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Sample records for active epstein-barr virus

  1. Epstein-Barr virus test

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  2. Epstein-Barr virus and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); H.Z. Flach (Zwenneke); J. Groen (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study in relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) whether exacerbations and brain activity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with plasma levels of anti-Epstein Barr (EBV) antibodies and EBV DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective study wit

  3. Poor outcomes of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in non-Japanese adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Sonke (Gabe); I. Ludwig (Inge); H. van Oosten (Hannah); J.W. Baars (Joke); E. Meijer (Ellen); A.P. Kater (Arnon); D. de Jong (Daphne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractChronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection manifests as a combination of persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms and high viral load in apparently immunocompetent patients. It is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These 2 abnor

  4. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in an adult with no detectable immune deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M. de; Mol, M.J.T.M.; Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Galama, J.M.D.; Raymakers, R.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes lifelong latent infection. In some patients the host-virus balance is disturbed, resulting in a chronic active EBV infection. The following case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing and treating chronic EBV infection. CASE: A 30-year-old woman w

  5. Active Epstein-Barr virus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation : re-infection or reactivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E; Spijkers, S; Moschatsis, S; Boland, GJ; Thijsen, SFT; van Loon, AM; Verdonck, LF

    2005-01-01

    Recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) often show active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which may progress to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. It is not known whether these EBV infections are true reactivations of the endogenous EBV strain or re-infections with an exo

  6. Giant cell arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection

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    A. Giardina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries. A viral cause has been suspected but not confirmed in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. We report the case of a 81-year-old female who suffered from chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and developed giant cell temporal arteritis.

  7. Nucleophosmin contributes to the transcriptional activation function of the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein.

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    Malik-Soni, Natasha; Frappier, Lori

    2014-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 protein plays important roles in latent infection, including transcriptional activation of EBV latency genes by binding to the family-of-repeats (FR) element. Through a proteomic approach, we previously identified an interaction between EBNA1 and the histone chaperone nucleophosmin. Here we show that the EBNA1-nucleophosmin interaction is direct and requires the Gly-Arg-rich sequences that contribute to transactivation. Additionally, nucleophosmin is recruited by EBNA1 to the FR element and is required for EBNA1-mediated transcriptional activation.

  8. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

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    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  9. Possible roles of Epstein-Barr virus in Castleman disease

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    Liu Hung-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease.

  10. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr virus DNA release from lymphoblastoid cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yih-Yih KOK; Pauline BALRAJ; Alan Soo-Beng KHOO; Wan-Loy CHU; Siew-Moi PHANG; Shar Mariam MOHAMED; Rakesh NAIDU; Pey-Jiun LAI; Shui-Nyuk LING; Joon-Wah MAK; Patricia Kim-Chooi LIM

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from the microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in three Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines, namely Akata, B95-8, and P3HR-1. The antiviral activity was assessed by quantifying the cell-free EBV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The methanol extracts from Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Synechococcus elongatus displayed low cytotoxicity and potent effect in reducing cell-free EBV DNA (EC50<0.01 μg/ml) with a high therapeutic index (>28000). After fractionation by column chromatography, the fraction from Synechococcus elongatus (SEF1) reduced the cell-free EBV DNA most effectively (EC50=2.9 μg/ml, therapeutic index>69). Upon further fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the sub-fraction SEF1'a was most active in reducing the cell-free EBV DNA (EC50=1.38 μg/ml, therapeutic index>14.5). This study suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds that can be used against EBV.

  11. Transcriptional activation of Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 by USF1 and Rta.

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    Hung, Chen-Chia; Kuo, Chung-Wen; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chang, Li-Kwan; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-09-01

    During its lytic cycle, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses Rta, a factor encoded by BRLF1 that activates the transcription of viral lytic genes. We found that upstream stimulating factor (USF) binds to E1, one of the five E boxes located at - 79 in the BRLF1 promoter (Rp), to activate BRLF1 transcription. Furthermore, Rta was shown to interact with USF1 in coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy further confirmed that these two proteins colocalize in the nucleus. Rta was also found to bind with the E1 sequence in a biotin-labelled E1 probe, but only in the presence of USF1, suggesting that these two proteins likely form a complex on E1. We subsequently constructed p188mSZ, a reporter plasmid that contained the sequence from - 188 to +5 in Rp, within which the Sp1 site and Zta response element were mutated. In EBV-negative Akata cells cotransfected with p188mSZ and plasmids expressing USF1 and Rta, synergistic activation of Rp transcription was observed. However, after mutating the E1 sequence in p188mSZ, USF1 and Rta were no longer able to transactivate Rp, indicating that Rta autoregulates BRLF1 transcription via its interaction with USF1 on E1. This study showed that pUSF1 transfection after EBV lytic induction in P3HR1 cells increases Rta expression, indicating that USF1 activates Rta expression after the virus enters the lytic cycle. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which USF interacts with Rta to promote viral lytic development, and provide additional insight into the viral-host interactions of EBV.

  12. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G; Jacobsen, S

    2016-12-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29 healthy controls using ELISAs. Regression analyses and univariate comparisons were performed for associative evaluation between virus serology, plasma galectin-3 binding protein and autoantibodies, along with other clinical and demographic parameters. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-extractable nuclear antigens had significantly higher antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (P = 0.02). Our study supports a link between active Epstein-Barr virus infections, positivity for anti-extractable nuclear antigens and increased plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations/type I interferon activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus infection mechanisms

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    Liudmila S. Chesnokova; Lindsey M. Hutt-Fletcher

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurs by distinct mechanisms across different cell types. EBV infection of B cellsin vitro minimally requires 5 viral glycoproteins and 2 cellular proteins. By contrast, infection of epithelial cells requires a minimum of 3 viral glycoproteins, which are capable of interacting with one or more of 3 different celular proteins. The ful complement of proteins involved in entry into al cel types capable of being infectedin vivo is unknown. This review discusses the events that occur when the virus is delivered into the cytoplasm of a cel, the players known to be involved in these events, and the ways in which these players are thought to function.

  14. Recombinant production of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator and characterization of its DNA-binding specificity.

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    Lim, Chun Shen; Goh, Siang Ling; Krishnan, Gopala; Ng, Ching Ching

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the recombinant production of a biologically active Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator, i.e., Z-encoded broadly reactive activator (ZEBRA), that recognized specific DNA motifs. We used auto-induction for histidine-tagged BZLF1 expression in Escherichia coli and immobilized cobalt affinity membrane chromatography for protein purification under native conditions. We obtained the purified BZLF1 at a yield of 5.4mg per gram of wet weight cells at 75% purity, in which 27% of the recombinant BZLF1 remained biologically active. The recombinant BZLF1 bound to oligonucleotides containing ZEBRA response elements, either AP-1 or ZIIIB, but not a ZIIIB mutant. The recombinant BZLF1 showed a specific DNA-binding activity which could be useful for functional studies.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  16. NIH scientists outline steps toward Epstein-Barr virus vaccine

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    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects nine out of ten people worldwide at some point during their lifetimes. Infections in early childhood often cause no disease symptoms, but people infected during adolescence or young adulthood may develop infectious mononuc

  17. RNA families in Epstein-Barr virus.

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    Moss, Walter N; Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a tumorigenic human γ-herpesvirus, which produces several known structured RNAs with functional importance: two are implicated in latency maintenance and tumorigenic phenotypes, EBER1 and EBER2; a viral small nucleolar RNA (v-snoRNA1) that may generate a small regulatory RNA; and an internal ribosomal entry site in the EBNA1 mRNA. A recent bioinformatics and RNA-Seq study of EBV identified two novel EBV non-coding (nc)RNAs with evolutionary conservation in lymphocryptoviruses and likely functional importance. Both RNAs are transcribed from a repetitive region of the EBV genome (the W repeats) during a highly oncogenic type of viral latency. One novel ncRNA can form a massive (586 nt) hairpin, while the other RNA is generated from a short (81 nt) intron and is found in high abundance in EBV-infected cells.

  18. The role of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the immune pathologic reactions development at Epstein-Barr virus infection

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    Marina Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with studying of appoptogenic activity of microbes associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection on model of peritoneal mice macrophages in vitro. The estimation of apoptosis induced by bacterias extracted from patients with Epstein-Barr virus infection was carried out oncharacteristic morphologic changes of macrophages. It was established that apoptogenic activity had all microbes associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, but the highiest pathogenic potential Streptococcus pyogenes. Presence of apoptogenic activity of bacterial microflora associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection towards immune system cells can serve as pathway of their survival and can be the pathogenic base of their long persistence in the body. The expressed ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to induce the apoptosis can give us the possibility to consider such microbe as the most dangerous microbe associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence S Young; Christopher W Dawson

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery 50 years ago, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of cancers originating from both lymphoid and epithelial cells. Approximately 95% of the world’s population sustains an asymptomatic, life-long infection with EBV. The virus persists in the memory B-cell pool of normal healthy individuals, and any disruption of this interaction results in virus-associated B-cel tumors. The association of EBV with epithelial cel tumors, specifical y nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-positive gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC), is less clear and is currently thought to be caused by the aberrant establishment of virus latency in epithelial cells that display premalignant genetic changes. Although the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic process is currently poorly understood, the presence of the virus in al tumor cel s provides opportunities for developing novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insight into the carcinogenic process that is relevant to a broader understanding of tumor pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies.

  20. Macular Amyloidosis and Epstein-Barr Virus

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    Yalda Nahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amyloidosis is extracellular precipitation of eosinophilic hyaline material of self-origin with special staining features and fibrillar ultrastructure. Macular amyloidosis is limited to the skin, and several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA in this lesion suggests that this virus can play a role in pathogenesis of this disease. Objective. EBV DNA detection was done on 30 skin samples with a diagnosis of macular amyloidosis and 31 healthy skin samples in the margin of removed melanocytic nevi by using PCR. Results. In patients positive for beta-globin gene in PCR, BLLF1 gene of EBV virus was positive in 23 patients (8 patients in case and 15 patients in the control group. There was no significant difference in presence of EBV DNA between macular amyloidosis (3.8% and control (23.8% groups (P=0.08. Conclusion. The findings of this study showed that EBV is not involved in pathogenesis of macular amyloidosis.

  1. Potential antiviral lignans from the roots of Saururus chinensis with activity against Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication.

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    Cui, Hui; Xu, Bo; Wu, Taizong; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-24

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the γ-herpes virus subfamily and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on an EtOAc-soluble extract of the roots of Saururus chinensis and monitored using an EBV lytic replication assay. This led to the isolation of 19 new (1-19) and nine known (20-28) lignans. The absolute configurations of the new lignans were established by Mosher's ester, ECD, and computational methods. Eight lignans, including three sesquineolignans (19, 23, and 24) and five dineolignans (3, 4, 26, 27, and 28), exhibited inhibitory effects toward EBV lytic replication with EC50 values from 1.09 to 7.55 μM and SI values from 3.3 to 116.4. In particular, manassantin B (27) exhibited the most promising inhibition, with an EC50 of 1.72 μM, low cytotoxicity, CC50 > 200 μM, and SI > 116.4. This is the first study demonstrating that lignans possess anti-EBV lytic replication activity.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

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    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  3. Epstein - Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 suppresses reporter activity through modulation of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies

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    Flemington Erik K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 has been shown to increase the expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML and the immunofluorescent intensity of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs. PML NBs have been implicated in the modulation of transcription and the association of reporter plasmids with PML NBs has been implicated in repression of reporter activity. Additionally, repression of various reporters in the presence of LMP1 has been noted. This study demonstrates that LMP1 suppresses expression of reporter activity in a dose responsive manner and corresponds with the LMP1 induced increase in PML NB intensity. Disruption of PML NBs with arsenic trioxide or a PML siRNA restores reporter activity. These data offer an explanation for previously conflicting data on LMP1 signaling and calls attention to the possibility of false-positives and false-negatives when using reporter assays as a research tool in cells expressing LMP1.

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

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    Jun Nishikawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

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    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report

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    Somayh HASHEMIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Hashemian S, Ashrafzadeh F, Akhondian J, Beiraghi Toosi M. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:107-110.  Abstract Many neurologic manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection have been documented, including encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These manifestations can occur alone or coincidentally with the clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis. EBV encephalitis is rare and is indicated as a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report a 10-year-old girl presented with fever, gait disturbance, and bizarre behavior for one week. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable. The diagnosis of EBV encephalitis was made by changes in titers of EBV specific antibodies and MRI findings. A cranial MRI demonstrated abnormal high signal intensities in the basal ganglia and the striatal body, especially in the putamen and caudate nucleus. EBV infection should be considered when lesions are localized to the basal ganglia.ReferencesFujimoto H, Asaoka K, Imiazumi T, Ayabe M, Shoji H, Kaji M. Epstein-Barr virus Infections of the Central Nervous System. Intern Med 2003; 42:33-40.Mathew AG, Parvez Y. Fulminant Epstein Barr virus encephalitis. Indian Pediatrics 2013; 50:418-419Kalita J, Maurya PK, Kumar B, Misra UK. Epstein Barr virus encephalitis: Clinical diversity and radiological similarity. Neurol India 2011; 59:605-7Baskin HJ, Hedlund G. Neuroimaging of Herpes Virus Infections in Children. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37:949-63.Weinberg A, Li SH, Palmer M, Tyler K .Quantitative CSF PCR in Epstein-Barr Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System. Ann Neurol 2002; 52:543-8.Ono J, Shimizu K, Harada k, Mano T, Okada S. Characteristic MR Features of Encephalitis Caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Pediatr Radiol 1998; 28:569-70.Hausler M, Raamaekers T, Doenges M, Shweizer K ,Ritter K. Neurological Complications of Acute

  7. Inhibitory effects of some derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid against Epstein-Barr virus infection: structure-activity relationships.

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    Lin, Jung-Chung; Cherng, Jaw-Ming; Hung, Man-Shan; Baltina, Lidia A; Baltina, Lia; Kondratenko, Rimma

    2008-07-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (18beta-GL or GL) is a herbal drug with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities and pharmacological effects and multiple sites of action. Previously we showed that GL inhibits Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in vitro by interfering with an early step of the EBV replication cycle (possibly attachment/penetration). Here we tested the effects of 15 GL derivatives against EBV infection by scoring the numbers of cell expressing viral antigens and quantifying EBV DNA copy numbers in superinfected Raji cells. The derivatives were made either by transformation of GL on carboxyl and hydroxyl groups or by conjugation of amino acid residues into the carbohydrate part. We identified seven compounds active against EBV and all showed dose-dependent inhibition as determined by both assays. Among these active compounds, the introduction of amino acid residues into the GL carbohydrate part enhanced the antiviral activity in three of the seven active compounds. However, when Glu(OH)-OMe was substituted by Glu(OMe)-OMe, its antiviral activity was completely abolished. Introduction of potassium or ammonium salt to GL reduced the antiviral activity with no significant effect on cytotoxicity. The alpha-isomer (18alpha-GL) of 18beta-GL was as potent as the beta-form, but its sodium salt lost antiviral activity. The metabolic product of GL, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA or GA), was 7.5-fold more active against EBV than its parental compound GL but, concomitantly, exhibited increased cytotoxicity resulting in a decreased therapeutic index.

  8. Targeting Epstein-Barr virus infection as an intervention against multiple sclerosis.

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    Jons, D; Sundström, P; Andersen, O

    2015-02-01

    We here review contemporary data on genetic and environmental risk factors, particularly Epstein-Barr virus infection, for multiple sclerosis. There is an important immunogenetic etiological factor for multiple sclerosis. However, a general assumption is that immune defense genes are activated by the environment, basically by infections. We contend that the relationship between infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis cannot be completely explained by genetics and inverse causality. Epstein-Barr infection as indicated by positive serology is an obligatory precondition for multiple sclerosis, which is a stronger attribute than a risk factor only. Data on events in the early pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are cumulating from bio-banks with presymptomatic specimens, but there is only little information from the critical age when Epstein-Barr infection including infectious mononucleosis is acquired, nor on the detailed immunological consequences of this infection in individuals with and without multiple sclerosis. We discuss how focused bio-banking may elaborate a rationale for the development of treatment or vaccination against Epstein-Barr virus infection. A cohort in which intervention against Epstein-Barr infections was performed should be the object of neurological follow-up.

  9. The "Bridge" in the Epstein-Barr virus alkaline exonuclease protein BGLF5 contributes to shutoff activity during productive infection.

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    Horst, Daniëlle; Burmeister, Wim P; Boer, Ingrid G J; van Leeuwen, Daphne; Buisson, Marlyse; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Ressing, Maaike E

    2012-09-01

    Replication of the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus drastically impairs cellular protein synthesis. This shutoff phenotype results from mRNA degradation upon expression of the early lytic-phase protein BGLF5. Interestingly, BGLF5 is the viral DNase, or alkaline exonuclease, homologues of which are present throughout the herpesvirus family. During productive infection, this DNase is essential for processing and packaging of the viral genome. In contrast to this widely conserved DNase activity, shutoff is only mediated by the alkaline exonucleases of the subfamily of gammaherpesviruses. Here, we show that BGLF5 can degrade mRNAs of both cellular and viral origin, irrespective of polyadenylation. Furthermore, shutoff by BGLF5 induces nuclear relocalization of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein. Guided by the recently resolved BGLF5 structure, mutants were generated and analyzed for functional consequences on DNase and shutoff activities. On the one hand, a point mutation destroying DNase activity also blocks RNase function, implying that both activities share a catalytic site. On the other hand, other mutations are more selective, having a more pronounced effect on either DNA degradation or shutoff. The latter results are indicative of an oligonucleotide-binding site that is partially shared by DNA and RNA. For this, the flexible "bridge" that crosses the active-site canyon of BGLF5 appears to contribute to the interaction with RNA substrates. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for the shutoff function of BGLF5 that is conserved in gammaherpesviruses but not in alpha- and betaherpesviruses.

  10. The latent origin of replication of Epstein-Barr virus directs viral genomes to active regions of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Manuel J; Ott, Elisabeth; Papior, Peer; Schepers, Aloys

    2010-03-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus efficiently infects human B cells. The EBV genome is maintained extrachromosomally and replicates synchronously with the host's chromosomes. The latent origin of replication (oriP) guarantees plasmid stability by mediating two basic functions: replication and segregation of the viral genome. While the segregation process of EBV genomes is well understood, little is known about its chromatin association and nuclear distribution during interphase. Here, we analyzed the nuclear localization of EBV genomes and the role of functional oriP domains FR and DS for basic functions such as the transformation of primary cells, their role in targeting EBV genomes to distinct nuclear regions, and their association with epigenetic domains. Fluorescence in situ hybridization visualized the localization of extrachromosomal EBV genomes in the regions adjacent to chromatin-dense territories called the perichromatin. Further, immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated a preference of the viral genome for histone 3 lysine 4-trimethylated (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 9-acetylated (H3K9ac) nuclear regions. To determine the role of FR and DS for establishment and subnuclear localization of EBV genomes, we transformed primary human B lymphocytes with recombinant mini-EBV genomes containing different oriP mutants. The loss of DS results in a slightly increased association in H3K27me3 domains. This study demonstrates that EBV genomes or oriP-based extrachromosomal vector systems are integrated into the higher order nuclear organization. We found that viral genomes are not randomly distributed in the nucleus. FR but not DS is crucial for the localization of EBV in perichromatic regions that are enriched for H3K4me3 and H3K9ac, which are hallmarks of transcriptionally active regions.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus-targeted therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, S.D.; Novalić, Z.; Wildeman, M.A.; Huitema, A.D.R.; Verkuijlen, S.A.W.M.; Juwana, H.; Greijer, A.E.; Tan, I.B.; Middeldorp, J.M.; de Boer, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite successful primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the incidence of distant metastasis remains 25-34 %. Treatment options are limited, and survival is poor. Intratumoural Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was used as treatment target. In NPC, EBV is present in a latent state, exp

  13. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes;

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...

  14. Interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factor-κB signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liang, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Yong; Lin, Chun-Yan; Shi, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Fisetin is an effective compound extracted from lacquer which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that it also exerts specific anti-cancer effects. However, the manner in which fisetin regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated interference of fisetin with targets of the nuclear factorκB signal transduction pathway activated by Epstein-Barr virus encoding latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, Results showed that fisetin inhibited the survival rate of CNE-LMP1 cells and NF-κB activation caused by LMP1. Fisetin also suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) and IκBα phosphorylation, while inhibiting CyclinD1, all key targets of the NF-κB signal transduction pathway. It was suggested that interference effects of fisetin with signal transduction activated by LMP1 encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus may play an important role in its anticancer potential.

  15. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  16. A rare presentation of childhood Pompe disease : Cardiac involvement provoked by Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Melle; Kroos, MA; Visser, G; Kimpen, JLL; Niezen, KE

    2002-01-01

    Myocarditis attributed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as the sole cause is a rare manifestation. Myocarditis ascribed to EBV infection in combination with other factors has been reported in a few more cases. We report a child who experienced active EBV infection and later, at 19 months of age, received

  17. Increased CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus lytic antigens in the active phase of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Angelini

    Full Text Available It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1 antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113 and healthy donors (HD (n = 43 and to investigate whether the EBV-specific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Using HLA class I pentamers, lytic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected in fewer untreated inactive MS patients than in active MS patients and HD while the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic and latent antigens was higher in active and inactive MS patients, respectively. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell response to cytomegalovirus did not differ between HD and MS patients, irrespective of the disease phase. Marked differences in the prevalence of EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed in patients treated with interferon-β and natalizumab, two licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS. Longitudinal studies revealed expansion of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens during active disease in untreated MS patients but not in relapse-free, natalizumab-treated patients. Analysis of post-mortem MS brain samples showed expression of the EBV lytic protein BZLF-1 and interactions between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and EBV lytically infected plasma cells in inflammatory white matter lesions and meninges. We therefore propose that inability to control EBV infection during inactive MS could set the stage for intracerebral viral reactivation and disease relapse.

  18. Clinical analysis and follow-up study of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in 53 pediatric cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Gen; XIE Zheng-de; ZHAO Shun-ying; YE Ling-jun; WU Run-hui; LIU Chun-yan; YANG Shuang; JIN Ying-kang; SHEN Kun-ling

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) has been previously reported to be sometimes associated with an aggressive clinical course. The characteristics of CAEBV in Mainland Chinese pediatric patients are largely unreported. The main aims of this survey were to recognize the clinical features of CAEBV in children and to explore its diagnostic criteria and risk factors.Methods A retrospective study was performed on 53 pediatric patients (36 boys and 17 girls) with CAEBV who were admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between 2003 and 2007. All their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. For each patient, demographic, clinical, laboratory data and outcome were collected. Independent-samples t test was used for statistical analysis.Results The age at onset of CAEBV was from 2 months to 14.6 years (mean (5.3±3.3) years). At the time of onset, 43.4% patients had an infectious mononucleosis-like symptom. Most patients exhibited intermittent fever (92.5%, 49/53), hepatomegaly (81.1%, 43/53) and splenomegaly (77.4%, 41/53). Life-threatening complications including hemophagocytic syndrome (24.5%,13/53), interstitial pneumonia (24.5%, 13/53), hepatic failure (15.1%, 8/53) and malignant lymphoma (11.3%, 6/53) were also observed. The serum EBV DNA level in 23 patients with CAEBV was in the range of 5.05×102-4.60×106 copies/ml with a mean value of 103.7 copies/ml. Many patients with CAEBV generally had continuous symptoms during the observational period. Eleven out of 42 patients (26.2%) died 7 months to 3 years after onset. Deceased patients were more likely to have had lower platelet counts and albumin levels than the living patients (P<0.05 for all comparisons).Conclusions The study reveals that CAEBV in Chinese pediatric patients has a severe clinical course and prognosis is poor. Thrombocytopenia and decreases in albumin might potentially be risk factors for a poor prognosis. EBV loads should be measured and tissue should be stained on

  19. EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS AND CYTOMEGALOVIRUS – TWO HERPES VIRUSES WITH ORAL MANIFESTATIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assya Krasteva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are reported with increasing frequency. Epstein-Barr virus damages usually are due to reactivation of latent infection. while cytomegalovirus disease result from primary or reactivated infection in susceptible hosts. The booth infections can have oral manifestations.

  20. Detection of Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Duodenal Mucosa of Patients With Refractory Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Vittorio; Baldanti, Fausto; Lenti, Marco Vincenzo; Vanoli, Alessandro; Biagi, Federico; Gatti, Marta; Riboni, Roberta; Dallera, Elena; Paulli, Marco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Refractory celiac disease is characterized by mucosal damage in patients with celiac disease despite a gluten-free diet. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause persistent intestinal inflammation in these patients. We performed a case-control study of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with refractory celiac disease from 2001 through 2014 (median age, 51 y; 10 women) and 24 patients with uncomplicated celiac disease (controls) to determine whether refractory disease is associated with infection by lymphotropic oncogenic viruses. We performed real-time PCR analyses of duodenal biopsy samples from all patients to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-8, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, -II, or -III. We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses to identify infected cells and viral proteins. We did not detect human herpesvirus-8 or human T-cell lymphotropic viruses in any of the biopsy specimens. However, 12 of 17 (70.5%) biopsy specimens from patients with refractory celiac disease were positive for EBV, compared with 4 of 24 (16.6%) biopsy specimens from controls (P celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Akkoc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae.

  2. Key motifs in EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase for phosphorylation activity and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershburg, Svetlana; Murphy, Leann; Marschall, Manfred; Gershburg, Edward

    2010-10-15

    A sole EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK) (the BGLF4 gene product) plays important roles in viral infection. Although a number of targets of this protein have been identified, the kinase itself remains largely unstudied with regard to its enzymology and structure. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis has been employed to generate mutations targeting residues involved in nuclear localization of the EBV-PK, core residues in subdomain III of the protein kinase domain conserved in most protein kinases or residues in subdomain VIa conserved only within the HPK (herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase) group. Deletion of amino acids 389-391 resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic localization of the protein, indicating the involvement of this region in nuclear translocation of the EBV-PK. Mutations at the amino acids Glu113 (core component), Phe175, Leu178, Phe184, Leu185 and Asn186 (conserved in HPKs) resulted in loss of EBV-PK autophosphorylation, protein substrate [EBV EA-D (early antigen diffused)] phosphorylation, and ability to facilitate ganciclovir phosphorylation. These results reiterate the unique features of this group of kinases and present an opportunity for designing more specific antiviral compounds.

  3. [Molecular mechanisms of Epstein-Barr virus-mediated carcinogeneis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human double stranded DNA virus, is associated with a variety of malignancies including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and gastric carcinoma (GC). These EBV-associated cancers are characterized by the proliferation of monoclonal EBV-infected cells, and viral gene expression in these cells is limited to a subset of latent genes, indicating that EBV latent genes contribute to carcinogenesis. Here I describe the mechanisms of carcinogenesis by EBV, focusing on the function of two EBV latent gens, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). LMP2A, which is known to mimic the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, has been reported to contribute to malignant lymphoma development through the modulation of immune signals. Also, it has been demonstrated that LMP2A-mediated intracellular signaling plays significant roles in epithelial carcinogenesis. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that EBER, which is expected to form double stranded RNA (dsRNA) structure, triggers a signal transduction from host viral RNA sensors RIG-I and TLR3. Activation of innate immune signals by EBER has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases, including cancers.

  4. Advances in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection%慢性活动性EB病毒感染的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晨光; 李晓瑜

    2010-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection( CAEBV) is an undefined illness, which is often characterized by severe. chronic, or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistenthepatitis and extensive lymphadenopathy . Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their penpheral blood and/ or an unusual pattem of EBV-related antibodies. It is an intractable disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with CAEBV have high mortality from hepatic failure, opportunistic infection, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. A definite treatment has not been established . There is accumulating evidence that the clonal expansion of EBV-infected T or natural killer cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of CAEBV.%慢性活动性EB病毒感染(chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection,CAEBV)是一种定义未明疾病,以严重的慢性或复发性传染性单核细胞增多症(infectious mononucleosis,IM)样表现为主要特征,临床表现包括发热、肝脾肿大、持续性肝炎、全身淋巴结肿大等,常伴外周血EB病毒载量的明显升高和(或)EB病毒相关抗体的异常改变.本病治疗困难,预后差,病死率高,死因多为肝衰竭、机会性感染或淋巴组织增生性噬血细胞综合征,目前尚无明确的治疗方案.越来越多的证据表明,被EB病毒感染的T细胞或自然杀伤细胞克隆性增殖在发病中起至关重要的作用.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Nanbo, Asuka; Nishikawa, Jun; Jinushi, Masahisa; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2012-12-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis. Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I). Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented. Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed.

  6. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  7. Anterior opercular syndrome induced by Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Tanaka, Ryota; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old female presenting with fever, drooling, anarthria, and voluntary facial movement disruption, characteristic of anterior opercular syndrome (AOS). Serological examination revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection following acute encephalitis with severe ataxia. A single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examination indicated hypoperfusion in the left perisylvian region, bilateral thalamus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. This is the first report of AOS related to EBV encephalitis. SPECT was a useful method for detecting the damaged region of the operculum. In addition, AOS is a clinically distinct entity that may help us understand the mechanisms of language circuits within the operculum.

  8. Epstein Barr Virus and Blood Brain Barrier in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune neurodegenerative disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, mechanism for the EBV-MS connection is unclear. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system. BBB contains both endothelial cells as well as astrocytes. Interestingly EBV is able to infect both kinds of cells. Because EBV is able to transfer infection from one cell type to another cell type, it is thus hypothesized that EBV uses

  9. Autoantigenic proteins that bind recombinogenic sequences in Epstein-Barr virus and cellular DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    We have identified conserved autoantigenic cellular proteins that bind to G-rich sequence motifs in recombinogenic regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. This binding activity, called TRBP, recognizes the EBV terminal repeats, a locus responsible for interconversion of linear and circular EBV DNA. We found that TRBP also binds to EBV DNA sequences involved in deletion of EBNA2, a gene product required for immortalization. We show that TRBP binds sequences present in repetitive cellular DNA,...

  10. Lymphocryptovirus phylogeny and the origins of Epstein-Barr virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Bernhard; Spiess, Katja; Leendertz, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    the LCV genomic data. The LCVs fell into three major clades: Clade A, comprising New World viruses; Clade B, containing both Old World monkey viruses and hominoid viruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and Clade C, containing other hominoid viruses. By comparison with the primate tree...... that evolutionary substitution in Clade B has proceeded more slowly than elsewhere in the LCV tree. It was estimated that in Clade B a subclade containing EBV, a gorilla virus and two chimpanzee viruses derived from an Old World monkey LCV line approximately 12 million years ago, and another subclade containing......Specimens from wild and captive primates were collected and novel members of the genus Lymphocryptovirus (subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae) were searched for utilizing PCR for the DNA polymerase gene. Twenty-one novel viruses were detected. Together with previous findings, more than 50 distinct...

