preferred by current experimental data. In this region, which is well within the reach of the LHC, the ratio is very close to the recently proposed value of 3/2.

  5. The formation of bulges and black holes: lessons from a census of active galaxies in the SDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M

    2005-03-15

    We examine the relationship between galaxies, supermassive black holes and AGN using a sample of 23,000 narrow-emission-line ('type 2') active galactic nuclei (AGN) drawn from a sample of 123,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have studied how AGN host properties compare with those of normal galaxies and how they depend on the luminosity of the active nucleus. We find that AGN reside in massive galaxies and have distributions of sizes and concentrations that are similar to those of the early-type galaxies in our sample. The host galaxies of low-luminosity AGN have stellar populations similar to normal early types. The hosts of high- luminosity AGN have much younger mean stellar ages, and a significant fraction have experienced recent starbursts. High-luminosity AGN are also found in lower-density environments. We then use the stellar velocity dispersions of the AGN hosts to estimate black hole masses and their [OIII]lambda5007 emission-line luminosities to estimate black hole accretion rates. We find that the volume averaged ratio of star formation to black hole accretion is approximately 1000 for the bulge-dominated galaxies in our sample. This is remarkably similar to the observed ratio of stellar mass to black hole mass in nearby bulges. Most of the present-day black hole growth is occurring in black holes with masses less than 3 x 10(7)M(3). Our estimated accretion rates imply that low-mass black holes are growing on a time-scale that is comparable with the age of the Universe. Around 50% this growth takes place in AGN that are radiating within a factor of five of the Eddington luminosity. Such systems are rare, making up only 0.2% of the low-mass black hole population at the present day. The remaining growth occurs in lower luminosity AGN. The growth time-scale increases by more than an order of magnitude for the most massive black holes in our sample. We conclude that the evolution of the AGN luminosity function documented in recent optical

  6. Strings: A possible alternative explanation for the Unification of Gravitation Field and Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Susana

    Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters

  7. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  8. Occultation Mapping of the Central Engine in the Active Galaxy MCG -6-30-15

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B

    1998-01-01

    The colossal power output of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is believed to be fueled by the accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole. This central accreting region of AGN has hitherto been spatially unresolved and its structure therefore unknown. Here we propose that a previously reported `deep minimum' in the X-ray intensity of the AGN MCG-6-30-15, was due to a unique X-ray occultation event and that it probes structure of the central engine on scales < 1e14 cm, or 1.4e-7 arcseconds. The data are consistent with a bright central source surrounded by a less intense ring, which we identify with the inner edge of an accretion disk. These may be the first direct measurements of the spatial structure and geometry of the accreting black-hole system in an active galaxy.If the ring of X-ray emission is identified with the inner edge of an accretion disk, upper limits on the BH mass can be derived. Our occultation interpretation is controversial in the sense that X-ray variability in AGNs is normally attri...

  9. New active galactic nuclei detected in ROSAT All Sky Survey galaxies - The complete dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Pietsch, W; Bischoff, K; Zetzl, M

    2008-01-01

    The ROSAT ALL Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) has been correlated with the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) to identify new extragalactic counterparts. 550 reliable optical counterparts have been detected. We took optical spectra of 176 X-ray candidates and companions at ESO, Calar Alto observatory and McDonald observatory. We discuss the redshift-, linewidth-, as well as optical and X-ray luminosity distribution of our ROSAT selected sample. 139 galaxies of our 166 X-ray counterparts have been identified as AGN with 93 being Seyfert 1 galaxies (61%). Eighteen of them (20%) are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. 34 X-ray candidates (21%) are LINERs and only eight candidates (5%) are Seyfert 2. The ratio of the number of Seyfert 1 galaxies to Seyfert 2 galaxies is about 11/1. Optical surveys result in ratios of 1/1.4. The high fraction of detected Seyfert 1 galaxies is explained by the sensitivity of the ROSAT to soft X-rays which are heavily absorbed in type 2 AGN. Two X-ray candidates are HII...

  10. Are luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei triggered by galaxy interactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C; Pérez-González, P G; Barro, G; Inskip, K J; Morganti, R; Holt, J; Dicken, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a comparison between the optical morphologies of a complete sample of 46 southern 2Jy radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.05galaxies: 55 ellipticals at redshifts z<0.01 from the Observations of Bright Ellipticals at Yale (OBEY) survey, and 107 early-type galaxies at redshifts 0.2galaxy interactions in the triggering of powerful radio galaxies (PRGs). We find that a significant fraction of quiescent ellipticals at low and intermediate redshifts show evidence for disturbed morphologies at relatively high surface brightness levels, which are likely the result of past or on-going galaxy interactions. However, the morphological features detected in the galaxy hosts of the PRGs (e.g. tidal tails, shells, bridges, etc.) are up to 2 magnitudes brighter than those present in their quiescent counterparts. Indeed, if...

  11. The complex radio and X-ray structure in the nuclear regions of the active galaxy NGC1365

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, I R; Norris, R P; Stevens, Ian R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the prominent active galaxy NGC1365, in particular looking at the radio and X-ray properties of the central regions of the galaxy. We analyse ROSAT observations of NGC1365, and discuss recent ASCA results. In addition to a number of point sources in the vicinity of NGC1365, we find a region of X-ray emission extending along the central bar of the galaxy, combined with an emission peak near the centre of the galaxy. This X-ray emission is centred on the optical/radio nucleus, but is spatially extended. The X-ray spectrum can be well fitted by a thermal plasma model, with kT=0.6-0.8keV and a low local absorbing column. The thermal spectrum is suggestive of starburst emission rather than emission from a central black-hole. The ATCA radio observations show a number of hotspots, located in a ring around a weak radio nucleus. Synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated by supernovae and supernova remnants (SNRs) is the likely origin of these hotspots. The radio nucleus h...

  12. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. III. The BH mass - $\\sigma$ relation

    CERN Document Server

    Bennert, Vardha N; Auger, Matthew W; Rosen, Rebecca; Harris, Chelsea E; Malkan, Matthew A; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-01-01

    We create a baseline of the black hole (BH) mass ($M_{\\rm BH}$) - stellar-velocity dispersion ($\\sigma$) relation for active galaxies, using a homogeneous sample of 66 Seyfert-1 galaxies in the local Universe (0.02 $< z <$ 0.09) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A multi-filter analysis of SDSS images yields AGN luminosities free of host-galaxy contamination. High signal-to-noise ratio Keck spectra provide the width of the broad H$\\beta$ emission line free of FeII emission and stellar absorption. $M_{\\rm BH}$ is estimated following the virial method. The Keck long-slit spectra provide spatially-resolved kinematics that is used to determine the rotation-free stellar-velocity dispersion within the spheroid effective radius ($\\sigma_{\\rm reff}$). To probe the effect of the kinematically-cold but rotationally-supported disk component, present in the majority of host galaxies, on aperture sigma measurements, we determine the stellar-velocity dispersion within an aperture of the size of the SD...

  13. The Evolution of Star Formation Activity in Cluster Galaxies Over $0.15

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Cory R; Brodwin, Mark; Stanford, S A; Snyder, Gregory F; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We explore 7.5 billion years of evolution in the star formation activity of massive ($M_{\\star}>10^{10.1}\\,M_{\\odot}$) cluster galaxies using a sample of 25 clusters over $0.15Galaxy morphologies are determined visually using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images. Using the spectral energy distribution fitting code CIGALE, we measure star formation rates, stellar masses, and 4000 \\AA\\ break strengths. The latter are used to separate quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). From $z\\sim1.3$ to $z\\sim0.2$, the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of cluster SFGs and quiescent galaxies decreases by factors of three and four, respectively. Over the same redshift range, the sSFR of the entire cluster population declines by a factor of 11, from $0.48\\pm0.06\\;\\mathrm{Gyr}^{-1}$ to $0.043\\pm0.009\\;\\mathrm{Gyr}^{-1}$. This strong overall sSFR evolution is driven by t...

  14. Galaxies et trous noirs supermassifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Zahn, Suzy

    2016-08-01

    A few percents of galaxies are classified as « active ». An active galaxy is a galaxy whose nucleus emits more energy than the whole galaxy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, relativistic particles, or mechanical energy. It is activated by a supermassive black hole fueled by matter falling on it, whose characteristics (Eddington luminosity, spin) are recalled. The class includes quasars and Seyfert galaxies. All massive "non active" galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, but there is not enough matter in its environment so as the nucleus becomes luminous. Different items are considered in the paper : how supermassive black holes are fueled, the accretion disc, the jets and the winds, the unified model of active galaxies, how are determined the masses of supermassive black holes, and what is the relation between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

  15. Unification models with reheating via primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, J. C.; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo; Liddle, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of reheating the universe through the evaporation of primordial black holes created at the end of inflation. This is shown to allow for the unification of inflation and dark matter under the dynamics of a single scalar field. We determine the necessary conditions to recover the standard Big Bang by the time of nucleosynthesis after reheating through black holes.

  16. Does monetary unification lead to excessive debt accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    If discretionary monetary policy implies an inflation bias, monetary unification boosts the accumulation of public debt. The additional debt accumulation is welfare reducing only if governments are sufficiently myopic. In the presence of myopic governments, debt ceilings play a useful role in avoidi

  17. Gauge coupling unification and light exotica in string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin

    2007-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the consequences for the CERN Large Hadron Collider of light vectorlike exotica with fractional electric charge. It is shown that such states are found in orbifold constructions of the heterotic string. Moreover, these exotica are consistent with gauge coupling unification at one loop, even though they do not come in complete multiplets of SU(5).

  18. Supergravity and the unification of the laws of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning with a brief history of the development of elementary particle theory the theory of supergravity is described and its implications discussed. The promise of this theory for the unification of physical forces is emphasized, and the various supersymmetry theories are considered separately

  19. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  20. Pre-metric electromagnetism as a path to unification

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, David

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the pre-metric approach to Maxwell's equations provides an alternative to the traditional Einstein-Maxwell unification program, namely, that electromagnetism and gravitation are unified in a different way that makes the gravitational field a consequence of the electromagnetic constitute properties of spacetime, by way of the dispersion law for the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

  1. Active galaxies. A fast and long-lived outflow from the supermassive black hole in NGC 5548.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastra, J S; Kriss, G A; Cappi, M; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P-O; Steenbrugge, K C; Arav, N; Behar, E; Bianchi, S; Boissay, R; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Chamberlain, C; Costantini, E; Ely, J C; Ebrero, J; Di Gesu, L; Harrison, F A; Kaspi, S; Malzac, J; De Marco, B; Matt, G; Nandra, K; Paltani, S; Person, R; Peterson, B M; Pinto, C; Ponti, G; Pozo Nuñez, F; De Rosa, A; Seta, H; Ursini, F; de Vries, C P; Walton, D J; Whewell, M

    2014-07-01

    Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution x-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas not seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft x-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and, at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk.

  2. X-ray Detections of Sub-millimetre Galaxies: Active Galactic Nuclei Versus Starburst Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Seth P; Wang, Danial Q; Williams, Christina C; Scott, Kim S; Yun, Min S; Pope, Alexandra; Lowenthal, James; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Kim, M J; Kim, Sungeun; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Oshima, Tai; 10.1093/mnras/stt197

    2013-01-01

    We present a large-scale study of the X-ray properties and near-IR-to-radio SEDs of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected at 1.1mm with the AzTEC instrument across a ~1.2 square degree area of the sky. Combining deep 2-4 Ms Chandra data with Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and VLA data within the GOODS-N/S and COSMOS fields, we find evidence for AGN activity in ~14 percent of 271 AzTEC SMGs, ~28 percent considering only the two GOODS fields. Through X-ray spectral modeling and SED fitting using Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to Siebenmorgen et al. (2004) (AGN) and Efstathiou et al. (2000) (starburst) templates, we find that while star formation dominates the IR emission, with SFRs ~100-1000 M_sun/yr, the X-ray emission for most sources is almost exclusively from obscured AGNs, with column densities in excess of 10^23 cm^-2. Only for ~6 percent of our sources do we find an X-ray-derived SFR consistent with NIR-to-radio SED derived SFRs. Inclusion of the X-ray luminosities as a prior to the NIR-to-radio SED effectively...

  3. The radio-loud active nucleus in the "dark lens" galaxy J1218+2953

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, S; Campbell, R M; Moor, A

    2010-01-01

    Context: There is a possibility that the optically unidentified radio source J1218+2953 may act as a gravitational lens, producing an optical arc ~4" away from the radio position. Until now, the nature of the lensing object has been uncertain since it is not detected in any waveband other than the radio. The estimated high mass-to-light ratio could even allow the total mass of this galaxy to be primarily in the form of dark matter. In this case, J1218+2953 could be the first known example of a "dark lens". Aims: We investigate the nature of J1218+2953 by means of high-resolution radio imaging observations to determine whether there is a radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the position of the lensing object. Methods: We report on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 and 5 GHz. Results: Our images, having angular resolutions of ~1 to ~10 milli-arcseconds (mas), reveal a rich and complex radio structure extending to almost 1". Based on its radi...

  4. Probing the Active Galactic Nuclei Unified Model Torus Properties in Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Audibert, Anelise; Sales, Dinalva A; Pastoriza, Miriani G; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We studied the physical parameters of a sample comprising of all Spitzer/IRS public spectra of Seyfert galaxies in the mid-infrared (5.2-38$\\mu$m range) under the active galactic nuclei (AGN) unified model. We compare the observed spectra with $\\sim10^6$ CLUMPY model spectral energy distributions, which consider a torus composed of dusty clouds. We find a slight difference in the distribution of line-of-sight inclination angle, $i$, requiring larger angles for Seyfert 2 (Sy2) and a broader distribution for Seyfert 1 (Sy1). We found small differences in the torus angular width, $\\sigma$, indicating that Sy1 may host a slightly narrower torus than Sy2. The torus thickness, together with the bolometric luminosities derived, suggest a very compact torus up to $\\sim$6 pc from the central AGN. The number of clouds along the equatorial plane, $N$, as well the index of the radial profile, $q$, are nearly the same for both types. These results imply that the torus cloud distribution is nearly the same for type 1 and t...

  5. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z ≤ 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of ∼<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all ∼4000 QSOs with g ≤ 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  6. Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.

  7. The Neural Basis of Semantic Unification%语言理解中语义整合的神经机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祖德; 王穗苹; 冯刚毅; 李国超

    2011-01-01

    Semantic unification is one of the core components of language production and comprehension. In this paper, the most relevant models about semantic unification were described, including multiple phases model (Friederici, 2002), Bilateral Activation, Integration and Selection model (BIAS) (Jing - Beenan, 2005 ), Menory, Unification and Control model .(MUC) (Hagoort, 2005), N400 model (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008). The issues at core of debate include the definition of semantic unification and the corresponding locus, as well as whether there is a linguistic specific unification locus. Following the BIAS model and the N400 model, semantic unification is apart from semantic selection and controlled processing. According to MUC model, semantic unification refers to the process by which we construct eomplex meaning based on elmaentary semantic blocks (e. g. words). It relies on selection and inhibition owing to the inherent ambiguity nature of language comprehension. However, selection is not always a prerequisite for semantic unification. Unification constructs semantic representation that is not already available in long- term memory. In addition, some information which should be unified is unique and does not engage selection. For instance, Tesink et al. (Tesink, et al., 2009) found left inferior frontal gyrus activation when content violated character's gender information as indicated by the acoustics of the voice (for example, a men said he was pregnant), a situation which unlikely relies on selection. In the future, it would be helpful to further investigate whether the activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during semantic unification is linguistic-specified or domain general. Since it was found that activation between semantic unification and general cognitive control such as flanker task induced control processing was overlapping (Ye & Zhou, 2009). Moreover, cumulative evidence suggested that functional

  8. The merger fraction of active and inactive galaxies in the local Universe through an improved non-parametric classification

    CERN Document Server

    Cotini, Stefano; Caccianiga, Alessandro; Colpi, Monica; Della Ceca, Roberto; Mapelli, Michela; Severgnini, Paola; Segreto, Alberto; 10.1093/mnras/stt358

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possible link between mergers and the enhanced activity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the centre of galaxies, by comparing the merger fraction of a local sample (0.003 =< z < 0.03) of active galaxies - 59 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies selected from the all-sky Swift BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) survey - with an appropriate control sample (247 sources extracted from the Hyperleda catalogue) that has the same redshift distribution as the BAT sample. We detect the interacting systems in the two samples on the basis of non-parametric structural indexes of concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S), Gini coefficient (G) and second order momentum of light (M20). In particular, we propose a new morphological criterion, based on a combination of all these indexes, that improves the identification of interacting systems. We also present a new software - PyCASSo (Python CAS Software) - for the automatic computation of the structural indexes. After correcting for the c...

  9. No More Active Galactic Nuclei in Clumpy Disks Than in Smooth Galaxies at z~2 in CANDELS / 3D-HST

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Juneau, Stephanie; Weiner, Benjamin J; Luo, Bin; Brammer, Gabriel B; Bell, Eric F; Brandt, W Niel; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Hopkins, Philip F; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D; McIntosh, Daniel H; Momcheva, Ivelina; Faber, S M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lotz, Jennifer; Maseda, Michael; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Rosario, David J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that, despite being being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z~2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z~2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratio...

  10. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  11. Star formation activity in a young galaxy cluster at z=0.866

    CERN Document Server

    Laganá, T F; Martins, L P; da Cunha, E

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy cluster RXJ1257$+$4738 at $z=0.866$ is one of the highest redshift clusters with a richness of multi-wavelength data, and thus a good target to study the star formation-density relation at early epochs. Using a sample of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we derive the star formation rates of our galaxies using two methods, (I) the relation between SFR and total infrared luminosity extrapolated from the observed \\textit{Spitzer} MIPS 24$\\mu$m imaging data, and (II) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using the MAGPHYS code, including eight different bands. We show that, for this cluster, the SFR-density relation is very weak and seems to be dominated by the two central galaxies and the SFR presents a mild dependence on stellar mass, with more massive galaxies having higher SFR. However, the specific SFR (SSFR) decreases with stellar mass, meaning that more massive galaxies are forming less stars per unit of mass, and thus suggesting that the increase in star-forming members is driv...

  12. Nebular excitation in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS and LUCI surveys: The influence of shocks and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buschkamp, Peter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Kurk, Jaron; Rosario, David; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S., E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the 'composite' region of the z ∼ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ∼ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ∼ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ∼ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration.

  13. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Chairmen's PrefaceIn 1984 we obtained a grant from the Nobel Foundation to organize a Nobel Symposium on "Unification of the Fundamental Interactions". In our proposal which we submitted in the fall of 1983 we stated that we wanted to cover the various attempts to unification such as GUT'S, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein theories and superstrings. What has happened in particle physics since then is already history. With the realization that certain superstring theories could be anomaly free, it became clear that these models could encompass earlier attempts to unification as well as solving the fundamental problem of quantum gravity. The excitement that some of us had felt for some time now spread through most of the particle physics community and this excitement certainly was evident during the Symposium. With the international advisory committee we originally chose a list of around 30 invitees which could best represent the various subjects listed above. When it came to the final planning of the programme essentially all talks dealt with superstrings! We were very fortunate that almost all of the invitees managed to come to the Symposium. From the western world only three were unable to participate, André Neveu, Steven Weinberg and Bruno Zumino. We certainly missed them during the meeting. We were particularly happy that Stephen Hawking managed to take part actively. Our real problem was to get participants from the Soviet Union. Out of eight invitations only one came through. We were very happy to have Renata Kallosh, who really did her utmost to enlighten us about not only her own work but also about recent progress in the USSR, However, we were very sorry that in spite of all our letters, telegrammes and endless attempts to get telephone calls through and despite the good relations between the Swedish and Soviet Academies of Sciences we had to miss Ludwig Faddeev, Valodja Gribov, Andrej Linde, Victor Ogievetsky, Sasha Polyakov, Misha Shifman and Arkadij

  14. Star formation in 3CR radio galaxies and quasars at $z < 1$

    CERN Document Server

    Westhues, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J; Willner, S P; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Podigachoski, Pece; Leipski, Christian; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Chini, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory we have observed a representative sample of 87 powerful 3CR sources at redshift $z < 1$. The far-infrared (FIR, 70-500~$\\mu m$) photometry is combined with mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and catalogued data to analyse the complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each object from optical to radio wavelength. To disentangle the contributions of different components, the SEDs are fitted with a set of templates to derive the luminosities of host galaxy starlight, dust torus emission powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and cool dust heated by stars. The level of emission from relativistic jets is also estimated, in order to isolate the thermal host galaxy contribution. The new data are in line with the orientation-based unification of high-excitation radio-loud AGN, in that the dust torus becomes optically thin longwards of $30~\\mu m$. The low excitation radio galaxies and the MIR weak sources represent MIR- and ...

  15. The host of GRB/XRF 030528 - an actively star forming galaxy at z=0.782

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A

    2005-01-01

    An important parameter for the distinction of X-ray flashes, X-ray rich bursts and Gamma-ray bursts in the rest frame is the distance to the explosion site. Here we report on the spectroscopic redshift determination of the host galaxy of XRF/GRB 030528 using the ESO VLT FORS2 instrument. From the strong oxygen and hydrogen emission lines the redshift was measured to be z=0.782+-0.001. Obtaining the line luminosities and ratios we find that the host is consistent with being an actively star forming galaxy with sub-solar metallicity. With a stellar mass of ~10E10 Msun the host is placed among the most massive GRB host galaxies at a similar redshift. Estimating the redshifted properties of the prompt emission, we find that XRF/GRB 030528 would be classified as an X-ray rich bursts in the rest frame rather than an X-ray flash in the typically used observer frame.

  16. SPT0346-52: Negligible AGN Activity in a Compact, Hyper-starburst Galaxy at z = 5.7

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jingzhe; Vieira, J D; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bethermin, M; Bothwell, M S; Brandt, W N; de Breuck, C; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Litke, K; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; Murphy, E J; Spilker, J S; Sreevani, J; Stark, A A; Strandet, M; Wang, S X

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and ATCA radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at $z$ = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST, Spitzer, Herschel, APEX, and the VLT. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate ($\\sim$ 4500 $M_{\\sun}$ yr$^{-1}$) and star formation rate surface density $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$ ($\\sim$ 2000 $M_{\\sun} {yr^{-1}} {kpc^{-2}}$) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The {\\it Chandra} upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star-formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies w...

  17. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Switzer, Eric R; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index of 3.7+0.62-0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty ...

  18. MAGIC observation of an exceptional TeV gamma-ray flare in the active galaxy IC 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glawion, Dorit; Mannheim, Karl; Elsaesser, Dominik; Kadler, Matthias; Schulz, Robert [ITPA Wuerzburg (Germany); Sitarek, Julian [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Ros, Eduardo; Bach, Uwe [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Krauss, Felicia; Wilms, Joern [ECAP Erlangen, Dr. Karl Remeis-Sternwarte, Bamberg (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The AGN IC 310 has been identified as a gamma-ray emitter based on observations at very high energies (VHE,E>100 GeV) with the MAGIC telescopes. Despite IC 310 having been classified as a radio galaxy with the jet observed at an angle>10 degrees, it exhibits a mixture of multiwavelength properties of a radio galaxy and a blazar, possibly making it a transitional object. On the night of 12/13th of November 2012 the MAGIC telescopes observed a series of strong outbursts from the direction of IC 310 with flux-doubling time scales faster than 5 min and a peculiar spectrum spreading over two orders of magnitude. Such fast variability constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. In fact, the measurement challenges the shock acceleration models, commonly used in explanation of gamma-ray radiation from active galaxies. We show that this emission can be associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the jet.

  19. Anomaly of discrete family symmetries and gauge coupling unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomaly of a discrete symmetry is defined as the Jacobian of the path-integral measure. Assuming that anomaly at low energy is cancelled by the Green–Schwarz (GS) mechanism at a fundamental scale, we investigate possible Kac–Moody levels for anomalous discrete family symmetries. As the first example we consider discrete abelian Baryon number and Lepton number symmetries in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with see-saw mechanism, and find that the ordinary unification of gauge couplings is not consistent with the GS conditions, indicating a possible existence of further Higgs doublets. Next we consider the recently proposed supersymmetric model with Q6 family symmetry. In this model, the GS conditions are such that the gauge coupling unification appears close to the Planck scale. (author)

  20. Constraining Grand Unification using first and second generation sfermions

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D J; Pandita, P N

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spectrum of supersymmetric grand unification models based on the gauge groups SU(5), SO(10) and E6, paying particular attention to the first and second generation. We demonstrate how the measurement of the first or second generation sfermion spectrum may be used to constrain the underlying grand unification structure. The smallness of first and second generation Yukawa interactions allows us to perform an analytic analysis, deriving expressions for the high scale parameters in terms of the low scale sfermion masses. We also describe a sum rule that provides an SO(10) mass prediction, distinct from SU(5), and discuss E6 models, both with and without extra exotic matter at low energies. The derived relations are compared with numerical results including two-loop running and the full Yukawa dependence.

  1. Perturbative unification of gauge couplings in supersymmetric E6 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gi-Chol; Maru, Nobuhito; Yotsutani, Kaho

    2016-07-01

    We study gauge coupling unification in supersymmetric (SUSY) E6 models where an additional U(1)‧ gauge symmetry is broken near the TeV scale and a number of exotic matter fields from the 27 representations have O(TeV) mass. Solving the two-loop renormalization group equations (RGE) of gauge couplings and a kinetic mixing coupling between the U(1)‧ and U(1)Y gauge fields, we find that the gauge couplings fall into the non-perturbative regime below the grand unified theories (GUT) scale. We examine threshold corrections on the running of gauge couplings from both light and heavy ( ˜ GUT scale) particles and show constraints on the size of corrections to achieve the perturbative unification of gauge couplings.

  2. Quantum gravity unification via transfinite arithmetic and geometrical averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In E-Infinity theory, we have not only infinitely many dimensions but also infinitely many fundamental forces. However, due to the hierarchical structure of ε(∞) spacetime we have a finite expectation number for its dimensionality and likewise a finite expectation number for the corresponding interactions. Starting from the preceding fundamental principles and using the experimental findings as well as the theoretical value of the coupling constants of the electroweak and the strong forces we present an extremely simple averaging procedure for determining the quantum gravity unification coupling constant with and without super symmetry. The work draws heavily on previous results, in particular a paper, by the Slovian Prof. Marek-Crnjac [Marek-Crnjac L. On the unification of all fundamental forces in a fundamentally fuzzy Cantorian ε(∞) manifold and high energy physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;4:657-68

  3. National borders earthquakes: an attempt at intensity maps unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tertulliani

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of unification of macroseismic maps across national borders is discussed. Up to now some attempts in this way have been carried out, evidencing the difficulties present in such analysis. A filter technique working on intensity data is applied on these particular kinds of events, with the goal of homogenizing different macroseismic fields coming from neighboring countries. The filter, aIready tested on Italian earthquakes, has been used on five European earthquakes of this century, for which different data sets and partial interpretations exist in literature. This approach works well with data sets limited to a single country. Moreover it could be successfully utilized for border events too, wherever a unification of intensity assessment methods has been carried out among neighboring countries.

  4. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L bol = 1046.5 erg s–1). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 102 – 3 cm–3) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm–3)—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for

  5. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M., E-mail: orianne.roos@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  6. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Galaxy Clusters from $z=1-2$: a Multi-wavelength Analysis Featuring $Herschel$/PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Chung, Sun Mi; Cybulski, Ryan; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony; Jannuzi, Buell; Stanford, S Adam; Snyder, Gregory; Stern, Daniel; Zeimann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed, multi-wavelength study of star formation (SF) and AGN activity in 11 near-infrared (IR) selected, spectroscopically confirmed, massive ($\\gtrsim10^{14}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) galaxy clusters at $1galaxies, finding that they can, on average, be well described by field galaxy templates. Identification and decomposition of AGN through SED fittings allows us to include the contribution to cluster SF from AGN host galaxies. We quantify the star-forming fraction, dust-obscured SF rates (SFRs), and specific-SFRs for cluster galaxies as a function of cluster-centric radius and redshift. In good agreement with previous studies, we find that SF in cluster galaxies at $z\\gtrsim1.4$ is largely consistent with field galaxies at similar epochs, indicating an era before significant quenching in the cluster cores ($r<0.5\\,$Mpc). This is followed by a ...

  7. Unification costs for Korea and the Korean peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donggun

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research begins with two questions: Can the government of South Korea (SK) overcome the economic burden of Korean unification, and what will the effects of reunification be on theUnited States and China? This thesis focuses on manufacturing, the food industry, and infrastructure, since these three sectors will be the most important expenditures of a unified Korean government. To develop North Korea’s (NK’s) economy, the developmen...

  8. Participation Behaviour of East German Women After German Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Holger; Euwals, Rob

    2002-01-01

    The Paper studies the determinants of labour force participation by East German women after unification. To isolate the role of preferences on labour force participation from individual characteristics, we develop a panel data model that simultaneously explains participation, employment and wages. The model, estimated for East and West Germany on the basis of the German Socio-Economic Panel, indicates that distinct preferences could explain the regional difference in participation rates at un...