  11. The copy number of Epstein-Barr virus latent genome correlates with the oncogenicity by the activation level of LMP1 and NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A tumor model that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection facilitated the tumorigenicity was previously established using the Maxi-EBV system. In the present approach, EBV-lost cell clones demonstrated significantly decreased tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the LMP1 gene in Maxi-EBV genome was replaced by that of nasopharyngeal carcinoma origin. The resultant cell line, 293–1/NL showed much lower malignancy than the original 293-EBV. The result was opposite to our expectation. The change...

  12. Epstein-Barr virus-associated genital ulcers: an under-recognized disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Cheryl J; Alió, Alessandra B; Cunningham, Bari B; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2007-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the best-known syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Although a variety of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations are recognized in infectious mononucleosis, genital ulcers have only rarely been described. We describe an otherwise healthy 14-year-old girl in whom painful genital ulcers developed during an episode of serologically-confirmed primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical, serologic, and histopathologic evaluation failed to disclose evidence of any other etiologic explanation for her lesions. The patient remains well, without recurrence. To date, only 13 instances of genital ulceration in females attributable to Epstein-Barr virus infection have been reported.

  13. Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Tokuda, Harukuni; Takasaki, Midori; Mukainaka, Teruo; Konoshima, Takao; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-06-01

    Resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil are known natural dietary components with intrinsic cancer chemopreventive potentials. As a part of our study of dietary constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, we have assessed the anti-cancer potentials of these products in the promotion stage of cancer development employing the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, we studied the activities of these compounds in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay as well as on the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging bioassay with a view to comparing some of the mechanisms of their anti-cancer activity. Finally, we compared the observed chemoprotective capabilities of the four products in the in vivo 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. All the products tested showed a profound inhibitory effect on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction using Raji cells. Comparatively, sesame oil was the most potent followed by sesamol and then resveratrol. Only sesamol and resveratrol showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assays as well as profound free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH bioassay. In both test systems, sesamol exhibited a more remarkable activity than resveratrol while sesame oil and sunflower oil did not exhibit any appreciable activity even at the highest concentrations tested (4000 microg ml(-1) ). In our in vivo assay at a 50-fold molar ratio to TPA, sesamol offered 50% reduction in mouse skin papillomas at 20 weeks after promotion with TPA. Under an identical molar ratio to TPA, resveratrol offered a 60% reduction in the papillomas in mouse at 20 weeks. Thus sesamol seems to be an almost equally potent chemopreventive agent. Sesame oil and sunflower oil offered 20 and 40% protection, respectively, in the mouse

  14. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus major envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gerda; Klein, Michael G; Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Ma, Runlin Z; Asokan, Rengasamy; Holers, V Michael; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2006-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B cells is associated with lymphoma and other human cancers. EBV infection is initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp350) to the cell surface receptor CR2. We determined the X-ray structure of the highly glycosylated gp350 and defined the CR2 binding site on gp350. Polyglycans shield all but one surface of the gp350 polypeptide, and we demonstrate that this glycan-free surface is the receptor-binding site. Deglycosylated gp350 bound CR2 similarly to the glycosylated form, suggesting that glycosylation is not important for receptor binding. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the glycan-free surface disrupted receptor binding as well as binding by a gp350 monoclonal antibody, a known inhibitor of virus-receptor interactions. These results provide structural information for developing drugs and vaccines to prevent infection by EBV and related viruses.

  15. The pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus persistent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley-Lawson, David A; Hawkins, Jared B; Tracy, Sean I; Shapiro, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) maintains a lifelong infection. According to the germinal center model (GCM), latently infected B cells transit the germinal center (GC) to become resting memory cells. Here, the virus resides quiescently, occasionally reactivating to infect new B cells, completing the cycle of infection. The GCM remains the only model that explains EBV biology and the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Recent work suggests modifications to the model notably that the virus contributes only modestly to the GC process and predictions from mathematical models that quiescence within memory B cells shapes the overall structure of viral infection but is not essential for persistence. Rather, it is the cycle of infection which allows viral persistence at the very low levels observed.

  16. [Mechanisms of Epstein-Barr Virus-Mediated Oncogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus(EBV), a ubiquitous human double-stranded DNA virus, is associated with a variety of malignancies including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma. Latent EBV infections have been discovered in cases of EBV -associated cancers, suggesting that EBV latent genes contribute to oncogenesis. Here, I describe mechanisms of oncogenesis associated with EBV, focusing on functions of EBV latent membrane protein(LMP)and EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). LMP2A, which mimics B cell receptor signaling, and LMP1, which mimics CD40 signaling, collaboratively contribute to malignant lymphoma development. It has been reported that LMP2A-mediated intracellular signaling plays significant roles in epithelial carcinogenesis. However, it has also been demonstrated that EBER, which is expected to have a double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)structure, triggers signal transduction via host viral RNA sensors, RIG-I and TLR3, causing EBV-associated pathogenesis, including carcinogenesis.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus at 50-future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence S. Young

    2014-01-01

    The special November and December issues of theChinese Journal of Cancer celebrate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a series of reviews covering the association of the virus with various cancers, with special emphasis on the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The restricted geographic prevalence of NPC along with the tumor’s consistent association with EBV infection has fascinated scientists and clinicians ever since it was first suggested in 1966. As in all cancers, NPC development reflects the complex interplay between host genes and environmental factors, but the essential role of EBV infection provides important insight into the etiology of this tumor. Indeed, it is this understanding that is now translating into exciting diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  18. RBP-J kappa repression activity is mediated by a co-repressor and antagonized by the Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor EBNA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzer, L; Bourillot, P Y; Sergeant, A; Manet, E

    1995-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein EBNA2 is a transcriptional activator that can be targeted to its DNA responsive elements by direct interaction with the cellular protein RBP-J kappa. RBP-J kappa is a ubiquitous factor, highly conserved between man, mouse and Drosophila, whose function in mammalian cells is largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that RBP-J kappa is a transcriptional repressor and, more importantly, that RBP-J kappa repression is mediated by a co-repressor. The function of the co-repressor could be counterbalanced by making a fusion protein (RBP-VP16) between RBP-J kappa and the VP16 activation domain. This RBP-VP16-mediated activation could be strongly increased by an EBNA2 protein deprived of its activation domain, but not by an EBNA2 protein incapable of making physical contact with RBP-J kappa. Our results suggest that EBNA2 activates transcription by both interfering with the function of a co-repressor recruited by RBP-J kappa and providing an activation domain. Images PMID:8559649

  19. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from Toll-like receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai; Zhou, Li; Samanta, Mrinal; Matsumoto, Misako; Ebihara, Takashi; Seya, Tsukasa; Imai, Shosuke; Fujieda, Mikiya; Kawa, Keisei; Takada, Kenzo

    2009-09-28

    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La. Sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), whose general symptoms are caused by proinflammatory cytokines contained EBER, and addition of RNA purified from the sera into culture medium induced signaling from TLR3 in EBV-transformed lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells. Furthermore, DCs treated with EBER showed mature phenotype and antigen presentation capacity. These findings suggest that EBER, which is released from EBV-infected cells, is responsible for immune activation by EBV, inducing type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. EBER-induced activation of innate immunity would account for immunopathologic diseases caused by active EBV infection.

  20. The Epstein-Barr virus oncogene product, latent membrane protein 1, induces the downregulation of E-cadherin gene expression via activation of DNA methyltransferases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-NeuTsai

    2005-01-01

    The latent membrane protein (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which isnotoriously metastatic. Although it Is established that LMP1 represses E-cadherin expression and enhances the invasive ability of carcinoma cells, the mechanism underlying this repression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that LMP1 induces the expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme activity assay. This results in hypermethylation of the E-cadherin promoter and down-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, as revealed by methylation-specific PCR, real-time reverse transcription-PeR and Western blotting data. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-Aza-2'dC, restores E-cadherin promoter activity and protein expression in LMPl-expressing cells, which in turn blocks cell migration ability, as demonstrated by the Transwell cell migration assay. Our findings suggest that LMP1 down-regulates E-cadherin gene expression and induces cell migration activity by using cellular DNA methylation machinery.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus in hepatocellular carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Bao-An Wu; Yong-Ming Zeng; Guang-Can Chen; Xin-Xin Li; Jun-Tian Chen; Yu-Wen Guo; Man-Hong Li; Yi Zeng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: In recent years, studies have suggested that EpsteinBart virus (EBV) is associated with HCC. The present study was to determine the prevalence of EBV in HCC patients,and whether EBV acted synergistically with hepatitis viruses in HCC carcinogenesis.METHODS: Liver tissue 115 HCC patients and 26 noncarcinoma patients were studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect EBV BamHI W DNA, EBV LMP1 DNA, HBV X DNA, and HBV S DNA. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to detect HCV RNA and HDV RNA. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect LMP1,HBsAg, HBcAg and HCV. The positive ratios were compared between HCC group and control group by χ2 test.RESULTS: Totally, 78 HCC samples whose β-globulin DNA was positively detected by amplified PCR were selected.PCR was performed in all cases for EBV DNA and HBV DNA.RT-PCR was performed in 18 cases for HCV RNA and HDV RNA. EBV BanHI W and EBV LMP1 were positive in 18 and 6 cases, respectively. HBV X gene and HBV S gene were positive in 42 and 27 cases respectively. HCV was positive in one of the 18 cases, and none was positive for HDV. The positive rates were 28.2% (22 of 78) for EBV DNA (BamHI W and/or LMP1) and 56.4% (44 of 78) for HBV DNA (X gene and/or S gene) respectively. In addition, 12 cases were positive for both EBV DNA and HBV DNA. Among the 26 cases in the control group, 2 cases were positive for EBV BamHI W, 4positive for HBV X gene and 3 positive for HBV S gene. The positive rates were 8.0% (2 of 26) and 23.1% (6 of 26),respectively, for EBV DNA and HBV DNA. The result of DNA sequencing of BamHI W was 100% homologous with the corresponding sequence of B95-8. There was significant difference in EBV infection rate between HCC patients and controls (χ2 = 4.622, P<0.05). The difference in HBV infection rate was also significant (χ2 = 8.681, P<0.05). However, there was no obvious correlation between HBV and EBV in HCC patients (χ2 = 0.835,P>0.05). LMP1, HBV (HBsAg, HBc

  2. Phosphorylation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grässer, F A; Göttel, S; Haiss, P

    1992-01-01

    A major in vivo phosphorylation site of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) was found to be localized at the C-terminus of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation studies using casein kinase 1 (CK-1) and casein kinase 2 (CK-2) revealed that EBNA-2 is a substrate for CK-2, but not for CK......-1. The CK-2 specific phosphorylation site was localized in the 140 C-terminal amino acids using a recombinant trpE-C-terminal fusion protein. In a similar experiment, the 58 N-terminal amino acids expressed as a recombinant trpE-fusion protein were not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of a synthetic...

  3. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Isotypes of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Marie Wulff; Draborg, Anette Holck; Troelsen, Lone;

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the humoral immune response against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it with the two major autoantibody types in RA, plasma samples from 77 RA patients, 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 28 healthy controls...... and percentages of positives of IgG/IgA/IgM against the early lytic EBV antigen diffuse (EAD) were also found in RA patients compared to HCs but were highest in SLE patients. Furthermore, associations between the elevated EBNA-1 IgA and EBNA-1 IgM levels and the presence of IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors (RFs...

  5. Clinical significance of variations in levels of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antigen and adaptive immune response during chronic active EBV infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong Mei; Wei, Min; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yu Hua; Gao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric patients were recruited to analyze differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) copy numbers and adaptive immune reactions in children with chronic active vs acute EBV infection (CAEBVI vs AEBVI), as well as to examine the relationship between these parameters and the pathogenesis of CAEBVI. Fluorescent qPCR was used to assess EBV-DNA levels, while ELISA, antibody affinity, flow cytometry, and heterophil agglutination (HA) assays were used to evaluate patient EBV-adaptive humoral and cellular immunity. Lastly, ELISPOT was employed to assess interferon (IFN)-γ secretory functions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) as a marker of subject EBV-specific adaptive cellular immunity. The results indicated that, compared with AEBVI patients or normal children, there was a dramatic elevation in viral copy levels, viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgA, early antigen (EA)-IgA, and EA-IgG, but a lack of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-IgG and a negative HA in CAEBVI patients (p EBV-specific CTL function compared with normal children (p EBV antigen availability and in both the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with CAEBVI, and that these outcomes may be associated with the chronic active re-infection process itself associated with CAEBVI.

  6. The copy number of Epstein-Barr virus latent genome correlates with the oncogenicity by the activation level of LMP1 and NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lielian; Yu, Haibo; Liu, Lingzhi; Tang, Yunlian; Wu, Hongzhuan; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Meijuan; Du, Shujuan; Zhao, Lian; Cao, Li; Li, Guiyuan; Lu, Jianhong

    2015-12-01

    A tumor model that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection facilitated the tumorigenicity was previously established using the Maxi-EBV system. In the present approach, EBV-lost cell clones demonstrated significantly decreased tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the LMP1 gene in Maxi-EBV genome was replaced by that of nasopharyngeal carcinoma origin. The resultant cell line, 293-1/NL showed much lower malignancy than the original 293-EBV. The result was opposite to our expectation. The change of 293 sublineage cells for EBV harboring also got similar result. To seek the underlying reason, the copy number of EBV genome in all the cell lines was detected. The result indicated that 293-EBV contained about 4.5-fold higher EBV copies than 293-1/NL did. Parallel EBV genomes led to relatively stable copies in different 293 sublineages, suggesting the viral genome structure is a factor for the sustainability of EBV's copy number. Moreover, the LMP1 transcription in high copy-containing cells showed abnormally high level. Furthermore, the main LMP1-driven pathway, transcription factor NF-κB, was highly activated in high-copy cells. Here we first manifest by experimental model that the copy number of EBV latent genome correlates with the viral pathogenesis, which depends on the activation level of LMP1 and NF-κB. Overall, both the presence and amount of EBV genome are crucial for the viral oncogenicity.

  7. Small molecule inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 DNA binding activity interferes with replication and persistence of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sun Young; Noh, Ka-Won; Joo, Eun Hye; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2014-04-01

    The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus Interferes with the Amplification of IFNα Secretion by Activating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Primary Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, François; Coulombe, François; Gaudreault, Eric; Paquet-Bouchard, Carine; Rola-Pleszczynski, Marek; Gosselin, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus is recognized to cause lymphoproliferative disorders and is also associated with cancer. Evidence suggests that monocytes are likely to be involved in EBV pathogenesis, especially due to a number of cellular functions altered in EBV-infected monocytes, a process that may affect efficient host defense. Because type I interferons (IFNs) are crucial mediators of host defense against viruses, we investigated the effect of EBV infection on the IFNα pathway in primary human monocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Infection of monocytes with EBV induced IFNα secretion but inhibited the positive feedback loop for the amplification of IFNα. We showed that EBV infection induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and, to a lesser extent, SOCS1, two proteins known to interfere with the amplification of IFNα secretion mediated by the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. EBV infection correlated with a blockage in the activation of JAK/STAT pathway members and affected the level of phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7). Depletion of SOCS3, but not SOCS1, by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBV on JAK/STAT pathway activation and significantly restored IFNα secretion. Finally, transfection of monocytes with the viral protein Zta caused the upregulation of SOCS3, an event that could not be recapitulated with mutated Zta. Conclusions/Significance We propose that EBV protein Zta activates SOCS3 protein as an immune escape mechanism that both suppresses optimal IFNα secretion by human monocytes and favors a state of type I IFN irresponsiveness in these cells. This immunomodulatory effect is important to better understand the aspects of the immune response to EBV. PMID:20689596

  9. Epstein-Barr virus interferes with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in primary human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Michaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus is recognized to cause lymphoproliferative disorders and is also associated with cancer. Evidence suggests that monocytes are likely to be involved in EBV pathogenesis, especially due to a number of cellular functions altered in EBV-infected monocytes, a process that may affect efficient host defense. Because type I interferons (IFNs are crucial mediators of host defense against viruses, we investigated the effect of EBV infection on the IFNalpha pathway in primary human monocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infection of monocytes with EBV induced IFNalpha secretion but inhibited the positive feedback loop for the amplification of IFNalpha. We showed that EBV infection induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and, to a lesser extent, SOCS1, two proteins known to interfere with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion mediated by the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. EBV infection correlated with a blockage in the activation of JAK/STAT pathway members and affected the level of phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7. Depletion of SOCS3, but not SOCS1, by small interfering RNA (siRNA abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBV on JAK/STAT pathway activation and significantly restored IFNalpha secretion. Finally, transfection of monocytes with the viral protein Zta caused the upregulation of SOCS3, an event that could not be recapitulated with mutated Zta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that EBV protein Zta activates SOCS3 protein as an immune escape mechanism that both suppresses optimal IFNalpha secretion by human monocytes and favors a state of type I IFN irresponsiveness in these cells. This immunomodulatory effect is important to better understand the aspects of the immune response to EBV.

  10. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ann K; Currie, Margaret J; Robinson, Bridget A; Morrin, Helen; Phung, Yen; Pearson, John F; Anderson, Trevor P; Potter, John D; Walker, Logan C

    2015-01-01

    Findings of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and breast cancer vary, making it difficult to determine whether either, both, or neither virus is causally associated with breast cancer. We investigated CMV and EBV in paired samples of breast cancer and normal breast tissue from 70 women using quantitative PCR. A serum sample from each woman was tested for CMV and EBV IgG. To place our results in context, we reviewed the existing literature and performed a meta-analysis of our results together with previous PCR studies of EBV, CMV, and breast cancer. Of the serology samples, 67 of 70 (96%) were EBV IgG positive and 49 of 70 (70%) were CMV IgG positive. QPCR detected EBV in 24 (34%) of the tumour and 9 (13%) of the paired normal specimens and CMV in 0 (0%) of the tumour and 2 (3%) of the paired normal specimens. Our findings, together with earlier results summarised in the meta-analysis, suggest several possibilities: variable findings may be due to limitations of molecular analyses; 'hit and run' oncogenesis may lead to inconsistent results; one or both viruses has a role at a later stage in breast cancer development; infection with multiple viruses increases breast cancer risk; or neither virus has a role. Future studies should focus on ways to investigate these possibilities, and should include comparisons of breast cancer tissue samples with appropriate normal tissue samples.

  11. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann K Richardson

    Full Text Available Findings of polymerase chain reaction (PCR studies of cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and breast cancer vary, making it difficult to determine whether either, both, or neither virus is causally associated with breast cancer. We investigated CMV and EBV in paired samples of breast cancer and normal breast tissue from 70 women using quantitative PCR. A serum sample from each woman was tested for CMV and EBV IgG. To place our results in context, we reviewed the existing literature and performed a meta-analysis of our results together with previous PCR studies of EBV, CMV, and breast cancer. Of the serology samples, 67 of 70 (96% were EBV IgG positive and 49 of 70 (70% were CMV IgG positive. QPCR detected EBV in 24 (34% of the tumour and 9 (13% of the paired normal specimens and CMV in 0 (0% of the tumour and 2 (3% of the paired normal specimens. Our findings, together with earlier results summarised in the meta-analysis, suggest several possibilities: variable findings may be due to limitations of molecular analyses; 'hit and run' oncogenesis may lead to inconsistent results; one or both viruses has a role at a later stage in breast cancer development; infection with multiple viruses increases breast cancer risk; or neither virus has a role. Future studies should focus on ways to investigate these possibilities, and should include comparisons of breast cancer tissue samples with appropriate normal tissue samples.

  12. An in vitro study of liposomal curcumin: stability, toxicity and biological activity in human lymphocytes and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Johnston, Thomas D; Jeon, Hoonbae; Gedaly, Roberto; McHugh, Patrick P; Burke, Thomas G; Ranjan, Dinesh

    2009-01-21

    Curcumin is a multi-functional and pharmacologically safe natural agent. Used as a food additive for centuries, it also has anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anti-tumor properties. We previously found that it is a potent inhibitor of cyclosporin A (CsA)-resistant T-cell co-stimulation pathway. It inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, NFkappaB activation and IL-2 signaling. In spite of its safety and efficacy, the in vivo bioavailability of curcumin is poor, and this may be a major obstacle to its utility as a therapeutic agent. Liposomes are known to be excellent carriers for drug delivery. In this in vitro study, we report the effects of different liposome formulations on curcumin stability in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), human blood, plasma and culture medium RPMI-1640+10% FBS (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). Liposomal curcumin had higher stability than free curcumin in PBS. Liposomal and free curcumin had similar stability in human blood, plasma and RPMI-1640+10% FBS. We looked at the toxicity of non-drug-containing liposomes on (3)H-thymidine incorporation by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated human lymphocytes, splenocytes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). We found that dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) were toxic to the tested cells. However, addition of cholesterol to the lipids at DMPC:DMPG:cholesterol=7:1:8 (molar ratio) almost completely eliminated the lipid toxicity to these cells. Liposomal curcumin had similar or even stronger inhibitory effects on Con A-stimulated human lymphocyte, splenocyte and LCL proliferation. We conclude that liposomal curcumin may be useful for intravenous administration to improve the bioavailability and efficacy, facilitating in vivo studies that could ultimately lead to clinical application of curcumin.

  13. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Complicating Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with acute encephalopathy show prolonged electrographic seizure activity consistent with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. Pediatric NCSE is a heterogeneous clinical entity with poor outcome and different etiologies, including central nervous system infection, stroke, toxic-metabolic syndrome, and epileptic syndrome. We report a 4-year-old girl with seizure and behavioral changes in whom the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction was positive for Epstein-Barr virus. We emphasize the importance of electroencephalography (EEG, and particularly, of continuous EEG monitoring for early recognition and appropriate treatment of this condition.

  14. Parálisis facial bilateral secundaria a infección por virus de Epstein-Barr Bilateral facial palsy due to Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Erro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo es describir dos pacientes jóvenes con parálisis facial periférica bilateral. Ambos presentaron inicialmente afectación en un lado de la cara, seguida pocos días después de afectación contralateral junto con sintomatología compatible con infección aguda por el virus de Epstein-Barr, que se confirmó con la serología. Uno de los pacientes experimentó mejoría completa mientras que en el otro la recuperación fue lenta y quedaron secuelas permanentes. La lesión bilateral del nervio facial es una complicación infrecuente de la infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr cuya evolución no siempre es favorable. Se discute su mecanismo patogénico.Two young patients with bilateral facial palsy are described. They initially presented unilateral facial palsy, followed by contralateral facial nerve involvement a few days later, together with clinical and serologic evidence of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. The outcome was favourable in one patient but severe sequels persisted in the second. These two cases show that this infrequent complication of Epstein-Barr virus infection may not always have a good outcome. The pathogenic mechanism of bilateral facial palsy is discussed.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (pEBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (pEBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD. However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129, and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5, while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1. Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856

  1. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  2. Frequent presence of subtype A virus in Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peh, SC; Kim, LH; Poppema, S

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with many human malignancies. It is implicated in a pathogenetic role in some of these tumours. Two subtypes, type A and B have been identified on the basis of DNA sequence divergence in the nuclear protein genes (EBNA) 2, 3, 4 and 6. They differ in their

  3. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Libert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpes viruses can be reactivated among immunocompetent patients in intensive care unit (ICU. Cytomegalovirus (CMV and herpes simplex virus (HSV have been the most studied. We hypothesized that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV could also be reactivated in immunocompetent patients during their stay in ICU and that this would be associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods: This prospective observational study included 90 patients with an ICU stay of ≥ 5 days. CMV and HSV were considered when clinically suspected and DNA was researched in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. EBV DNA viral quantification was performed in the blood samples. Results: EBV DNA was detected in blood of 61 patients (median length for positivity of 7.5 days. CMV DNA was detected in blood of 16 patients (median length for positivity of 13.5 days and BAL of 6 patients. HSV1 DNA was detected in the BAL of 28 patients (median length for positivity of 7.5 days. Nineteen patients had no viral reactivation, 1 experienced only CMV, 32 had only EBV, 5 had only HSV, 6 had EBV and CMV, 14 had EBV and HSV, and 9 patients reactivated three viruses. Mortality was higher among patients with EBV reactivation (33/61 vs. 7/25, p = 0.02. Length of stay (21 vs. 10 days, p < 0.001 and length of mechanical ventilation (15 vs. 7 days, p < 0.001 were higher among patients with EBV reactivation. Conclusions: This study shows that EBV DNA is detected in blood of diverse ICU patients with ≥ 5 days of stay and that it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Larger dynamic prospective studies are needed to correlate viral reactivation with immune system evolution during ICU stay and to determine the role of polyviral reactivations.

  4. Molecular interactions of Epstein-Barr virus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Li-Kwan; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2011-02-01

    The capsids of herpesviruses, which comprise major and minor capsid proteins, have a common icosahedral structure with 162 capsomers. An electron microscopic study shows that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsids in the nucleus are immunolabeled by anti-BDLF1 and anti-BORF1 antibodies, indicating that BDLF1 and BORF1 are the minor capsid proteins of EBV. Cross-linking and electrophoresis studies of purified BDLF1 and BORF1 revealed that these two proteins form a triplex that is similar to that formed by the minor capsid proteins, VP19C and VP23, of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Although the interaction between VP23, a homolog of BDLF1, and the major capsid protein VP5 could not be verified biochemically in earlier studies, the interaction between BDLF1 and the EBV major capsid protein, viral capsid antigen (VCA), can be confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Additionally, in HSV-1, VP5 interacts with only the middle region of VP19C; in EBV, VCA interacts with both the N-terminal and middle regions of BORF1, a homolog of VP19C, revealing that the proteins in the EBV triplex interact with the major capsid protein differently from those in HSV-1. A GST pulldown study also identifies the oligomerization domains in VCA and the dimerization domain in BDLF1. The results presented herein reveal how the EBV capsid proteins interact and thereby improve our understanding of the capsid structure of the virus.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 interacts with FGD4 to activate Cdc42 and thereby promote migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, a human malignancy notorious for its highly metastatic nature. Among EBV-encoded genes, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is expressed in most NPC tissues and exerts oncogenicity by engaging multiple signaling pathways in a ligand-independent manner. LMP1 expression also results in actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which modulates cell morphology and cell motility- cellular process regulated by RhoGTPases, such as Cdc42. Despite the prominent association of Cdc42 activation with tumorigenesis, the molecular basis of Cdc42 activation by LMP1 in NPC cells remains to be elucidated. Here using GST-CBD (active Cdc42-binding domain as bait in GST pull-down assays to precipitate active Cdc42 from cell lysates, we demonstrated that LMP1 acts through its transmembrane domains to preferentially induce Cdc42 activation in various types of epithelial cells, including NPC cells. Using RNA interference combined with re-introduction experiments, we identified FGD4 (FYVE, RhoGEF and PH domain containing 4 as the GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor responsible for the activation of Cdc42 by LMP1. Serial deletion experiments and co-immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that ectopically expressed FGD4 modulated LMP1-mediated Cdc42 activation by interacting with LMP1. Moreover, LMP1, through its transmembrane domains, directly bound FGD4 and enhanced FGD4 activity toward Cdc42, leading to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased motility of NPC cells. Depletion of FGD4 or Cdc42 significantly reduced (∼50% the LMP1-stimulated cell motility, an effect that was partially reversed by expression of a constitutively active mutant of Cdc42. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that FGD4 and LMP1 were expressed in NPC tissues, supporting the potential physiologically relevance of this mechanism in NPC. Collectively, our results not only

  6. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi mimics a B cell antigen receptor-like activation signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latent membrane protein (LMP 2A of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is expressed during different latency stages of EBV-infected B cells in which it triggers activation of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases. Early studies revealed that an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM in the cytoplasmic N-terminus of LMP2A can trigger a transient increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration similar to that observed in antigen-activated B cells when expressed as a chimeric transmembrane receptor. Even so, LMP2A was subsequently ascribed an inhibitory rather than an activating function because its expression seemed to partially inhibit B cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling in EBV-transformed B cell lines. However, the analysis of LMP2A signaling has been hampered by the lack of cellular model systems in which LMP2A can be studied without the influence of other EBV-encoded factors. Results We have reanalyzed LMP2A signaling using B cells in which LMP2A is expressed in an inducible manner in the absence of any other EBV signaling protein. This allowed us for the first time to monitor LMP2A signaling in statu nascendi as it occurs during the EBV life cycle in vivo. We show that mere expression of LMP2A not only stimulated protein tyrosine kinases but also induced phospholipase C-γ2-mediated Ca2+ oscillations followed by activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induction of the lytic EBV gene bzlf1. Furthermore, expression of the constitutively phosphorylated LMP2A ITAM modulated rather than inhibited BCR-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Conclusion Our data establish that LMP2A expression has a function beyond the putative inhibition of the BCR by generating a ligand-independent cellular activation signal that may provide a molecular switch for different EBV life cycle stages and most probably contributes to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

  7. Epstein-Barr-virus-associeret lymfom hos en patient med colitis ulcerosa i behandling med azathioprin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Albrectsen, Jens Mørch;

    2008-01-01

    A 28 year-old man with ulcerative colitis treated for 10 years with azathioprine (AZA) returned from Central Asia with fever, swollen lymph glands, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. He was tested positive for acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Before the final diagnosis of EBV-associat......A 28 year-old man with ulcerative colitis treated for 10 years with azathioprine (AZA) returned from Central Asia with fever, swollen lymph glands, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. He was tested positive for acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Before the final diagnosis of EBV...