  9. Employment and Fertility in East Germany after Unification

    OpenAIRE

    James C. Witte; Wagner, Gert G.

    1995-01-01

    Vital statistics clearly indicate that the fertility rate in East Germany dropped sharply after German unification; moreover, it has not yet rebounded but remains stable at a low level. This paper uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) to examine births in the former German Democratic Republic in 1992 and 1993. The primary explantory variables include women's employment status in 1991 and 1992, expectations about future unemployment, and the employment status of cohabiting or ...

  10. Unification of Gravity and Electro-Magnetism in Six Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab

    2002-01-01

    Recently by us was proposed the model where Einstein's equation on the brane was connected with Maxwell's multi-dimensional equations in pseudo-Euclidean space. Based on this idea unification of 4-dimensional gravity and electromagnetism in (2+4)-space is found. In this picture photon is massless in four dimensions and obtains large mass in extra (1+1)-space normal to the brane.

  11. Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification of model physics in coarse- and fine-resolution atmospheric models. As far as representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs. Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition of model physics from one kind to the other takes place as the resolution changes. With such unification, the GCM can converge to a global CRM (GCRM as the grid size is refined. ROUTE I for unification continues to follow the parameterization approach, but uses a unified parameterization that is applicable to any horizontal resolutions between those typically used by GCMs and CRMs. It is shown that a key to construct such a unified parameterization is to eliminate the assumption of small fractional area covered by convective clouds, which is commonly used in the conventional cumulus parameterizations either explicitly or implicitly. A preliminary design of the unified parameterization is presented, which demonstrates that such an assumption can be eliminated through a relatively minor modification of the existing mass-flux based parameterizations. Partial evaluations of the unified parameterization are also presented. ROUTE II for unification follows the "multi-scale modeling framework (MMF" approach, which takes advantage of explicit representation of deep moist convection and associated cloud-scale processes by CRMs. The Quasi-3-D (Q3-D MMF is an attempt to broaden the applicability of MMF without necessarily using a fully three-dimensional CRM. This is accomplished using a network of cloud-resolving grids with gaps. An outline of the Q3-D algorithm and highlights of preliminary results are reviewed.

  12. A New Theory for Unification of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new theory for unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. By considering a four-dimensional spacetime as a hypersurface embedded in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime, we derive the complete set of field equations on the four-dimensional spacetime from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. We show that, besides the Einstein field equation on the four-dimensional spacetime, a new electromagnetic field equation is also derived: $\

  13. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the fine-tuning remains modest. In this Letter, we show that such gauge mediation models with “focus point” behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5)×U(3) product group unification

  14. Unification of Filled Function and Tunnelling Function in Global Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Yong-jian Yang; Lian-sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two auxiliary functions for global optimization are proposed. These two auxiliary functions possess all characters of tunnelling functions and filled functions under certain general assumptions.Thus, they can be considered as the unification of filled function and tunnelling function. Moreover, the process of tunneling or filling for global optimization can be unified as the minimization of such auxiliary functions.Result of numerical experiments shows that such two auxiliary functions are effective.

  15. Purchasing policy model based on components/parts unification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunXiaolin; ZhongDeqiang; ManDaqing; BinSheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for components/parts unification (CPU) policy. This model considers two components/parts that are functionally interchangeable but purchased from suppliers with different prices and quality characteristics. Because of the buyer's quality preference and suppliers' discount rates for bulky purchases, the model assists the procurement manager to determine how best to purchase the components/parts to meet its demand while minimizing the total acquisition costs.

  16. Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Vera

    2000-01-01

    Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are the major tool for determining the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. They provide fundamental information for understanding the dynamics, evolution and formation of spiral galaxies. We describe various methods to derive rotation curves, and review the results obtained. We discuss the basic characteristics of observed rotation curves in relation to various galaxy properties, such as Hubble type, structure, activity, and environment.

  17. Star formation activity in Balmer break galaxies at $z$ < 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tello, J Díaz; Padilla, N; Akiyama, M; Fujishiro, N; Yoshikawa, T; Hanami, H

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a spectroscopic study of the properties of 64 Balmer break galaxies that show signs of star formation. The studied sample of star-forming galaxies spans a redshift range from 0.094 to 1.475 with stellar masses in the range 10$^{8}-$10$^{12}$ $M_{\\odot}$. The sample also includes eight broad emission line galaxies with redshifts between 1.5 $galaxies with lower SFR values (i.e., decreasing star formation). We also note an anticorrelation for the SSFR with the stellar mass. Again in this case, our data is also consis...

  18. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

    CERN Document Server

    Olguín-Iglesias, A; Kotilainen, J K; Chavushyan, V; Tornikoski, M; Valtaoja, E; Añorve, C; Valdes, J; Carrasco, L

    2016-01-01

    We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift ($0.310^{27}$ WHz$^{-1}$), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities $L_{1.4GHz} \\sim 10^{23.7} - 10^{28.3}$~WHz$^{-1}$, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the $\\mu_{e}$-$R_{eff}$ relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the \\mnuc - \\mbulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, that could be interpre...

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CFA Seyfert 2 Galaxies: The Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Pogge, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    We present an investigation of possible fueling mechanisms operating in the inner kiloparsec of Seyfert galaxies. We analyze visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images of 24 Seyfert 2 galaxies from the CfA Redshift Survey sample. In particular, we are searching for the morphological signatures of dynamical processes responsible for transporting gas from kiloparsec scales into the nucleus. The circumnuclear regions are very rich in gas and dust, often taking the form of nuclear spiral dust lanes on scales of a few hundred parsecs. While these nuclear spirals are found in 20 of our 24 Seyfert galaxies, we find only five nuclear bars among the entire sample, strongly reinforcing the conclusions of other investigators that nuclear bars are not the primary means of transporting this material into the nucleus. An estimate of the gas density in the nuclear spirals, based on extinction measurements, suggests that the nuclear spiral dust lanes are probably shocks in nuclear gas disks that are not strongly self-gravitating. Since shocks can dissipate energy and angular momentum, these spiral dust lanes may be the channels by which gas from the host galaxy disks is being fed into the central engines.

  20. Towards a unification of unified theories of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brian J

    2010-05-01

    A unified theory in science is a theory that shows a common underlying set of rules that regulate processes previously thought to be distinct. Unified theories have been important in physics including the unification of electricity and magnetism and the unification of the electromagnetic with the weak nuclear force. Surprisingly, ecology, specifically the subfields of biodiversity and macroecology, also possess not one but at least six unified theories. This is problematic as only one unified theory is desirable. Superficially, the six unified theories seem very different. However, I show that all six theories use the same three rules or assertions to describe a stochastic geometry of biodiversity. The three rules are: (1) intraspecifically individuals are clumped together; (2) interspecifically global or regional abundance varies according to a hollow curve distribution; and (3) interspecifically individuals are placed without regard to individuals of other species. These three rules appear sufficient to explain local species abundance distributions, species-area relationships, decay of similarity of distance and possibly other patterns of biodiversity. This provides a unification of the unified theories. I explore implications of this unified theory for future research. PMID:20337695

  1. Gauge coupling unification and nonequilibrium thermal dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A; Quevillon, Jérémie; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2013-06-14

    We study a new mechanism for the production of dark matter in the Universe which does not rely on thermal equilibrium. Dark matter is populated from the thermal bath subsequent to inflationary reheating via a massive mediator whose mass is above the reheating scale T(RH). To this end, we consider models with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry broken at some intermediate scale (M(int) ≃ 10(10)-10(12) GeV). We show that not only does the model allow for gauge coupling unification (at a higher scale associated with grand unification) but it can provide a dark matter candidate which is a standard model singlet but charged under the extra U(1). The intermediate scale gauge boson(s) which are predicted in several E6/SO(10) constructions can be a natural mediator between dark matter and the thermal bath. We show that the dark matter abundance, while never having achieved thermal equilibrium, is fixed shortly after the reheating epoch by the relation T(RH)(3)/M(int)(4). As a consequence, we show that the unification of gauge couplings which determines M(int) also fixes the reheating temperature, which can be as high as T(RH) ≃ 10(11) GeV.

  2. Probes of Yukawa unification in supersymmetric SO(10) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoff, Susanne

    2009-10-23

    This work is composed as follows: In Chapter 1, the disposed reader is made familiar with the foundations of flavourphysics and Grand Unification, including group-theoretical aspects of SO(10). In Chapter 2, we introduce a specific supersymmetric GUT model based on SO(10) and designed to probe down-quark-lepton Yukawa unification. Within this framework we explore the effects of large atmospheric neutrino mixing in bottom-strange transitions on the mass difference and CP phase in B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} meson mixing. Chapter 3 is devoted to corrections to Yukawa unification. We derive constraints on Yukawa corrections for light fermions from K- anti K and B{sub d}- anti B {sub d} mixing. As an application we study implications of neutrino mixing effects in CP-violating K and B{sub d} observables on the unitrity triangle. Finally, in Chapter 4, we discuss effects of large tan {beta} in B{yields}(D){tau}{nu} decays with respect to their potential to discover charged Higgs bosons and to discriminate between different GUT models of flavour.

  3. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  4. How environment drives galaxy evolution: lessons learnt from satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, A

    2015-01-01

    It is by now well established that galaxy evolution is driven by intrinsic and environmental processes, both contributing to shape the observed properties of galaxies. A number of early studies, both observational and theoretical, have shown that the star formation activity of galaxies depends on their environmental local density and also on galaxy hierarchy, i.e. centrals vs. satellites. In fact, contrary to their central (most massive) galaxy of a group/cluster, satellite galaxies are stripped of their gas and stars, and have their star formation quenched by their environment. Large galaxy surveys like SDSS now permit us to investigate in detail environment-driven transformation processes by comparing centrals and satellites. In this paper I summarize what we have so far learnt about environmental effects by analysing the observed properties of local central and satellite galaxies in SDSS, as a function of their stellar mass and the dark matter mass of their host group/cluster.

  5. Life satisfaction and economic conditions in East and West Germany pre- and post-unification

    OpenAIRE

    Easterlin, R. A.; Plagnol, A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disruption in East Germany at the time of unification resulted in a noticeable drop in life satisfaction. By the late 1990s East Germany's life satisfaction had recovered to about its 1990 level, and its shortfall relative to West Germany was slightly less than that before unification. In West Germany life satisfaction was fairly constant before unification, but subsequently trended moderately downward, with Turkish life satisfaction declining noticeably relative to Germans. Changes ...

  6. Black hole variability and the star formation-active galactic nucleus connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an active galactic nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from hours to Myr) that are far shorter than the typical timescale for star formation (≳100 Myr). This variability can have important consequences for observed correlations. We present a simple model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN when averaged over ∼100 Myr timescales, with long-term average AGN accretion rates that are perfectly correlated with the star formation rate (SFR). We show that reasonable prescriptions for AGN variability reproduce the observed weak correlations between SFR and L AGN in typical AGN host galaxies, as well as the general trends in the observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and measurements of the average AGN luminosity as a function of SFR. These results imply that there may be a tight connection between AGN activity and SFR over galaxy evolution timescales, and that the apparent similarities in rest-frame colors, merger rates, and clustering of AGNs compared to 'inactive' galaxies may be due primarily to AGN variability. The results provide motivation for future deep, wide extragalactic surveys that can measure the distribution of AGN accretion rates as a function of SFR.

  7. AN EMBEDDED ACTIVE NUCLEUS IN THE OH MEGAMASER GALAXY IRAS16399–0937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Dinalva A. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 9500 Bento Gonçalves, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 (Brazil); Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Curran, R. L.; O' Dea, C.; Mittal, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Gallimore, J. [Department of Physics, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Baum, S. [Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Elitzur, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399–0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ∼6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostly heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399–0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ∼ 100-200 km s{sup –1}). We infer that the ∼10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (∼1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399–0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed.

  8. Spectral Characteristics of Radiation from the Nucleus of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1275 After an Epoch of its Maximum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Sharipova, L. M.; Galeev, A. I.; Akhmetkhanova, A. É.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral characteristics of radiation from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 are studied on a long time scale. Changes in the profiles of some emission lines and changes in the relative intensities of hydrogen and forbidden lines and their equivalent widths (EWλ ) are demonstrated on a time scale of decades. These studies employed spectral data obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) during January 2012 and drew on spectral data published earlier in the literature. These results made it possible to trace the state of the nucleus of NGC 1275 after an activity maximum that occurred during the 1960's.

  9. The X-ray Zurich environmental study (X-zens). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of active galactic nuclei in galaxies in nearby groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Miniati, F.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Schawinski, K. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Finoguenov, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 M {sub group} ∼ 1-6 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, z ∼ 0.05 galaxy groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study. The X-ray data aim at establishing the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in central and satellite galaxies, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of the 177 galaxies, down to a sensitivity level of f {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L {sub Edd} ≳ 10{sup –4}), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift and compare the structural and morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies. At galaxy mass scales <10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, central galaxies appear to be a factor of ∼4 more likely to host AGNs than satellite galaxies of similar mass. This effect, coupled with the tendency for AGNs to be hosted by massive galaxies, explains the (weak) trend for AGNs to be preferentially found in the inner parts of group halos, with no detectable trend with halo-centric distance in the frequency of AGNs within the satellite population. Finally, our data indicate that the rate of decline with redshift of AGN activity in galaxy groups matches that of the global AGN population, indicating that either AGN activity occurs preferentially in group halos or that the evolution rate is independent of halo mass.

  10. Triggering Active Galactic Nuclei in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Disk instability vs. Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fiore, F; Lamastra, A

    2014-01-01

    Using a semi analytic model for galaxy formation we investigate the effects of Black Hole accretion triggered by disk instabilities (DI) in isolated galaxies on the evolution of AGN. Specifically, we took on, developed and expanded the Hopkins & Quataert (2011) model for the mass inflow following disk perturbations, and compare the corresponding evolution of the AGN population with that arising in a scenario where galaxy interactions trigger AGN (IT mode). We extended and developed the DI model by including different disk surface density profiles, to study the maximal contribution of DI to the evolution of the AGN population. We obtained the following results: i) for luminosities corresponding to $M_{1450}\\gtrsim -26$ the DI mode can provide the BH accretion needed to match the observed AGN luminosity functions up to $z \\approx 4.5$; in such a luminosity range and redshift, it can compete with the IT scenario as the main driver of cosmological evolution of AGN; ii) The DI scenario cannot provide the obser...