  8. Expression and activation by Epstein Barr virus of human endogenous retroviruses-W in blood cells and astrocytes: inference for multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mameli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proposed co-factors triggering the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS are the Epstein Barr virus (EBV, and the potentially neuropathogenic MSRV (MS-associated retrovirus and syncytin-1, of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In search of links, the expression of HERV-W/MSRV/syncytin-1, with/without exposure to EBV or to EBV glycoprotein350 (EBVgp350, was studied on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy volunteers and MS patients, and on astrocytes, by discriminatory env-specific RT-PCR assays, and by flow cytometry. Basal expression of HERV-W/MSRV/syncytin-1 occurs in astrocytes and in monocytes, NK, and B, but not in T cells. This uneven expression is amplified in untreated MS patients, and dramatically reduced during therapy. In astrocytes, EBVgp350 stimulates the expression of HERV-W/MSRV/syncytin-1, with requirement of the NF-κB pathway. In EBVgp350-treated PBMC, MSRVenv and syncytin-1 transcription is activated in B cells and monocytes, but not in T cells, nor in the highly expressing NK cells. The latter cells, but not the T cells, are activated by proinflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In vitro EBV activates the potentially immunopathogenic and neuropathogenic HERV-W/MSRV/syncytin-1, in cells deriving from blood and brain. In vivo, pathogenic outcomes would depend on abnormal situations, as in late EBV primary infection, that is often symptomatic, or/and in the presence of particular host genetic backgrounds. In the blood, HERV-Wenv activation might induce immunopathogenic phenomena linked to its superantigenic properties. In the brain, toxic mechanisms against oligodendrocytes could be established, inducing inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Local stimulation by proinflammatory cytokines and other factors might activate further HERV-Ws, contributing to the neuropathogenity. In MS pathogenesis, a possible model could include EBV as

  9. Computational analysis of EBNA1 "druggability" suggests novel insights for Epstein-Barr virus inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianti, Eleonora; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M; Zauhar, Randy J

    2016-04-01

    The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a critical protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). During latent infection, EBNA1 is essential for DNA replication and transcription initiation of viral and cellular genes and is necessary to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes. Nonetheless, the concept of EBNA1 as drug target is novel. Two EBNA1 crystal structures are publicly available and the first small-molecule EBNA1 inhibitors were recently discovered. However, no systematic studies have been reported on the structural details of EBNA1 "druggable" binding sites. We conducted computational identification and structural characterization of EBNA1 binding pockets, likely to accommodate ligand molecules (i.e. "druggable" binding sites). Then, we validated our predictions by docking against a set of compounds previously tested in vitro for EBNA1 inhibition (PubChem AID-2381). Finally, we supported assessments of pocket druggability by performing induced fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations paired with binding affinity predictions by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculations for a number of hits belonging to druggable binding sites. Our results establish EBNA1 as a target for drug discovery, and provide the computational evidence that active AID-2381 hits disrupt EBNA1:DNA binding upon interacting at individual sites. Lastly, structural properties of top scoring hits are proposed to support the rational design of the next generation of EBNA1 inhibitors.

  10. Computational analysis of EBNA1 ``druggability'' suggests novel insights for Epstein-Barr virus inhibitor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianti, Eleonora; Messick, Troy E.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Zauhar, Randy J.

    2016-04-01

    The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a critical protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). During latent infection, EBNA1 is essential for DNA replication and transcription initiation of viral and cellular genes and is necessary to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes. Nonetheless, the concept of EBNA1 as drug target is novel. Two EBNA1 crystal structures are publicly available and the first small-molecule EBNA1 inhibitors were recently discovered. However, no systematic studies have been reported on the structural details of EBNA1 "druggable" binding sites. We conducted computational identification and structural characterization of EBNA1 binding pockets, likely to accommodate ligand molecules (i.e. "druggable" binding sites). Then, we validated our predictions by docking against a set of compounds previously tested in vitro for EBNA1 inhibition (PubChem AID-2381). Finally, we supported assessments of pocket druggability by performing induced fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations paired with binding affinity predictions by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculations for a number of hits belonging to druggable binding sites. Our results establish EBNA1 as a target for drug discovery, and provide the computational evidence that active AID-2381 hits disrupt EBNA1:DNA binding upon interacting at individual sites. Lastly, structural properties of top scoring hits are proposed to support the rational design of the next generation of EBNA1 inhibitors.

  11. Increased expression of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 in myasthenia gravis thymus characterized by active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Paola; Galbardi, Barbara; Franzi, Sara; Marcuzzo, Stefania; Barzago, Claudia; Bonanno, Silvia; Camera, Giorgia; Maggi, Lorenzo; Kapetis, Dimos; Andreetta, Francesca; Biasiucci, Amelia; Motta, Teresio; Giardina, Carmelo; Antozzi, Carlo; Baggi, Fulvio; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-04-01

    Considerable data implicate the thymus as the main site of autosensitization to the acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B-cell-mediated autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. We recently demonstrated an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the thymus of MG patients, suggesting that EBV might contribute to the onset or maintenance of the autoimmune response within MG thymus, because of its ability to activate and immortalize autoreactive B cells. EBV has been reported to elicit and modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7- and TLR9-mediated innate immune responses, which are known to favor B-cell dysfunction and autoimmunity. Aim of this study was to investigate whether EBV infection is associated with altered expression of TLR7 and TLR9 in MG thymus. By real-time PCR, we found that TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA levels were significantly higher in EBV-positive MG compared to EBV-negative normal thymuses. By confocal microscopy, high expression levels of TLR7 and TLR9 proteins were observed in B cells and plasma cells of MG thymic germinal centers (GCs) and lymphoid infiltrates, where the two receptors co-localized with EBV antigens. An increased frequency of Ki67-positive proliferating B cells was found in MG thymuses, where we also detected proliferating cells expressing TLR7, TLR9 and EBV antigens, thus supporting the idea that EBV-associated TLR7/9 signaling may promote abnormal B-cell activation and proliferation. Along with B cells and plasma cells, thymic epithelium, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages exhibited enhanced TLR7 and TLR9 expression in MG thymus; TLR7 was also increased in thymic myeloid dendritic cells and its transcriptional levels positively correlated with those of interferon (IFN)-β. We suggested that TLR7/9 signaling may be involved in antiviral type I IFN production and long-term inflammation in EBV-infected MG thymuses. Our overall findings indicate that EBV-driven TLR7- and TLR9-mediated innate immune

  12. A Virus-Like Particle-Based Epstein-Barr Virus Vaccine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous human herpesvirus which can lead to infectious mononucleosis and different cancers. In immunocompromised individuals, this virus is a major cause for morbidity and mortality. Transplant patients who did not encounter EBV prior to immunosuppression frequently develop EBV-associated malignancies, but a prophylactic EBV vaccination might reduce this risk considerably. Virus-like particles (VLPs) mimic the structure of the parental virus but lack the vira...

  13. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hørding, U; Nielsen, H W;

    1994-01-01

    sequences of two viruses with known transforming abilities, human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used. In none of the 19 successfully amplified samples were DNA sequences of HPV type 16 or type 18 detected. In six cases a faint trace...

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus Lymphoproliferative Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prediction and Early Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.J. van Esser (Joost)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of both infectious and malignant human diseases. These viruses are characterized by (B-cell) lymphotropism, their ability to establish latent infection in host cells and to induce proliferation of these latently infected cells.

  15. Unusual Presentation of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome due to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Al Kaabi, Amani; Kara Hamo, Yasmin; Al Kaabi, Aysha; Al Kaabi, Salwa; Al Tatari, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is viral exanthema of childhood. It typically presents with a symmetric erythematous papular and papulovesicular eruption. It has been classically associated with hepatitis B virus, as well as rarely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report a case of GCS related to EBV infection without the classical systemic symptoms in a five-year-old male patient.

  16. Clinicopathologic features of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis%慢性活动性EB病毒性肝炎的临床病理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫静; 曲利娟; 郑雄伟; 陈丽红; 董菁; 李东良; 潘晨; 吕旭江; 郑智勇

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性活动性EB病毒性肝炎(chronic active Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis,CAEBVH)的临床病理特征、诊断、鉴别诊断、治疗方法和预后.方法:报道2例CAEBVH,总结其临床表现、病理特征、诊断及鉴别诊断、治疗及预后,并结合文献进行分析讨论.结果:两例患者为青少年男性,例1主要表现为发热、黄疸、肝脾肿大、肝功能异常,例2首先以血生化检查肝功能异常为特征,后期出现双下肢水肿、尿黄、乏力、脾大,伴中枢神经系统症状.活检肝组织于光镜下观察:两例均出现不同程度的肝细胞大泡性脂肪变性和纤维组织增生,肝小叶内可见点灶状坏死,肝窦内成串淋巴细胞浸润,界板炎和汇管区炎症.电镜观察:慢性肝炎,肝细胞脂肪变性及纤维增生,未见髓鞘样小体、特征性溶酶体、乙肝表面抗原等特征性病变结构.EBER原位杂交均检出细胞核阳性的淋巴细胞.例1病程为2年零4 mo,例2病程为13年零5 mo,最终均死亡.结论:慢性活动性EB病毒感染肝炎的临床表现不具有特异性,易于误诊或漏诊.病理学特点为大泡性脂肪变,肝窦内成串淋巴细胞浸润,肝小叶点灶状坏死,界板炎和汇管区炎症,以及EBER原位杂交均检出细胞核阳性的淋巴细胞.该病预后差,早期诊断是治疗的关键.%AIM:To investigate the clinicopathologic features of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis (CAEBVH) as well as its diagnosis,differential diagnosis,treatment and prognosis.METHODS:We presented the clinical manifestations,histopathological characteristics,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of two cases of CAEBVH.A literature review was also performed to summarize the characteristics of this clinical entity.RESULTS:Of two young male patients,one presented with intermittent fever,jaundice,hepatosplenomegaly and abnormal liver function,the other had abnormal liver biochemical tests and symptoms including edema of lower limbs

  17. Mannose-binding lectin genotypes and susceptibility to epstein-barr virus infection in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Jeppe T; Jarrett, Ruth F; Koch, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In a cohort study of children <4 years of age in Greenland, mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotypes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels were determined. EBV seropositivity was significantly lower and time to seroconversion increased in MBL-insufficient compared with MBL-sufficient childr...

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in sera of patients with primary EBV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by PCR in serum had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 95 and 79%, respectively, for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection. We suggest that this is a useful addition to the panel of tests used for this purpose.

  19. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D;

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase...

  20. Epstein-Barr virus, the germinal centre and the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Ghada; Vrzalikova, Katerina; Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Nagy, Eszter; Flodr, Patrik; Yap, Lee-Fah; Diepstra, Arjan; Kluin, Philip M.; Rosati, Stefano; Murray, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the germinal centre (GC) of the asymptomatic host remains an enigma. The occasional appearance of EBV-positive germinal centres in some patients, particularly those with a history of immunosuppression, suggests that EBV numbers in the GC are subj

  1. Impaired Cytokine Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Sandhu, Noreen; Larsen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cytokine responses against latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs) to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients and to expand the previously determined impaired...

  2. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  3. Features state of hemostasis and immunopathological reactions in epstein-barr virus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hmilevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of clinical laboratory analysis conducted in 64 children with Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis during the acute period and in different time follow-up observations are presents. It is shown that EBV-mononucleosis in children is accompanied by distinct changes of hemostasis, the Genesis of which play some role virusinduced autoimmune mechanisms, developing on the background of hyperactively immune system. The revealed correlation of data breaches with the severity of the infectious process. It was found that the criterion prolongation hemostatic changes are persistent viral activity. Interferon therapy in complex treatment of children, the sick EBV-mononucleosis, contributed to a more rapid regression of a number of clinical symptoms of disease and normalization gemostaziologicheskikh of indicators. Recommended expansion of the research program of follow-up of persons with EBV infection. 

  4. A method for evaluating antiviral drug susceptibility of Epstein-Barr virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Romain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte A Romain1, Henry H Balfour Jr1,2, Heather E Vezina1,3, Carol J Holman11Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: We developed an in vitro Epstein-Barr virus (EBV drug susceptibility assay using P3HR1 cells or lymphoblastoid cells from subjects with infectious mononucleosis, which were grown in the presence of various concentrations of acyclovir (ACV, ganciclovir (GCV or R-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethylbutyl]guanine (H2G and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA. On day 7, total cellular DNA was extracted and EBV DNA was detected using an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. All three drugs had in vitro activity against EBV in both the laboratory standard producer cell line P3HR1 and in subject-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s in P3HR1 cells were: ACV, 3.4 μM; GCV, 2.6 μM; and H2G, 2.7 μM and in 3 subject-derived cells were: ACV, 2.5 μM; GCV, 1.7 μM; and H2G, 1.9 μM. Our assay can be used to screen candidate anti-EBV drugs. Because we can measure the IC50 of patients’ strains of EBV, this assay may also be useful for monitoring viral resistance especially in immunocompomised hosts receiving antiviral drugs for prevention or treatment of EBV diseases.Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus, ganciclovir, acyclovir, valomaciclovir, H2G, antivirals

  5. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus status-defined subgroups.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Urayama, Kevin Y

    2012-02-08

    Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification.

  6. Functional expression and characterization of the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase catalytic subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A recombinant baculovirus containing the complete sequence for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, BALF5 gene product, under the control of the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed. Insect cells infected with the recombinant virus produced a protein of 110 kDa, recognized by anti-BALF5 protein-specific polyclonal antibody. The expressed EBV DNA polymerase catalytic polypeptide was purified from the cytosolic fraction of the recombinant virus-infected inse...

  7. Cell transformation mediated by the Epstein-Barr virus G protein-coupled receptor BILF1 is dependent on constitutive signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Nørregaard, K.; Kristensen, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame BILF1 encodes a seven trans-membrane (TM) G protein-coupled receptor that signals with high constitutive activity through G alpha(i) (Beisser et al., 2005; Paulsen et al., 2005). In this paper, the transforming potential of BILF1 is investigated in vitro...

  8. Chronic Epstein-Barr virus-related hepatitis in immunocompetent patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela Petrova; Maria Muhtarova; Maria Nikolova; Svetoslav Magaev; Hristo Taskov; Diana Nikolovska; Zahariy Krastev

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate reactivated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infection as a cause for chronic hepatitis.METHODS: Patients with occasionally established elevated serum aminotransferases were studied. HIV,HBV and HCV-infections were excluded as well as any other immunosuppressive factors, metabolic or toxic disorders.EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM, EA-R and EA-D IgG and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) were measured using IFA kits. Immunophenotyping of whole blood was performed by multicolor flow cytometry.CD8+ T cell responses to EBV and PHA were determined according to the intracellular expression of IFN-γ.RESULTS: The mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) values exceeded twice the upper normal limit, AST/ALT ratio <1. Serology tests showed reactivated EBV infection in all patients. Absolute number and percentages of T, B and NK cells were within the reference ranges. Fine subset analysis, in comparison to EBV+ healthy carriers, revealed a significant decrease of naive T cells (P < 0.001),accompanied by increased percentage of CD45RA- (P< 0.0001), and terminally differentiated CD28-CD27-CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01). Moderately elevated numbers of CD38 molecules on CD8+ T cells (P < 0.05) proposed a low viral burden. A significantly increased percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing IFN-γ in response to EBV and PHA stimulation was registered in patients, as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Liver biopsy specimens from 5 patients revealed nonspecific features of low-grade hepatitis.CONCLUSION: Chronic hepatitis might be a manifestation of chronic EBV infection in the lack of detectable immune deficiency; the expansion of CD28-CD27 and increase of functional EBV-specific CD8+ T cells being the only surrogate markers of viral activity.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus in oral mucosa from human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the detection rate of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In an attempt to contribute to our epidemiological understanding of this coinfection and to investigate the activity of EBV in normal oral mucosa, we performed a cross-sectional study with HIV-positive patients. Methods: oral smears from 145 HIV-positive patients were collected between March 2010 and March 2011. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR were used to genotype EBV and to detect EBNA-2 expression, respectively. Results: EBV DNA was detected in 48.3% of the study participants, of whom 32.85% were EBV-1 and 45.71% were EBV-2 carriers. Additionally, 14.28% were coinfected with both types. EBNA-2 mRNA was expressed in 45.7% of the EBV -positive samples, including 20.0% with EBV-1 only, 20.0% with EBV-2 only and 1.4% with both genotypes. Immune status affected the overall EBV infection, and EBV-2 positivity was significantly correlated with sexual lifestyle of the participants. EBV co-infection with both viral types was dependent upon HIV viral load and the activity of the EBNA-2 gene. Conclusion: we report a high prevalence of active EBV in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. This study addresses the need for monitoring and treatment of HIV-infected patients with EBV reactivation.

  10. EBNA3C-mediated regulation of aurora kinase B contributes to Epstein-Barr virus-induced B-cell proliferation through modulation of the activities of the retinoblastoma protein and apoptotic caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem Chandra; Lu, Jie; Saha, Abhik; Cai, Qiliang; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Prasad, Mahadesh A J; Robertson, Erle S

    2013-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that is implicated in several human malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and AIDS-associated lymphomas. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C), one of the essential EBV latent antigens, can induce mammalian cell cycle progression through its interaction with cell cycle regulators. Aurora kinase B (AK-B) is important for cell division, and deregulation of AK-B is associated with aneuploidy, incomplete mitotic exit, and cell death. Our present study shows that EBNA3C contributes to upregulation of AK-B transcript levels by enhancing the activity of its promoter. Further, EBNA3C also increased the stability of the AK-B protein, and the presence of EBNA3C leads to reduced ubiquitination of AK-B. Importantly, EBNA3C in association with wild-type AK-B but not with its kinase-dead mutant led to enhanced cell proliferation, and AK-B knockdown can induce nuclear blebbing and cell death. This phenomenon was rescued in the presence of EBNA3C. Knockdown of AK-B resulted in activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, along with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) cleavage, which is known to be an important contributor to apoptotic signaling. Importantly, EBNA3C failed to stabilize the kinase-dead mutant of AK-B compared to wild-type AK-B, which suggests a role for the kinase domain in AK-B stabilization and downstream phosphorylation of the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma protein (Rb). This study demonstrates the functional relevance of AK-B kinase activity in EBNA3C-regulated B-cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome due to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Saif Al Dhaheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS is viral exanthema of childhood. It typically presents with a symmetric erythematous papular and papulovesicular eruption. It has been classically associated with hepatitis B virus, as well as rarely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. We report a case of GCS related to EBV infection without the classical systemic symptoms in a five-year-old male patient.

  12. Unusual Presentation of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome due to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Al Kaabi, Amani; Kara Hamo, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is viral exanthema of childhood. It typically presents with a symmetric erythematous papular and papulovesicular eruption. It has been classically associated with hepatitis B virus, as well as rarely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report a case of GCS related to EBV infection without the classical systemic symptoms in a five-year-old male patient. PMID:28050291

  13. Distinctive effects of the Epstein-Barr virus family of repeats on viral latent gene promoter activity and B-lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed K M; Saito, Satoru; Shibata, Sachiko; Takada, Kenzo; Kanda, Teru

    2009-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human B-lymphotropic gamma herpesvirus, contains multiple repetitive sequences within its genome. A group of repetitive sequences, known as the family of repeats (FR), contains multiple binding sites for the viral trans-acting protein EBNA-1. The FR sequences are important for viral genome maintenance and for the regulation of the promoter involved in viral latent gene expression. It has been reported that a palindromic sequence with a putative secondary structure exists at the 3' end of the FR in the genome of the EBV B95-8 strain and that this palindromic sequence has been deleted from the FR of the commonly used EBV miniplasmids. For the first time, we cloned an EBV B95-8 DNA fragment containing the full-length FR, which enabled us to examine the functional difference between full-length and deleted FRs. The full-length FR, like the deleted FR, functioned as a transcriptional enhancer of the viral latent gene promoter, but that transactivation was significantly attenuated in the case of the full-length FR. No significant enhancement of replication was observed when the deleted FR was replaced with the full-length FR in an EBV miniplasmid. By contrast, when the same set of FR sequences were tested in the context of the complete EBV genome, the full-length FR resulted in more-efficient B-cell transformation than the deleted FR. We propose that the presence of the full-length FR contributes to the precise regulation of the viral latent promoter and increases the efficiency of B-cell transformation.

  14. Enhanced expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J P; Hampson, I N; Heinrich, H W; Mackett, M; Arrand, J R

    1989-05-01

    The complete coding sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus strain B95-8 latent membrane protein (LMP) was cloned using a Raji cell cDNA library and genomic B95-8 DNA. The clone was characterized by sequencing and then used to make a recombinant vaccinia virus. This virus (VLMP) was shown to express a relatively high level of LMP in an authentic fashion. Antisera raised in rabbits against VLMP were shown to react with B95-8 LMP as well as cross-reacting with a 50K cellular protein.

  15. Sequence variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BCRF1 in lymphomas in non-endemic areas of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Sun, Lingling; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Chao, Yan; Sun, Zhifu; Li, Hui; Luo, Bing

    2015-02-01

    To characterize the sequence variation and the potential implication of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogene in lymphoma, BamHI-C fragment rightward reading frame 1 (BCRF1) was sequenced in different types of EBV-positive lymphoma in northern China, and polymorphisms were compared with previous variation data from other malignancies. The dominate subtype of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma was the B95-8 prototype, and a mutation in the signal peptide was more strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The high conservation of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma suggests its important role in maintaining the basic biological activity and immunosuppressive functions of the virus.

  16. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Epigenome Using High-Throughput Data

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent in...

  17. Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Five peptides corresponding to amino acid sequences predicted from all three reading frames of the nucleotide sequence of the third internal repeat array (IR3) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome were synthesized chemically. All five peptides elicited antipeptide antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum raised against a 14-residue copolymer of glycine and alanine gave brilliant EBV-specific nuclear staining in the anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) assay, in line with the original defini...

  18. Epstein Barr virus and lymphoma%EB病毒与淋巴瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱斌; 张文君

    2011-01-01

    @@ EB病毒(Epstein-Barr virus,EBV)是一种嗜人类淋巴细胞的疱疹病毒,感染了世界上90%以上的人群.人体初次感染EBV后将成为病毒的终生携带者.在正常人体内,感染EBV的B细胞能被自然杀伤(NK)细胞和细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs)控制[1].

  19. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few re...

  20. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and association with Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤建国; 李旋; 陈萍

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the association between MMP9 and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Methods: The MMP9 expression was studied by immunohistochemical analysis; and Epstein-Barr virus encoded small nuclear mRNA-1 (EBER-1) produced by in situ hybridization were examined in 41 nasopharyngeal carcinoma sections, and the relation between them, and the associations of MMP9 with clinical features were statistically analyzed. Results: Positive expression rate of MMP9 was 73.17%. The expression of MMP9 showed significant positive correlation with the expression of EBER- 1 (γ=0.483, P=0.001). There was significant association of MMP9 expression with lymph nodes metastasis and clinical stage (P<0.001), non-significant association with age, gender, pathological classification and T classification. Conclusions: The highly pronounced expression of MMP9 is associated with cervical lymph nodes metastasis. Epstein-Barr virus can enhance NPC metastasis by up-regulating the expression of MMP9.

  1. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and association with Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤建国; 李旋; 陈萍

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the association between MMP9 and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Methods: The MMP9 expression was studied by immunohistochemical analysis; and Epstein-Barr virus encoded small nuclear mRNA-1 (EBER-1) produced by in situ hybridization were examined in 41 nasopharyngeal carcinoma sections, and the relation between them, and the associations of MMP9 with clinical features were statistically analyzed. Results: Positive expression rate of MMP9 was 73.17%. The expression of MMP9 showed significant positive correlation with the expression of EBER-1(γ=0.483, P=0.001 ). There was significant association of MMP9 expression with lymph nodes metastasis and clinical stage (P<0.001), non-significant association with age, gender, pathological classification and T classification. Conclusions: The highly pronounced expression of MMP9 is associated with cervical lymph nodes metastasis. Epstein-Barr virus can enhance NPC metastasis by up-regulating the expression of MMP9.

  2. Early events associated with infection of Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Halder

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV is closely associated with the development of a vast number of human cancers. To develop a system for monitoring early cellular and viral events associated with EBV infection a self-recombining BAC containing 172-kb of the Epstein Barr virus genome BAC-EBV designated as MD1 BAC (Chen et al., 2005, J.Virology was used to introduce an expression cassette of green fluorescent protein (GFP by homologous recombination, and the resultant BAC clone, BAC-GFP-EBV was transfected into the HEK 293T epithelial cell line. The resulting recombinant GFP EBV was induced to produce progeny virus by chemical inducer from the stable HEK 293T BAC GFP EBV cell line and the virus was used to immortalize human primary B-cell as monitored by green fluorescence and outgrowth of the primary B cells. The infection, B-cell activation and cell proliferation due to GFP EBV was monitored by the expression of the B-cell surface antigens CD5, CD10, CD19, CD23, CD39, CD40 , CD44 and the intercellular proliferation marker Ki-67 using Flow cytometry. The results show a dramatic increase in Ki-67 which continues to increase by 6-7 days post-infection. Likewise, CD40 signals showed a gradual increase, whereas CD23 signals were increased by 6-12 hours, maximally by 3 days and then decreased. Monitoring the viral gene expression pattern showed an early burst of lytic gene expression. This up-regulation of lytic gene expression prior to latent genes during early infection strongly suggests that EBV infects primary B-cell with an initial burst of lytic gene expression and the resulting progeny virus is competent for infecting new primary B-cells. This process may be critical for establishment of latency prior to cellular transformation. The newly infected primary B-cells can be further analyzed for investigating B cell activation due to EBV infection.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus induces MCP-1 secretion by human monocytes via TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Eric; Fiola, Stéphanie; Olivier, Martin; Gosselin, Jean

    2007-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus infecting the majority of the human adult population in the world. TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, has been implicated in the immune responses to different viruses including members of the herpesvirus family, such as human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and varicella-zoster virus. In this report, we demonstrate that infectious and UV-inactivated EBV virions lead to the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR2 using HEK293 cells cotransfected with TLR2-expressing vector along with NF-kappaB-Luc reporter plasmid. NF-kappaB activation in HEK293-TLR2 cells (HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2) by EBV was not enhanced by the presence of CD14. The effect of EBV was abrogated by pretreating HEK293-TLR2 cells with blocking anti-TLR2 antibodies or by preincubating viral particles with neutralizing anti-EBV antibodies 72A1. In addition, EBV infection of primary human monocytes induced the release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and the use of small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 significantly reduced such a chemokine response to EBV. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR2 may be an important pattern recognition receptor in the immune response directed against EBV infection.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabit Alipov; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Chun-Yang Wen; Daisuke Niino; Hisayoshi Kondo; Yuri Pruglo; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of Epstein-Barr virusassociated gastric cancer (EBV-GC) in Kazakhstan and to compare it with that in Russia, Western and Asian countries in order to evaluate the significance of epidemiopathoiogic and ethnic factors.METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH) of EBV-encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1) was used to identify the presence of EBER-1 signal in 139 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded GC tissues from Kazakhstan.RESULTS: EBER-1 expression was observed in the nuclei of 10% of the cases of GC (14/139), but not in the surrounding normal mucosa. The incidence of the diffuse type of EBV-GC was significantly higher in Kazakhstan (14%, 13/91) than that of the intestinal type (2%, 1/48).Furthermore, the incidence was significantly higher in males (14%, 12/89) than in females (3.7%, 2/53) from all countries. The overall incidence of EBV-GC increased from 6.7% in Asian countries to 8.7% in Russia, 10.1% in Kazakhstan and 16% in Western countries.CONCLUSION: Geographical differences in the incidence of EBV-GC may reflect the epidemiologic factors and/or dietary habits independent of histological type and sex.

  5. Global Mapping of O-Glycosylation of Varicella Zoster Virus, Human Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J;

    2016-01-01

    of the herpesvirus family: varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. We identified a large number of O-glycosites distributed on most envelope proteins in all viruses and further demonstrated conserved patterns of O-glycans on distinct homologous proteins. Because glycosylation is highly...

  6. Role of Viral miRNAs and Epigenetic Modifications in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Giudice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short (21–23 nucleotides, noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs.

  7. Spironolactone blocks Epstein-Barr virus production by inhibiting EBV SM protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2016-03-29

    Clinically available drugs active against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other human herpesviruses are limited to those targeting viral DNA replication. To identify compounds directed against other steps in the viral life cycle, we searched for drugs active against the EBV SM protein, which is essential for infectious virus production. SM has a highly gene-specific mode of action and preferentially enhances expression of several late lytic cycle EBV genes. Here we demonstrate that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist approved for clinical use, inhibits SM function and infectious EBV production. Expression of EBV viral capsid antigen is highly SM dependent, and spironolactone inhibits viral capsid antigen synthesis and capsid formation, blocking EBV virion production at a step subsequent to viral DNA replication. In addition, spironolactone inhibits expression of other SM-dependent genes necessary for infectious virion formation. We further demonstrate that molecules structurally related to spironolactone with similar antimineralocorticoid blocking activity do not inhibit EBV production. These findings pave the way for development of antiherpesvirus drugs with new mechanisms of action directed against SM and homologous essential proteins in other herpesviruses.

  8. [Molecular biological properties of the Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 gene: structure, function and polymorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, K V; Diduk, S V; Senyuta, N B; Gurtsevitch, V E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by the same name gene of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an extremely important role in the pathogenesis of a number of malignant neoplasia. Specifically, LMP1 has the ability to transform human B-lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro and rodent fibroblasts (Rat-1) in vitro. The introduction of the latter into athymic mice leads to tumor development. In addition, expression of the oncoprotein has been often found in EBV-associated tumors at the DNA and constantly at the RNA levels. Having pleiotropic effects, LMP1, participates in the transmission and activation of multiple intracellular signals. It is also involved in the inhibition of key tumor suppressors, has significant influence on proliferation, apoptosis and morphological alteration of the infected cells finally resulting in their transformation. General characteristics of EBV and LMP1 gene as well as functional activity of the encoded LMP1 protein and a brief description of human pathologies associated with the virus have been discussed in this review. The questions concerning the polymorphism LMP1 in EBV-associated pathologies have been also analyzed in details.

  9. Susceptibility in vitro of Epstein-Barr Virus to myristoylated-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourth, Donald D

    2010-07-01

    The anti-Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) myristoylated-peptide (M.W. 916.2Da) is a natural product isolated from Heliothis virescens insect larval hemolymph (blood) that essentially has no cytotoxicity against human foreskin fibroblast cells. A (3 methyl only) version (M.W. 902.2 Da) of the structure was synthesized and tested for in vitro anti-EBV activity and cytotoxicity. The N-terminal end is lipophilic and used to get the compound across the cell membrane. The C-terminal end with its ring-shaped structures is likely used to inhibit DNA synthesis. The synthetic compound inhibited DNA synthesis/replication of EBV in Akata cells (B-lymphocyte from Burkitt's lymphoma patient) in in vitro tissue culture. A DNA hybridization assay for anti-EBV activity using the Akata B-cell and two cytotoxicity assays using human foreskin fibroblast cells were done with the synthetic peptide. Effective concentration (EC90) at 20 microM inhibited viral replication by 90%. The EBV, known as Human Herpesvirus-4 (HHV-4) of the Herpesviridae family, has been described as a cancer-promoting double-stranded DNA virus that may also be involved in autoimmune disease. There are no antiviral drugs in clinical use for diseases caused by the EBV.

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Luo, Man-Li; Desmedt, Christine; Nabavi, Sheida; Yadegarynia, Sina; Hong, Alex; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Gabrielson, Edward; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Pihan, German; Yuan, Xin; Sotirious, Christos; Dittmer, Dirk P; Fingeroth, Joyce D; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-07-01

    Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  11. Recovery of Epstein--Barr virus from nonproducer neonatal human lymphoid cell transformants. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.; Miller, G.

    1979-06-01

    Lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were established by infection of two batches of human umbilical cord lymphocytes with low multiplicities of the B95-8 strain of Epstein--Barr virus. Three of the 17 lines released minute mounts of transforming virus. The rest did not, nor did they make capsid antigen. However virus could be regularly recovered by lethal x-irradiation of transformed cells followed by cocultivation with primary human umbilical cord leukocytes. By this technique transforming activity could be identified in 15 of the 17 lines. These data indicate that these nonproducer human neonatal cell transformants established by EBV infection in vitro possess sufficient genetic information to code for production of biologically active mature virions. X rays alone failed to cause a detectable increase in the number of cells with capsid antigen or to enhance extracellular virus production. EBV-positive human serum blocked rescue if it was added during the first 2 to 4 hr after cocultivation, but not thereafter. Transforming virus could be recovered from x-rayed cells which were immediately thereafter lysed by freezing and thawing. These results suggest that recovery of virus following x-ray and cocultivation is not due to activation of the intracellular virus genome. Rather, it is likely that the method detects small numbers of virions which are cell associated. While transforming virus could regularly be rescued from lymphoblastoid cell lines resulting from in vitro transformation, attempts to rescue virus from Raji or EBV-converted BJAB cells were unsuccessful. This discrepancy suggests differences in genome complexity or in genome-cell interactions in different types of EBV-transformed cells.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded RNAs: Key Molecules in Viral Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Iwakiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is known as an oncogenic herpesvirus that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies. EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs are non-coding RNAs expressed abundantly in latently EBV-infected cells. Herein, I summarize the current understanding of the functions of EBERs, including the interactions with cellular factors through which EBERs contribute to EBV-mediated pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBERs are responsible for malignant phenotypes in lymphoid cells, and can induce several cytokines that can promote the growth of various EBV-infected cancer cells. EBERs were also found to bind retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and thus activate its downstream signaling. Furthermore, EBERs induce interleukin-10, an autocrine growth factor for Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, by activating RIG-I/interferon regulatory factor 3 pathway, suggesting that EBER-mediated innate immune signaling modulation contributes to EBV-mediated oncogenesis. Recently, EBV-infected cells were reported to secret EBERs, which were then recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3, leading to the induction of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines, and subsequent immune activation. Furthermore, EBER1 was detected in the sera of patients with active EBV-infectious diseases, suggesting that EBER1-meidated TLR3 signaling activation could account for the pathogenesis of active EBV-infectious diseases.

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded RNAs: Key Molecules in Viral Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, Dai [Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7 Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan)

    2014-08-06

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known as an oncogenic herpesvirus that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies. EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are non-coding RNAs expressed abundantly in latently EBV-infected cells. Herein, I summarize the current understanding of the functions of EBERs, including the interactions with cellular factors through which EBERs contribute to EBV-mediated pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBERs are responsible for malignant phenotypes in lymphoid cells, and can induce several cytokines that can promote the growth of various EBV-infected cancer cells. EBERs were also found to bind retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and thus activate its downstream signaling. Furthermore, EBERs induce interleukin-10, an autocrine growth factor for Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, by activating RIG-I/interferon regulatory factor 3 pathway, suggesting that EBER-mediated innate immune signaling modulation contributes to EBV-mediated oncogenesis. Recently, EBV-infected cells were reported to secret EBERs, which were then recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), leading to the induction of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines, and subsequent immune activation. Furthermore, EBER1 was detected in the sera of patients with active EBV-infectious diseases, suggesting that EBER1-meidated TLR3 signaling activation could account for the pathogenesis of active EBV-infectious diseases.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from toll-like receptor 3

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induc...

  15. Pleiotropic expression of Epstein--Barr virus DNA in human epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    We have attempted to establish a system that can be used to study the association of Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) with epithelial cells. Attempts were made to transfect human carcinoma cells with EBV DNA. Successful transfection was confirmed by the expression of EBV-specific early antigen (EA), virus capsid antigen, and the presence of virus DNA. The transfecting preparation contained a mixture of EBV and cellular DNA extracted from two producer cell lines, P3HR-1 and AG-876. Our data suggest t...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Load by Using a Real-Time PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    To measure the virus load in patients with symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, we used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the amount of EBV DNA in blood. The real-time PCR assay could detect from 2 to over 107 copies of EBV DNA with a wide linear range. We estimated the virus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with symptomatic EBV infections. The mean EBV-DNA copy number in the PBMNC was 103.7 copies/μg of DNA in patients with EBV-related lymphoprolif...

  17. Epstein-Barr virus:Silent companion or causative agent of chronic liver disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela; Petrova; Victor; Kamburov

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)has an important and multifaceted role in liver pathology.As a member of the herpes virus family,EBV establishes a persistent infection in more than 90%of adults.Besides acute hepatitis during primary infection,many clinical syndromes of interest for the hepatologist are associated with EBV infection.The role of EBV in the evolution of chronic hepatitis from hepatotropic viruses is considered.Chronic EBVassociated hepatitis is suspected in immunocompetent adults with compatible se...

  18. Characteristic MR features of encephalitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Jiro [Division of Paediatrics, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan)]|[Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Univ. (Japan); Shimizu, Kazuo [Division of Paediatrics, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Koushi [Division of Radiology, Kaizuka Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Mano, Toshiyuki; Okada, Shintaro [Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Univ. (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    An 8-year-old girl showed symptoms of encephalitis during acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The diagnosis of EB virus infection was made by changes in the titres of EB virus-specific antibody. Cranial MRI demonstrated abnormal low and high signal intensities in the striatal body (putamen and caudate nucleus) on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, respectively, during the acute phase. These abnormal findings had almost completely resolved 1 month later. EBV infection should be considered when lesions are localised to the basal ganglia. (orig.) With 1 fig., 5 refs.

  19. Plasticity of DNA replication initiation in Epstein-Barr virus episomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Norio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, the activity of the sites of initiation of DNA replication appears to be influenced epigenetically, but this regulation is not fully understood. Most studies of DNA replication have focused on the activity of individual initiation sites, making it difficult to evaluate the impact of changes in initiation activity on the replication of entire genomic loci. Here, we used single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD to study the latent duplication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV episomes in human cell lines. We found that initiation sites are present throughout the EBV genome and that their utilization is not conserved in different EBV strains. In addition, SMARD shows that modifications in the utilization of multiple initiation sites occur across large genomic regions (tens of kilobases in size. These observations indicate that individual initiation sites play a limited role in determining the replication dynamics of the EBV genome. Long-range mechanisms and the genomic context appear to play much more important roles, affecting the frequency of utilization and the order of activation of multiple initiation sites. Finally, these results confirm that initiation sites are extremely redundant elements of the EBV genome. We propose that these conclusions also apply to mammalian chromosomes.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C stabilizes Gemin3 to block p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C, one of the essential latent antigens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-induced immortalization of primary human B lymphocytes in vitro, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis via interaction with several cellular and viral factors. Gemin3 (also named DDX20 or DP103 is a member of DEAD RNA helicase family which exhibits diverse cellular functions including DNA transcription, recombination and repair, and RNA metabolism. Gemin3 was initially identified as a binding partner to EBNA2 and EBNA3C. However, the mechanism by which EBNA3C regulates Gemin3 function remains unclear. Here, we report that EBNA3C directly interacts with Gemin3 through its C-terminal domains. This interaction results in increased stability of Gemin3 and its accumulation in both B lymphoma cells and EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Moreover, EBNA3C promotes formation of a complex with p53 and Gemin3 which blocks the DNA-binding affinity of p53. Small hairpin RNA based knockdown of Gemin3 in B lymphoma or LCL cells remarkably attenuates the ability of EBNA3C to inhibit the transcription activity of p53 on its downstream genes p21 and Bax, as well as apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that Gemin3 may be a common target of oncogenic viruses for driving cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities.

  1. Inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by moronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Hsieh, Yi-Chung; Chang, Yung-Fu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses two transcription factors, Rta and Zta, during the immediate-early stage of the lytic cycle to activate the transcription of viral lytic genes. Our immunoblotting and flow cytometry analyses find that moronic acid, found in galls of Rhus chinensis and Brazilian propolis, at 10microM inhibits the expression of Rta, Zta, and an EBV early protein, EA-D, after lytic induction with sodium butyrate. This study also finds that moronic acids inhibits the capacity of Rta to activate a promoter that contains an Rta-response element, indicating that moronic acid interferes with the function of Rta. On the other hand, moronic acid does not appear to influence with the transactivation function of Zta. Therefore, the lack of expression of Zta and EA-D after moronic acid treatment is attributable to the inhibition of the transactivation functions of Rta. Because the expression of Zta, EA-D and many EBV lytic genes depends on Rta, the treatment of P3HR1 cells with moronic acid substantially reduces the numbers of EBV particles produced by the cells after lytic induction. This study suggests that moronic acid is a new structural lead for anti-EBV drug development.

  2. B-lymphocyte subpopulations are equally susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection, irrespective of immunoglobulin isotype expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlin-Henriksson, Barbro; Gordon, John; Klein, George

    2003-04-01

    While Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to establish latency in the memory B-cell compartment, there is controversy as to whether the memory or the naïve B cell is the initial target for infection. Here we have explored the infectability of the B-cell subsets contained in peripheral blood and tonsils, as distinguished by their surface expression of the immunoglobulin isotypes that help to define naïve and memory pools. First we show that both CD21 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules--respectively, the major receptor and co-receptor for EBV on B cells--are expressed at similar levels on blood and tonsillar B cells, irrespective of surface immunoglobulin class, indicating that each of the subsets demonstrate an equal potential, at least for infection. Then, following in vitro infection of total tonsillar B cells, we found that the relative frequencies of immunoglobulin (Ig)M-, IgG- and IgA-positive cells containing EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 5 (EBNA5) protein at 48 hr were similar to those of the starting population. However, IgD expression was uniformly decreased, probably as a consequence of cellular activation. These data indicate that recirculating B cells have both the potential for, and susceptibility to, initial infection by EBV, irrespective of the immunoglobulin isotype expressed.

  3. In vivo effects of the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER-1 on protein synthesis and cell growth regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kenneth G; Elia, Androulla; Jeffrey, Ian; Matys, Volker; Tilleray, Vivienne J; Souberbielle, Bernard; Clemens, Michael J

    2002-06-05

    Recent studies have suggested a role for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA EBER-1 in malignant transformation. EBER-1 inhibits the activity of the protein kinase PKR, an inhibitor of protein synthesis with tumour suppressor properties. In human 293 cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts, transient expression of EBER-1 promoted total protein synthesis and enhanced the expression of cotransfected reporter genes. However reporter gene expression was stimulated equally well in cells from control and PKR knockout mice. NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing EBER-1 exhibited a greatly increased frequency of colony formation in soft agar, and protein synthesis in these cells was relatively resistant to inhibition by the calcium ionophore A23187. Nevertheless clones containing a high concentration of EBER-1 were not invariably tumourigenic. We conclude that EBER-1 can enhance protein synthesis by a PKR-independent mechanism and that, although this RNA may contribute to the oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus, its expression is not always sufficient for malignant transformation.

  4. Parálisis facial bilateral secundaria a infección por virus de Epstein-Barr Bilateral facial palsy due to Epstein-Barr virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Erro; J. Urriza; L. Gila; E. Orbara; Gurtubay, I. G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuestro objetivo es describir dos pacientes jóvenes con parálisis facial periférica bilateral. Ambos presentaron inicialmente afectación en un lado de la cara, seguida pocos días después de afectación contralateral junto con sintomatología compatible con infección aguda por el virus de Epstein-Barr, que se confirmó con la serología. Uno de los pacientes experimentó mejoría completa mientras que en el otro la recuperación fue lenta y quedaron secuelas permanentes. La lesión bilateral del nervi...

  5. A spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by host immune responses against Epstein-Barr virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwatsuki K

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4, infects the vast majority of adults worldwide, and establishes both nonproductive (latent and productive (lytic infections. Host immune responses directed against both the lytic and latent cycle-associated EBV antigens induce a diversity of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic active EBV infections who usually contain an oligoclonal pool of EBV-infected lymphocyte subsets in their blood. Episomal EBV genes in the latent infection utilize an array of evasion strategies from host immune responses: the minimized expression of EBV antigens targeted by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, the down-regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression, and the release of virokines to inhibit the host CTLs. The oncogenic role of latent EBV infection is not yet fully understood, but latent membrane proteins (LMPs expressed during the latency cycle have essential biological properties leading to cellular gene expression and immortalization, and EBV-encoded gene products such as viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10 and bcl-2 homologue function to survive the EBV-infected cells. The subsequent oncogenic DNA damage may lead to the development of neoplasms. EBV-associated NK/T cell lymphoproliferative disorders are prevalent in Asia, but quite rare in Western countries. The genetic immunological background, therefore, is closely linked to the development of EBV-associated neoplasms.

  6. THE INTRACELLULAR FORM OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS GENOME IN NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huimin; Chen Jun; Zeng Musheng; Li Manzhi; Jian Shaowen; Pan Wentong; Zhang Ling; Wu Yintang

    1998-01-01

    Object: To study the existent form of EBV genome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies, in a transplanted NPC tumor SUNT-1 and its corresponding epithelial cell line SUNE-1. Methods: By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI W fragment, EBV DNA was detected in 20/20 biopsy specimens of poorlydifferentiated, as well as in a nude mouse xenografted NPC tumor (SUNT-1, from passage 1 to 34) and in the corresponding epithelial cell line (SUNE-1, from passage 1 to 62). The intracellular form of EBV genome was studied by analyzing the terminal structure using a LMP2A probe and an "in situ lysing gel" technique.Results: A single EBV fused terminal DNA fragment was detected in 19 biopsy specimens, two hybridized bands were seen in one specimen. These results indicate that an episomal form of EBV genome is predominantly present in most NPC biopsy specimens, but insertion of the genome into the host chromosome could not be excluded. Conclusion: The finding suggests that EBV infection precedes clonal amplification of transformed cells, or in a rare case, that a single EBV infected clone is predominant in the development of NPC. Linear form of EBV DNA was detected in the 20th passage of SUNE-1;this may imply the in vitro activation of the productive cycle of EBV.

  7. Epigenetic control of Epstein Barr Virus transcription – relevance to viral life cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Sinclair

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA-methylation normally leads to silencing of gene expression but Epstein-Barr virus (EBV provides an exception to the epigenetic paradigm. DNA-methylation is absolutely required for the expression of many viral genes. Although the viral genome is initially unmethylated in newly infected cells, it becomes extensively methylated during the establishment of viral latency. One of the major regulators of EBV gene expression is a viral transcription factor called Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, Z that resembles the cellular AP1 transcription factor. Zta recognizes at least 32 variants of a 7-nucleotide DNA sequence element, the Zta-response element (ZRE, some of which contain a CpG motif. Zta only binds to the latter class of ZREs in their DNA-methylated form, whether they occur in viral or cellular promoters and is functionally relevant for the activity of these promoters. The ability of Zta to interpret the differential DNA-methylation of the viral genome is paramount for both the establishment of viral latency and the release from latency to intiate viral replication.

  8. Atypical prediagnosis Epstein-Barr virus serology restricted to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lynn I; Chang, Ellen T; Ambinder, Richard F; Lennette, Evelyne T; Rubertone, Mark V; Mann, Risa B; Borowitz, Michael; Weir, Edward G; Abbondanzo, Susan L; Mueller, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    An altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologic profile preceding diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. It is unknown whether this atypical pattern predicts Hodgkin lymphoma risk further subdivided by determination of EBV in tumor cells. A nested case-control study of 128 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 368 matched controls from active-duty military personnel with archived serum in the US Department of Defense Serum Repository was conducted to determine whether a panel of anti-EBV antibody titers differed in EBV(+) and EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 40 EBV(+) Hodgkin lymphoma cases and matched controls, statistically significant increased risks were associated with elevated anti-EBV VCA IgG antibody titers (relative risk = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.7), and an anti-EBNA-1/anti-EBNA-2 antibody ratio ≤ 1.0 versus > 1.0 (relative risk = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8). In contrast, no significant associations were found among 88 EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma cases relative to their matched controls. In case-case analysis, EBV(+) disease was significantly associated with a low anti-EBNA-1/anti-EBNA-2 antibody ratio. This distinctive serologic response to EBV latent antigens, indicative of immune dysfunction in other clinical settings, is associated with an increased risk of developing EBV(+) but not EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the cooperative effect between inducers of Epstein-Barr virus antigen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G

    1983-06-01

    Induction of Epstein-Barr virus antigens in Raji cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR), n-butyric acid (n-BA) antibody to IgM (anti-IgM) and a recently described serum factor was studied after single applications of individual inducers or of their combinations. Whereas individual inducers led to activation only in a limited number of cells, certain combinations of inducers greatly enlarged the reactive cell population. In synergistically acting combinations of drugs, the dose necessary for half-maximal induction of the first inducer was shifted to a much lower value by the second inducer. The serum factor cooperated with any of the four inducers TPA, IUdR, anti-IgM and n-butyric acid, whereas TPA only interacted with IUdR and n-butyric acid. The effects of the serum factor and of TPA showed some similarities but were not identical, whereas IUdR and n-BA showed identical effects.

  10. Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Young Jang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at admission showed multiple high signal intensities in both basal ganglia and thalami. The result of EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the cerebral spinal fluid was positive, and a serological test showed acute EBV infection. The patient was diagnosed with EBV encephalitis and recovered fully without any residual neurologic complications. Subsequently, follow-up MRI at 5 weeks revealed extensive periventricular white matter lesions. Since the patient remained clinically stable and asymptomatic during the follow-up period, no additional studies were performed and no additional treatments were provided. At the 1-year follow-up, cranial MRI showed complete disappearance of the abnormal high signal intensities previously seen in the white matter. The patient continued to remain healthy with no focal neurologic deficits on examination. This is the first case of asymptomatic self-limited white matter lesions seen in serial MRI studies in a Korean boy with EBV encephalitis.

  11. Association of Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafipour S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed paraffin sections from 55 patients with histologically confirmed Hodgkin’s disease (HD for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV markers using in situ hybridization to detect the EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs and immunohistochemistry to identify latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1 expression. Tissue specimens from 55 cases of Hodgkin’s disease included 22-mixed cellularity (MC, 27 nodular sclerosis (NC, one lymphocyte depleted (LD and 5 lymphocyte predominance (LP. All of the confirmed EBV associated cases were examined and subtyped of the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization revealed exclusive localization of virus in the tumor cells and FBV markers were present in 30 HD cases (55% and were mainly confined to the mixed cellularity (MC and nodular sclerosis (NC subtypes. 1-MH immunohistochemistry has similar results as in situ hybridization. EBV positivity with regards of HD subtypes were 64% (14/22 mixed cellularity (MC, 44% (12/27 nodular sclerosis (NS, 0% (0/1 lymphocyte depleted (LD and 80% (4/5 lymphocyte predominance (LP. Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA sequences were detected by PCR in DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissues of all LMP1 positive cases. Twenty-eight cases were type 1 EBV and 2 cases type 2 EBV. There was difference between EBV-positive and EBV-negative HD patients with regard to age. Analysis of age group 1-14 years, 15-49 years and over 49 years, revealed 73% (16/22, 35% (10/29, 100% (4/4 EBV positivity, respectively. These findings compared to the EBV association pattern with HD in developed and developing countries suggest an overall intermediate pattern of EBV association with HD and high incidence of EBV children and elderly HD cases.

  12. Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology in lung transplant recipients with primary EBV infection and/or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, E; van der Bij, W; de Boer, W; Timens, W; Middeldorp, J; The, TH

    2003-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody response was studied in lung transplant patients to assess their value in the diagnosis and prognosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Recently developed synthetic peptides representing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), diffuse ear

  13. Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 induces TRAF1 expression to promote anti-apoptosis activity via NF-κB signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承兴; 艾米丹; 任维; 肖绘; 李小燕; 唐发清; 顾焕华; 易薇; 翁新宪; 邓锡云; 曹亚

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) can induce tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) expression and promote its anti-apoptosis activity via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and assess that LMP1 suppresses apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A stable transfected cell line HNE2-LMP1 was established by introducing LMP1 cDNA into HNE2 cells. Transactivation of TRAF1 was determined by luciferase reporter assay, while expression of TRAF1 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and expression of TRAF1 protein and caspase 3 by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis activity was observed through fluorescence staining. Results LMP1 induced TRAF1 expression in NPC cells and caused a decrease in apoptosis. This induction could be blocked by antisense LMP1. Moreover, LMP1-mediated induction of a TRAF1 promoter-driven reporter gene was significantly impaired when the κB site κB1 or κB5 was disrupted, whereas mutation of κB3 had only a minor effect on LMP1 dependent up-regulation of the reporter gene. Conclusion LMP1 induces TRAF1 expression and promotes its anti-apoptosis activity via the NF-κB signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms that LMP1 uses to suppress apoptosis in NPC cells.

  14. Relationship of intratumoural protein expression patterns to age and Epstein-Barr virus status in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Maja; Kamper, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, the age distribution of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) follows a characteristic bimodal curve showing an early and a late peak at approximately 35 and 70 yr, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome in the Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells, the tum......In Western countries, the age distribution of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) follows a characteristic bimodal curve showing an early and a late peak at approximately 35 and 70 yr, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome in the Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells...

  15. Tracheal ulcer due to Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takeo; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Nishio, Suehiro; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a tracheal stenosis circumscribed with soft tissue density and a left pulmonary nodule. Open biopsy of a right submandibular lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus gene products. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a tracheal necrotizing ulcer. After chemotherapy, the tracheal ulcer resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly with a tracheal ulcer.

  16. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  17. Posttranslational processing of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded p63/LMP protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, K P; Thorley-Lawson, D

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe the posttranslational processing of the p63/LMP (latent membrane protein) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus in transformed B cells. Specifically, we show that after synthesis, free LMP disappeared with a half-life of about 0.5 h. This was caused by the association of LMP with an insoluble complex. All detectable LMP in the plasma membrane was insoluble. This interaction was resistant to nondenaturing detergents but readily dissociated with 8 M urea or by boiling in 0.5% ...

  18. Cholangiocarcinoma with Lymphoepithelioma-like Component not Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Han Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma-like cholangiocarcinoma (LELCC is a rare variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We herein have reported an unusual case of LELCC in a 71-year-old Taiwanese women with cirrhotic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C. The patient's liver tumor was unexpectedly discovered during a regular abdominal ultrasound exam without obvious clinical symptoms and signs; she thereafter received surgical resection. Histologically, the liver tumor showed lymphoepithelial-like appearance and features of cholangiocarcinoma without association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. We maintained regular follow-up with the patient for 3 years, who at that time was alive without tumor recurrence.

  19. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization. PMID:28018450

  20. Adenocarcinoma gástrico asociado con el virus de Epstein-Barr en Cali.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Carrascal; Masayoshi Tokunaga; Suminori Akiba; Yoshito Eizuru; Chihaya Fujiyama; Reiko Shinkura; Yuko Harada

    2009-01-01

    Para investigar la presencia del virus de Epstein-Barr en adenocarcinoma gástrico, se estudiaron 99 casos consecutivos de esta neoplasia en el Hospital Universitario del Valle en Cali, por medio de la técnica de hibridización in situ utilizando una sonda para un fragmento del ARN viral (EBER, sigla en inglés). Los casos correspondían a 66 hombres (edad media: 62 años) y 33 mujeres (edad media: 60 años). Hubo 46 casos de adenocarcinoma tipo intestinal y 53 del tipo difuso, ninguno de la varied...

  1. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA as a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KC Allen Chan

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is common in southern China and Southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an important etiology for NPC, and EBV genome can be detected in almost all tumor tissues of NPC in this region. Plasma EBV DNA, when quantitatively analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been developed as a biomarker for NPC. In this review, the different clinical applications of plasma EBV DNA in the management of NPC, including screening, monitoring, and prognostication, are discussed. In addition, the biological issues of circulating EBV DNA, including the molecular nature and clearance kinetics, are also explored.

  2. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings in Danish children hospitalized with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Sofie Kathrine; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a common disease in adolescents. However, IM is often considered a rare disease in early childhood. We aimed to describe the classical presentation of adolescent EBV-associated IM compared to EBV infection at younger age....... Dividing the children into three age groups (0-4 years, 5-10 years and 11-15 years) revealed that the oldest age groups significantly more often suffered from headache, tonsillitis, sore throat, abdominal pain and nausea. Young children typically presented with a runny nose, fever, fatigue and cervical...

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Epstein-Barr virus in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Wong, Nok-Hei Mickey; Ho, Chau-Ha; Ho, Ting-Hin; Lei, Ting; Deng, Wen; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a highly efficient and powerful tool for RNA-guided editing of the cellular genome. Whether CRISPR/Cas9 can also cleave the genome of DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergo episomal replication in human cells, remains to be established. Here, we reported on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome in human cells. Two guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used to direct a targeted deletion of 558 bp in the promoter region of BART (BamHI A rightward transcript) which encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Targeted editing was achieved in several human epithelial cell lines latently infected with EBV, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome was efficient. A recombinant virus with the desired deletion was obtained after puromycin selection of cells expressing Cas9 and gRNAs. No off-target cleavage was found by deep sequencing. The loss of BART miRNA expression and activity was verified, supporting the BART promoter as the major promoter of BART RNA. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the multicopy episome of EBV in infected HEK293 cells was mostly incomplete, viruses could be recovered and introduced into other cells at low m.o.i. Recombinant viruses with an edited genome could be further isolated through single-cell sorting. Finally, a DsRed selectable marker was successfully introduced into the EBV genome during the course of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. Taken together, our work provided not only the first genetic evidence that the BART promoter drives the expression of the BART transcript, but also a new and efficient method for targeted editing of EBV genome in human cells.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus in the multiple sclerosis brain: a controversial issue--report on a focused workshop held in the Centre for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassmann, Hans; Niedobitek, Gerald; Aloisi, Francesca; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2011-09-01

    Recent epidemiological and immunological studies provide evidence for an association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in disease induction and pathogenesis. A key question in this context is whether Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes are present within the central nervous system and the lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies on this topic provided highly controversial results, showing Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in B cells in the vast majority of multiple sclerosis cases and lesions, or only exceptional Epstein-Barr virus-positive B cells in rare cases. In an attempt to explain the reasons for these divergent results, a workshop was organized under the umbrella of the European Union FP6 NeuroproMiSe project, the outcome of which is presented here. This report summarizes the current knowledge of Epstein-Barr virus biology and shows that Epstein-Barr virus infection is highly complex. There are still major controversies, how to unequivocally identify Epstein-Barr virus infection in pathological tissues, particularly in situations other than Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomas or acute Epstein-Barr virus infections. It further highlights that unequivocal proof of Epstein-Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis lesions is still lacking, due to issues related to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods.

  5. Adenocarcinoma gástrico asociado con el virus de Epstein-Barr en Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Carrascal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar la presencia del virus de Epstein-Barr en adenocarcinoma gástrico, se estudiaron 99 casos consecutivos de esta neoplasia en el Hospital Universitario del Valle en Cali, por medio de la técnica de hibridización in situ utilizando una sonda para un fragmento del ARN viral (EBER, sigla en inglés. Los casos correspondían a 66 hombres (edad media: 62 años y 33 mujeres (edad media: 60 años. Hubo 46 casos de adenocarcinoma tipo intestinal y 53 del tipo difuso, ninguno de la variedad "linfoepitelioma"; 10 (10.1% casos fueron positivos para el virus, 9 hombres y 1 mujer; 5 fueron del tipo intestinal y 5 del difuso. Los estudios realizados en otras partes del mundo han mostrado que 10% de los casos de adenocarcinoma gástrico están asociados con el virus. El presente estudio concuerda con esa cifra. Son necesarias investigaciones adicionales para entender la interacción entre el virus de Epstein-Barr y la célula epitelial del estómago, así como también su relación con otros agentes involucrados en carcinogénesis gástrica.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

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    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  7. A molecular link between malaria and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation.

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    Arnaud Chêne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although malaria and Epstein-Barr (EBV infection are recognized cofactors in the genesis of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL, their relative contribution is not understood. BL, the most common paediatric cancer in equatorial Africa, is a high-grade B cell lymphoma characterized by c-myc translocation. EBV is a ubiquitous B lymphotropic virus that persists in a latent state after primary infection, and in Africa, most children have sero-converted by 3 y of age. Malaria infection profoundly affects the B cell compartment, inducing polyclonal activation and hyper-gammaglobulinemia. We recently identified the cystein-rich inter-domain region 1alpha (CIDR1alpha of the Plasmodium falciparum membrane protein 1 as a polyclonal B cell activator that preferentially activates the memory compartment, where EBV is known to persist. Here, we have addressed the mechanisms of interaction between CIDR1alpha and EBV in the context of B cells. We show that CIDR1alpha binds to the EBV-positive B cell line Akata and increases the number of cells switching to the viral lytic cycle as measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression driven by a lytic promoter. The virus production in CIDR1alpha-exposed cultures was directly proportional to the number of GFP-positive Akata cells (lytic EBV and to the increased expression of the EBV lytic promoter BZLF1. Furthermore, CIDR1alpha stimulated the production of EBV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from healthy donors and children with BL. Our results suggest that P. falciparum antigens such as CIDR1alpha can directly induce EBV reactivation during malaria infection that may increase the risk of BL development for children living in malaria-endemic areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that a microbial protein can drive a latently infected B cell into EBV replication.

  8. The labyrinth of interactions of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqar; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human malignancies. However, the mechanism by which EBV leads to malignant transformation is not clear. A number of viral latent gene products, including non-protein coding small RNAs, are believed to be involved. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA 1 (EBER1) and EBER2 are two such RNA molecules that are abundantly expressed (up to 10(7) copies) in all EBV-infected cells, but their function remains poorly understood. These polymerase III transcripts have extensive secondary structure and exist as ribonucleoproteins. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that EBERs play an important role, directly or indirectly, in EBV-induced oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the complex interactions of EBERs with various cellular factors and the potential pathways by which these small RNAs are able to influence EBV-infected cells to proliferate and to induce tumorigenesis. The exosome pathway is probably involved in the cellular excretion of EBERs and facilitating some of their biological effects.