  11. Multi-wavelength study of X-ray luminous clusters at z ~ 0.3 I. Star formation activity of cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Braglia, F G; Biviano, A; Böhringer, H

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm of cosmic formation and evolution of galaxy clusters foresees growth mostly through merging. Galaxies in the infall region or in the core of a cluster undergo transformations owing to different environmental stresses. For two X-ray luminous clusters at redshift z ~ 0.3 with opposite X-ray morphologies, RXCJ0014.3-3022 and RXCJ2308.3-0211, we assess differences in galaxy populations as a function of cluster topography. Cluster large-scale structure and substructure are determined from the combined photometry in the B, V, and R bands, and from multi-object optical spectroscopy at low resolution. A spectral index analysis is performed, based on the [OII] and Hdelta features, and the D4000 break, available for more than 100 member galaxies per cluster. Combination of spectral indices and FUV-optical colours provides a picture of the star formation history in galaxies. In spite of the potential presence of a small fraction of galaxies with obscured star formation activity, the average star-for...

  12. The Star Formation History of NGC 1705: a Post-Starburst Galaxy on the Verge of Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Annibali, F; Tosi, M P; Aloisi, A; Leitherer, C

    2003-01-01

    We infer the star formation history in different regions of the blue compact dwarf NGC 1705 by comparing synthetic color-magnitude diagrams with HST optical and near-infrared photometry. We find that NGC 1705 is not a young galaxy because its star formation commenced at least 5 Gyr ago. On the other hand, we confirm the existence of a recent burst of star formation between 15 and 10 Myr ago. We also find evidence for new strong activity, which started 3 Myr ago and is still continuing. The old population is spread across the entire galaxy, while the young and intermediate stars are more concentrated in the central regions. We derive an almost continuous star formation with variable rate, and exclude the presence of long quiescent phases between the episodes during the last ~1 Gyr. The central regions experienced an episode of star formation of \\~0.07 Msun/yr (for a Salpeter initial mass function [IMF]) 15 to 10 Myr ago. This coincides with the strong activity in the central super star cluster. We find a rate ...

  13. The Center of Our Galaxy Activity and High-Energy Emission of the Closest Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Goldwurm, A

    2001-01-01

    The Center of our Galaxy is a peculiar region where a number of crucial astrophysical phenomena take place, from star formation to SN explosions and accretion onto a massive black hole. The quest for a massive black hole in the Galactic Nucleus is of course of particular relevance because, it would be the closest of such extreme objects, which are now believed to reside in most of the galactic nuclei of the universe. I will review here the main observational characteristics of the Galactic Center with particular attention to the the problem of existence, physical condition and activity of the 3 10E6 Mo black hole coincident with the compact radio source Sgr A*. I will report historical and recent results of high energy observations of the central degree of our Galaxy, along with the specific accretion models proposed to account for the apparent lack of high energy activity from Sgr A*. The scientific perspectives of the next X and gamma-ray missions in the domain of the Galactic Center physics are also mentio...

  14. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  15. Chandra and MMT observations of low-mass black hole active galactic nuclei accreting at low rates in dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on Chandra X-ray observations of four candidate low-mass black hole (M bh ≲ 106 M ☉) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have the estimated Eddington ratios among the lowest (∼10–2) found for this class. The aims are to validate the nature of their AGNs and to confirm the low Eddington ratios that are derived from the broad Hα line, and to explore this poorly studied regime in the AGN parameter space. Among them, two objects with the lowest significance of the broad lines are also observed with the Multi-Mirror Telescope, and the high-quality optical spectra taken confirm them as Seyfert 1 AGNs and as having small black hole masses. X-ray emission is detected from the nuclei of two of the galaxies, which is variable on timescales of ∼103 s, whereas no significant (or only marginal at best) detection is found for the remaining two. The X-ray luminosities are on the order of 1041 erg s–1 or even lower, on the order of 1040 erg s–1 for non-detections, which are among the lowest regimes ever probed for Seyfert galaxies. The low X-ray luminosities, compared to their black hole masses derived from Hα, confirm their low accretion rates assuming typical bolometric corrections. Our results hint at the existence of a possibly large population of under-luminous low-mass black holes in the local universe. An off-nucleus ultra-luminous X-ray source in one of the dwarf galaxies is detected serendipitously, with a luminosity (6-9)× 1039 erg s–1 in 2-10 keV.

  16. Trilinear gauge boson couplings in the gauge—Higgs unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito

    2016-07-01

    We examine trilinear gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the context of the SU(3)_W⊗ U(1)' gauge-Higgs unification scenario. The TGCs play important roles in probes of the physics beyond the standard model, since they are highly restricted by the experiments. We discuss the mass spectrum of the neutral gauge boson with brane-localized mass terms carefully and find that the TGCs and ρ parameter may deviate from standard model predictions. Finally, we put a constraint on these observables and discuss the possible parameter space.

  17. Radius-dependent gauge unification in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relation of the 4-dimensional low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 to the 5-dimensional fundamental couplings as a function of the orbifold radius R. This allows us to address the gauge coupling unification in AdS5 by means of the radius running as well as the conventional momentum running. We then compute the radius dependence of 1-loop low energy couplings in generic AdS5 theory with 4-dimensional supersymmetry, and discuss the low energy predictions whe...

  18. Music education in Italian schools from the Unification to today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Badolato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the main stages in the history of Music Education in the Italian school system, from the Unification up to our day, in order to reconstruct the political-cultural debate around the importance of musical disciplines in the education of citizens. This reconstruction aims at showing how both the technically-oriented idea of teaching that was typical of programmes in the first half of the 20th century, and the lucid-evasive vision that emerged from the “protest” climate of the 1960s and 1970s, have hindered a serious organization of the epistemological status of the discipline.

  19. An alternative NMSSM phenomenology with manifest perturbative unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Lawrence; Barbieri, Riccardo; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Papaioannou, Anastasios Y.

    2007-12-18

    Can supersymmetric models with a moderate stop mass be made consistent with the negative Higgs boson searches at LEP, while keeping perturbative unification manifest? The NMSSM achieves this rather easily, but only if extra matter multiplets filling complete SU(5) representations are present at intermediate energies. As a concrete example which makes use of this feature, we give an analytic description of the phenomenology of a constrained NMSSM close to a Peccei-Quinn symmetry point. The related pseudo-Goldstone boson appears in decays of the Higgs bosons and possibly of the lightest neutralino, and itself decays into (b anti-b) and (tau anti-tau).

  20. On the ‘burden’ of German unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Bibow

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causes of western Germany's remarkably poor performance since 1992. It challenges the view that Germany's poor economic record and marked deterioration in public finances since unification might be largely attributable to that event. Instead, the analysis highlights that Germany's approach to macroeconomic policymaking has starkly conflicted with economic theory and best practice. Not theunification "shock" itself, but the ill-guided fiscal and monetary policies pursued since 1991 caused the severe and protracted de-stabilization of western Germany--and today's ongoing crisis.

  1. Reduction of Cycle Unification of Type Cpg+r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发; WolfgangBibel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a class of cycle unification problems called type Cpg+r is studied,and an intuitive representation method,called the position supergraph,is presented to analyze or reduce the cycle problem.A typical case of Cpg+r problems is considered and an algorithm is given,which tansforms the original problem of Cpg+r that is of the exponential complexity into a new one that is of the linear complexity when using SLD resolution method.These results are of importance for practice and theory.

  2. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). ICRR; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-03-15

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.

  3. Unification of Matter and Dark Matter with Radiative Neutrino Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino mass may be linked to dark matter through a well-studied radiative (scotogenic) mechanism. The new particles required are just right for the extension of the well-known SU(5) unification of quarks and leptons to include dark matter. Two examples are discussed: SU(6) which incorporates a discrete Z2 symmetry for dark matter, and SU(7) which allows for a gauge U(1)D symmetry. In either case, just as the proton is not absolutely stable within the context of SU(5), dark matter is also not absolutely stable within SU(6) or SU(7)

  4. Relating Complexity to Practical Performance in Parsing with Wide-Coverage Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that exponential complexities with respect to grammar size and input length have little impact on the performance of three unification-based parsing algorithms, using a wide-coverage grammar. The results imply that the study and optimisation of unification-based parsing must rely on empirical data until complexity theory can more accurately predict the practical behaviour of such parsers.

  5. Should $E_8$ SUSY Yang-Mills be Reconsidered as a Family Unification Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    We review earlier proposals for $E_8$ family unification, and discuss why recent work of Kovner and Shifman on condensates in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories suggests the reconsideration of $E_8$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills as a family unification theory.

  6. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  7. NuSTAR unveils a heavily obscured low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, C; Treister, E; Romero-Canizales, C; Arevalo, P; Iwasawa, K; Privon, G C; Sanders, D B; Schawinski, K; Stern, D; Imanishi, M

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286, identified in a 17.5 ks NuSTAR observation. The source is in an early merging stage, and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and, by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured [$N_{\\rm\\,H}\\simeq (0.95-1.32)\\times 10^{24}\\rm\\,cm^{-2}$], with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick [CT, $\\log (N_{\\rm\\,H}/\\rm cm^{-2})\\geq 24$]. The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity ($L_{2-10\\rm\\,keV}\\sim 3-20\\times 10^{41}\\rm\\,erg\\,s^{-1}$) and contributes $\\lesssim$1\\% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low-luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band ($<10$ keV) and in the infrared did not notice th...

  8. Cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with feedback from active galactic nuclei: profiles and scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, Simon R; Newton, Richard D A; Thomas, Peter A; Jenkins, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new set of 30 cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, including the effects of radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, black hole growth and AGN feedback. We first demonstrate that our AGN model is capable of reproducing the observed cluster pressure profile at redshift, z~0, once the AGN heating temperature of the targeted particles is made to scale with the final virial temperature of the halo. This allows the ejected gas to reach larger radii in higher-mass clusters than would be possible had a fixed heating temperature been used. Such a model also successfully reduces the star formation rate in brightest cluster galaxies and broadly reproduces a number of other observational properties at low redshift, including baryon, gas and star fractions; entropy profiles outside the core; and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation. Our results are consistent with the notion that the excess entropy is generated via selective removal of the densest material through radiative c...

  9. Shocks and sonic booms in the intracluster medium X-ray shells and radio galaxy activity

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Begelman, M C

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by hydrodynamic simulations, we discuss the X-ray appearance of radio galaxies embedded in the intracluster medium (ICM) of a galaxy cluster. We distinguish three regimes. In the early life of a powerful source, the entire radio cocoon is expanding supersonically and hence drives a strong shock into the ICM. Eventually, the sides of the cocoon become subsonic and the ICM is disturbed by the sonic booms of the jet's working surface. In both of these regimes, X-ray observations would find an X-ray shell. In the strong shock regime, this shell will be hot and relatively thin. However, in the weak shock (sonic-boom) regime, the shell will be approximately the same temperature as the undisturbed ICM. If a cooling flow is present, the observed shell may even be cooler than the undisturbed ICM due to the lifting of cooler material into the shell from the inner (cooler) regions of the cluster. In the third and final regime, the cocoon has collapsed and no well-defined X-ray shell will be seen. We discuss wa...

  10. Star formation and accretion in the circumnuclear disks of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wutschik, Stephanie; Palmer, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    We explore the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) centered in a circumnuclear disk (CND) as a function of the mass supply from the host galaxy and considering different star formation laws, which may give rise to a self-regulation via the injection of supernova-driven turbulence. A system of equations describing star formation, black hole accretion and angular momentum transport was solved for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from the black hole, the disk and the hosting galaxy. Our model extends the framework provided by Kawakatu et al. (2008) by separately considering the inner and outer part of the disk, and by introducing a potentially non-linear dependence of the star formation rate on the gas surface density and the turbulent velocity. The star formation recipes are calibrated using observational data for NGC 1097, while the accretion model is based on turbulent viscosity as a source of angular momentum transport in a thin viscous accretion disk....

  11. The "shook up" galaxy NGC 3079: the complex interplay between HI, activity and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, N; Morganti, R; Colafrancesco, S; Booth, R

    2015-01-01

    We present deep neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079 and its environment, obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Our observations reveal previously unknown components, both in HI emission and in absorption, that show that NGC 3079 is going through a hectic phase in its evolution. The HI disk appears much more extended than previously observed and is morphologically and kinematically lopsided on all scales with evidence for strong non-circular motions in the central regions. Our data reveal prominent gas streams encircling the entire galaxy suggesting strong interacting with its neighbours. A 33-kpc long HI bridge is detected between NGC 3079 and MCG 9-17-9, likely caused by ram-pressure stripping of MGC 9-17-9 by the halo of hot gas of NGC 3079. The cometary HI tail of the companion NGC 3073, earlier discovered by Irwin et al., extends about twice as long in our data, while a shorter, second tail is also found. This tail is likely caused by ram-pressure ...

  12. Broad Hbeta Emission-Line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Runco, Jordan N; Bennert, Vardha N; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S; Malkan, Matthew A; Lazarova, Mariana S; Auger, Matthew W; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 10^7 M_sun was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10-m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hbeta emission line within the ~3-9 year time-frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hbeta emission line is of particular interest, not only since it is used to estimate MBH, but also since its strength and width is used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (~66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ~38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hbeta line virtually disappears in 3/102 (~3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing-look AGNs. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case ...

  13. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES: DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study the nature of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion for a sample of 65 IR-luminous galaxies at 0.02 1.2 mJy. The MIR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38 μm, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. Our sample of galaxies corresponds to a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000 μm) = 1010-1012 L☉ (median LIR of 3.0 × 1011 L☉). We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6-8.0 μm colors indicative of warm dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). Compared to the non-IRAGN, the IRAGN show smaller PAH emission equivalent widths, which we attribute to an increase in mid-IR continuum from the AGN. We find that in both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II] λ12.8 μm emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. We compare the ratio of PAH luminosity to the total IR luminosity, and we show that for most IRAGN star-formation accounts for 10%-50% of the total IR luminosity. We also find no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L11.3/L7.7 and L6.2/L7.7 for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. Interestingly, a small subset of galaxies (8 of 65 galaxies) show a strong excess of [O IV] λ25.9 μm emission compared to their PAH emission, which indicates the presence of heavily-obscured AGN, including 3 galaxies that are not otherwise selected as IRAGN. The low PAH emission and low [Ne II] emission of the IRAGN and [O IV]-excess objects imply the IR luminosity of these objects is dominated by

  14. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V. Laperashvili

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' $E_6imes widetilde{E_6}$ gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric $g$ and hyper-magnetic $ilde g$ charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an ${f N}=1$ supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions $T_k=k T_0$ $(k = 1,2,3$ producing three (and only three generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons' and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated $[E_6]^3$ unification at the scale $sim 10^{17}$ GeV. This group of unification has the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: $ [SU(3_C]^3imes [SU(2_L]^3imes [U(1_Y]^3 imes [U(1_{(B-L}]^3$ which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  15. Preon model and family replicated E_6 unification

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2007-01-01

    Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' E_6\\times \\tilde{E_6} gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic \\tilde g charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an N=1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present talk we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions T_k=k T_0 (k=1,2,3) producing three (and only three) generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons') and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated [E_6]^3 unification near the Planck scale. This group of unification has the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: [SU(3)_C]^3\\times [SU(2)_L]^3\\times [U(1)_Y]^3 \\times [U(1)_{(B-L)}]^3 which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. The AntiGUT scenario ...

  16. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chitta Ranjan; Laperashvili, Larisa V.

    2008-02-01

    Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' E6 × ˜E6 gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic ˜g charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions Tk = kT0 (k = 1,2,3) producing three (and only three) generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons') and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated [E6]3 unification at the scale ~1017 GeV. This group of unification ha! s the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: [SU(3)C]3 × [SU(2)L]3 × [U(1)Y]3 × [U(1)(B-L)]3 which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  17. Proton Decay Prediction in 5D Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson mass and top quark mass imply that the Higgs quartic coupling vanishes around the scale of $10^8 - 10^{12}$ GeV, depending on the precise value of the top quark mass. The vanishing quartic coupling can be naturally addressed if the Higgs field originates from a 5-dimensional gauge field and the 5th dimension is compactified at the scale of the vanishing Higgs quartic coupling, which is a scenario based on gauge-Higgs unification. We present a general prediction of the scenario on the proton decay process $p \\to \\pi^0 e^+$. In many gauge-Higgs unification models, the 1st generation fermions are localized towards an orbifold fixed point in order to realize the realistic Yukawa couplings. Hence, four-fermion operators responsible for the proton decay can appear with a suppression of the 5-dimensional Planck scale (not the 4-dimensional Planck scale). Since the 5-dimensional Planck scale is connected to the compactification scale, we have a correlation between the proton partial decay width and th...

  18. Constraints on gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki; Sakai, Yuki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the possibility of observing the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gluons in gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC with the energy s=14 TeV. We consider a benchmark model with the gauge symmetry SU(3)C×SU(3)W in five-dimensional spacetime, where SU(3)C is the gauge symmetry of the strong interaction and SU(3)W is that for the electroweak interaction and a Higgs doublet field. It is natural in general to introduce SU(3)C gauge symmetry in five-dimensional spacetime as well as SU(3)W gauge symmetry in gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) models. Since the fifth dimension is compactified to S1/Z 2 orbifold, there are KK modes of gluons in low-energy effective theory in four-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the resonance contribution of the first KK gluon to dijet invariant mass distribution at the LHC, and provide signal-to-noise ratios in various cases of KK gluon masses and kinematical cuts. Although the results are given in a specific benchmark model, we discuss their application to general GHU models with KK gluons. GHU models can be verified or constrained through the physics of the strong interaction, though they are proposed to solve the naturalness problem in electroweak symmetry breaking.

  19. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  20. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2006-06-09

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  1. False Vacuum Higgs Inflation and the Graviweak Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we develop a model of the Higgs inflation based on the non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson to gravity predicted by Graviweak Unification. We construct a self-consistent $Spin(4,4)$-invariant model of the unification of gravity with weak $SU(2)$ interactions in the assumption of the existence of visible and invisible sectors of the Universe. Assuming the interaction between the ordinary and mirror Higgs fields, we develop a special Hybrid model of inflation. According to this model, the inflaton starts trapped from the "false vacuum" of the Universe at the Higgs field VEV $v\\sim 10^{18}$ GeV (in the visible world). Then the inflations of the two Higgs doublet fields, visible $\\phi$ and mirror $\\phi'$, lead to the emergence of the Standard Model vacua at the Electroweak scales with the Higgs boson VEVs $v_1\\approx 246$ GeV and $v'_1=\\zeta v_1$ in the visible and invisible worlds, respectively. Considering the results of cosmology and calculating the number of e-folds $N^*$, we predict $...

  2. Yukawa matrix unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Iskrzyński, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is studied as a low-energy theory stemming from the $SU(5)$ Grand Unified Theory (GUT). We investigate the possibility of satisfying the minimal $SU(5)$ boundary condition $\\mathbf{Y}^d=\\mathbf{Y}^{e\\,T}$ for the full $3\\!\\times\\!3$ down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices at the GUT scale within the $R$-parity conserving MSSM. We give numerical evidence in favour of the statement: There exist regions in the parameter space of the R-parity conserving MSSM for which the unification of the down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices takes place, while the predicted values of flavour, electroweak and other collider observables are consistent with experimental constraints. Furthermore, we find evidence that the bottom-tau and strange-muon Yukawa unification is possible with a stable MSSM vacuum in the standard form. We investigate two separate scenarios of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms at the GUT scale. In the first one, it is assumed that the ...

  3. Warped accretion disks and the unification of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S

    2004-01-01

    Orientation of parsec-scale accretion disks in AGN is likely to be nearly random for different black hole feeding episodes. Since AGN accretion disks are unstable to self-gravity on parsec scales, star formation in these disks will create young stellar disks, similar to those recently discovered in our Galactic Center. The disks blend into the quasi-spherical star cluster enveloping the AGN on time scales much longer than a likely AGN lifetime. Therefore, the gravitational potential within the radius of the black hole influence is at best axi-symmetric rather than spherically symmetric. Here we show that as a result, a newly formed accretion disk will be warped. For the simplest case of a potential resulting from a thin stellar ring, we calculate the disk precession rates, and the time dependent shape. We find that, for a realistic parameter range, the disk becomes strongly warped in few hundred orbital times. We suggest that this, and possibly other mechanisms of accretion disk warping, have a direct relevan...

  4. MUSE three-dimensional spectroscopy and kinematics of the gigahertz peaked spectrum radio galaxy PKS 1934-63: interaction, recently triggered active galactic nucleus and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Lagos, Patricio; Papaderos, Polychronis; Silva, Marckelson; Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    We observe the radio galaxy PKS 1934-63 (at z = 0.1825) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio source is a gigahertz peaked spectrum source and is compact (0.13 kpc), implying an early stage of evolution (≤104 yr). Our data show an interacting pair of galaxies, with projected separation 9.1 kpc and velocity difference Δ(v) = 216 km s-1. The larger galaxy is a M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ spheroidal with the emission-line spectrum of a high-excitation young radio active galactic nucleus (AGN; e.g. strong [O I]6300 and [O III]5007). Emission-line ratios indicate a large contribution to the line luminosity from high-velocity shocks (≃ 550 km s-1). The companion is a non-AGN disc galaxy, with extended Hα emission from which its star formation rate is estimated as 0.61 M⊙ yr-1. Both galaxies show rotational velocity gradients in Hα and other lines, with the interaction being prograde-prograde. The SE-NW velocity gradient of the AGN host is misaligned from the E-W radio axis, but aligned with a previously discovered central ultraviolet source, and a factor of 2 greater in amplitude in Hα than in other (forbidden) lines (e.g. [O III]5007). This could be produced by a fast rotating (100-150 km s-1) disc with circumnuclear star formation. We also identify a broad component of [O III]5007 emission, blueshifted with a velocity gradient aligned with the radio jets, and associated with outflow. However, the broad component of [O I]6300 is redshifted. In spectral fits, both galaxies have old stellar populations plus ˜0.1 per cent of very young stars, consistent with the galaxies undergoing first perigalacticon, triggering infall and star formation from ˜40 Myr ago followed by the radio outburst.

  5. Halo formation and evolution: unification of structure and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Allan D.; Collins, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.

  6. Optical Continuum Variability of the Active Galaxy Mrk 279 - Implications for Different Accretion Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachev, R; Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a recent broad-band monitoring in optics of the Seyfert 1 type galaxy Mrk 279. We build and analyse the BVRI light curve covering a period of seven years (1995 - 2002). We also show some evidence for the existence of two different states in brightness and suggest, based on a modelling of the optical continuum, that these states may result from transition between a thin disk and an ADAF accretion modes. We assume that the short-term variability is due to a reprocessing of a variable X-ray emission from an inner ADAF part of the flow, while the long-term one may be a result from a change of the transition radius. Our tests show a good match with the observations for a reasonable set of accretion parameters, rather close to the ones, expected for Mrk 279.

  7. Are the Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies Dusty and Radiation Pressure Dominated?

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, M A; Sutherland, R S; Binette, L; Cecil, G N

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable similarity between emission spectra of narrow line regions (NLR) in Seyfert Galaxies has long presented a mystery. In photoionization models, this similarity implies that the ionization parameter is nearly always the same, about U ~ 0.01. Here we present dusty, radiation-pressure dominated photoionization models that can provide natural physical insight into this problem. In these models, dust and the radiation pressure acting on it provide the controlling factor in moderating the density, excitation and surface brightness of photoionized NLR structures. Additionally, photoelectric heating by the dust is important in determining the temperature structure of the models. These models can also explain the coexistence of the low-, intermediate- and coronal ionization zones within a single self-consistent physical structure. The radiation pressure acting on dust may also be capable of driving the fast (~3000 km/s) outflows such as are seen in the HST observations of NGC 1068.

  8. ZFOURGE catalogue of AGN candidates: an enhancement of 160{\\mu}m-derived star-formation rates in active galaxies to $z$ = 3.2

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Michael J; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Rees, Glen A; Labbé, Ivo; Allen, Rebecca J; Brammer, Gabriel B; Glazebrook, Karl; Hopkins, Andrew M; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Mullaney, James R; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F; Straatman, Caroline M S; Tomczak, Adam R; van Dokkum, Pieter G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) candidates within the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) to determine the impact they have on star-formation in their host galaxies. We first identify a population of radio, X-ray, and infrared-selected AGN by cross-matching the deep $K_{s}$-band imaging of ZFOURGE with overlapping multi-wavelength data. From this, we construct a mass-complete (log(M$_{*}$/M$_{\\odot}$) $\\ge$ 9.75), AGN luminosity limited sample of 235 AGN hosts over z = 0.2 - 3.2. We compare the rest-frame U - V versus V - J (UVJ) colours and specific star-formation rates (sSFRs) of the AGN hosts to a mass-matched control sample of inactive (non-AGN) galaxies. UVJ diagnostics reveal AGN tend to be hosted in a lower fraction of quiescent galaxies and a higher fraction of dusty galaxies than the control sample. Using 160{\\mu}m Herschel PACS data, we find the mean specific star-formation rate of AGN hosts to be elevated by 0.34$\\pm$0.07 dex with respect to the control sample across all redshift...

  9. Discovery of a Population of Bulgeless Galaxies with Extremely Red Mid-IR Colors: Obscured AGN Activity in the Low Mass Regime?

    CERN Document Server

    Satyapal, Shobita; McAlpine, William; Ellison, Sara L; Fischer, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low mass, or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z<0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 to over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing...

  10. Molecular Gas in Lensed z>2 Quasar Host Galaxies and the Star Formation Law for Galaxies with Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(2-1), CO(3-2), and CO(4-3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z=2.059), HE0230-2130 (z=2.166), HE1104-1805 (z=2.322), and B1359+154 (z=3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). B1938+666 was identified in a `blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of mu_L~11-170, and thus allow us to probe molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'(CO) = 0.65-21 x 10^9 K km/s pc^2, translating to H2 masses of M(H2) = 0.52-1.7 x 10^9 (alpha_CO/0.8) M_sun. To investigate whether or not the AGN in luminous quasars substantially contribute to L_FIR, we study the L'(CO)-L_FIR relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We ...

  11. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution...... to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 Å. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hß R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed...... by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic...

  12. Multi-wavelength properties and smbh's masses of the isolated galaxies with active nuclei in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, Iryna; Vasylenko, Anatolij; Babyk, Iuri; Pulatova, Nadya

    2016-07-01

    We apply the specially-oriented Astro-Space databases obtained with ground-based telescopes and space observatories to study the multi-wavelength spectral and physical properties of galaxies with active nuclei (AGNs), namely of isolated AGNs that are poorly investigated especially in X-rays. Such a study allowed us 1) to separate the internal evolution mechanisms from the environment influence and consider them as two separate processes related to fueling nuclear activity, 2) to explore absorption features and the X-ray continuum radiation from accretion disks around SMBHs (e.g. to select accretion models). In the case of detecting the Fe K emission line, it was possible to analyze the physical conditions in the AGNs innermost parts in more details. Using the SDSS spectral Hβ-line data we were able to estimate the SMBH masses of several isolated AGNs in the Local Universe, which are systematically lower than the SMBH masses of AGNs located in a dense environment. We present also the results of analysis of the spectral data obtained by XMM-Newton, Swift, Chandra, and INTEGRAL space observatories for several isolated AGNs from 2MIG catalogue, for which the available X-ray data were accessed. Among these objects are CGCG 179-005, NGC 6300, NGC 1050, NGC 2989, WKK 3050, ESO 438-009, ESO 317-038 and others. We determined corresponding spectral models and values of their parameters (spectral index, intrinsic absorption etc.). X-ray spectra for bright galaxies, NGC 6300 and Circinus, were analyzed up to 250 keV and their characteristics of emission features were determined in 6-7 keV range.

  13. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  14. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail: panzz@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  15. Supernovae in paired galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies.

  16. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  17. The Host Galaxy and the Extended Emission-Line Region of the Radio Galaxy 3C 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2008-04-01

    We present extensive ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of 3C 79, an FR II radio galaxy associated with a luminous extended emission-line region (EELR). Surface brightness modeling of an emission-line-free HST R-band image reveals that the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with a compact companion 0.8'' away and 4 mag fainter. The host galaxy spectrum is best described by an intermediate-age (1.3 Gyr) stellar population (4% by mass), superimposed on a 10 Gyr old population and a power law (αλ = - 1.8); the stellar populations are consistent with supersolar metallicities, with the best fit given by the 2.5 Z⊙ models. We derive a dynamical mass of 4 × 1011 M⊙ within the effective radius from the velocity dispersion. The EELR spectra clearly indicate that the EELR is photoionized by the hidden central engine. Photoionization modeling shows evidence that the gas metallicity in both the EELR and the nuclear narrow-line region is mildly subsolar (0.3-0.7 Z⊙), significantly lower than the supersolar metallicities deduced from typical active galactic nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The more luminous filaments in the EELR exhibit a velocity field consistent with a common disk rotation. Fainter clouds, however, show high approaching velocities that are uncoupled from this apparent disk rotation. The striking similarities between this EELR and the EELRs around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars provide further evidence for the orientation-dependent unification schemes. The metal-poor gas is almost certainly not native to the massive host galaxy. We suggest that the close companion galaxy could be the tidally stripped bulge of a late-type galaxy that is merging with the host galaxy. The interstellar medium of such a galaxy is probably the source for the low-metallicity gas in 3C 79. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  18. A neo-intuitive proposal for Kaluza-Klein unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    1988-11-01

    This paper addresses a central question of contemporary theoretical physics: Can a unified account be provided for the known forces of nature? The issue is brought into focus by considering the recently revived Kaluza-Klein approach to unification, a program entailing dimensional transformation through cosmogony. First it is demonstrated that, in a certain sence, revitalized Kaluza-Klein theory appears to undermine the intuitive foundations of mathematical physics, but that this implicit consequence has been repressed at a substantial cost. A fundamental reformulation of the Kaluza-Klein strategy is then undertaken, one that casts it within a new intuitive context. This is followed by a provisional application of the suggested approach to the specific problem of cosmological change. The paper concludes by exploring the far-reaching epistemological implications of the “neo-intuitive” proposal set forth.