  9. Complex forms of mitochondrial DNA in human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C; Zeuthen, J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed lymphoblast......Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed...... lymphoblastoid cell lines. These complex forms of mtDNA were present in much lower frequencies in lymphocytes isolated from donor blood (1.3%-4.6%). Similar low frequencies were found with primary fibroblasts (1.1%) or freshly isolated monkey liver cells (2.1%). Samples from cultures of Burkitt lymphoma (BL......) cell lines of EBV-positive or -negative origin contained intermediate (5%-7%) frequencies of complex forms of mtDNA....

  10. The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of epstein-barr virus-related lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Maria; Segesdi, Judit; Banati, Ferenc; Koroknai, Anita; Wolf, Hans; Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2009-11-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome), carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma) and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma). The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B). In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2). The 5' and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical) DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There are EBNA1 binding sites in the human genome. Because high affinity binding of EBNA1 to its recognition sites is known to specify sites of DNA demethylation, we

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Takacs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma. The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B. In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2. The 5’ and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There are EBNA1 binding sites in the human genome. Because high affinity binding of EBNA1 to its recognition sites is known to specify sites of DNA

  12. Epstein-Barr virus associated modulation of Wnt pathway is not dependent on latent membrane protein-1.

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    Natasha Webb

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV can modulate the Wnt pathway in virus-infected cells and this effect is mediated by EBV-encoded oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. Here we have reassessed the role of LMP1 in regulating the expression of various mediators of the canonical Wnt cascade. Contradicting the previous finding, we found that the levels of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3ss (GSK3beta, axin and alpha-catenin were not affected by the expression of LMP1 sequences from normal B cells or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Moreover, we also show that LMP1 expression had no detectable effect on the E-cadherin and beta-catenin interaction and did not induce transcriptional activation of beta-catenin. Taken together these studies demonstrate that EBV-mediated activation of Wnt pathway is not dependent on the expression of LMP1.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  14. [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Harutaka

    2010-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8, HHV-8) are members of gamma-herpes virus family. Both viruses infect to B cells and cause malignancies such as lymphoma. Since EBV and HHV-8 are so-called 'oncovirus', their oncogenecities have been focused in the researches on EBV and KSHV for a long time. EBV was discovered in 1964, whereas KSHV was identified in 1994. However, KSHV was analyzed rapidly in these fifteen years. One of the recent progresses in the research on EBV and KSHV is that virus-encoded small RNAs were identified in their genomes and characterized. EBV is the first human virus in whose genome microRNA was identified. The oncogenecity of EBV and KSHV remains unclear. Here, I discuss the pathogenesis by EBV and KSHV with special reference to recent progress in this field.

  15. How compelling are the data for Epstein-Barr virus being a trigger for systemic lupus and other autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette; Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria; Houen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is caused by a combination of genetic and acquired immunodeficiencies and environmental factors including infections. An association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been established by numerous studies over the past decades. Here, we review recent experimental...

  16. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena;

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on (18)F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after...

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-kodet BILF1 er en konstitutivt aktiv G-protein-koblede receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sarah J; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    væsentligste Oncogene i Kaposis sarkom patogenese. I modsætning hertil den nuværende annotation af Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genom ikke afslører nogen GPCR homolog kodet af denne menneskelige onkogene gamma1-herpesvirus. Men, ved at anvende bioinformatik, anerkendte vi, at den tidligere fastsatte EBV åben...

  18. HIV-associated lymphoma: histopathology and association with Epstein-Barr virus genome related to clinical, immunological and prognostic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Lundgren, Jens Dilling;

    1991-01-01

    (6)/l, P less than 0.05), and more often a history of previous AIDS-defining illnesses (50% vs. 0%, P less than 0.005), compared with patients with Burkitt-type lymphomas. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was demonstrated in 14 of 19 immunoblast-rich tumours, and in 2 of 7 Burkitt-type lymphomas (P = 0...

  19. Sequence analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 gene and promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Gratama, J W; Munch, M;

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variations in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene have been described in a Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived isolate (CAO), and in viral isolates from various EBV-associated tumors. It has been suggested that these genetic changes, which...

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first...

  1. Real-time Epstein-Barr virus PCR for the diagnosis of primary EBV infections and EBV reactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Luderer (Rianne); M. Kok (Marieke); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); R. Schuurman (Rob); O. de Weerdt (Okke); S.F. Thijsen (Steven)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The serological diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections is often difficult, whereas the relevance of elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against early antigen (EA) for the diagnosis of EBV reactivation has increasingly become a matter of dispute. Recen

  2. A pathologic study of Hodgkin's disease in Korea and its association with the Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huh, J; Park, C; Juhng, S; Kim, CE; Poppema, S; Kim, C

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The incidence of Hodgkin's disease (HD) in Korea and other Asian countries is much lower than in western countries and its association with the Epstein-Barr virus has not been well characterized. METHODS. We evaluated the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of 87 pati

  3. A Phase I Trial of Epstein-Barr Virus Gp350 Vaccine for Children With Chronic Kidney Disease Awaiting Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, L.; Tizard, E.J.; Morgan, A.J.; Cubitt, W.D.; Finerty, S.; Oyewole-Eletu, T.A.; Owen, K.; Royed, C.; Stevens, S.J.C.; Shroff, R.C.; Tanday, M.K.; Wilson, A.; Middeldorp, J.M.; Amlot, P.L.; Steven, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vaccination against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), inducing an antibody response to the envelope glycoprotein gp350, might protect EBV-negative children with chronic kidney disease from lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation. Methods. A phase I trial recruited children with chronic

  4. Seroprevalence and real-time PCR study of Epstein-Barr virus and the value of screening in pretransplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Elansary

    2016-01-01

    Routine screening for Epstein-Barr virus in blood bags is not economical. Screening is highly recommended only for immunocompromised and pretransplant patients. Viremia is not the role in individuals with EBV IgM positive sera, which in turn changes some concepts in organ transplantation.

  5. Reduced response to Epstein-Barr virus antigens by T-cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Jacobsen, Søren; Westergaard, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has for long been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we investigated the levels of latent and lytic antigen EBV-specific T-cells and antibodies in SLE patients. METHODS: T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and antibodies were...

  6. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinomas and gastric stump carcinomas: a late event in gastric carcinogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausen, A zur; Rees, van B.P.; Beek, van J.; Craanen, M.E.; Bloemena, E.; Offerhaus, GJ; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach-gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) a

  7. Evasion of T cell immunity by Epstein-Barr virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.

    2011-01-01

    Immune evasion strategies are thought to contribute essentially to the life cycle of persistent viruses by delaying the elimination of the infected cell long enough to enable the virus to replicate. Exemplary in this context are the herpesviruses, large DNA viruses that are carried as a persistent a

  8. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2016-11-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706) of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  9. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD. In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706 of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of SLE is not fully established. SLE is a disease with periods of waning disease activity and intermittent flares. This fits well in theory to a latent virus infection, which occasionally switches to lytic cycle, and EBV infection has for long been suspected to be involved. This paper reviews EBV immunobiology and how this is related to SLE pathogenesis by illustrating uncontrolled reactivation of EBV as a disease mechanism for SLE. Studies on EBV in SLE patients show enlarged viral load, abnormal expression of viral lytic genes, impaired EBV-specific T-cell response, and increased levels of EBV-directed antibodies. These results suggest a role for reactivation of EBV infection in SLE. The increased level of EBV antibodies especially comprises an elevated titre of IgA antibodies, and the total number of EBV-reacting antibody isotypes is also enlarged. As EBV is known to be controlled by cell-mediated immunity, the reduced EBV-specific T-cell response in SLE patients may result in defective control of EBV causing frequent reactivation and expression of lytic cycle antigens. This gives rise to enhanced apoptosis and amplified cellular waste load resulting in activation of an immune response and development of EBV-directed antibodies and autoantibodies to cellular antigens.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of SLE is not fully established. SLE is a disease with periods of waning disease activity and intermittent flares. This fits well in theory to a latent virus infection, which occasionally switches to lytic cycle, and EBV infection has for long been suspected to be involved. This paper reviews EBV immunobiology and how this is related to SLE pathogenesis by illustrating uncontrolled reactivation of EBV as a disease mechanism for SLE. Studies on EBV in SLE patients show enlarged viral load, abnormal expression of viral lytic genes, impaired EBV-specific T-cell response, and increased levels of EBV-directed antibodies. These results suggest a role for reactivation of EBV infection in SLE. The increased level of EBV antibodies especially comprises an elevated titre of IgA antibodies, and the total number of EBV-reacting antibody isotypes is also enlarged. As EBV is known to be controlled by cell-mediated immunity, the reduced EBV-specific T-cell response in SLE patients may result in defective control of EBV causing frequent reactivation and expression of lytic cycle antigens. This gives rise to enhanced apoptosis and amplified cellular waste load resulting in activation of an immune response and development of EBV-directed antibodies and autoantibodies to cellular antigens.

  12. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene promoter variants and comparison of cellular gene expression profiles in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Hashida, Yumiko; Murakami, Masanao; Maeda, Akihiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Daibata, Masanori

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genotypes can be distinguished based on gene sequence differences in EBV nuclear antigens 2, 3A, 3B, and 3C, and the BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp). EBV subtypes and BZLF1 Zp variants were examined in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The results of EBV typing showed that samples of infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis all belonged to EBV type 1. However, sequencing analysis of BZLF1 Zp found three polymorphic Zp variants in the same samples. The Zp-P prototype and the Zp-V3 variant were both detected in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection. Furthermore, a novel variant previously identified in Chinese children with infectious mononucleosis, Zp-V1, was also found in 3 of 18 samples of infectious mononucleosis, where it coexisted with the Zp-P prototype. This is the first evidence that the EBV variant distribution in Japanese patients resembles that found in other Asian patients. The expression levels of 29 chronic active EBV infection-associated cellular genes were also compared in the three EBV-related disorders, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Two upregulated genes, RIPK2 and CDH9, were identified as common specific markers for chronic active EBV infection in both in vitro and in vivo studies. RIPK2 activates apoptosis and autophagy, and could be responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic active EBV infection.

  13. Cytotoxic drug sensitivity of Epstein-Barr virus transformed lymphoblastoid B-cells

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    Olah Eva

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causative agent of immunosuppression associated lymphoproliferations such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, AIDS related immunoblastic lymphomas (ARL and immunoblastic lymphomas in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP. The reported overall mortality for PTLD often exceeds 50%. Reducing the immunosuppression in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT or using highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients leads to complete remission in 23–50% of the PTLD/ARL cases but will not suffice for recipients of bone marrow grafts. An additional therapeutic alternative is the treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies (Rituximab or EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells. Chemotherapy is used for the non-responding cases only as the second or third line of treatment. The most frequently used chemotherapy regimens originate from the non-Hodgkin lymphoma protocols and there are no cytotoxic drugs that have been specifically selected against EBV induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Methods As lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs are well established in vitro models for PTLD, we have assessed 17 LCLs for cytotoxic drug sensitivity. After three days of incubation, live and dead cells were differentially stained using fluorescent dyes. The precise numbers of live and dead cells were determined using a custom designed automated laser confocal fluorescent microscope. Results Independently of their origin, LCLs showed very similar drug sensitivity patterns against 29 frequently used cytostatic drugs. LCLs were highly sensitive for vincristine, methotrexate, epirubicin and paclitaxel. Conclusion Our data shows that the inclusion of epirubicin and paclitaxel into chemotherapy protocols against PTLD may be justified.

  14. Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus in individuals with systemic and organ specific autoimmune disorders

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    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Autoimmune diseases usually manifest in genetically predisposed individuals following an environmental trigger. There are several viral infections including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to look at the antibody pattern to EBV proteins in the plasma of both systemic and organ specific autoimmune disorders, estimate pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α among these autoimmune patients and compare the observations with those in normal healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Samples from 44 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 25 Hashimoto′s thyroiditis patients, appropriately age and sex matched healthy controls were tested for EBV IgM antibodies by an immunoblot assay and two cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α by commercial assays. Results: Among the rheumatoid arthritis patients, 23 (52% were positive for EBNA1 antibody, while 13 (52% of the Hashimoto′s thyroiditis patients and 12 (30% of the healthy controls showed similar bands. The intensity of the bands was high in the autoimmune patients when compared to the bands seen in control samples. The difference in the EBNA1 reactivity between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls were significant (P = 0.038. There was a significant difference in the IgM reactivity to VCAp19 protein between patients and controls (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Our study showed an increased EBV activation among the autoimmune patient groups compared to the normal healthy controls. Further studies are required to delineate the association between the aetiology of autoimmune disorders and EBV.

  15. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

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    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  16. Identification of a new class of small molecules that efficiently reactivate latent Epstein-Barr Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Schultz, David C; Lee, Theresa; Salvino, Joseph M; Lieberman, Paul M

    2014-03-21

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) persists as a latent infection in many lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and gastric carcinomas. Current chemotherapeutic treatments of EBV-positive cancers include broad-spectrum cytotoxic drugs that ignore the EBV-positive status of tumors. An alternative strategy, referred to as oncolytic therapy, utilizes drugs that stimulate reactivation of latent EBV to enhance the selective killing of EBV-positive tumors, especially in combination with existing inhibitors of herpesvirus lytic replication, like Ganciclovir (GCV). At present, no small molecule, including histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, have proven safe or effective in clinical trials for treatment of EBV-positive cancers. Aiming to identify new chemical entities that induce EBV lytic cycle, we have developed a robust high-throughput cell-based assay to screen 66,840 small molecule compounds. Five structurally related tetrahydrocarboline derivatives were identified, two of which had EC50 measurements in the range of 150-170 nM. We show that these compounds reactivate EBV lytic markers ZTA and EA-D in all EBV-positive cell lines we have tested independent of the type of latency. The compounds reactivate a higher percentage of latently infected cells than HDAC inhibitors or phorbol esters in many cell types. The most active compounds showed low toxicity to EBV-negative cells but were highly effective at selective cell killing of EBV-positive cells when combined with GCV. We conclude that we have identified a class of small molecule compounds that are highly effective at reactivating latent EBV infection in a variety of cell types and show promise for lytic therapy in combination with GCV.

  17. Dynamic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression on the path to B-cell transformation.

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    Price, Alexander M; Luftig, Micah A

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus in the γ-herpesvirinae subfamily that contains a 170-180kb double-stranded DNA genome. In vivo, EBV commonly infects B and epithelial cells and persists for the life of the host in a latent state in the memory B-cell compartment of the peripheral blood. EBV can be reactivated from its latent state, leading to increased expression of lytic genes that primarily encode for enzymes necessary to replicate the viral genome and structural components of the virion. Lytic cycle proteins also aid in immune evasion, inhibition of apoptosis, and the modulation of other host responses to infection. In vitro, EBV has the potential to infect primary human B cells and induce cellular proliferation to yield effectively immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines, or LCLs. EBV immortalization of B cells in vitro serves as a model system for studying EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis. While much is known about the steady-state viral gene expression within EBV-immortalized LCLs and other EBV-positive cell lines, relatively little is known about the early events after primary B-cell infection. It was previously thought that upon latent infection, EBV only expressed the well-characterized latency-associated transcripts found in LCLs. However, recent work has characterized the early, but transient, expression of lytic genes necessary for efficient transformation and delayed responses in the known latency genes. This chapter summarizes these recent findings that show how dynamic and controlled expression of multiple EBV genes can control the activation of B cells, entry into the cell cycle, the inhibition of apoptosis, and innate and adaptive immune responses.

  18. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  19. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

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    Kozko V.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.

  20. The spliced BZLF1 gene of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transactivates an early EBV promoter and induces the virus productive cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A spliced cDNA spanning the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 gene expresses the BZLF1 protein and is active in inducing the virus productive cycle. A deletion mutant which lacks the N-terminal half of the protein is inactive. Cotransfection experiments in EBV-negative B-lymphocyte cell lines demonstrated that the BZLF1 gene activates the promoter for the BSLF2 + BMLF1 gene in the absence of any other EBV gene product. These results confirmed that the spliced BZLF1 gene is the transactivating gene str...

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-negative aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia with high P-glycoprotein activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2

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    Sanja Perkovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia (ANKL is a rare type of disease with fulminant course and poor outcome. The disease is more prevalent among Asians than in other ethnic groups and shows strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and P-glycoprotein (P-gp expression associated with multidrug resistance. Here we present a case of a 47 year old Caucasian female with a prior medical history of azathioprine treated ulcerative colitis who developed EBV-negative form of ANKL. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly, fever and nausea with peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration with up to 70% of atypical lymphoid cells positive for cCD3, CD2, CD7, CD56, CD38, CD45, TIA1 and granzyme B, and negative for sCD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD34 and CD123 indicative of ANKL. Neoplastic CD56+ NK-cells showed high level of P-glycoprotein expression and activity, but also strong expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The patient was treated with an intensive polychemotherapy regimen designed for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but one month after admission developed sepsis, coma and died of cardiorespiratory arrest. We present additional evidence that, except for the immunophenotype, leukaemic NK-cells resemble normal NK-cells in terms of P-gp functional capacity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 signalling molecule. In that sense drugs that block P-glycoprotein activity and activated signalling pathways might represent new means for targeted therapy.

  2. Pathogenesis of formation of frequent respiratory infections in children with Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infection

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    I. V. Babachenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to clarify the pathogenesis of the formation of frequent respiratory infections in children with Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infection on the basis of studying the microbial landscape of anti-infective and mucous membranes of the oropharynx resistance. The results of clinical and laboratory examination of 47 frequently and chronically ill children aged 6 months to 7 years with active Epstein-Barr virus and / or cytomegalovirus infection are presented. 19 children (40,4% had mono-CMV infection, 6 patients (12,8% – Mono-Epstein – Barr virus nfection, 22 children (46,8% – mixed herpesvirus infections. The carrier state of S. рneumoniae was revealed in 70,0% of cases, the carrier state of S. aureus – in 40,5% of cases against the background of decrease normal mouth microflora. Deficiency of nonspecific secretory immunoglobulin class A was established in 98% of cases, destructive changes of epiteliotsits on a mucous membrane of an oral cavity children was established in 93,9 % of cases. The presence of eosinophils in the mucosa of the oropharynx was reported in 29,8% of patients, in 78,7% of patients – the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of more than 5 cells in a field of view. A scheme of the pathogenesis of recurrent respiratory diseases in often long-term ill children is desined.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus infection in vitro can rescue germinal center B cells with inactivated immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Sridhar; Bell, Andrew I; Pastor, Noelia Begue; Milner, Anne E; Drayson, Mark; Gordon, John; Rickinson, Alan B

    2005-12-15

    Immunoglobulin genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease has suggested that such lesions often arise from atypical post-germinal center B cells, in some cases carrying functionally inactivated immunoglobulin genes. To investigate whether EBV can rescue cells that are failed products of the somatic hypermutation process occurring in germinal centers (GCs), we isolated GC cells from tonsillar cell suspensions and exposed them to EBV in vitro. Screening more than 100 EBV-transformed cell lines of GC origin identified 6 lines lacking surface immunoglobulin, a phenotype never seen among lines derived from circulating naive or memory B cells. Furthermore, 3 of the 6 surface immunoglobulin-negative GC lines carried inactivating mutations in the immunoglobulin H (IgH) variable gene sequence. The ability of EBV to rescue aberrant products of the germinal center reaction in vitro strengthens the probability that a parallel activity contributes to EBV's lymphomagenic potential in vivo.

  4. Pediatric epstein-barr virus carriers with or without tonsillar enlargement may substantially contribute to spreading of the virus

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human-to-human transmission of the persistent infection establishing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurs via saliva. Tonsils act as important portal of entry and exit of EBV. The contagiousness of pediatric EBV carriers and the role played by tonsillar enlargement (TE) are not known. METHODS: We compared EBV shedding in mouthwash samples from pediatric EBV carriers with or without TE to that in mouthwash samples from pediatric patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), the symptomat...

  5. Ascorbic acid kills Epstein-Barr virus positive Burkitt lymphoma cells and Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-cells in vitro, but not in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber N; Espey, Michael Graham; Chavez, Mayra; Tu, Hongbin; Levine, Mark; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2013-05-01

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to kill various cancer cell lines at pharmacologic concentrations. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells were more susceptible to ascorbic acid-induced cell killing than EBV-negative BL cells or EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Ascorbic acid did not induce apoptosis in any of the tested cells but did induce the production of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Previously, we showed that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induces cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. We found that ascorbic acid is strongly antagonistic for bortezomib-induced cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. Finally, ascorbic acid did not prolong survival of severe combined immunodefiency mice inoculated with LCLs either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Thus, while ascorbic acid was highly effective at killing EBV-positive BL cells and LCLs in vitro, it antagonized cell killing by bortezomib and was ineffective in an animal model.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus, the germinal centre and the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ghada; Vrzalikova, Katerina; Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Nagy, Eszter; Flodr, Patrik; Yap, Lee-Fah; Diepstra, Arjan; Kluin, Philip M; Rosati, Stefano; Murray, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the germinal centre (GC) of the asymptomatic host remains an enigma. The occasional appearance of EBV-positive germinal centres in some patients, particularly those with a history of immunosuppression, suggests that EBV numbers in the GC are subject to immune control. The relationship, if any, between lymphoid hyperplasia with EBV-positive germinal centres and subsequent or concurrent lymphomagenesis remains to be clarified. As far as the development of EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma is concerned, the suppression of virus replication, mediated by LMP1 on the one hand, and the loss of B-cell receptor signalling on the other, appears to be an important pathogenic mechanism. A further important emerging concept is that alterations in the microenvironment of the EBV-infected B-cell may be important for lymphomagenesis.

  7. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Association with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: A Short Review

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    Razia Abdool Gafaar Khammissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In immunocompromised subjects, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection of terminally differentiated oral keratinocytes may result in subclinical productive infection of the virus in the stratum spinosum and in the stratum granulosum with shedding of infectious virions into the oral fluid in the desquamating cells. In a minority of cases this productive infection with dysregulation of the cell cycle of terminally differentiated epithelial cells may manifest as oral hairy leukoplakia. This is a white, hyperkeratotic, benign lesion of low morbidity, affecting primarily the lateral border of the tongue. Factors that determine whether productive EBV replication within the oral epithelium will cause oral hairy leukoplakia include the fitness of local immune responses, the profile of EBV gene expression, and local environmental factors.

  9. Rational Design of an Epstein-Barr Virus Vaccine Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekiyo, Masaru; Bu, Wei; Joyce, M Gordon; Meng, Geng; Whittle, James R R; Baxa, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Takuya; Narpala, Sandeep; Todd, John-Paul; Rao, Srinivas S; McDermott, Adrian B; Koup, Richard A; Rossmann, Michael G; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-27

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) represents a major global health problem. Though it is associated with infectious mononucleosis and ∼200,000 cancers annually worldwide, a vaccine is not available. The major target of immunity is EBV glycoprotein 350/220 (gp350) that mediates attachment to B cells through complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21). Here, we created self-assembling nanoparticles that displayed different domains of gp350 in a symmetric array. By focusing presentation of the CR2-binding domain on nanoparticles, potent neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice and non-human primates. The structurally designed nanoparticle vaccine increased neutralization 10- to 100-fold compared to soluble gp350 by targeting a functionally conserved site of vulnerability, improving vaccine-induced protection in a mouse model. This rational approach to EBV vaccine design elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses by arrayed presentation of a conserved viral entry domain, a strategy that can be applied to other viruses.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumour presenting as a parasagittal brain tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuike, K E; Pather, S; Emereole, O; Ndolo, P; Kajee, A; Gopal, R; Naidoo, S

    2012-11-01

    Dural-based brain tumours, apart from meningiomas, are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumor (SMT) is a documented but rare disease that occurs in immunocompromized patients. These tumours may be located at unusual sites including the brain. We present a 37-year-old patient, positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who was admitted after generalized tonic-clonic seizures. MRI and CT scan revealed a dural-based brain tumour, intraoperatively thought to be a meningioma, but with an eventual histological diagnosis of EBV-SMT. Clinically the patient was well postoperatively with a Glasgow coma scale score of 15/15 and no focal neurologic deficit. This case confirms the association between EBV and SMT in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also highlights the need to include EBV-SMT in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Inhibition of Germinal Centre Apoptotic Programmes by Epstein-Barr Virus

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    Lindsay C. Spender

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a persistent latent infection, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV faces a challenge in that the virus-infected host cell must transit through the germinal centre reaction. This is a site of B cell differentiation where antibody responses are optimised, and the selection criteria for B cells are stringent. The germinal centre environment is harsh, and the vast majority of B cells here die by apoptosis. Only cells receiving adequate survival signals will differentiate fully to be released into the periphery as long-term memory B cells (the site of persistence. In this review, we detail the apoptotic pathways potentially encountered by EBV-infected B cells during the process of infection, and we describe the functions of those EBV-regulated cellular and viral genes that help promote survival of the host B cell.

  12. A virus-like particle-based Epstein-Barr virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiss, Romana; Jochum, Simon; Wanner, Gerhard; Reisbach, Gilbert; Hammerschmidt, Wolfgang; Zeidler, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous human herpesvirus which can lead to infectious mononucleosis and different cancers. In immunocompromised individuals, this virus is a major cause for morbidity and mortality. Transplant patients who did not encounter EBV prior to immunosuppression frequently develop EBV-associated malignancies, but a prophylactic EBV vaccination might reduce this risk considerably. Virus-like particles (VLPs) mimic the structure of the parental virus but lack the viral genome. Therefore, VLPs are considered safe and efficient vaccine candidates. We engineered a dedicated producer cell line for EBV-derived VLPs. This cell line contains a genetically modified EBV genome which is devoid of all potential viral oncogenes but provides viral proteins essential for the assembly and release of VLPs via the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). Human B cells readily take up EBV-based VLPs and present viral epitopes in association with HLA molecules to T cells. Consequently, EBV-based VLPs are highly immunogenic and elicit humoral and strong CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in vitro and in a preclinical murine model in vivo. Our findings suggest that VLP formulations might be attractive candidates to develop a safe and effective polyvalent vaccine against EBV.

  13. The efficacy and safety of rituximab in treatment of Epstein-Barr virus disease post allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of rituximab on Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) disease post allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed based on clinical

  14. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

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    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in

  15. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Perrine, Susan P.; Faller, Douglas V.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22500168

  16. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.

  17. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette H Draborg

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore, FLCs' association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies was examined.Using a nephelometric assay, κFLC and λFLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance.Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001 also after adjusting for Ig levels (p<0.0001. The concentration of serum FLCs correlated with a global disease activity (SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI score of the SLE patients (r = 0.399, p = 0.007. Furthermore, concentrations of FLCs correlated with titers of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.383, p = 0.009, and FLC levels and SLEDAI scores correlated in the anti-dsDNA-positive SLE patients, but not in anti-dsDNA-negative SLE patients. Total immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA concentrations correlated with FLC concentrations and elevated FLC levels were additionally shown to associate with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein and also with complement consumption determined by low C4 in SLE patients. Collectively, results indicated that elevated serum FLCs reflects increased B cell activity in relation to inflammation. SLE patients had an increased seropositivity of EBV-directed antibodies that did not associate with elevated FLC concentrations. An explanation for this could be that serum FLC concentrations reflect the current EBV activity (reactivation whereas EBV-directed antibodies reflect the extent of previous infection/reactivations.SLE patients have elevated concentrations of serum FLCs that correlate with global disease

  18. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

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    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  19. Acute acalculous cholecystitis by Epstein-Barr virus infection: a rare association

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    Liliana Branco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of the Epstein-Barr virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germi, Raphaele; Effantin, Gregory; Grossi, Laurence; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Morand, Patrice; Schoehn, Guy

    2012-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gammaherpesvirus, infects >90 % of the world's population. Primary infection by EBV can lead to infectious mononucleosis, and EBV persistence is associated with several malignancies. Despite its importance for human health, little structural information is available on EBV. Here we report the purification of the EBV capsid by CsCl- or sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. Cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis resulted in two slightly different three-dimensional structures at about 20 Å resolution. These structures were compared with that of human herpesvirus 8, another gammaherpesvirus. CsCl-gradient purification leads to the removal of part of the triplex complex around the fivefold axes, whereas the complexes between hexons remained in place. This may be due to local differences in stability resulting from variation in quasi-equivalent interactions between pentons and hexons compared with those between hexons only.

  1. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Epigenome Using High-Throughput Data

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    Paul M. Lieberman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent insights into the chromatin structure and transcription factor binding patterns on latent EBV genomes. Colocalization of multiple histone modifications and transcription factors at regulatory loci are considered in the context of the biology and regulation of EBV.

  2. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) epigenome using high-throughput data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Aaron; Tempera, Italo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2013-04-02

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent insights into the chromatin structure and transcription factor binding patterns on latent EBV genomes. Colocalization of multiple histone modifications and transcription factors at regulatory loci are considered in the context of the biology and regulation of EBV.

  3. Structural basis for apoptosis inhibition by Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1.

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    Marc Kvansakul

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with human malignancies, especially those affecting the B cell compartment such as Burkitt lymphoma. The virally encoded homolog of the mammalian pro-survival protein Bcl-2, BHRF1 contributes to viral infectivity and lymphomagenesis. In addition to the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, its key target in lymphoid cells, BHRF1 also binds a selective sub-set of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bid, Puma, Bak expressed by host cells. A consequence of BHRF1 expression is marked resistance to a range of cytotoxic agents and in particular, we show that its expression renders a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma untreatable. As current small organic antagonists of Bcl-2 do not target BHRF1, the structures of it in complex with Bim or Bak shown here will be useful to guide efforts to target BHRF1 in EBV-associated malignancies, which are usually associated with poor clinical outcomes.

  4. Imaging findings of epstein-barr virus-associated gastric lymphoepithelioma-Llke carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Sun; KIm, Young Chul; Lee, Dakeun; Park, Mee Jin; Lee, Jei Hee; Kim, Kai Keun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong En [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To analyze the computed tomography (CT) features of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC). Between January 2004 and September 2014, radiologic features of 44 EBV-associated LELCs were analyzed. Lesion detectability, multiplicity, location, gross appearance, lesion thickness and margin, presence of a round edge, contrast enhancement pattern, and the degree of contrast enhancement were analyzed. The most common location of LELC was the upper third of the stomach (n = 28; 63.64%). A high percentage of cases showed uniform peripheral thickness (n = 32; 88.89%). LELCs demonstrated well-defined margins in a high percentage of cases (n = 31; 86.11%). Additionally, a high percentage of cases showed the presence of a round edge (n = 28; 77.78%). CT features, including tumor location in the upper third of the stomach and presence of uniform peripheral thickness with a round edge, may suggest the possibility of EBV-associated LELC.