  19. Gauge-Higgs unification with brane kinetic terms

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    By identifying the Higgs field as an internal component of a higher dimensional gauge field it is possible to solve the little hierarchy problem. The construction of a realistic model that incorporates such a gauge-Higgs unification is an important problem that demands attention. In fact, several attempts in this direction have already been put forward. In this letter we single out one such attempt, a 6D SU(3) extended electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain a Higgs mass prediction in accord with global fits. One shortcoming of the model is its prediction for the Weinberg angle, it is too large. We slightly modify the model by including brane kinetic terms in a way motivated by the orbifold action on the 6D fields. We show that in this way it is possible to obtain the correct Weinberg angle while keeping the desired results in the Higgs sector.

  20. Quark-lepton unification in SU(N>5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    We discuss a class of flavor-unification models for quarks and leptons based on the unitary groups SU(N>5). The spontaneous breaking of SU(N) is proposed to go via SU(3)/sub c/ x (SU(N-3) x U(1))/sub f/, then through successive stages down to SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2) x U(1). Our models are anomaly-free and have the distinctive feature of associating several left-handed neutral partners to charged leptons. Quark-lepton assignments, weak currents, and fermion mass generation are discussed for SU(6), SU(7), and SU(8). The embedding of the SU(6) model in E/sub 6/ is also indicated. The SU(7) model is noted as the most economical three-generation model (49 chiral fields).

  1. Origin of families and S O (18 ) grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenTov, Yoni; Zee, A.

    2016-03-01

    We exploit a recent advance in the study of interacting topological superconductors to propose a solution to the family puzzle of particle physics in the context of S O (18 ) [or more correctly, Spin(18 )] grand unification. We argue that Yukawa couplings of intermediate strength may allow the mirror matter and extra families to decouple at arbitrarily high energies. As was clear from the existing literature, we have to go beyond the Higgs mechanism in order to solve the family puzzle. A pattern of symmetry breaking which results in the S U (5 ) grand unified theory with horizontal or family symmetry U S p (4 )=Spin(5 ) [or more loosely, S O (5 )] leaves exactly three light families of matter and seems particularly appealing. We comment briefly on an alternative scheme involving discrete non-Abelian family symmetries. In a few lengthy Appendices we review some of the pertinent condensed matter theory.

  2. The Origin of Families and $SO(18)$ Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    BenTov, Yoni

    2015-01-01

    We exploit a recent advance in the study of topological superconductors to propose a solution to the nagging family puzzle of particle physics in the context of SO(18) (or more correctly, Spin(18)) grand unification. We argue that Yukawa couplings of intermediate strength may allow the mirror matter and extra families to decouple at arbitrarily high energies. As was clear from the existing literature, we have to go beyond the Higgs mechanism in order to solve the family puzzle. A pattern of symmetry breaking which results in the SU(5) grand unified theory with horizontal or family symmetry USp(4) = Spin(5) (or more loosely, SO(5)) leaves exactly three light families of matter and seems particularly appealing. We comment briefly on an alternative scheme involving discrete non-abelian family symmetries. In a few lengthy appendices we review some of the pertinent condensed matter theory.

  3. Testing Gaugino Mass Unification Directly at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Brent D

    2010-01-01

    We report on the first step of a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the LHC in a quasi-model independent manner. Here we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. Using a statistical method to optimize our signature selection we arrive at three ensembles of observables targeted at the physics of the gaugino sector, allowing for a determination of this non-universality parameter without reconstructing individual mass eigenvalues or the soft supersymmetry-breaking gaugino masses themselves. In this controlled environment we find that approximately 80% of the supersymmetric parameter space would give rise to a model for which our method will detect non-universality in the gaugino mass sector at the 10% level with approximately 10 inverse femptobarns of integrated luminosity.

  4. Towards a Loop Quantum Gravity and Yang-Mills unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon, E-mail: stephonalexander@mac.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Department of Physics, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marciano, Antonino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Tacchi, Ruggero Altair [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-09-19

    We propose a new method of unifying gravity and the Standard Model by introducing a spin-foam model. We realize a unification between an SU(2) Yang-Mills interaction and 3D general relativity by considering a constrained Spin(4){approx}SO(4) Plebanski action. The theory is quantized a la spin-foam by implementing the analogue of the simplicial constraints for the Spin(4) symmetry, providing a way to couple Yang-Mills fields to spin-foams. A natural 4D extension of the theory is introduced. We also present a way to recover 2-point correlation functions between the connections as a first way to implement scattering amplitudes between particle states, aiming to connect Loop Quantum Gravity to new physical predictions.

  5. Gauge-Higgs unification with brane kinetic terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx; Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo [Cuerpo Academico de Particulas, Campos y Relatividad, FCFM-BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lorenzo.diaz@fcfm.buap.mx

    2006-02-16

    By identifying the Higgs field as an internal component of a higher-dimensional gauge field it is possible to solve the little hierarchy problem. The construction of a realistic model that incorporates such a gauge-Higgs unification is an important problem that demands attention. In fact, several attempts in this direction have already been put forward. In this Letter we single out one such attempt, a 6D SU(3) extended electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain a Higgs mass prediction in accord with global fits. One shortcoming of the model is its prediction for the Weinberg angle, it is too large. We slightly modify the model by including brane kinetic terms in a way motivated by the orbifold action on the 6D fields. We show that in this way it is possible to obtain the correct Weinberg angle while keeping the desired results in the Higgs sector.

  6. Unification of fundamental forces in a composite picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In composite models it is possible that all low-energy forces are associated with an unbroken gauge symmetry. We consider an unbroken SU(3)sub(C) x SU(2)sub(HC) x U(1)sub(Q) theory of color, hypercolor and electromagnetic forces and construct a picture where these forces are unified within supersymmetric SU(5). By demanding the hypercolor interaction to become strong at the Fermi scale O(Gsub(F)sup(1/2))approx.=300 GeV, we are led to a remarkably low unification scale Msub(x)approx.=1011 GeV. This does not, however, contradict proton-decay data. The dominant proton-decay mode would be p->π-e+e+ν in this scheme. (orig.)

  7. Unification of Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics from Elementary Cycles Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dolce, Donatello

    2016-01-01

    In Elementary Cycles theory elementary quantum particles are consistently described as the manifestation of ultra-fast relativistic spacetime cyclic dynamics, classical in the essence. The peculiar relativistic geometrodynamics of Elementary Cycles theory yields de facto a unification of ordinary relativistic and quantum physics. In particular its classical-relativistic cyclic dynamics reproduce exactly from classical physics first principles all the fundamental aspects of Quantum Mechanics, such as all its axioms, the Feynman path integral, the Dirac quantisation prescription (second quantisation), quantum dynamics of statistical systems, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, atomic physics, superconductivity, graphene physics and so on. Furthermore the theory allows for the explicit derivation of gauge interactions, without postulating gauge invariance, directly from relativistic geometrodynamical transformations, in close analogy with the description of gravitational interaction in general relativity. In thi...

  8. Dark Fluid: Towards a unification of empirical theories of galaxy rotation, Inflation and Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H.; Li, B.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical theories of Dark Matter like MOND gravity and of Dark Energy like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general hence natural framework? Here we propose the natural Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and co-variant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. Our framework preserves the co-variant formulation of GR, but allows the expanding physical metr...

  9. Dark Fluid: Towards a unification of empirical theories of galaxy rotation, Inflation and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, HongSheng

    2008-01-01

    Empirical theories of Dark Matter like MOND gravity and of Dark Energy like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general hence natural framework? Here we propose the natural Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and co-variant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. Our framework preserves the co-variant formulation of GR, but allows the expanding physical metric be bent by a single new species of Dark Fluid flowing in space-time. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simply functions of a vector field of variable norm, resembling the 4-vector electromagnetic potential description for the photon fluid, but is dark (e.g., by very early decoupling from the baryon-radiation fluid). The Dark Fluid framework naturally branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with Dark Energy and Dark Matter effects, including the $f(R)$ gravity, TeVeS-like theories, Einstein-Ae...

  10. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m{sub {tau}} -m{sub b} that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-{tau} unification which uses the identification of SU(2){sub R} with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m{sub b}{approx} {radical}2m{sub {tau}} is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m{sub b}=m{sub {tau}} at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arakawa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As far as the representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs. Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition of model physics from one kind to the other takes place as the resolution changes. With such unification, the GCM can converge to a global CRM (GCRM as the grid size is refined. This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification. ROUTE I continues to follow the parameterization approach, but uses a unified parameterization that is applicable to any horizontal resolutions between those typically used by GCMs and CRMs. It is shown that a key to construct such a unified parameterization is to eliminate the assumption of small fractional area covered by convective clouds, which is commonly used in the conventional cumulus parameterizations either explicitly or implicitly. A preliminary design of the unified parameterization is presented, which demonstrates that such an assumption can be eliminated through a relatively minor modification of the existing mass-flux based parameterizations. Partial evaluations of the unified parameterization are also presented. ROUTE II follows the "multi-scale modeling framework (MMF" approach, which takes advantage of explicit representation of deep moist convection and associated cloud-scale processes by CRMs. The Quasi-3-D (Q3-D MMF is an attempt to broaden the applicability of MMF without necessarily using a fully three-dimensional CRM. This is accomplished using a network of cloud-resolving grids with large gaps. An outline of the Q3-D algorithm and highlights of preliminary results are reviewed.

  12. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are considered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interaction between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation-color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deepens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  13. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are con- sidered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interac- tion between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation- color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deep- ens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  14. Absorption variability as a probe of the multiphase interstellar media surrounding active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We examine a model for the variable free-free and neutral hydrogen absorption inferred towards the cores of some compact radio galaxies in which a spatially fluctuating medium drifts in front of the source. We relate the absorption-induced intensity fluctuations to the statistics of the underlying opacity fluctuations. We investigate models in which the absorbing medium consists of either discrete clouds or a power-law spectrum of opacity fluctuations. We examine the variability characteristics of a medium comprised of Gaussian-shaped clouds in which the neutral and ionized matter are co-located, and in which the clouds comprise spherical constant-density neutral cores enveloped by ionized sheaths. The cross-power spectrum indicates the spatial relationship between neutral and ionized matter, and distinguishes the two models, with power in the Gaussian model declining as a featureless power-law, but that in the ionized sheath model oscillating between positive and negative values. We show how comparison of th...

  15. Molecular Gas in Lensed z >2 Quasar Host Galaxies and the Star Formation Law for Galaxies with Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Riechers, Dominik A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(J = 2→1), CO(J = 3→2), and CO(J = 4→3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z = 2.059), HE 0230-2130 (z = 2.166), HE 1104-1805 (z = 2.322), and B1359+154 (z = 3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. B1938+666 was identified in a "blind" CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of ...

  16. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF LOW-REDSHIFT CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES. I. COMPARISON OF X-RAY AND MID-INFRARED SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters of galaxies have long been used as laboratories for the study of galaxy evolution, but despite intense, recent interest in feedback between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and their hosts, the impact of environment on these relationships remains poorly constrained. We present results from a study of AGNs and their host galaxies found in low-redshift galaxy clusters. We fit model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to the combined visible and mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of cluster members and use these model SEDs to determine stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs). We identify two populations of AGNs, the first based on their X-ray luminosities (X-ray AGNs) and the second based on the presence of a significant AGN component in their model SEDs (IR AGNs). We find that the two AGN populations are nearly disjoint; only 8 out of 44 AGNs are identified with both techniques. We further find that IR AGNs are hosted by galaxies with similar masses and SFRs but higher specific SFRs (sSFRs) than X-ray AGN hosts. The relationship between AGN accretion and host star formation in cluster AGN hosts shows no significant difference compared to the relationship between field AGNs and their hosts. The projected radial distributions of both AGN populations are consistent with the distribution of other cluster members. We argue that the apparent dichotomy between X-ray and IR AGNs can be understood as a combination of differing extinction due to cold gas in the host galaxies of the two classes of AGNs and the presence of weak star formation in X-ray AGN hosts.

  17. A Search for Submillimeter H2O Masers in Active Galaxies: The Detection of 321 GHZ H2O Maser Emission in NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Shinji; Doi, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Makoto; Edwards, Philip G.

    2016-08-01

    We present further results of a search for extragalactic submillimeter H2O masers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The detection of a 321 GHz H2O maser in the nearby type 2 Seyfert galaxy, the Circinus galaxy, has previously been reported, and here the spectral analysis of four other galaxies is described. We have discovered H2O maser emission at 321 GHz toward the center of NGC 4945, a nearby type 2 Seyfert. The maser emission shows Doppler-shifted velocity features with velocity ranges similar to those of the previously reported 22 GHz H2O masers however, the non-contemporaneous observations also show differences in velocity offsets. The subparsec-scale distribution of the 22 GHz H2O masers revealed by earlier very long baseline interferometry observations suggests that the submillimeter masers could arise in an edge-on rotating disk. The maser features remain unresolved by the synthesized beam of ˜0.″54 (˜30 pc) and are located toward the 321 GHz continuum peak within errors. A marginally detected (3σ) high-velocity feature is redshifted by 579 km {{{s}}}-1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. Assuming that this feature is real and arises from a Keplerian rotating disk in this galaxy, it is located at a radius of ˜0.020 pc (˜1.5 × 105 Schwarzschild radii), which would enable molecular material closer to the central engine to be probed than the 22 GHz H2O masers. This detection confirms that submillimeter H2O masers are a potential tracer of the circumnuclear regions of active galaxies, which will benefit from higher angular resolution studies with ALMA.

  18. Gas-Rich Companions of Isolated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Wilcots, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the VLA to search for gaseous remnants of the galaxy formation process around six extremely isolated galaxies. We found two distinct HI clouds around each of two galaxies in our sample (UGC 9762 & UGC 11124). These clouds are rotating and appear to have optical counterparts, strongly implying that they are typical dwarf galaxies. The companions are currently weakly interacting with the primary galaxy, but have short dynamical friction timescales (~1 Gyr) suggesting that these triple galaxy systems will shortly collapse into one massive galaxy. Given that the companions are consistent with being in circular rotation about the primary galaxy, and that they have small relative masses, the resulting merger will be a minor one. The companions do, however, contain enough gas that the merger will represent a significant infusion of fuel to drive future star formation, bar formation, or central activity, while building up the mass of the disk thus making these systems important pieces of the galaxy f...

  19. A Multi-Wavelength Photometric Census of AGN and Star Formation Activity in the Brightest Cluster Galaxies of X-ray Selected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T. S.; Edge, A. C.; Stott, J. P.; Ebeling, H.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-06-01

    Despite their reputation as being "red and dead", the unique environment inhabited by Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) can often lead to a self-regulated feedback cycle between radiatively cooling intracluster gas and star formation and AGN activity in the BCG. However the prevalence of "active" BCGs, and details of the feedback involved, are still uncertain. We have performed an optical, UV and Mid-IR photometric analysis of the BCGs in 981 clusters at 0.03 medium.

  20. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  1. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  2. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  3. Common Origin of $3.55$ keV X-ray line and Gauge Coupling Unification with Left-Right Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2016-01-01

    We present a minimal left-right dark matter framework that can simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV X-ray line from several galaxy clusters and gauge coupling unification at high energy scale. Adopting a minimal dark matter strategy, we consider both left and right handed triplet fermionic dark matter candidates which are accidentally stable due to their high $SU(2)$ dimension forbidding their decay into standard model particles. A scalar bitriplet field is incorporated whose first role is to induce a tiny mass splitting between the left and right handed triplet dark matter candidates by the tiny vacuum expectation value of its neutral component such that the heavier dark matter can decay into the lighter one and a photon with energy 3.55 keV. The other role this bitriplet field at TeV scale plays is to assist in achieving gauge coupling unification at a high energy within a a non-supersymmetric $SO(10)$ model while keeping the left-right gauge symmetry around the TeV corner. Apart from solvi...

  4. Triple Unification of Inflation, Dark matter and Dark energy in Chaotic Braneworld Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that in the framework of chaotic braneworld inflation, after preheating, the remaining oscillating inflaton field can play the role of dark matter with the observed level. Augmented by a non-zero effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda_4$ on the brane, triple unification of inflation, dark matter and dark energy by a single field is realized. Our model perhaps is the simplest one in the market of theories to achieve triple unification.

  5. Predictions for Higgs and SUSY spectra from SO(10) Yukawa Unification with $\\mu > 0$

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, T; Raby, S; CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    We use t, b, tau Yukawa unification to constrain SUSY parameter space. We find a narrow region survives for mu > 0 (suggested by b --> s gamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A_0 \\sim - 1.9 m_{16}, m_{10} \\sim 1.4 m_{16}, m_{16} \\sim 1200 -3000 GeV and mu, M_{1/2} \\sim 100 - 500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  6. Unified Equations of Boson and Fermion at High Energy and Some Unifications in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    We suggest some possible approaches of the unified equations of boson and fermion, which correspond to the unified statistics at high energy. A. The spin terms of equations can be neglected. B. The mass terms of equations can be neglected. C. The known equations of formal unification change to the same. They can be combined each other. We derive the chaos solution of the nonlinear equation, in which the chaos point should be a unified scale. Moreover, various unifications in particle physics ...

  7. An explicit SU(12) family and flavor unification model with natural fermion masses and mixings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Carl H. [Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL (United States); Feger, Robert P. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Kephart, Thomas W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present an SU(12) unification model with three light chiral families, avoiding any external flavor symmetries. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and mixings is explained by higher dimensional Yukawa interactions involving Higgs bosons that contain SU(5) singlet fields with VEVs about 50 times smaller than the SU(12) unification scale. The presented model has been analyzed in detail and found to be in very good agreement with the observed quark and lepton masses and mixings.

  8. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  9. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overal

  10. A Tale of Two Narrow-Line Regions: Ionization, Kinematics, and Spectral Energy Distributions for a Local Pair of Merging Obscured Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M; Jones, Mackenzie L; Zervos, Alexandros S; Goulding, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical--IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, $z \\approx 0.04$). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies ($\\sim 23$ kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN and confirm the existence of a 10-kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1--2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral an...

  11. Effects of collisions and interactions on star formation in galaxy pairs in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Josefa; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.

    2005-01-01

    By using cosmological simulations, we studied the effects of galaxy interactionson the star formation activity in the local Universe. We selected galaxy pairs from the 3D galaxy distribution according to a proximity criterion. The 2D galaxy catalog was constructed by projecting the 3D total galaxy distribution and then selecting projected galaxy pairs. The analysis of the 3D galaxy pair catalog showed that an enhancement of the star formation activity can be statistically correlated with prox...

  12. Disk Galaxies and Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Funes, J G

    2000-01-01

    The conference Galaxy Disks and Disk Galaxies, sponsored by the Vatican Observatory, was held in June 12-16, 2000 at the Pontifical Gregorian University, in Rome (Italy). The meeting hosted about 230 participants coming from 30 countries. The very full program consisted of 29 review papers, 34 invited talks, and more than 180 posters. The meeting covered topics regarding the structure, formation and evolution of galaxies with disks. Particular attention was dedicated to the stellar and gaseous disk of the Milky Way, the global characteristics of galaxy disks, their structure, morphology and dynamics, the gaseous components, star formation, and chemical evolution, the interactions, accretion, mergers and starbursts, the dark and luminous matter, the establishment of the scaling laws, and the formation and evolution of disk galaxies from a theoretical and observational point of view.

  13. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  14. Chandra and MMT observations of low-mass black hole active galactic nuclei accreting at low rates in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, W; Dou, L; Dong, X -B; Fan, X; Wang, T -G

    2014-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray observations of four candidate low-mass black hole (<10^6Msun) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have the estimated Eddington ratios among the lowest (~10^(-2)) found for this class. The aims are to validate the nature of their AGNs and to confirm the low Eddington ratios that are derived from the broad H_alpha line, and to explore this poorly studied regime in the AGN parameter space. Among them, two objects with the lowest significance of the broad lines are also observed with Multi-Mirror Telescope, and the high-quality optical spectra taken confirm them as Seyfert 1 AGNs and as having small black hole masses. X-ray emission is detected from the nuclei of two of the galaxies, which is variable on timescales of 10^3s, whereas no significant (or only marginal at best) detection is found for the remaining two. The X-ray luminosities are on the order of 10^(41) ergs/s or even lower, on the order of 10^(40) ergs/s for non-detections, which are among the lowest regimes ever probed ...

  15. Probing Spectroscopic Variability of Galaxies & Narrow-Line Active Galactic Nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Scranton, Ryan; Krughoff, Simon; Szalay, Alex; Dobos, Laszlo; Tremonti, Christy; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Wyse, Rosemary; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2008-01-01

    Under the unified model for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), narrow-line (Type 2) AGNs are, in fact, broad-line (Type 1) AGNs but each with a heavily obscured accretion disk. We would therefore expect the optical continuum emission from Type 2 AGN to be composed mainly of stellar light and non-variable on the time-scales of months to years. In this work we probe the spectroscopic variability of galaxies and narrow-line AGNs using the multi-epoch data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6. The sample contains 18,435 sources for which there exist pairs of spectroscopic observations (with a maximum separation in time of ~700 days) covering a wavelength range of 3900-8900 Angstrom. To obtain a reliable repeatability measurement between each spectral pair, we consider a number of techniques for spectrophotometric calibration resulting in an improved spectrophotometric calibration of a factor of two. From these data we find that on average the spectroscopic variability of the continuum for narrow-line...

  16. Do Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei really follow the same MBH-σ* Relation as Normal Galaxies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Liu; Dong-Rong Jiang

    2006-01-01

    In an examination of the relationship between the black hole mass MBH and stellar velocity dispersion σ* in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we studied two effects which may cause uncertainties in the black hole mass estimates of radio-loud AGNs: the relativistic beaming effect on the observed optical continuum radiation and the orientation effect on the broad emission line width. After correcting these two effects, we re-examined the MBH-σ[OⅢ] relation for a sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs, and found the relation for radio-loud AGNs still deviated from that for nearby normal galaxies and radio-quiet AGNs. We also found there is no significant correlation between radio jet power and narrow [OⅢ] line width, indicating absence of strong interaction between radio jet and narrow line region. It may be that the deviation of the MBH- σ* relation of radio-loud AGNs is intrinsic,or that the [OⅢ] line width is not a good indicator of σ* for radio-loud AGNs.

  17. The nature of the ISM in galaxies during the star-formation activity peak of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, G; Spaans, M; Trager, S C; Somerville, R S

    2013-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which tracks atomic and molecular phases of cold gas, with a three-dimensional radiative-transfer and line tracing code to study the sub-mm emission from several atomic and molecular species (CO, HCN, C, C+, [OI]) in galaxies. We aim to understand if the physics that drives the formation of stars at the epoch of peak star formation in the Universe is similar to or different from that in local galaxies. We find that normal star-forming galaxies at high redshift have much higher CO-excitation peaks than their local counterparts, higher HCN/CO ratios and that CO cooling predominantly takes place through molecules with higher excitation levels. We find an increase in the ratio between [OI] and [CII] in typical star-forming galaxies at z = 1.2 and z = 2.0 with respect to counterparts at z = 0. All our model results suggest that typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift consist of much denser and warmer star-forming clouds than their local counterparts and ...

  18. HST/ACS Observations of Star Formation Driven Outflows in Nearby Edge-on Spiral Galaxies: Dependence of Halo Morphology on Star Formation Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Rossa, Joern; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; van der Marel, Roeland P

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged). We present new high spatial resolution narrowband imaging observations of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) in four late-type, actively star forming edge-on spirals, obtained with ACS on-board HST. Our F658N (H-alpha) observations reveal a multitude of structures on both small and large scales. Whereas all four galaxies have been studied with ground-based telescopes before, here the small scale structure of the extended emission line gas is presented for the first time at a spatial resolution of 0.05", corresponding to 5.0 pc at the mean distance to the target galaxies. The eDIG morphology is very different for all four targets, probably as a result of their different levels of star formation activity. We find that the morphology of the eDIG, in particular the break-up of diffuse emission into filaments in galaxy halos, shows a strong dependence on the level of star formation activity per unit area, and eDIG can be arranged into a morphological sequence. NGC4634 and NGC5775 have the highest S...

  19. Model of a black hole gas submitted to background gravitational field for active galaxy nuclei with application to calculating the continuous emission spectra of massless particles (Photons: neutrinos and gravitons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new theoretical model for active galaxy nuclei which describes the continuous spectrum of rest massless particles (photons, neutrinos and gravitons) in the frequency range from radiofrequency to gamma ray frequency, is presented. The model consists in a black hole gas interacting with a background gravitacional field. The previously models proposed for active galaxy nuclei are exposured. Whole theoretical fundaments based on Einstein general relativity theory for defining and studying singularity properties (black holes) are also presented. (M.C.K.)

  20. SU(8) Family Unification with Boson Fermion Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate an SU(8) family unification model motivated by requiring that the theory should incorporate the graviton, gravitinos, and the fermions and gauge fields of the standard model, with boson.fermion balance. Gauge field SU(8) anomalies cancel between the gravitinos and spin 1/2 fermions. The 56 of scalars breaks SU(8) to SU(3)family×SU(5)×U(1)/Z5, with the fermion representation content needed for "flipped" SU(5) with three families, and with residual scalars in the 10 and overline {10} representations that break flipped SU(5) to the standard model. Dynamical symmetry breaking can account for the generation of 5 representation scalars needed to break the electroweak group. Yukawa couplings of the 56 scalars to the fermions are forbidden by chiral and gauge symmetries, so in the first stage of SU(8) breaking fermions remain massless. In the limit of vanishing gauge coupling, there are N = 1 and N = 8 supersymmetries relating the scalars to the fermions, which restrict the form of scalar self-couplings and should improve the convergence of perturbation theory, if not making the theory finite and "calculable." In an Appendix we give an analysis of symmetry breaking by a Higgs component, such as the (1, 1)(-15) of the SU(8) 56 under SU(8) ⊃ SU(3) × SU(5) × U(1), which has nonzero U(1) generator.

  1. NMSGUT emergence and Trans-Unification RG flows

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S; Khosa, Charanjit K

    2015-01-01

    Consistency of trans-unification RG evolution is used to discuss the domain of definition of the NMSO(10)GUT. We compute the 1-loop RGE $\\beta$ functions,simplifying generic Martin-Vaughn formulae using constraints of gauge invariance and superpotential structure. We also calculate the 2 loop contributions to the gauge coupling and gaugino mass and indicate how to get full 2 loop results for all couplings. Our method overcomes combinatorial barriers that frustrate computer algebra based attempts to calculate SO(10) $\\beta$ functions involving large irreps. Use of the RGEs identifies a perturbative domain $Q < M_E$, where at the \\emph{scale of emergence} $M_E < M_{Planck}$ the NMSGUT, with GUT compatible soft supersymmetry breaking terms, and canonical Kinetic terms, emerges from the strong UV dynamics associated with the Landau poles in gauge and Yukawa couplings. Due to the strength of the RG flows the Landau Polar regime for gauge and Yukawa couplings begins at a scale $\\Lambda_E $ just above $M_E$ an...

  2. Flavour in supersymmetric Grand Unification a democratic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Dvali, Gia; Hall, L; Strumia, A

    1994-01-01

    We consider the flavour problem in a supersymmetric Grand Unified theory with gauged SU(6) group, where the Higgs doublets are understood as pseudo-Goldstone bosons of a larger $\\SU(6)\\otimes\\SU(6)$ global symmetry of the Higgs superpotential. A key element of this work is that we never appeal to any flavour symmetry. One main interesting feature emerges: only one of the light fermions, an up-type quark, to be identified with the top, can get a Yukawa coupling at renormalizable level. This fact, together with bottom-tau Yukawa unification, also implied in our scheme, gives rise to a characteristic correlation between the top and the Higgs mass. By including a flavour-blind discrete symmetry and requiring that all higher dimensional operators be mediated by the exchange of appropriate heavy multiplets, it is possible to give an approximate description of all masses and mixing angles in term of a hierarchy of grand unified scales. A special ``texture'' arises, implying a relation between the top mass and the th...