  5. The Criteria to Confirm the Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Initiation

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    Ai-Di Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, but it remains obscure whether EBV is a viral cause of, or only an accompaniment of, NPC. We will discuss the accumulated evidence pointing to the relationship between EBV infection and NPC initiation from epidemiologic, pathogenic, molecular oncogenic, and experimental animal studies. We believe that convincing evidence from these perspectives must be provided before we can ascertain the causal role of EBV infection in NPC. Specifically, (1 epidemiological studies should reveal EBV infection as a risk factor; (2 the introduction of EBV into an animal model should produce NPC; (3 in the animal model NPC, the main molecular event(s or the involved signaling pathway(s should be identical to that in human NPC; and (4 finally and most importantly, prevention of EBV infection or clearance of EBV from infected individuals must be able to reduce the incidence rate of NPC.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus associated secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with an unusual presentation of abdominal compartment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Camilla J. Cobb; Jeffrey Cao; Anwar S. Raza

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a cytokine storm syndrome caused by an overactive but ineffective immune reaction. Without prompt diagnosis and treatment, HLH is life-threatening. However, presenting symptoms are often nonspeciifc, with fatigue and fever being the most common. A high index of suspicion is therefore critical for early diagnosis and timely management. A previously healthy, 65-year-old female who initially presented with fever and abdominal pain developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) requiring decompressive laparotomy on hospital day 6. Intraoperative frozen sections of biopsied liver showed intense portal lymphohistiocytic inifltrates. Epstein-Barr virus DNA copy numbers escalated from 600 copies/ mL after admission to 134,000 copies/mL before death. The diagnostic criteria of HLH-2004 were met. Patient expired on hospital day 12. It is important to raise awareness of ACS being an unusual presentation of HLH. Recent changes in diagnostic criteria tailored to adult HLH cases are reviewed.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus stimulates torque teno virus replication: a possible relationship to multiple sclerosis.

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    Silvia S Borkosky

    Full Text Available Viral infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has frequently been investigated as a possible candidate and torque teno virus (TTV has also been discussed in this context. Nevertheless, mechanistic aspects remain unresolved. We report viral replication, as measured by genome amplification, as well as quantitative PCR of two TTV-HD14 isolates isolated from multiple sclerosis brain in a series of EBV-positive and -negative lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Our results demonstrate the replication of both transfected TTV genomes up to day 21 post transfection in all the evaluated cell lines. Quantitative amplification indicates statistically significant enhanced TTV replication in the EBV-positive cell lines, including the EBV-converted BJAB line, in comparison to the EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB. This suggests a helper effect of EBV infections in the replication of TTV. The present study provides information on a possible interaction of EBV and TTV in the etiology and progression of multiple sclerosis.

  8. Immunologic difference between hypersensitivity to mosquito bite and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-I Lee

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a life-threatening, virus-triggered immune disease. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB, a presentation of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus infection (CAEBV, may progress to HLH. This study aimed to investigate the immunologic difference between the HMB episodes and the HLH episodes associated with EBV infection. Immunologic changes of immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subsets, cytotoxicity, intracellular perforin and granzyme expressions, EBV virus load and known candidate genes for hereditary HLH were evaluated and compared. In 12 HLH episodes (12 patients and 14 HMB episodes (4 patients, there were both decreased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ and increased memory CD4+ and activated (CD2+HLADR+ lymphocytes. In contrast to HMB episodes that had higher IgE levels and EBV virus load predominantly in NK cells, those HLH episodes with virus load predominantly in CD3+ lymphocyte had decreased perforin expression and cytotoxicity that were recovered in the convalescence period. However, there was neither significant difference of total virus load in these episodes nor candidate genetic mutations responsible for hereditary HLH. In conclusion, decreased perforin expression in the HLH episodes with predominant-CD3+ EBV virus load is distinct from those HMB episodes with predominant-NK EBV virus load. Whether the presence of non-elevated memory CD4+ cells or activated lymphocytes (CD2+HLADR+ increases the mortality rate in the HLH episodes remains to be further warranted through larger-scale studies.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Drug-Induced Hepatitis in a Critically ill Patient During Antituberculosis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ching-Hsun; Li, Yao-Feng; Shen, Chih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although hepatitis is frequently observed during antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy, acute viral hepatitis should be ruled out first, especially in the endemic areas. In addition to common types of viral hepatitis, ie, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may result in hepatitis in some cases. Case Presentation: Herein, we reported a critically ill patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis in the intensive care unit during the anti-TB the...

  10. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kang, Myung-Soo, E-mail: mkang@skku.edu [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated

  11. Evaluation of LMP1 of Epstein-Barr virus as a therapeutic target by its inhibition

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    Wilson Joanna B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1 encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is an oncoprotein which acts by constitutive activation of various signalling pathways, including NF-κB. In so doing it leads to deregulated cell growth intrinsic to the cancer cell as well as having extrinsic affects upon the tumour microenvironment. These properties and that it is a foreign antigen, lead to the proposition that LMP1 may be a good therapeutic target in the treatment of EBV associated disease. LMP1 is expressed in several EBV-associated malignancies, notably in Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the viral protein is only detected in approximately 30%-50% of NPC samples, as such its role in carcinogenesis and tumour maintenance can be questioned and thus its relevance as a therapeutic target. Results In order to explore if LMP1 has a continuous function in established tumours, its activity was inhibited through expression of a dominant negative LMP1 mutant in tumour cell lines derived from transgenic mice. LMP1 is the tumour predisposing oncogene in two different series of transgenic mice which separately give rise to either B-cell lymphomas or carcinomas. Inhibition of LMP1 activity in the carcinoma cell lines lead to a reduction in clonagenicity and clone viability in all of the cell lines tested, even those with low or below detection levels of LMP1. Inhibition of LMP1 activity in the transgenic B-cell lines was incompatible with growth and survival of the cells and no clones expressing the dominant negative LMP1 mutant could be established. Conclusions LMP1 continues to provide a tumour cell growth function in cell lines established from LMP1 transgenic mouse tumours, of both B-cell and epithelial cell origin. LMP1 can perform this function, even when expressed at such low levels as to be undetectable, whereby evidence of its expression can only be inferred by its inhibition being detrimental to the growth

  12. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus. [UV and X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P/sub 3/HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus infections and genotype distribution in head and neck cancers.

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    Zeyi Deng

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence, genotypes, and prognostic values of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV infections in Japanese patients with different types of head and neck cancer (HNC.HPV and EBV DNA, EBV genotypes and LMP-1 variants, and HPV mRNA expression were detected by PCR from fresh-frozen HNC samples. HPV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing, and EBV encoded RNA (EBER was examined by in situ hybridization.Of the 209 HNC patients, 63 (30.1% had HPV infection, and HPV-16 was the most common subtype (86.9%. HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was found in 23 of 60 (38.3% HPV DNA-positive cases detected. The site of highest prevalence of HPV was the oropharynx (45.9%. Among 146 (69.9% HNCs in which EBV DNA was identified, 107 (73.3% and 27 (18.5% contained types A and B, respectively, and 124 (84.9% showed the existence of del-LMP-1. However, only 13 (6.2% HNCs were positive for EBER, 12 (92.3% of which derived from the nasopharynx. Co-infection of HPV and EBER was found in only 1.0% of HNCs and 10.0% of NPCs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly better disease-specific and overall survival in the HPV DNA+/mRNA+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC patients than in the other OPC patients (P = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that stage T1-3 (P = 0.002 and HPV mRNA-positive status (P = 0.061 independently predicted better disease-specific survival. No significant difference in disease-specific survival was found between the EBER-positive and -negative NPC patients (P = 0.155.Our findings indicate that co-infection with HPV and EBV is rare in HNC. Oropharyngeal SCC with active HPV infection was related to a highly favorable outcome, while EBV status was not prognostic in the NPC cohort.

  15. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation as an Epigenetic Consequence of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Immortalized Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is a persistent reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with lifelong infection of resident epithelial and B cells. Infection of these cell types results in distinct EBV gene expression patterns regulated by epigenetic modifications involving DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Regulation of EBV gene expression relies on viral manipulation of the host epigenetic machinery that may result in long-lasting host epigenetic reprogramming. To identify epigenetic events following...

  16. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Minarovits

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma. The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B. In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2. The 5’ and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There

  18. DNA Epstein-Barr virus (EBV sebagai biomaker diagnosis karsinoma nasofaring

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    Janti Sudiono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a malignant neoplasm arising from the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx with various cells differentiation. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is vastly more common in certain regions of East Asia, South Asia and Africa with viral, dietary which is typically includes consumption of salted vegetables, fish, meat and genetic factors that implicated in its causation. The undifferentiated is the most common type of NPC and strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection. Purpose: This paper was aimed to review about molecular biomarker as non invasive diagnosis of NPC especially in related to EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Reviews: The pathogenesis of NPC particularly the endemic type seems to follow a multi-step process, in which EBV, ethnic background, and environmental carcinogens all seem to play important role. EBV DNA plasm level is used continuously in clinic as a promise, sensitive and specific molecular marker diagnostic that reflected the stage, treatment response and prognosis of NPC. Detection of nuclear antigen associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBNA and viral DNA has revealed that EBV can infect epithelial cells and associated with their transformation in carcinogenesis. Latent membrane protein (LMP-1 and LMP-2 oncogenes EBV encoded related to proliferative gene expression indicated invasive and progressive growth of NPC. Conclusion: The new biomarkers for NPC, including EBV DNA in serum; EBV DNA and BamH1-A Reading Frame-1 (BARF1 mRNA in NPC brushings have been developed for the molecular non invasive diagnosis of this tumour.Latar belakang: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, sering dikenal sebagai kanker nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas yang berasal dari epitel mukosa nasofaring dengan derajat diferensiasi sel yang bervariasi. Paling banyak ditemukan di Asia Selatan, Asia Timur, dan Afrika. Virus, pola diet tipikal seperti konsumsi sayuran, ikan dan daging yang

  19. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backovic, Marija; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2009-02-24

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the structure of gB from Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of the secreted EBV gB ectodomain, which forms 16-nm long spike-like trimers, structurally homologous to the postfusion trimers of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Comparative structural analyses of EBV gB and VSV G, which has been solved in its pre and postfusion states, shed light on gB residues that may be involved in conformational changes and membrane fusion. Also, the EBV gB structure reveals that, despite the high sequence conservation of gB in herpesviruses, the relative orientations of individual domains, the surface charge distributions, and the structural details of EBV gB differ from the HSV-1 protein, indicating regions and residues that may have important roles in virus-specific entry.

  20. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backovic, Marija [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Longnecker, Richard [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Jardetzky, Theodore S [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2009-03-16

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the structure of gB from Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of the secreted EBV gB ectodomain, which forms 16-nm long spike-like trimers, structurally homologous to the postfusion trimers of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Comparative structural analyses of EBV gB and VSV G, which has been solved in its pre and postfusion states, shed light on gB residues that may be involved in conformational changes and membrane fusion. Also, the EBV gB structure reveals that, despite the high sequence conservation of gB in herpesviruses, the relative orientations of individual domains, the surface charge distributions, and the structural details of EBV gB differ from the HSV-1 protein, indicating regions and residues that may have important roles in virus-specific entry.

  1. Epigenetic Modification of the Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1 Promoter Regulates Viral Reactivation from Latency

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    Takayuki eMurata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is an oncogenic human gamma-herpesvirus that predominantly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. Viral genomes exist as extrachromosomal episomes with a nucleosomal structure. Maintenance of virus latency or execution of reactivation is controlled by the expression of BZLF1, a viral immediate-early gene product, tightly controlled at the transcriptional level. In this article, we review how BZLF1 transcription is controlled, in other words how virus reactivation is regulated, especially in terms of epigenetics. We recently found that histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 markers are crucial for suppression of BZLF1 in latent Raji cells. In addition, H3K9me2/3, HP1 and H2A ubiquitination are associated with latency, whereas positive markers, such as higher histone acetylation and H3K4me3, are concomitant with reactivation. Since lytic replication eventually causes cell cycle arrest and cell death, development of oncolytic therapy for EBV-positive cancers is conceivable using epigenetic disruptors. In addition, we note the difficulties in analyzing roles of epigenetics in EBV, including issues like cell type dependence and virus copy numbers.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid lesions of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Aaron; Aguilera, Nadine S

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative processes occur in the head and neck ranging from reactive processes such as infectious mononucleosis to high grade malignant lymphomas. EBV is a ubiquitous herpes virus that infects more than 90% of adults worldwide, and is generally transferred though saliva. Primary infection can occur throughout life. EBV is the first virus linked to malignancies, both epithelial and lymphoid. Both T and B cell lymphomas can be associated with EBV and evidence shows that an individual's response to the acute EBV infection may be critical in the development of subsequent lymphoma. Currently, in situ hybridization for EBER is the most sensitive available test to detect EBV and should be routinely performed in lymphoproliferative lesions of the head and neck. Immunohistochemistry for EBV related proteins, such as LMP1, is much less sensitive than EBER in situ hybridization, but can help determine latency patterns of EBV infection. Although relatively rare, primary EBV-related lymphomas must be considered in the differential of atypical lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck. We present selected EBV-related disorders of the head and neck discussing etiology as well as differential diagnosis.

  3. Human Complement Receptor Type 1/CD35 Is an Epstein-Barr Virus Receptor

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    Javier G. Ogembo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV attachment to primary B cells initiates virus entry. Although CD21 is the only known receptor for EBVgp350/220, a recent report documents EBV-infected B cells from a patient genetically deficient in CD21. On normal resting B cells, CD21 forms two membrane complexes: one with CD19 and another with CD35. Whereas the CD21/CD19 complex is widely retained on immortalized and B cell tumor lines, the related complement-regulatory protein CD35 is lost. To determine the role(s of CD35 in initial infection, we transduced a CD21-negative pre-B cell and myeloid leukemia line with CD35, CD21, or both. Cells expressing CD35 alone bound gp350/220 and became latently infected when the fusion receptor HLA II was coexpressed. Temporal, biophysical, and structural characteristics of CD35-mediated infection were distinct from CD21. Identification of CD35 as an EBV receptor uncovers a salient role in primary infection, addresses unsettled questions of virus tropism, and underscores the importance of EBVgp350/220 for vaccine development.

  4. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Replication by Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Zebra Gene with EBV Specific Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu CHEN; Juan YIN; Yi CHEN; Jiang ZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found in the cells of many tumors. For example, EBV is detectable in almost all cases, and in almost all tumor cells, of non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Activating the latent virus, which will result in its lytic replication and the death of tumor cells, is a potential approach for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers. In this study, three recombinant adenoviruses were constructed to express the Zebra gene, an EBV gene responsible for switching from the latent state to lytic replication. EBV-specific promoters were used in order to limit Zebra expression in EBV-positive cells, and reduce the potential side effects. The EBV promoters used were Cp, Zp and a dual promoter combining both promoters, CpZp. The Zebra protein was detected in HEK293 cells as well as the EBV-positive D98-HR1 cells infected with recombinant viruses. An EBV lytic replication early antigen, EA-D, was also detected in infected D98-HR1, implying the initiation of lytic replication. In the cell viability assay, Zebra-expressing adenoviruses had little effect on EBV-negative HeLa cells, while significantly reducing the cell viability and proliferation of D98-HR1 cells. The results indicate that EBV virus promoters can be used in adenovirus vectors to express the Zebra gene and induce EBV lytic replication in D98-HR1 cells.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation associated with diminished cell-mediated immunity in antarctic expeditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Cooley, H.; Dubow, R.; Lugg, D.

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at 2 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, that was evaluated 2 times before winter isolation and 3 times during isolation. At all 5 evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished CMI response. Diminished DTH was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal DTH responses for all 5 tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, during, and after the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least 1 occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (P = 0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (P viruses.

  6. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in breast cancer from chile

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    Eizuru Yoshito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV and Epstein Barr virus (EBV have been found in breast carcinomas (BCs around the world. In this study, fifty-five BCs from Chile were analyzed for HPV and EBV presence. In addition, HPV-16 viral load/physical status and E6/E7 expressions were determined. Results The amplification of a housekeeping gene showed that 46/55 samples (84% had amplifiable DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 4/46 BCs (8.7% and EBV was detected in 3/46 (6.5% BCs. The analysis of HPV-16 physical status showed that this virus was integrated in all of the tumors with a relatively low viral load (range: 0.14 to 33.8 copies/cell. E6 and E7 transcripts, however, were not detected in any HPV-16 positive specimens. Using a Cox-regression model, we found a statistically significant association between EBV presence and poor survival (p = 0.013. Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that it is unlikely that HPV and/or EBV play a direct role in the etiology of BC.

  7. From Conventional to Next Generation Sequencing of Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes.

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    Kwok, Hin; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2016-02-24

    Genomic sequences of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been of interest because the virus is associated with cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and conditions such as infectious mononucleosis. The progress of whole-genome EBV sequencing has been limited by the inefficiency and cost of the first-generation sequencing technology. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and target enrichment strategies, increasing number of EBV genomes has been published. These genomes were sequenced using different approaches, either with or without EBV DNA enrichment. This review provides an overview of the EBV genomes published to date, and a description of the sequencing technology and bioinformatic analyses employed in generating these sequences. We further explored ways through which the quality of sequencing data can be improved, such as using DNA oligos for capture hybridization, and longer insert size and read length in the sequencing runs. These advances will enable large-scale genomic sequencing of EBV which will facilitate a better understanding of the genetic variations of EBV in different geographic regions and discovery of potentially pathogenic variants in specific diseases.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus and tumors%Epstein-Barr病毒与肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳东

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)is a herpes virus and associates with many tumors such as Burkitt lymphoma,nasopharyngeal carcinoma,gastric cancer and lymphoma and so on. The role and mechanism of EBV infection in the wide spectrum of EBV-associated diseases are different. Study the role of EBV infection in tumor genesis and development may be helpful for revealing the mechanisms of tumor genesis and development.%Epstein-Barr病毒(EBV)属于疱疹病毒科,在很多肿瘤中都能够检测到,如伯基特淋巴瘤、鼻咽癌、胃癌和淋巴瘤等.EBV致病谱广,在这些肿瘤中扮演的角色不同,其发病机制也不同,研究EBV感染在肿瘤发生发展中的作用有助于揭示疾病发生发展的机制.

  9. [Epstein-Barr virus and associated diseases. Course of Medical Virology, Institut Pasteur, 1995/1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thé, G

    1997-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous virus infecting nearly the entire adult human population. The EBV is closely associated with rhinopharyngeal cancer in Southern China and Northern Africa. Three geographic subtypes of EBV have been identified to date. They differ by their nuclear antigene EBNA2. The EBNA2 AC strains predominate in Asia; EBNA2 AD strains predominate in the United States; EBNA2 B strains have all been identified in black Africa. Burkitt's lymphoma is the most frequent tumor in children aged 5 to 9 years in equatorial Africa. A prospective study in 42,000 children in Ouganda demonstrated that children who develop Burkitt's lymphoma have severe EBV infection during the first months of life. Very early EBV infection observed in North or equatorial Africa increases the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma by 20-times that in Europe. Hyperendemic malaria observed in the equatorial zone increases the incidence of tumors by a factor of 20. An association between EBV and rhinopharyngeal cancer is a constant feature only in South China, in North and East Africa, as well as in arctic regions as cases of carcinoma not associated with EBV infection have been reported in Greece. Surveys in the Democratic Republic of China concerning several hundred thousand persons have shown that serum IgA/VCA allows early diagnosis of cancer. It is estimated that the risk of rhinopharyngeal cancer is 20% in Chinese with high levels of IgA/VCA.

  10. Gammaherpesvirus latency accentuates EAE pathogenesis: relevance to Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis.

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    Costanza Casiraghi

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been identified as a putative environmental trigger of multiple sclerosis (MS, yet EBV's role in MS remains elusive. We utilized murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV-68, the murine homolog to EBV, to examine how infection by a virus like EBV could enhance CNS autoimmunity. Mice latently infected with γHV-68 developed more severe EAE including heightened paralysis and mortality. Similar to MS, γHV-68EAE mice developed lesions composed of CD4 and CD8 T cells, macrophages and loss of myelin in the brain and spinal cord. Further, T cells from the CNS of γHV-68 EAE mice were primarily Th1, producing heightened levels of IFN-γ and T-bet accompanied by IL-17 suppression, whereas a Th17 response was observed in uninfected EAE mice. Clearly, γHV-68 latency polarizes the adaptive immune response, directs a heightened CNS pathology following EAE induction reminiscent of human MS and portrays a novel mechanism by which EBV likely influences MS and other autoimmune diseases.

  11. CD21-independent Infection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Human Signet Ring Gastric Carcinoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兵; MasanaoMurakami; MakotoFukuta; KazuyoshiYanagihara; TakeshiSairenji

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinoma cells, the Akata and P3HR-1 strains of EBV were used as the test strains of viruses, and the signet ring cell line HSC-39 of gastric carcinoma cells was used as the target cells of infection. The virus-infected cell clones were isolated by limited dilution method. It was found that the EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) could be detected in the infected cells. The Akata and P3HR-1 EBV infected parental cells and most of clones expressed EBNA1, but not EBNA2. Latent membrane protein (LMP-1) and LMP-2,and the Q promoter (p), but not the Cp/Wp for EBNA gene transcription was active in the infected parental cells as well as all the clones. Uninfected HSC-39 cells did not express CD21, however, Akata but not P3HR-1 EBV-infected clones ex-pressed low level of CD21 mRNA. These results demonstrate that HSC-39 cells are susceptible to both EBV strains and EBVinfects HSC-39 cells through the CD21-independent pathway. This study defines a signet ring type of gastric carcinoma cellsline as a unique target cells for the study of EBV infection mechanism.

  12. Amplification of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by Superinfection with a Strain of EBV Derived from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) hybrid cell line (NPC-KT) lacking defective viral DNA molecules superinfected Raji cells and induced EBV early antigens (EA), as did virus from P3HR-1 cells, which contained defective molecules. The EBV polypeptides induced by NPC-KT appeared to be identical to those induced by P3HR-1 virus. The ability of NPC-KT virus to induce EA was enhanced more than 10-fold by treatment of superinfected cells with dimethyl sulfoxide; however,...

  13. Repression of CIITA by the Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor Zta is independent of its dimerization and DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Nicolae; Osborn, Kay; Sinclair, Alison J

    2016-03-01

    Repression of the cellular CIITA gene is part of the immune evasion strategy of the γherpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during its lytic replication cycle in B-cells. In part, this is mediated through downregulation of MHC class II gene expression via the targeted repression of CIITA, the cellular master regulator of MHC class II gene expression. This repression is achieved through a reduction in CIITA promoter activity, initiated by the EBV transcription and replication factor, Zta (BZLF1, EB1, ZEBRA). Zta is the earliest gene expressed during the lytic replication cycle. Zta interacts with sequence-specific elements in promoters, enhancers and the replication origin (ZREs), and also modulates gene expression through interaction with cellular transcription factors and co-activators. Here, we explore the requirements for Zta-mediated repression of the CIITA promoter. We find that repression by Zta is specific for the CIITA promoter and can be achieved in the absence of other EBV genes. Surprisingly, we find that the dimerization region of Zta is not required to mediate repression. This contrasts with an obligate requirement of this region to correctly orientate the DNA contact regions of Zta to mediate activation of gene expression through ZREs. Additional support for the model that Zta represses the CIITA promoter without direct DNA binding comes from promoter mapping that shows that repression does not require the presence of a ZRE in the CIITA promoter.

  14. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report

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    Sadiku Shemsedin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4, and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus provides a new paradigm: a requirement for the immediate inhibition of apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA viruses such as herpesviruses are known to encode homologs of cellular antiapoptotic viral Bcl-2 proteins (vBcl-2s, which protect the virus from apoptosis in its host cell during virus synthesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human tumor virus and a prominent member of gamma-herpesviruses, infects primary resting B lymphocytes to establish a latent infection and yield proliferating, growth-transformed B cells in vitro. In these cells, 11 viral genes that contribute to cellular transformation are consistently expressed. EBV also encodes two vBcl-2 genes whose roles are unclear. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of both vBcl-2 genes disabled EBV's ability to transform primary resting B lymphocytes. Primary B cells infected with a vBcl-2-negative virus did not enter the cell cycle and died of immediate apoptosis. Apoptosis was abrogated in infected cells in which vBcl-2 genes were maximally expressed within the first 24 h postinfection. During latent infection, however, the expression of vBcl-2 genes became undetectable. Thus, both vBcl-2 homologs are essential for initial cellular transformation but become dispensable once a latent infection is established. Because long-lived, latently infected memory B cells and EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas are derived from EBV-infected proapoptotic germinal center B cells, we conclude that vBcl-2 genes are essential for the initial evasion of apoptosis in cells in vivo in which the virus establishes a latent infection or causes cellular transformation or both.

  16. Cancer stem-like cells in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samantha Wei-Man Lun; Siu-Tim Cheung; Kwok-Wai Lo

    2014-01-01

    Although the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has spread to all populations in the world, EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent only in South China and Southeast Asia. The role of EBV in the malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelium is the main focus of current researches. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy have been successful in treating early stage NPC, but the recurrence rates remain high. Unfortunately, local relapse and metastasis are commonly unresponsive to conventional treatments. These recurrent and metastatic lesions are believed to arise from residual or surviving cells that have the properties of cancer stem cels. These cancer stem-like cels (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew, differentiate, and sustain propagation. They are also chemo-resistant and can form spheres in anchorage-independent environments. This review summarizes recent researches on the CSCs in EBV-associated NPC, including the findings regarding cell surface markers, stem cell-related transcription factors, and various signaling pathways. In particular, the review focuses on the roles of EBV latent genes [latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A)], cellular microRNAs, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette chemodrug transporters in contributing to the properties of CSCs, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem-like transition, and chemo-resistance. Novel therapeutics that enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy and inhibitors that suppress the properties of CSCs are also discussed.

  17. Frequency of Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in human gliomas

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    Renata Fragelli Fonseca

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is also associated with several human tumors, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some cases of gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, among other neoplasms. The aim of this study was to screen 75 primary gliomas for the presence of specific EBV DNA sequences by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with confirmation by direct sequencing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prevalence study on EBV molecular genetics at a molecular pathology laboratory in a university hospital and at an applied genetics laboratory in a national institution. METHODS: A total of 75 primary glioma biopsies and 6 others from other tumors from the central nervous system were obtained. The tissues were immediately frozen for subsequent DNA extraction by means of traditional methods using proteinase K digestion and extraction with a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol mixture. DNA was precipitated with ethanol, resuspended in buffer and stored. The PCRs were carried out using primers for amplification of the EBV BamM region. Positive and negative controls were added to each reaction. The PCR products were used for direct sequencing for confirmation. RESULTS: The viral sequences were positive in 11/75 (14.7% of our samples. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EBV DNA was 11/75 (14.7% in our glioma collection. Further molecular and epidemiological studies are needed to establish the possible role played by EBV in the tumorigenesis of gliomas.

  18. Nuclear translocation of EGF receptor regulated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Yongguang; SONG; Xin; TAN; Yunnian; LIN; Xiaofeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV encoded proteins, and also it has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Traditional receptor theory demonstrates that cell surface receptors exert biological functions on the membrane, which neither enter into the nucleus nor directly affect the transcription of the target genes. But, advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly developed our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated NPC cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear translocation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner from both quantitative and qualitative levels through the Western blot analysis and the immunofluorescent analysis with a laser scanning confocal microscope. We further demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation, and the nuclear accumulation of EGFR regulated by LMP1 was in a ligand-independent manner. These findings provide a novel view that the regulation of LMP1 on the nuclear translocation of EGFR is critical for the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  19. Urea-mediated cross-presentation of soluble Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein.

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    Sascha Barabas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soluble extracellular proteins usually do not enter the endogenous human leukocyte antigen (HLA I-dependent presentation pathway of antigen-presenting cells, strictly impeding their applicability for the re-stimulation of protein-specific CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. Here we present for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV BZLF1 a novel strategy that facilitates protein translocation into antigen-presenting cells by its solubilisation in high molar urea and subsequent pulsing of cells in presence of low molar urea. Stimulation of PBMC from HLA-matched EBV-seropositive individuals with urea-treated BZLF1 but not untreated BZLF1 induces an efficient reactivation of BZLF1-specific CTL. Urea-treated BZLF1 (uBZLF1 enters antigen-presenting cells in a temperature-dependent manner by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is processed by the proteasome into peptides that are bound to nascent HLA I molecules. Dendritic cells and monocytes but also B cells can cross-present uBZLF1 in vitro. The strategy described here has potential for use in the development of improved technologies for the monitoring of protein-specific CTL.