  3. SU(8) unification with boson-fermion balance

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    We formulate an $SU(8)$ unification model motivated by requiring that the theory should incorporate the graviton, gravitinos, and the fermions and gauge fields of the standard model, with boson--fermion balance. Gauge field $SU(8)$ anomalies cancel between the gravitinos and spin $\\frac {1}{2}$ fermions. The 56 of scalars breaks $SU(8)$ to $SU(3)_{family} \\times SU(5)/Z_5$, with the fermion representation content needed for ``flipped'' $SU(5)$, and with the residual scalars in the representations needed for further gauge symmetry breaking to the standard model. Yukawa couplings of the 56 scalars to the fermions are forbidden by chiral and gauge symmetries. In the limit of vanishing gauge coupling, there are $N=1$ and $N=8$ supersymmetries relating the scalars to the fermions, which restrict the form of scalar self-couplings and should improve the convergence of perturbation theory, if not making the theory finite and ``calculable''. In an Appendix we give an analysis of symmetry breaking by a Higgs component,...

  4. Trilemma EU and EMU Challenges: Fiscal Competition, Harmonization or Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eurozone has grouped 18 countries in the European area, with different tax systems and thus, on the background of a common monetary policy numerous decisions and commitments for fiscal harmonization were adopted. Unfortunately, the realities did not carried into effect the ambitions assumed, different fiscal sovereignties have perpetuated their coexistence within the well-known frames, insufficiently tailored to the declared-only desire of harmonizing and, in time, the inefficiency of institutions deepened and the dysfunctions diversified, meaning exactly the scaffolding that the huge single market was designed and built upon. Moreover, the perpetuated coexistence of different tax regimes not only slowed, delayed or postponed the harmonization, but even stimulated tax competition between Member States' economies, becoming both the cause and result of the natural differences between countries. Tax competition seems also to merge most of the reasons of the multiform crisis which shake the markets and the states all over the world, not only in the European continent. Accordingly, the European Commission, supported by Germany and the other Member States, proposes measures for fiscal unification in the European Union, considering that the Eurozone crisis is the result of the common monetary policy singularity, but in the absence of a common fiscal policy.

  5. 750 GeV Diphotons and Supersymmetric Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the 750 GeV diphoton excess in terms of supersymmetric models which preserve grand unification in the ultraviolet. We show that minimal extensions of the MSSM by a singlet and a vector-like 5-plet or 10-plet of SU(5) can explain the observed signal while remaining perturbative up to the GUT scale. Different from previous analyses we rely on light sfermions in the loops which - compared to the analog non-supersymmetric models - enhance the diphoton cross section by up to a factor of seven. While the resonance decay width is narrow, mass splitting of the scalar and pseudoscalar components may result in a double resonance. We perform a likelihood analysis on the ATLAS and CMS data to show that the significance of the diphoton excess increases from 3.3 sigma (single narrow resonance) to 3.9 sigma for the double resonance. We also provide signal predictions in other diboson channels to be tested at LHC-13.

  6. SU(8) family unification with boson-fermion balance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Grand unification has been intensively investigated for over forty years, and many different approaches have been tried. In this talk I propose a model that involves three ingredients that do not appear in the usual constructions: (1) boson--fermion balance without full supersymmetry, (2) canceling the spin 1/2 fermion gauge anomalies against the anomaly from a gauged spin 3/2 gravitino, and (3) using a scalar field representation with non-zero U(1) generator to break the SU(8) gauge symmetry through a ground state which, before dynamical symmetry breaking, has a periodic U(1) generator structure. The model has a number of promising features: (1) natural incorporation of three families, (2) incorporation of the experimentally viable flipped SU(5) model, (3) a symmetry breaking pathway to the standard model using the scalar field required by boson-fermion balance, together with a stage of most attractive channel dynamical symmetry breaking, without postulating additional Higgs fields, (4) vanishing of bare Yuk...

  7. 750 GeV Diphotons: Implications for Supersymmetric Unification II

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Perturbative supersymmetric gauge coupling unification is possible in six theories where complete SU(5) TeV-scale multiplets of vector matter account for the size of the reported $750~{\\rm GeV}$ diphoton resonance, interpreted as a singlet multiplet $S = (s+ia)/\\sqrt{2}$. One of these has a full generation of vector matter and a unified gauge coupling $\\alpha_G \\sim 1$. The diphoton signal rate is enhanced by loops of vector squarks and sleptons, especially when the trilinear $A$ couplings are large. If the $SH_u H_d$ coupling is absent, both $s$ and $a$ can contribute to the resonance, which may then have a large apparent width if the mass splitting from $s$ and $a$ arises from loops of vector matter. The width depends sensitively on $A$ parameters and phases of the vector squark and slepton masses. Vector quarks and/or squarks are expected to be in reach of the LHC. If the $SH_uH_d$ coupling is present, $a$ leads to a narrow diphoton resonance, while a second resonance with decays $s \\rightarrow hh, W^+ W^-...

  8. The dusty heart of nearby active galaxies. I. High-spatial resolution mid-IR spectro-photometry of Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hoenig, S F; Gandhi, P; Smette, A; Asmus, D; Duschl, W; Polletta, M; Weigelt, G

    2010-01-01

    We present 8-13 micron imaging and spectroscopy of 9 type 1 and 10 type 2 AGN obtained with the VLT/VISIR instrument at spatial resolution <100 pc. The emission from the host galaxy sources is resolved out in most cases. The silicate absorption features are moderately deep and emission features are shallow. We compare the mid-IR luminosities to AGN luminosity tracers and found that the mid-IR radiation is emitted quite isotropically. In two cases, IC5063 and MCG-3-34-64, we find evidence for extended dust emission in the narrow-line region. We confirm the correlation between observed silicate feature strength and Hydrogen column density recently found in Spitzer data. In a further step, our 3D clumpy torus model has been used to interpret the data. We show that the strength of the silicate feature and the mid-IR spectral index can be used to get reasonable constraints on the dust distribution in the torus. The mid-IR spectral index, alpha, is almost exclusively determined by the radial dust distribution po...

  9. Galaxies & the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Get the big picture about Galaxies and our Universe. From the smallest particles of matter to the biggest star system, our universe is made up of all things that exist in space. Our resource takes you through the Milky Way Galaxy, Black Holes and Gravity, then on to Nebulae, Sources of Light and the Speed of Light, and finally to Quasars, the most distant objects in the universe. Written using simplified language and vocabulary, our resource presents science concepts in a way that makes them accessible to students and easier to understand. Comprised of reading passages, student activities for

  10. Hidden activity in high-redshift spheroidal galaxies from mid-infrared and X-ray observations in the GOODS-North field

    CERN Document Server

    Rodighiero, G; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Franceschini, A; Mignoli, M; Fritz, J; Vignali, C; Treu, T

    2007-01-01

    We exploit very deep mid-IR (MIR) and X-ray observations by Spitzer and Chandra in the GOODS North to identify signs of hidden (either starburst or AGN) activity in spheroidal galaxies between z~0.3 and 1. Our reference is a complete sample of 168 morphologically classified spheroidal galaxies with z[AB]<22.5 selected from GOODS ACS imaging. Nineteen of these have 24 micron detections in the GOODS catalogue, half of which have an X-ray counterpart in the 2 Ms Chandra catalogue, while about 25% have 1.4 GHz fluxes larger than 40 microJy. Traces of hidden activity in the spheroidal population are also searched for in the deep X-ray images and 14 additional galaxies are detected in X-rays only. The nature of the observed MIR emissions is investigated by modelling their SEDs based on the available multi-wavelength photometry, including X-ray, UV, optical, near-IR, MIR and radio fluxes, and optical spectroscopy. The amount of dust derived from the IR emission observed by Spitzer appears in excess of that expect...

  11. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A {Lambda}-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2012-08-20

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z {approx} 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  12. A large population of mid-infrared selected, obscured active galaxies in the Bootes field

    CERN Document Server

    Hickox, R C; Forman, W R; Murray, S S; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Eisenhardt, P R; Stern, D; Kochanek, C S; Eisenstein, D; Cool, R J; Jannuzi, B T; Dey, A; Brand, K; Gorjian, V; Caldwell, N

    2007-01-01

    We identify a population of 640 obscured and 839 unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts 0.7~80%. The observed numbers of IRAGNs are comparable to predictions from previous X-ray, optical, and IR luminosity functions, for the given redshifts and IRAC flux limits. We observe a bimodal distribution in R-[4.5] color, suggesting that luminous IR-selected AGNs have either low or significant dust extinction, which may have implications for models of AGN obscuration.

  13. A method for determining AGN accretion phase in field galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micic, Miroslav; Martinović, Nemanja; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-09-01

    Recent observations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in massive galaxies (log M*/ M⊙ > 10.4) show the following: (1) at z AGN-hosting galaxies do not show enhanced merger signatures compared with normal galaxies, (2) also at z AGNs are hosted by quiescent galaxies and (3) at z > 1, the percentage of AGNs in star-forming galaxies increases and becomes comparable to the AGN percentage in quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 2. How can major mergers explain AGN activity in massive quiescent galaxies that have no merger features and no star formation to indicate a recent galaxy merger? By matching merger events in a cosmological N-body simulation to the observed AGN incidence probability in the COSMOS survey, we show that major merger-triggered AGN activity is consistent with the observations. By distinguishing between `peak' AGNs (recently merger-triggered and hosted by star-forming galaxies) and `faded' AGNs (merger-triggered a long time ago and now residing in quiescent galaxies), we show that the AGN occupation fraction in star-forming and quiescent galaxies simply follows the evolution of the galaxy merger rate. Since the galaxy merger rate drops dramatically at z AGNs left to be observed are the ones triggered by old mergers that are now in the declining phase of their nuclear activity, hosted by quiescent galaxies. As we go towards higher redshifts, the galaxy merger rate increases and the percentages of `peak' AGNs and `faded' AGNs become comparable.

  14. Gaseous Flows in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2007-01-01

    The gas component plays a major role in the dynamics of spiral galaxies, because of its dissipative character, and its ability to exchange angular momentum with stars in the disk. Due to its small velocity dispersion, it triggers gravitational instabilities, and the corresponding non-axisymmetric patterns produce gravity torques, which mediate these angular momentum exchanges. When a srong bar pattern develops with the same pattern speed all over the disk, only gas inside corotation can flow towards the center. But strong bars are not long lived in presence of gas, and multiple-speed spiral patterns can develop between bar phases, and help the galaxy to accrete external gas flowing from cosmic filaments. The gas is then intermittently driven to the galaxy center, to form nuclear starbursts and fuel an active nucleus. The various time-scales of these gaseous flows are described.

  15. H2 in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The bulk of the molecular gas in spiral galaxies is under the form of cold H2, that does not radiate and is only suspected through tracer molecules, such as CO. All tracers are biased, and in particular H2 could be highly underestimated in low metallicity regions. Our knowledge is reviewed of the H2 content of galaxies, according to their types, environment, or star-forming activities. The HI and CO components are generally well-mixed (spiral arms, vertical distribution), although their radial distributions are radically different, certainly due to radial abundance gradients. The hypothesis of H2 as dark matter is discussed, as well as the implications on galaxy dynamics, or the best perspectives for observational tests.

  16. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J. T.; Team, the SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting o...

  17. Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, M; Haardt, F

    2006-01-01

    OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut

  18. The Logotropic Dark Fluid as a unification of dark matter and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2016-07-01

    We propose a heuristic unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a single "dark fluid" with a logotropic equation of state P = Aln ⁡ (ρ /ρP), where ρ is the rest-mass density, ρP = 5.16 ×1099gm-3 is the Planck density, and A is the logotropic temperature. The energy density ɛ is the sum of a rest-mass energy term ρc2 ∝a-3 mimicking dark matter and an internal energy term u (ρ) = - P (ρ) - A = 3 Aln ⁡ a + C mimicking dark energy (a is the scale factor). The logotropic temperature is approximately given by A ≃ρΛc2 / ln ⁡ (ρP /ρΛ) ≃ρΛc2 / [ 123 ln ⁡ (10) ], where ρΛ = 6.72 ×10-24gm-3 is the cosmological density and 123 is the famous number appearing in the ratio ρP /ρΛ ∼10123 between the Planck density and the cosmological density. More precisely, we obtain A = 2.13 ×10-9gm-1s-2 that we interpret as a fundamental constant. At the cosmological scale, our model fulfills the same observational constraints as the ΛCDM model (they will differ in about 25 Gyrs when the logotropic universe becomes phantom). However, the logotropic dark fluid has a nonzero speed of sound and a nonzero Jeans length which, at the beginning of the matter era, is about λJ = 40.4pc, in agreement with the minimum size of the dark matter halos observed in the universe. The existence of a nonzero Jeans length may solve the missing satellite problem. At the galactic scale, the logotropic pressure balances the gravitational attraction, providing halo cores instead of cusps. This may solve the cusp problem. The logotropic equation of state generates a universal rotation curve that agrees with the empirical Burkert profile of dark matter halos up to the halo radius. In addition, it implies that all the dark matter halos have the same surface density Σ0 =ρ0rh = 141M⊙ /pc2 and that the mass of dwarf galaxies enclosed within a sphere of fixed radius ru = 300pc has the same value M300 = 1.93 ×107M⊙, in remarkable agreement with the observations

  19. The Logotropic Dark Fluid as a unification of dark matter and dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Henri Chavanis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a heuristic unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a single “dark fluid” with a logotropic equation of state P=Aln⁡(ρ/ρP, where ρ is the rest-mass density, ρP=5.16×1099gm−3 is the Planck density, and A is the logotropic temperature. The energy density ϵ is the sum of a rest-mass energy term ρc2∝a−3 mimicking dark matter and an internal energy term u(ρ=−P(ρ−A=3Aln⁡a+C mimicking dark energy (a is the scale factor. The logotropic temperature is approximately given by A≃ρΛc2/ln⁡(ρP/ρΛ≃ρΛc2/[123ln⁡(10], where ρΛ=6.72×10−24gm−3 is the cosmological density and 123 is the famous number appearing in the ratio ρP/ρΛ∼10123 between the Planck density and the cosmological density. More precisely, we obtain A=2.13×10−9gm−1s−2 that we interpret as a fundamental constant. At the cosmological scale, our model fulfills the same observational constraints as the ΛCDM model (they will differ in about 25 Gyrs when the logotropic universe becomes phantom. However, the logotropic dark fluid has a nonzero speed of sound and a nonzero Jeans length which, at the beginning of the matter era, is about λJ=40.4pc, in agreement with the minimum size of the dark matter halos observed in the universe. The existence of a nonzero Jeans length may solve the missing satellite problem. At the galactic scale, the logotropic pressure balances the gravitational attraction, providing halo cores instead of cusps. This may solve the cusp problem. The logotropic equation of state generates a universal rotation curve that agrees with the empirical Burkert profile of dark matter halos up to the halo radius. In addition, it implies that all the dark matter halos have the same surface density Σ0=ρ0rh=141M⊙/pc2 and that the mass of dwarf galaxies enclosed within a sphere of fixed radius ru=300pc has the same value M300=1.93×107M⊙, in remarkable agreement with the observations [Donato et al. [10

  20. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.