  20. ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS WITH MUCOSAL SQUAMOUS CELL CANCERS OF HEAD AND NECK

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    Saquib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the commonest cancer in India and consists of about one-third of all cancers. Among viral infections, Epstein Barr virus (EBV has been implicated in the association of many head and neck cancers. Role of EBV as etiological factor in our population remains unknown. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To determine the EBV related etiology of mucosal Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC in Kashmir Valley and if positive to define sub-typing of EBV and to find a correlation between the burden of EBV and disease status. MATERIAL METHODS: Observational single centre retrospective –prospective study. The study included 53 tissue samples from patients with Squamous Cell carcinoma of Head and Neck region. An equal number of blood samples were taken from healthy volunteers as a control for the reaction process. Sample collection and storage was done as per standard protocol. DNA amplification was done by Polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We did not observe any sample which tested positive for EBV. All samples were negative for EBV DNA. CONCLUSION: EBV has no role in the pathogenesis of Head and Neck Cancers in Kashmiri ethnic population of India. Different Genetic makeup of our population may be responsible for it. Further studies are needed to elucidate the etiology of head and neck Carcinoma in our population.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load determination using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxin; Robetorye, Ryan S

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects virtually the entire human population and infection persists throughout the lifetime of its host. EBV has been associated with the development of a wide variety of neoplasms, including lymphoma, carcinoma, and sarcoma. In addition, EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are particularly prevalent in immunosuppressed individuals, including AIDS patients, transplant recipients, and patients with congenital immunodeficiencies. In recent years, EBV viral load assessment has been extensively implemented in clinical practice for the diagnosis and monitoring of EBV-associated malignancies and lymphoproliferative disorders. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) has become the method of choice for quantification of specific EBV nucleic acid sequences. This method is fast, extremely sensitive, and accurate, requires only very small amounts of input nucleic acid, and is relatively simple to perform. These characteristics have made it the method of choice for EBV viral load determination. This chapter describes the use of a laboratory-developed RQ-PCR EBV viral load assay for the detection of EBV DNA in cell-free plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Humoral Immune Responses in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely distributed in the world and associated with a still increasing number of acute, chronic, malignant and autoimmune disease syndromes. Humoral immune responses to EBV have been studied for diagnostic, pathogenic and protective (vaccine) purposes. These studies use a range of methodologies, from cell-based immunofluorescence testing to antibody-diversity analysis using immunoblot and epitope analysis using recombinant or synthetic peptide-scanning. First, the individual EBV antigen complexes (VCA , MA, EA(D), EA(R) and EBNA) are defined at cellular and molecular levels, providing a historic overview. The characteristic antibody responses to these complexes in health and disease are described, and differences are highlighted by clinical examples. Options for EBV vaccination are briefly addressed. For a selected number of immunodominant proteins, in particular EBNA1, the interaction with human antibodies is further detailed at the epitope level, revealing interesting insights for structure, function and immunological aspects, not considered previously. Humoral immune responses against EBV-encoded tumour antigens LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 are addressed, which provide novel options for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, some considerations on EBV-linked autoimmune diseases are given, and mechanisms of antigen mimicry are briefly discussed. Further analysis of humoral immune responses against EBV in health and disease in carefully selected patient cohorts will open new options for understanding pathogenesis of individual EBV-linked diseases and developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive sporadic burkitt lymphoma: an age-related lymphoproliferative disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Osumi, Tomoo; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Nakamura, Naoya; Ohshima, Koichi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in 20% to 30% of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL). However, only a few studies of EBV-positive (EBV) sBL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial. To highlight the features of EBV sBL, we compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 cases of EBV and 117 cases of EBV-negative (EBV) sBL in Japan. EBV sBL showed significantly higher age distribution (median, 42 vs. 13 y; PEBV group showed significantly higher incidence of involvement of tonsil (P=0.027), adrenal gland (P=0.011), and cervical lymph node (P=0.040). In addition, the EBV group tended to have higher incidence of nodal involvement (P=0.078) and involvement of para-aorta lymph node (P=0.084) and heart (P=0.050). In contrast, the gastrointestinal tract was less frequently affected in EBV sBL (P=0.024). In addition, the less positivity for MUM1 (P=0.020) of EBV sBL was highlighted. These results indicate that biological behavior and pathogenesis of EBV sBL might be different from those of EBV sBL. Our results demonstrate that EBV sBL has an aspect of age-related disease and is a distinct clinicopathologic subtype, which should be distinguished from EBV sBL.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with gastric carcinoma: The question is what is the significance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the possible role of the Epstein- Barr Virus (EBV) in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). It is unclear whether EBV is involved in GC development or is a consequence of gastric inflammation secondary to immunosuppressive treatments. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out of all published observational studies on the temporal association between EBV and GC, with a view to determine a causal relationship. RESULTS: The present study showed that the worldwide crude prevalence of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma was 8.29%. The prevalence varied from 7.08% for intestinal type and 9.82% for diffuse type of GC. It was observed that Western and Central Asian countries had a significantly higher frequency of EBV positive cases compared to South-Eastern countries. America had the highest EBV-GC prevalence whereas Europe had the lowest. CONCLUSION: The present review has demonstrated a high prevalence of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma. However, studies designed to assess a temporal relationship and histological association using sensitive techniques should be carried out to establish the role of EBV in GC carcinogenesis.

  5. A SURVEY OF EPSTEIN - BARR VIRUS (EBV INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN TEHRAN

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    Sh. Modarres

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey was carried out to determine the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection in childhood and adolescence in Tehran during 1996-1997. Sera from 480 children £ 14 years old and 740 males and females 15-40 years of age were investigated for EBV IgG antibodies to the viral caspid antigen (VCA by an enzyme-linked lmmunosorbant assay (ELISA. The incidence of EBV Infection increased from 50% at £ 3 years of age to about 70% in the 4-6 years old group, was stationary at the age of 7-14 years, and then increased old further progressively with age, to reach more than 90% in males and females by age ³ 40 years. There was a significant increase in incidence of infection with age (P<0.001, and no significant sex difference. The study indicates that infection with EBV has a rather early and widespread occurrence in Tehran compared with other developing areas.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus as a Trigger of Autoimmune Liver Diseases

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    Eirini I. Rigopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases includes a combination of genetic factors and environmental exposures including infectious agents. Infectious triggers are commonly indicated as being involved in the induction of autoimmune disease, with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV being implicated in several autoimmune disorders. EBV is appealing in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, due to its high prevalence worldwide, its persistency throughout life in the host’s B lymphocytes, and its ability to alter the host’s immune response and to inhibit apoptosis. However, the evidence in support of EBV in the pathogenesis varies among diseases. Autoimmune liver diseases (AiLDs, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, have a potential causative link with EBV. The data surrounding EBV and AiLD are scarce. The lack of evidence surrounding EBV in AiLD may also be reflective of the rarity of these conditions. EBV infection has also been linked to other autoimmune conditions, which are often found to be concomitant with AiLD. This paper will critically examine the literature surrounding the link between EBV infection and AiLD development. The current evidence is far from being conclusive of the theory of a link between EBV and AiLD.

  7. Viral studies in burkitt lymphoma: association with Epstein-Barr virus but not HHV-8.

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    Queiroga, Eduardo M; Gualco, Gabriela; Chioato, Lucimara; Harrington, William J; Araujo, Iguaracyra; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-08-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, composed of a monomorphic population of medium-sized B cells with a high proliferation rate and a consistent MYC translocation. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with BL with different frequencies depending on the clinical variant. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), infects a wide range of normal cells, having a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. In secondary immunodeficiencies, such as HIV-1 infection and organ transplantation, HHV-8 is considered an opportunistic pathogen linked to the development of lymphomas in patients with AIDS and HIV + patients. We studied the association of EBV and HHV-8 by immunohistochemical analysis, in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction in a large number of well-characterized BLs. EBV was present in 45.0% of all BL cases with higher incidence in the pediatric group; most cases were EBV type A. We found no association of BL with HHV-8 in EBV + BL or in EBV-cases, including the HIV + BL group.

  8. Detection of a Specific Biomarker for Epstein-Barr Virus Using a Polymer-Based Genosensor

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    Renata P. A. Balvedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes methodology for direct and indirect detections of a specific oligonucleotide for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV using electrochemical techniques. The sequence of oligonucleotide probe (EBV1 revealed a high sequence identity (100% with the EBV genome. For the development of the genosensor, EBV1 was grafted to the platform sensitized with poly(4-aminothiophenol. After that, the hybridization reaction was carried out with the complementary target (EBV2 on the modified electrode surface using ethidium bromide as DNA intercalator. The oxidation peak currents of ethidium bromide increased linearly with the values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 3.78 to 756 µmol·L−1. In nonstringent experimental conditions, this genosensor can detect 17.32 nmol·L−1 (three independent experiments of oligonucleotide target, discriminating between complementary and non-complementary oligonucleotides, as well as differentiating one-base mismatch, as required for detection of genetic diseases caused by point mutations. The biosensor also displayed high specificity to the EBV target with elimination of interference from mix (alanine, glucose, uric acid, ascorbic acid, bovine serum albumin (BSA, glutamate and glycine and good stability (120 days. In addition, it was possible to observe differences between hybridized and non-hybridized surfaces through atomic force microscopy.

  9. Impaired Cytokine Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

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    Anette Holck Draborg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed cytokine responses against latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients and to expand the previously determined impaired EBV-directed T-cell response. The concentrations of 14 cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, IL17, IL18, IL1β, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ, TGFβ, and GM-CSF were quantified upon stimulation of whole blood with latent state antigen EBNA1, lytic cycle antigen EBV-EA/D, and the superantigen SEB. To avoid results affected by lack of lymphocytes, we focused on SLE patients with normal levels. Decreased induction of IL12, IFNγ, IL17, and IL6 upon EBNA1 stimulation and that of IFNγ, IL6, TNFβ, IL1β, and GM-CSF upon EBV-EA/D stimulation were detected in SLE patients compared to HCs. IFNγ responses, especially, were shown to be reduced. Induction of several cytokines was furthermore impaired in SLE patients upon SEB stimulation, but no difference was observed in basic levels. Results substantiate the previously proposed impaired regulation of the immune response against latent and lytic cycle EBV infection in SLE patients without lymphopenia. Furthermore, results indicate general dysfunction of leukocytes and their cytokine regulations in SLE patients.

  10. The role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Chi; Man; Tsang; Sai; Wah; Tsao

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) infection. EBV episomes are detected in almost all NPC cells. The role of EBV in NPC pathogenesis has long been postulated but remains enigmatic. In contrast to infection of B lymphocytes, EBV infection does not directly transform nasopharyngeal epithelial cells into proliferative clones with malignant potential. EBV infection of normal pharyngeal epithelial cells is predominantly lytic in nature. Genetic alterations in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelium, in combination with inflammatory stimulation in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, presumably play essential roles in the establishment of a latent EBV infection in infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells during the early development of NPC. Establishment of latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and expression of latent viral genes, including the BART transcripts and BART-encoded micro RNAs, are crucial features of NPC. Expression of EBV genes may drive further malignant transformation of premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells into cancer cells. The difficulties involved in the establishment of NPC cell lines and the progressive loss of EBV epsiomes in NPC cells propagated in culture strongly implicate the contribution of host stromal components to the growth of NPC cells in vivo and maintenance of EBV in infected NPC cells. Defining the growth advantages of EBV-infected NPC cells in vivo will lead to a better understanding of the contribution of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis, and may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for NPC treatment.

  11. Epstein Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer of the colon associated Hodgkin lymphoma in Crohn's disease.

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    Moran, Neil R; Webster, Bradley; Lee, Kenneth M; Trotman, Judith; Kwan, Yiu-Lam; Napoli, John; Leong, Rupert W

    2015-05-21

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCU) form part of a spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. They have been reported in the setting of immunosenescence and iatrogenic immunosuppression, affecting the oropharyngeal mucosa, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Case reports and series to date suggest a benign natural history responding to conservative management, particularly in the GIT. We report an unusual case of EBVMCU in the colon, arising in the setting of immunosuppression in the treatment of Crohn's disease, with progression to Hodgkin lymphoma 18 mo after cessation of infliximab. The patient presented with multiple areas of segmental colonic ulceration, histologically showing a polymorphous infiltrate with EBV positive Reed-Sternberg-like cells. A diagnosis of EBVMCU was made. The ulcers failed to regress upon cessation of infliximab and methotrexate for 18 mo. Following commencement of prednisolone for her Crohn's disease, the patient developed widespread Hodgkin lymphoma which ultimately presented as a life-threatening lower GIT bleed requiring emergency colectomy. This is the first report of progression of EBVMCU to Hodgkin lymphoma, in the setting of ongoing iatrogenic immunosuppression and inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus genomes in undifferentiated and squamous cell nasopharyngeal carcinomas in Italian patients.

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    Della Torre, G; Pilotti, S; Donghi, R; Pasquini, G; Longoni, A; Grandi, C; Salvatori, P; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1994-03-01

    Although undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasopharynx are regarded as two distinct histopathologic and clinical entities, it is unclear whether, like UC, SCC carries Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens to test for the presence of EBV DNA in 20 cases of UC and 9 cases of SCC. Multiple copies of the viral genome were regularly detected in all UCs; however, of the nine cases of SCC, seven had no detectable EBV DNA and two contained viral genomes in a low copy number. In parallel, a marked difference in the serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies between patients with UC and SCC was found. Our findings provide evidence for the specific association of EBV with UC in Italian patients and prove by means of a highly sensitive molecular technique that SCC is occasionally related to EBV DNA. Because of the absence of EBV DNA in most cases of SCC and the minimal viral DNA copy number in the few EBV-associated cases of SCC, a different pathway of oncogenic transformation and growth of the nasopharyngeal epithelium is suggested for SCC and UC.

  13. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to immunoglobulin g autoantibody exacerbated by epstein-barr virus.

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    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Pomper, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are caused by the production of an autoantibody that targets determinants on red blood cells (RBCs). This autoantibody can be immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, or IgA. Some autoantibodies react optimally at 0° to 4°C (ie, cold agglutinin) and usually are clinically insignificant. High-titer cold agglutinins are associated with IgM autoantibody and complement fixation induced by infectious agents, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This case report describes a 31-year-old man who had jaundice, a hemoglobin of 6.0 gdL, and was diagnosed with a hemolytic crisis of AIHA. He received a total of 11 RBC transfusions during a 15-hour period without sustained response and later died. The direct antiglobulin test results for this patient were positive, whereas the cold-agglutinin-testing results were negative. We detected EBV DNA in blood via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a rare case of AIHA associated with an IgG autoantibody and exacerbated by EBV infection, causing a fatal hemolytic anemia.

  14. Characterization of epstein-barr virus-infected mantle cell lymphoma lines.

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    Jin Z

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV resides in resting B cells in vivo. However, an ideal in vitro system for studying EBV latent infection in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, a mantle cell lymphoma line, SP53, was successfully infected with a recombinant EBV containing a neomycin-resistant gene. The EBV-carrying SP53 cells were obtained by selection using G418. They expressed EBER-1, EBNAs, and LMP1; this expression pattern of the EBV genes was similar to that in a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL. However, proliferation assay showed that the EBV-carrying SP53 cells have a doubling time of 73 h, compared with 57 h of SP53 cells. Transplantation of 10(8 SP53 cells to nude mice formed tumors in 4 of 10 mice inoculated, but the EBV-carrying SP53 cells did not. Unexpectedly, EBV infection reduced the proliferation and tumorigenicity of SP53 cells. However, the EBV-carrying SP53 cells showed higher resistance to apoptosis induced by serum starvation than did the SP53 cells. The inhibition of proliferation and the resistance to apoptosis induced in SP53 cells by EBV infection indicate that this cell line might to some extent provide a model of in vivo EBV reservoir cells.

  15. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in periphe

  16. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  17. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

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    Klein, George, E-mail: Georg.Klein@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-21

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore as a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt lymphoma

  18. Initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in human lymphoid cells converted by Epstein-Barr virus

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    Oppenheim, A.; Shlomai, Z.; Ben-Bassat, H.

    1981-08-01

    Replicon size was estimated in two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human lymphoma lines, BJAB and Ramos, and four EBV-positive lines derived from the former ones by infection (conversion) with two viral strains, B95-8 and P3HR-1. Logarithmic cultures were pulse-labeled with (/sup -3/H)thymidine, and the deoxyribonucleic acid was spread on microscopic slides and autoradiographed by the method of Huberman and Riggs. Three of the four EBV-converted cell lines, BJAB/B95-8, Ra/B95-8, and Ra/HRIK, were found to have significantly shorter replicons (41, 21, 54% shorter, respectively), i.e., more initiation points, than their EBV-negative parents. BJAB/HRIK had replicons which were only slightly shorter (11%) than those of BJAB. However, analysis of track length demonstrated that extensive track fusion occurred during the labeling of BJAB/HRIK, implying that its true average replicon size is shorter than the observed value. The results indicate that in analogy to simian virus 40, EBV activates new initiation points for cellular DNA replication in EBV-transformed cells.

  19. Detection of Epstein- Barr virus infection in lymphoma: ELISA and PCR method

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    Pourakbari B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Latent Epstein- Barr virus (EBV genomes are found in the malignant cells of approximately one-third of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL cases. Detection of EBV viral DNA could potentially be used as a biomarker of disease activity. Our goal was to compare of EBV DNA detection in samples obtained from lymphoma patients versus controls."n"nMethods: One milliliter uncoagulated and 1ml coagulated blood sample for DNA extraction and serum analysis using ELISA for IgG anti EBNA-1 were obtained from 44 lymphoma patients and from 44 normal controls, respectively. EBV genome, EBNA-2, was examined from DNA extracts of paraffin embedded and blood samples using Nested PCR with type specific inner primers."n"nResults: Positive results for ELISA, Blood and biopsy PCR in study group were, 84.1%, 27.3% and 13.6%, respectively. However, these results in control group were 47.7% and 16% for ELISA and Blood PCR assays, respectively. Positive results in ELISA, Blood PCR and Biopsy PCR in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin patients were found in 21(84%, 6(24%, 4(16% and 16(84.2%, 6(31.6%, 2(10.5% of specimens, respectively. No significant differences in EBV detection were found between these two patient groups (p values for ELISA, Blood PCR

  20. An Epstein-Barr virus mutant produces immunogenic defective particles devoid of viral DNA.

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    Pavlova, Sophia; Feederle, Regina; Gärtner, Kathrin; Fuchs, Walter; Granzow, Harald; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) from hepatitis B and human papillomaviruses have been successfully used as preventative vaccines against these infectious agents. These VLPs consist of a self-associating capsid polymer formed from a single structure protein and are devoid of viral DNA. Since virions from herpesviruses consist of a large number of molecules of viral and cellular origin, generating VLPs from a subset of these would be a particularly arduous task. Therefore, we have adopted an alternative strategy that consists of producing DNA-free defective virus particles in a cell line infected by a herpesvirus mutant incapable of packaging DNA. We previously reported that an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant devoid of the terminal repeats (ΔTR) that act as packaging signals in herpesviruses produces substantial amounts of VLPs and of light particles (LPs). However, ΔTR virions retained some infectious genomes, and although these mutants had lost their transforming abilities, this poses potential concerns for clinical applications. Therefore, we have constructed a series of mutants that lack proteins involved in maturation and assessed their ability to produce viral DNA-free VLP/LPs. Some of the introduced mutations were deleterious for capsid maturation and virus production. However, deletion of BFLF1/BFRF1A or of BBRF1 resulted in the production of DNA-free VLPs/LPs. The ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A viruses elicited a potent CD4(+) T-cell response that was indistinguishable from the one obtained with wild-type controls. In summary, the defective particles produced by the ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A mutant fulfill the criteria of efficacy and safety expected from a preventative vaccine.

  1. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  2. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Olivia; Lambert, Stacie L; Krams, Sheri M; Martinez, Olivia M

    2012-01-01

    The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR)-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  3. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hatton

    Full Text Available The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  4. Primary meningeal Epstein-Barr virus-related leiomyosarcoma in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus: review of literature, emphasizing the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Giampietri, Eduardo-Alfredo; Yañes, Hugo Heinicke; Orrego Puelles, José; Barrionuevo, Carlos

    2004-12-01

    We describe the clinical, radiologic, surgical, and pathologic findings of a 29-year-old Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus-infected man with a primary parasellar meningeal leiomyosarcoma involving the left lesser esphenoidal wing and the cavernous sinus. Over a period of 13 months, he developed headache, vomiting, insomnia, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left parasellar extra-axial mass that was isointense in T1, hypointense in T2, and gadolinium-enhanced. The patient underwent subtotal resection of the tumor. The neoplasm was composed of spindle cells with smooth-muscle features. It showed moderate atypia, inconspicuous nucleoli, and scanty mitosis. No tumor necrosis was detected. The immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity for vimentin, desmin, and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. A low-grade leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. The in situ hybridization showed positive nuclear reactivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. The immunohistochemistry was negative for Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. The main differential diagnosis of primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors includes meningioma and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Epstein-Barr virus has been demonstrated in most smooth-muscle tumors associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors, exceedingly rare neoplasms, remarkably affect young adults with AIDS. Comparatively, most AIDS-related visceral (nonmeningeal) smooth-muscle tumors have been reported in children. The permissiveness and tumorigenesis associated with Epstein-Barr virus may depend on the age of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  5. Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Dehghanian, Paria; Vahdatinia, Mahsa; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic proliferation of unknown etiology. It is characterized by granuloma-like proliferation of Langerhans-type dendritic cells and mainly affects young children. Although multiple investigators have suggested the possible role of viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the pathogenesis of LCH, it remains, however, debated. Objectives: The EBV infection is reported to be associated with LCH. Nevertheless, no report could be found about involved Iranian children in English medical literature. In this study, we investigated the presence of EBV in Iranian children with LCH. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, in which we investigated the prevalence of presence of EBV DNA in LCH, using paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 30 patients with LCH and 30 age and tissue-matched controls, who were operated for reasons other than infectious diseases (between the years 2002 and 2012), by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, in the department of pediatric pathology. No ethical issues arose in the study, because only the pathology reports were reviewed, retrospectively, and the patients were anonymous. Results: There was a significant difference in prevalence of EBV presence between patients and controls. The EBV was found by RT-PCR in 19 (63.33%) out of 30 patients and only in eight (26.7%) of 30 control samples. The P = 0.004, was calculated using chi-square test (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 1.58 ‒ 14.25). Conclusions: Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings. PMID:26870310

  6. [Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 oncogene variants in cell lines of different origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, L S; Senyuta, N B; Goncharova, E V; Scherback, L N; Smirnova, R V; Pavlish, O A; Gurtsevitch, V E

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread infection in the human population. Typically, infection occurs in early childhood without serious consequences for infected people. At the same time, a secondary infection with an additional EBV strain occurs quite often. During the in vitro cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons infected with multiple strains of the virus, only one of these strains with higher transforming potential becomes dominant, while the others are eliminated. Under certain conditions, such a highly transforming EBV strain apparently is able to be the etiologic agent of EBVassociated diseases. To find out the range of highly transforming EBV strains prevalent among Russians, cell lines from patients with EBV-associated and non-associated tumors, as well as healthy individuals, were established. The structural analysis of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1), a key oncogene of the virus, isolated from established cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes of blood donors was carried out, and data obtained were compared with the respective data for LMP1 isolates, amplified from cell lines established from African and Japanese patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. The data obtained show a genetic relationship between Russian LMP1 isolates regardless the fact whether they come from patients with tumors or healthy individuals and differ significantly from LMP1 isolates from Burkitt's lymphoma patients. Thus, the results of the study suggest that in nonendemic region for EBV-associated pathology, Russia, any strain of EBV with any structure of LMP1 with concomitant effect of additional factors may become an etiologic agent for EBV-associated neoplasia.

  7. Oral ulceration associated with concurrent herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus infection in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Gisele N; Marsh, William L; Allen, Carl M

    2015-06-01

    In immunocompromised patients, oral ulcerations are common and have a wide spectrum of causes, including herpesvirus infection. We report on a case in which an oral ulcer was simultaneously infected by herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a kidney-pancreas transplant recipient. A 46-year-old woman presented with a clinically nonspecific dorsal tongue ulcer of 3 months duration. Histopathologic evaluation indicated keratinocytes exhibiting herpetic viral cytopathic effect. Nuclear and cytologic alterations suggestive of CMV infection were found in endothelial cells subjacent to the ulcer. Immunohistochemistry testing for HSV and CMV was positive in these cells. Large atypical mononuclear cells were also evident in the ulcer bed's inflammatory infiltrate, which had intense nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization. We believe this is the first well-documented report of the definitive concomitant presence of HSV, CMV, and EBV in an immunocompromised patient. Although the pathogenesis of coinfected ulcers remains unknown, a synergistic effect is possible.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 impairs G2 checkpoint in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells through defective Chk1 activation.

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    Wen Deng

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in Southeast Asia, particularly in southern regions of China. EBV infection is closely associated with NPC and has long been postulated to play an etiological role in the development of NPC. However, the role of EBV in malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells remains enigmatic. The current hypothesis of NPC development is that premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells harboring genetic alterations support EBV infection and expression of EBV genes induces further genomic instability to facilitate the development of NPC. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is a well-documented EBV-encoded oncogene. The involvement of LMP1 in human epithelial malignancies has been implicated, but the mechanisms of oncogenic actions of LMP1, particularly in nasopharyngeal cells, are unclear. Here we observed that LMP1 expression in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells impaired G2 checkpoint, leading to formation of unrepaired chromatid breaks in metaphases after γ-ray irradiation. We further found that defective Chk1 activation was involved in the induction of G2 checkpoint defect in LMP1-expressing nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Impairment of G2 checkpoint could result in loss of the acentrically broken chromatids and propagation of broken centric chromatids in daughter cells exiting mitosis, which facilitates chromosome instability. Our findings suggest that LMP1 expression facilitates genomic instability in cells under genotoxic stress. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in LMP1-induced genomic instability in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will shed lights on the understanding of role of EBV infection in NPC development.

  9. Production and characterisation of Epstein-Barr virus helicase-primase complex and its accessory protein BBLF2/3.

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    Thierry, Eric; Brennich, Martha; Round, Adam; Buisson, Marlyse; Burmeister, Wim P; Hutin, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The helicase-primase complex is part of the lytic DNA replication machinery of herpesviruses, but up to now, almost nothing is known about its structure. For Epstein-Barr virus it consists in the helicase BBLF4, the primase BSLF1 and the accessory protein BBLF2/3. The accessory protein shows only weak sequence homology within the herpesvirus family but may be related to an inactive B-family polymerase. BSLF1 belongs to the archaeo-eukaryotic primase family, whereas the helicase BBLF4 has been related either to Dda helicases of caudovirales or to Pif1 helicases. We produced the helicase-primase complex in insect cells using a baculovirus coding for all three proteins simultaneously. The soluble monomeric helicase-primase complex containing the three proteins with 1:1:1 stoichiometry showed ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated in the presence of ssDNA oligomers. Furthermore, we expressed BBLF2/3 as soluble monomeric protein and performed small-angle X-ray scattering experiments which yielded an envelope whose shape is compatible with B-family polymerases.

  10. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, J; Gaitán, M I

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis development have yet to be clearly identified, but considerable evidence indicates that autoimmunity plays an important role in the etiology of the disease. It is generally accepted that autoimmune diseases like MS arise from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although environmental factors unequivocally influencing MS development have yet to be established, accumulating evidence singles out several candidates, including sunlight-UV exposure or vitamin D deficiency, viral infections, hygiene, and cigarette smoking. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with different autoimmune diseases. Several investigations indicate 125 (OH)2 vitamin D plays a critical role in shaping T-cell response and inducing T cells with immunosuppressive properties. Likewise, helminth infections represent another potential environmental factor exerting immunomodulatory properties. Both epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence to support autoimmune down-regulation secondary to parasite infections in patients with MS, through regulatory T- and B-cell action, with effects extending beyond simple response to an infectious agent. Finally, different epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus infection confers added risk of developing MS. Proposed mechanisms responsible for this association include activation and expansion of self-reactive T and B cells, lower threshold for self-tolerance breakdown, and enhanced autoreactive B-cell survival, all to be discussed in this review. Understanding environmental factors influencing propensity to MS will lead to new and more effective approaches to prevent and treat the disease.

  11. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease. PMID:27383531

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation as an unusual presentation of an Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, JHM; van Tol, KM; van Essen, LH; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr viral (EBV)-infection usually presents as fever, sore throat, fatigue, lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytosis. We describe a patient with disseminated intravascular coagulation as the presenting symptom caused by a primary EBV infection. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights res

  13. A virtual look at Epstein-Barr virus infection: biological interpretations.

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    Karen A Duca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using computer simulation and mathematical modeling to gain insight into biological and other complex systems is receiving increased attention. However, it is as yet unclear to what extent these techniques will provide useful biological insights or even what the best approach is. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV provides a good candidate to address these issues. It persistently infects most humans and is associated with several important diseases. In addition, a detailed biological model has been developed that provides an intricate understanding of EBV infection in the naturally infected human host and accounts for most of the virus' diverse and peculiar properties. We have developed an agent-based computer model/simulation (PathSim, Pathogen Simulation of this biological model. The simulation is performed on a virtual grid that represents the anatomy of the tonsils of the nasopharyngeal cavity (Waldeyer ring and the peripheral circulation--the sites of EBV infection and persistence. The simulation is presented via a user friendly visual interface and reproduces quantitative and qualitative aspects of acute and persistent EBV infection. The simulation also had predictive power in validation experiments involving certain aspects of viral infection dynamics. Moreover, it allows us to identify switch points in the infection process that direct the disease course towards the end points of persistence, clearance, or death. Lastly, we were able to identify parameter sets that reproduced aspects of EBV-associated diseases. These investigations indicate that such simulations, combined with laboratory and clinical studies and animal models, will provide a powerful approach to investigating and controlling EBV infection, including the design of targeted anti-viral therapies.

  14. The role of cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus influenzae and Epstein Barr virus in Guillain Barre syndrome.

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    Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002. Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8. There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017. Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS.

  15. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  16. Evaluation of the association between epstein-barr virus and mycosis fungoides

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    Yalda Nahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Despite extensive studies, etiopathogenesis of MF is unknown. Environmental, infectious and genetic factors have been proposed as potential risk factors of MF. Herpes virus family members, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, have been among the viral factors of interest in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association of EBV infection with MF. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on skin biopsy samples of 57 MF patients referred to Pathology Department of Mashhad Emam Reza Hospital from 2000 to 2011 and also on 57 melanocytic nevus samples matched with patients for age and sex. The presence of EBV in samples was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: In this study, out of 57 MF samples, there were 34 male and 23 female patients, with male:female ratio of 1.04. Mean patient age was 51.4 years. There were 22 and 4 positive cases of EBV in the case and control groups, respectively. Chi-square statistical test showed that EBV was significantly higher in case group than control (P = 0.000. There was no correlation between the presence of EBV in samples with lesion type, age and gender of the patients. Conclusion: According to our study results, EBV is a likely etiologic agent or potential promoter in the pathogenesis of MF.

  17. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland: is an association with Epstein-Barr virus possible in non-endemic areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaris, A; Patakiouta, F; Xirou, P; Manganaris, T

    2007-06-01

    Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare histological type of cancer of the salivary glands. Here is reported a case of LEC of the parotid gland that developed in a Caucasian female, whose serology was positive for Epstein-Barr virus antibody. The patient underwent surgical treatment and postoperative radiotherapy. Because of the relatively limited clinical data concerning LEC of the salivary glands compared to other more common histological types, the clinical course, optimal treatment and prognosis have not been extensively studied. The aim of this report was to summarize all the key points, following a comprehensive literature review.

  18. Genome-wide analyses of Epstein-Barr virus reveal conserved RNA structures and a novel stable intronic sequence RNA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus implicated in cancer and autoimmune disorders. Little is known concerning the roles of RNA structure in this important human pathogen. This study provides the first comprehensive genome-wide survey of RNA and RNA structure in EBV. Results Novel EBV RNAs and RNA structures were identified by computational modeling and RNA-Seq analyses of EBV. Scans of the genomic sequences of four EBV strains (EBV-1, EBV-2, GD1, and GD2) and of the clo...

  19. A child with Epstein-Barr Virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicated by coronary artery lesion mimicking Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shogo; Yoshimura, Ken; Tanabe, Yuko; Kimata, Takahisa; Noda, Yukihiro; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2013-10-01

    There is considerable overlap between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and Kawasaki disease (KD) in terms of aberrant immune response though the etiology of KD remains unknown. We present a case fulfilling the criteria of both HLH and KD complicated by coronary artery dilatation: HLH was confirmed to be triggered by Epstein-Barr virus. This case alarms us the possibility that even patients with HLH may be complicated by coronary artery lesion, which is one of the hallmarks of KD. We would like to draw attention that if features of KD become apparent in patients with HLH, echocardiographic examinations should be performed not to miss coronary artery lesion.

  20. Development of Drugs for Epstein - Barr virus using High-Throughput in silico Virtual Screening

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    Li, Ning; Thompson, Scott; Jiang, Hualiang; Lieberman, Paul M.; Luo, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitious human herpesvirus that is causally associated with endemic forms of Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed individuals. On a global scale, EBV infects over 90% of the adult population and is responsible for ~1% of all human cancers. To date, there is no efficacious drug or therapy for the treatment of EBV infection and EBV-related diseases. Areas covered in this review In this review, we discuss the existing anti-EBV inhibitors and those under development. We discuss the value of different molecular targets, including EBV lytic DNA replication enzymes, as well as proteins that are expressed exclusively during latent infection, like EBNA1 and LMP1. Since the atomic structure of the EBNA1 DNA binding domain has been described, it is an attractive target for in silico methods of drug design and small molecule screening. We discuss the use of computational methods that can greatly facilitate the development of novel inhibitors and how in silico screening methods can be applied to target proteins with known structures, like EBNA1, to treat EBV infection and disease. What the reader will gain The reader will be familiarized with the problems in targeting of EBV for inhibition by small molecules and how computational methods can greatly facilitate this process. Take home message Despite the impressive efficacy of nucleoside analogues for the treatment of herpesvirus lytic infection, there remain few effective treatments for latent infections. Since EBV-latent infection persists within and contributes to the formation of EBV-associated cancers, targeting EBV latent proteins is an unmet medical need. High throughput in silico screening can accelerate the process of drug discovery for novel and selective agents that inhibit EBV latent infection and associated disease. PMID:22822721

  1. Classification of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancers by definition of DNA methylation epigenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Keisuke; Kaneda, Atsushi; Nagae, Genta; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Yasuko; Hino, Rumi; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Takada, Kenzo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, opportunistic lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts, and a fraction of gastric cancers. Aberrant promoter methylation accompanies human gastric carcinogenesis, though the contribution of EBV to such somatic methylation changes has not been fully clarified. We analyzed promoter methylation in gastric cancer cases with Illumina's Infinium BeadArray and used hierarchical clustering analysis to classify gastric cancers into 3 subgroups: EBV(-)/low methylation, EBV(-)/high methylation, and EBV(+)/high methylation. The 3 epigenotypes were characterized by 3 groups of genes: genes methylated specifically in the EBV(+) tumors (e.g., CXXC4, TIMP2, and PLXND1), genes methylated both in EBV(+) and EBV(-)/high tumors (e.g., COL9A2, EYA1, and ZNF365), and genes methylated in all of the gastric cancers (e.g., AMPH, SORCS3, and AJAP1). Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) target genes in embryonic stem cells were significantly enriched among EBV(-)/high-methylation genes and commonly methylated gastric cancer genes (P = 2 × 10(-15) and 2 × 10(-34), respectively), but not among EBV(+) tumor-specific methylation genes (P = 0.2), suggesting a different cause for EBV(+)-associated de novo methylation. When recombinant EBV was introduced into the EBV(-)/low-methylation epigenotype gastric cancer cell, MKN7, 3 independently established subclones displayed increases in DNA methylation. The promoters targeted by methylation were mostly shared among the 3 subclones, and the new methylation changes caused gene repression. In summary, DNA methylation profiling classified gastric cancer into 3 epigenotypes, and EBV(+) gastric cancers showed distinct methylation patterns likely attributable to EBV infection.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma: a report from Iran in the last four decades

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    Mosavi-Jarrahi Alireza

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus has been proved to be associated with many of the human malignancy including gastric carcinoma, one of the most important human malignancies in the world. There has been no study about the presence of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma in Iran. Methods We examined the presence of EBV in 273 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded cases of gastric carcinoma from Cancer institute of Tehran University, from 1969 to 2004. In situ hybridization of EBV-encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1 was conducted. The strain of positive cases was examined by means of polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results We found 9 (3%; 95% CI = 1–5% EBV positive cases. The gender difference was not statisticaly significant. The proportion of EBV-GC cases in diffuse type was higher than intestinal type (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.002–0.64. EBV-GC cases had no relation with age, location and invasion. Six out of 9 EBV-GC cases were born during the period between 1928 and 1930. All 9 cases were Type A. Prototype F was seen in 6 out of 8 cases. Type "i" was found in 8 cases and type I in 1 case. XhoI+ and XhoI- polymorphism accounted 6 and 3 of the cases, respectively. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the frequency of EBV-GC in Iran and the Middle East, highlighting a very low prevalence with specific clinicopathologic features. The predominance of EBV-GC birth year in a fixed period, suggests that EBV infection or other events at early childhood may be related to the development of EBV-GC later in the life. The predominance of the type "i" and XhoI+ cases are contradictory to other studies in Asia and is similar to what is reported from Latin American countries.

  3. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

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    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S. [Institute of Genetics, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  4. Plasma EBV-DNA monitoring in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Martin; Hubacek, Petr; Markova, Jana; Zajac, Miroslav; Vernerova, Zdenka; Kamaradova, Katerina; Stuchly, Jan; Kozak, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with approximately one-third of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. EBV-DNA is often present in the plasma and whole blood of EBV-associated HL patients. However, the significance of EBV-DNA monitoring is debated. In a cohort of 165 adult HL patients, EBV-DNA viral load was prospectively monitored both in the plasma and whole blood. Diagnostic tissue samples of all patients were histologically reviewed; in 72% nodular sclerosis was detected, 24% presented with mixed cellularity (MC), and 5% had other type of HL. Tissues from 150 patients were also analyzed for the presence of latent EBV infection using in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) and immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein (LMP1). Using these methods, 29 (19%) patients were classified as EBV positive. Using real-time quantitative PCR, 22 (76%) of EBV-positive HL patients had detectable EBV-DNA in the plasma and 19 (66%) patients in whole blood prior to therapy. In the group of EBV-negative HL cases, three (2%) patients had detectable plasma EBV-DNA and 30 (25%) patients whole blood EBV-DNA before treatment. EBV-positive HL was significantly associated with EBV-DNA positivity both in the plasma and whole blood in pretreatment samples, increasing age and MC subtype. Serial analysis of plasma EBV-DNA showed that response to therapy was associated with decline in viral load. Moreover, significantly increased plasma EBV-DNA level recurred before disease relapse in one patient. Our results further suggest that the assessment of plasma EBV-DNA viral load might be of value for estimation of prognosis and follow-up of patients with EBV-positive HL.

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil

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    Larissa Alves Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR, type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%, five with HPV 18 (5.5%, 21 with HPV 45 (23.1% and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%. Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%, while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%. Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%. More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  6. Prognostic value of anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

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    Liu, Mu-Tai; Yeh, Chi-Yuan [Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Chang-Hua (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-03-01

    Eighty patients with histological diagnoses of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) were referred to Chang-Hua Christian Hospital for curative radiotherapy from 1985 to 1995. A mean dose of 7,020 cGy in 39 fractions was delivered to the primary tumor using a telecobalt-60 unit or 6-10 MV X-ray linear accelerator. Pre- and postradiotherapy serum levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/VCA IgG and IgA were determined for all patients using the indirect immunoperoxidase assay. Multivariate analysis was done to determine which factors affected the patients` treatment outcome and survival. Five patients were excluded from this study due to incomplete radiotherapy, leaving 75 patients eligible for analysis. Overall local control was 77.3%, with a mean disease-free interval of 19.7 months. Factors affecting local control included radiation dose and pretreatment anti-EBV/VCA IgG titer. The overall 5-year actuarial survival for the 75 patients was 75%, with a median survival of 129.5 months. The 5-year actuarial survival rates for stage I+II, III, and IV patients were 90%, 40%, and 45%, respectively. Prognostic factors for survival included tumor histological type and pretreatment anti-EBV/VCA IgA titer, while prognostic factors for local control included total radiation dose received and pretreatment anti-EBV/VCA IgG titer. We found that there was a significant difference in the geometric mean titer of anti-EBV/VCA IgA antibodies before and after radiotherapy. Prognostic factors affecting NPC patients` actuarial survival included tumor histology and pretreatment IgA titer, while prognostic factors for local control of NPC included total radiation dose received and pretreatment IgG titer. (K.H.)

  7. Identification of genes involved in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junguo; Mei, Fang; Gao, Xia; Wang, Shoulin

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating from the nasopharynx, and can be induced by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To study the mechanisms of EBV-associated NPC, a microarray of the GSE12452 dataset was analyzed. GSE12452 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and consisted of 31 NPC samples and 10 normal healthy nasopharyngeal tissue samples. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the linear models for microarray data package in R. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software, potential functions of the DEGs were predicted by Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses. With the information from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized by Cytoscape. Furthermore, modules of the PPI network were searched using ClusterONE in Cytoscape. A total of 951 DEGs were screened in the NPC samples compared with the normal healthy nasopharyngeal tissue samples. Function enrichment indicated that the upregulated genes were associated with the cell cycle, cytoskeleton organization and DNA metabolism. Meanwhile, the downregulated genes were mainly associated with cell differentiation, hormone metabolism, inflammatory response and immune response. PPI networks for the DEGs suggested that upregulated mitotic arrest deficient 2-like 1 (MAD2L1; degree=133), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; degree=125) and cyclin B1 (CCNB1; degree=115), and downregulated member A1 of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1; degree=15) may be of great importance as they exhibited higher degrees on interaction. Mucin 1 (MUC1) was a key node of module 4. Overall, the study indicated that MAD2L1, CCNB1, PCNA, ALDH1A1 and MUC1 may have a correlation with EBV-associated NPC. PMID:27698802

  8. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

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    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer: a distinct molecular subtype of the disease?

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    Alexandre Andrade dos Anjos Jácome

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Approximately 90% of the world population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Usually, it infects B lymphocytes, predisposing them to malignant transformation. Infection of epithelial cells occurs rarely, and it is estimated that about to 10% of gastric cancer patients harbor EBV in their malignant cells. Given that gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a global annual incidence of over 950,000 cases, EBV-positive gastric cancer is the largest group of EBV-associated malignancies. Based on gene expression profile studies, gastric cancer was recently categorized into four subtypes; EBV-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomically stable and chromosomal instability. Together with previous studies, this report provided a more detailed molecular characterization of gastric cancer, demonstrating that EBV-positive gastric cancer is a distinct molecular subtype of the disease, with unique genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, reflected in a specific phenotype. The recognition of characteristic molecular alterations in gastric cancer allows the identification of molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, with the potential to identify therapeutic targets. These findings highlight the enormous heterogeneity of gastric cancer, and the complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations in the disease, and provide a roadmap to implementation of genome-guided personalized therapy in gastric cancer. The present review discusses the initial studies describing EBV-positive gastric cancer as a distinct clinical entity, presents recently described genetic and epigenetic alterations, and considers potential therapeutic insights derived from the recognition of this new molecular subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma.

  10. Methylation of Epstein-Barr virus Rta promoter in EBV primary infection, reactivation and lymphoproliferation.

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    Germi, Raphaële; Guigue, Nicolas; Lupo, Julien; Semenova, Touyana; Grossi, Laurence; Vermeulen, Odile; Epaulard, Olivier; de Fraipont, Florence; Morand, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    During Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency, the EBV genome is largely silenced by methylation. This silencing is overturned during the switch to the lytic cycle. A key event is the production of the viral protein Zta which binds to three Zta-response elements (ZRE) from the Rta promoter (Rp), two of which (ZRE2 and ZRE3) include three CpG motifs methylated in the latent genome. The bisulphite pyrosequencing reaction was used to quantify the methylation of ZRE2, ZRE3a, and ZRE3b in EBV-positive cell lines and in ex vivo samples of EBV-related diseases, in order to assess whether the level of methylation in these ZREs could provide additional information to viral DNA load and serology in the characterization of EBV-associated diseases. In PBMC from two patients with infectious mononucleosis, over time Rp became increasingly methylated whereas EBV load decreased. In tonsil from patients with chronic tonsillitis, the methylation was less than in EBV-associated tumors, regardless of the viral load. This was even more striking when only the ZRE3a and ZRE3b were considered since some samples presented unbalanced profiles on ZRE2. EBV reactivation in cell culture showed that the reduction in the overall level of methylation was closely related to the production of unmethylated virions. Thus, an assessment of the level of methylation may help to better characterize EBV replication in PBMC and in biopsies with high EBV load, during infectious mononucleosis and EBV-associated cancers. J. Med. Virol. 88:1814-1820, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus infection and persistence in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Man Tsang; Wen Deng; Yim Ling Yip; Mu-Sheng Zeng; Kwok Wai Lo; Sai Wah Tsao

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), strongly implicating a role for EBV in NPC pathogenesis; conversely, EBV infection is rarely detected in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues. In general, EBV does not show a strong tropism for infecting human epithelial cels, and EBV infection in oropharyngeal epithelial cels is believed to be lytic in nature. To establish life-long infection in humans, EBV has evolved efficient strategies to infect B cels and hijack their celular machinery for latent infection. Lytic EBV infection in oropharyngeal epithelial cels, though an infrequent event, is believed to be a major source of infectious EBV particles for salivary transmission. The biological events associated with nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are only beginning to be understood with the advancement of EBV infection methods and the availability of nasopharyngeal epithelial cel models for EBV infection studies. EBV infection in human epithelial cels is a highly inefficient process compared to that in B cels, which express the complement receptor type 2 (CR2) to mediate EBV infection. Although receptor(s) on the epithelial cell surface for EBV infection remain(s) to be identified, EBV infection in epithelial cels could be achieved via the interaction of glycoproteins on the viral envelope with surface integrins on epithelial cels, which might trigger membrane fusion to internalize EBV in cels. Normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are not permissive for latent EBV infection, and EBV infection in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells usually results in growth arrest. However, genetic alterations in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, including p16 deletion and cyclin D1 overexpression, could override the growth inhibitory effect of EBV infection to support stable and latent EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. The EBV episome in NPC is clonal in nature, suggesting that NPC

  12. Upregulation of the cell-cycle regulator RGC-32 in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized cells.

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    Sandra N Schlick

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human tumours of lymphoid and epithelial origin. The virus infects and immortalizes B cells establishing a persistent latent infection characterized by varying patterns of EBV latent gene expression (latency 0, I, II and III. The CDK1 activator, Response Gene to Complement-32 (RGC-32, C13ORF15, is overexpressed in colon, breast and ovarian cancer tissues and we have detected selective high-level RGC-32 protein expression in EBV-immortalized latency III cells. Significantly, we show that overexpression of RGC-32 in B cells is sufficient to disrupt G2 cell-cycle arrest consistent with activation of CDK1, implicating RGC-32 in the EBV transformation process. Surprisingly, RGC-32 mRNA is expressed at high levels in latency I Burkitt's lymphoma (BL cells and in some EBV-negative BL cell-lines, although RGC-32 protein expression is not detectable. We show that RGC-32 mRNA expression is elevated in latency I cells due to transcriptional activation by high levels of the differentially expressed RUNX1c transcription factor. We found that proteosomal degradation or blocked cytoplasmic export of the RGC-32 message were not responsible for the lack of RGC-32 protein expression in latency I cells. Significantly, analysis of the ribosomal association of the RGC-32 mRNA in latency I and latency III cells revealed that RGC-32 transcripts were associated with multiple ribosomes in both cell-types implicating post-initiation translational repression mechanisms in the block to RGC-32 protein production in latency I cells. In summary, our results are the first to demonstrate RGC-32 protein upregulation in cells transformed by a human tumour virus and to identify post-initiation translational mechanisms as an expression control point for this key cell-cycle regulator.

  13. The Definition of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)’s Role in HTLV-III Infected USAF Personnel as Related to Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-15

    W , Ench Y, Kisner D, Hersh EK, Reuben 3M, Manseil. Enhwxnd serological and virological findings of Epstein-Barr virus in patients with AIDS and... Kisner , D.L., Hersh, E.M., Reuben, J.M., Mansell, P.W.A.: Enhanoed serologic and virologic findings of Eptein-Barr virus in patients with AIDS and

  14. In-cell infection: a novel pathway for Epstein-Barr virus infection mediated by cell-in-cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chao; Chen, Yuhui; Zeng, Musheng; Pei, Rongjuan; Du, Yong; Tang, Linquan; Wang, Mengyi; Hu, Yazhuo; Zhu, Hanyu; He, Meifang; Wei, Xiawei; Wang, Shan; Ning, Xiangkai; Wang, Manna; Wang, Jufang; Ma, Li; Chen, Xinwen; Sun, Qiang; Tang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect both susceptible B lymphocytes and non-susceptible epithelial cells (ECs). Viral tropism analyses have revealed two intriguing means of EBV infection, either by a receptor-mediated infection of B cells or by a cell-to-cell contact-mediated infection of non-susceptible ECs. Herein, we report a novel "in-cell infection" mechanism for EBV infection of non-susceptible ECs through the formation of cell-in-cell structures. Epithelial CNE-2 cells were invaded by EBV-infected Akata B cells to form cell-in-cell structures in vitro. Such unique cellular structures could be readily observed in the specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Importantly, the formation of cell-in-cell structures led to the autonomous activation of EBV within Akata cells and subsequent viral transmission to CNE-2 cells, as evidenced by the expression of viral genes and the presence of virion particles in CNE-2 cells. Significantly, EBV generated from in-cell infected ECs displayed altered tropism with higher infection efficacy to both B cells and ECs. In addition to CNE-2 tumor cells, cell-in-cell structure formation could also mediate EBV infection of NPEC1-Bmi1 cells, an immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line. Furthermore, efficient infection by this mechanism involved the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Thus, our study identified "in-cell infection" as a novel mechanism for EBV infection. Given the diversity of virus-infected cells and the prevalence of cell-in-cell structures during chronic infection, we speculate that "in-cell infection" is likely a general mechanism for EBV and other viruses to infect non-susceptible ECs.

  15. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection complicated with coronary aneurysm in 4 pediatric cases and the literature review%慢性活动性EB病毒感染并冠状动脉瘤4例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小斐; 卢根; 黄萍; 张丽; 汪周平; 黄莉; 谭丽梅; 张明杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To enhance the recognition of cardiovascular complications associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) in children.Methods In this study,the medical records of 4 pediatric patients with CAEBV complicated with cardiovascular impairment (coronary artery lesion and artery aneurysms) at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center,Guangzhou Medical University were evaluated and the literatures were reviewed.Results (1) Apart from complicated with coronary aneurysm,these patients exhibited intermittent fever,hepatomegaly,splenomegaly,lymphadenectasis,liver dysfunction and pleural effusion.The main complications including abdominal aortic dilation,interstitial pneumonia,uveitis and hemophagocytic syndrome were also observed.(2) Epstein-Barr virus-related antibody detected by immunofluorescence assays showed that all patients were Epstein Barr virus IgG antibodies positive against viral capsid antigen and against nuclear antigen,with anti-early antigens IgG positive in 3 patients.The plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA level in those patients with CAEBV ranged from 1.46 × 107 to 3.72 × 1010 copies/L at diagnosis.(3) The inspection of immunological aspects showed that serum IgG levels and CD4 + T cells increased in 4 patients,but the number of natural killer cells decreased in 3 patients with CAEBV at diagnosis.Conclusions (1) The children with CAEBV could lead to cardiovascular impairment included coronary aneurysm and other artery aneurysms.(2) At present,it is difficult to justify whether Epstein-Barr virus contributed to the development of coronary artery lesions or Kawasaki disease complicated by coronary aneurysm because histopathologic examination could not be executed in living body.Differential diagnosis only depends on clinical symptom and follow-up.(3) The study reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications through echocardiography

  16. Epstein-Barr virus BGLF4 kinase retards cellular S-phase progression and induces chromosomal abnormality.

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    Yu-Hsin Chang

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV induces an uncoordinated S-phase-like cellular environment coupled with multiple prophase-like events in cells replicating the virus. The EBV encoded Ser/Thr kinase BGLF4 has been shown to induce premature chromosome condensation through activation of condensin and topoisomerase II and reorganization of the nuclear lamina to facilitate the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids in a pathway mimicking Cdk1. However, the observation that RB is hyperphosphorylated in the presence of BGLF4 raised the possibility that BGLF4 may have a Cdk2-like activity to promote S-phase progression. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of BGLF4 on cell cycle progression and found that S-phase progression and DNA synthesis were interrupted by BGLF4 in mammalian cells. Expression of BGLF4 did not compensate Cdk1 defects for DNA replication in S. cerevisiae. Using time-lapse microscopy, we found the fate of individual HeLa cells was determined by the expression level of BGLF4. In addition to slight cell growth retardation, BGLF4 elicits abnormal chromosomal structure and micronucleus formation in 293 and NCP-TW01 cells. In Saos-2 cells, BGLF4 induced the hyperphosphorylation of co-transfected RB, while E2F1 was not released from RB-E2F1 complexes. The E2F1 regulated activities of the cyclin D1 and ZBRK1 promoters were suppressed by BGLF4 in a dose dependent manner. Detection with phosphoamino acid specific antibodies revealed that, in addition to Ser780, phosphorylation of the DNA damage-responsive Ser612 on RB was enhanced by BGLF4. Taken together, our study indicates that BGLF4 may directly or indirectly induce a DNA damage signal that eventually interferes with host DNA synthesis and delays S-phase progression.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, G; Quinto, I; Ruocco, M R; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C; Squitieri, B; Tassone, P; Venuta, S

    1993-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects show a high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This suggests that EBV may function as a cofactor that affects HIV-1 activation and may play a major role in the progression of AIDS. To test this hypothesis, we generated two EBV-negative human B-cell lines that stably express the EBNA2 gene of EBV. These EBNA2-positive cell lines were transiently transfected with plasmids that carry either the wild type or deletion mutants of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. There was a consistently higher HIV-1 LTR activation in EBNA2-expressing cells than in control cells, which suggested that EBNA2 proteins could activate the HIV-1 promoter, possibly by inducing nuclear factors binding to HIV-1 cis-regulatory sequences. To test this possibility, we used CAT-based plasmids carrying deletions of the NF-kappa B (pNFA-CAT), Sp1 (pSpA-CAT), or TAR (pTAR-CAT) region of the HIV-1 LTR and retardation assays in which nuclear proteins from EBNA2-expressing cells were challenged with oligonucleotides encompassing the NF-kappa B or Sp1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We found that both the NF-kappa B and the Sp1 sites of the HIV-1 LTR are necessary for EBNA2 transactivation and that increased expression resulted from the induction of NF-kappa B-like factors. Moreover, experiments with the TAR-deleted pTAR-CAT and with the tat-expressing pAR-TAT plasmids indicated that endogenous Tat-like proteins could participate in EBNA2-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR and that EBNA2 proteins can synergize with the viral tat transactivator. Transfection experiments with plasmids expressing the EBNA1, EBNA3, and EBNALP genes did not cause a significant HIV-1 LTR activation. Thus, it appears that among the latent EBV genes tested, EBNA2 was the only EBV gene active on the HIV-1 LTR. The transactivation function of EBNA2 was also observed in the HeLa epithelial cell line

  18. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV.

  19. Prognostic significance of Epstein-Barr virus DNA detection in pretreatment serum in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akinao; Yanada, Masamitsu; Miura, Hiroki; Inaguma, Yoko; Tokuda, Masutaka; Morishima, Satoko; Kanie, Tadaharu; Yamamoto, Yukiya; Mizuta, Shuichi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Shigeo; Okamoto, Masataka; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2015-11-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in pretreatment serum has clinical implications for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For this study, we measured EBV DNA load in pretreatment serum from 127 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without any underlying immunodeficiency to evaluate its effects on clinical manifestations and prognosis. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy in combination with rituximab was given as initial therapy for 119 patients (94%). Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in 15 patients (12%), who were older (P = 0.005) and tended to be at a more advanced disease stage (P = 0.053). They showed significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than other patients (P EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was known for 123 patients; 6 of 8 positive patients (75%) and 9 of 115 negative patients (8%) had detectable EBV DNA in pretreatment serum. While patients positive for EBV-encoded small RNA had significantly worse PFS and OS than negative patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively), EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum was associated with poorer PFS and OS even for the 115 patients negative for EBV-encoded small RNA (P EBV DNA detection in pretreatment serum may have an adverse prognostic impact for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  20. Spontaneous Remission of Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Elderly

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    T. Mizuno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 94-year-old female patient presented with anorexia and left axillar lymphadenopathy on admission. Her past history was angina pectoris at 83 years of age and total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer at 87 years. The family history revealed that her son had had a malignant lymphoma, the histopathological diagnosis of which was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A physical examination showed both cervical, axillar, and inguinal lymphadenopathy without tenderness. She had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R. Whole-body computed tomography confirmed the cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Gallium-68 imaging revealed positive accumulation in these superficial lymph nodes. A right inguinal lymph node biopsy showed features of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. Immunohistological studies on this lymph node biopsy showed CD20-positive large cells, CD3-positive small cells, and CD30-partly-positive large cells. In situ hybridization showed Epstein-Barr virus-positive, LMP-partly-positive, and EBNA2-negative cells. She refused chemotherapy as her son had died from hematemesis during chemotherapy. She received intravenous hyperalimentation for 1 month after admission. No palpable lymph nodes were identified by physical examination or computed tomography 3 months after admission, and regression of lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and sIL-2R was observed. She recovered from anorexia and was discharged. She died from pneumonia 10 months later after initial symptoms of anorexia. The autopsy showed no superficial lymphadenopathy.

  1. RUNX super-enhancer control through the Notch pathway by Epstein-Barr virus transcription factors regulates B cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Andrea; Webb, Helen M; Wood, C David; McClellan, Michael J; Wichaidit, Billy; Kempkes, Bettina; Jenner, Richard G; Osborne, Cameron; Farrell, Paul J; West, Michelle J

    2016-06-02

    In B cells infected by the cancer-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), RUNX3 and RUNX1 transcription is manipulated to control cell growth. The EBV-encoded EBNA2 transcription factor (TF) activates RUNX3 transcription leading to RUNX3-mediated repression of the RUNX1 promoter and the relief of RUNX1-directed growth repression. We show that EBNA2 activates RUNX3 through a specific element within a -97 kb super-enhancer in a manner dependent on the expression of the Notch DNA-binding partner RBP-J. We also reveal that the EBV TFs EBNA3B and EBNA3C contribute to RUNX3 activation in EBV-infected cells by targeting the same element. Uncovering a counter-regulatory feed-forward step, we demonstrate EBNA2 activation of a RUNX1 super-enhancer (-139 to -250 kb) that results in low-level RUNX1 expression in cells refractory to RUNX1-mediated growth inhibition. EBNA2 activation of the RUNX1 super-enhancer is also dependent on RBP-J. Consistent with the context-dependent roles of EBNA3B and EBNA3C as activators or repressors, we find that these proteins negatively regulate the RUNX1 super-enhancer, curbing EBNA2 activation. Taken together our results reveal cell-type-specific exploitation of RUNX gene super-enhancers by multiple EBV TFs via the Notch pathway to fine tune RUNX3 and RUNX1 expression and manipulate B-cell growth.

  2. Crystal structure of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hisae; Kirschner, Austin N; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2010-12-28

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus that infects B cells and epithelial cells and that has been linked to malignancies in both cell types in vivo. EBV, like other herpesviruses, has three glycoproteins, glycoprotein B (gB), gH, and gL, that form the core membrane fusion machinery mediating viral penetration into the cell. The gH and gL proteins associate to form a heterodimeric complex, which is necessary for efficient membrane fusion and also implicated in direct binding to epithelial cell receptors required for viral entry. To gain insight into the mechanistic role of gH/gL, we determined the crystal structure of the EBV gH/gL complex. The structure is comprised of four domains organized along the longest axis of the molecule. Comparisons with homologous HSV-2 gH/gL and partial pseudorabies virus gH structures support the domain boundaries determined for the EBV gH/gL structure and illustrate significant differences in interdomain packing angles. The gL subunit and N-terminal residues of gH form a globular domain at one end of the structure, implicated in interactions with gB and activation of membrane fusion. The C-terminal domain of gH, proximal to the viral membrane, is also implicated in membrane fusion. The gH/gL structure locates an integrin binding motif, implicated in epithelial cell entry, on a prominent loop in the central region of the structure. Multiple regions of gH/gL, including its two extreme ends, are functionally important, consistent with the multiple roles of gH/gL in EBV entry.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-2 detection and typing in immunocompromised children correlated with lymphoproliferative disorder biopsy findings

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    Thiago Marques Mendes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis, plays a significant role as a cofactor in the process of tumorigenesis, and has consistently been associated with a variety of malignancies especially in immunocompromised patients. Forty-four children and adolescents (21 liver transplant patients, 7 heart transplant, 5 AIDS, 3 autoimmune hepatitis, 2 nephritic syndromes, 2 medullar aplasia, 2 primary immunodeficiency disorder patients, 1 thrombocytopenic purpura and 1 systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with chronic active EBV infection (VCA-IgM persistently positive; VCA-IgG > 20 AU/mL and positive IgG _ EBNA had peripheral blood samples obtained during clinically characterized EBV reactivation episodes. DNA samples were amplified in order to detect and type EBV on the basis of the EBNA-2 sequence (EBNA2 protein is essential for EBV-driven immortalization of B lymphocytes. Although we have found a predominance of type 1 EBNA-2 virus (33/44; 75%, 10 patients (22.73% carried type 2 EBNA-2, and one liver transplant patient (2.27% a mixture of the two types, the higher proportion of type 2 EBV, as well as the finding of one patient bearing the two types is in agreement with other reports held on lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD patients, which analyzed tumor biopsies. We conclude that EBNA-2 detection and typing can be performed in peripheral blood samples, and the high prevalence of type 2 in our casuistic indicates that this population is actually at risk of developing LPD, and should be monitored.

  4. [Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunity in asymptomatic carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K W

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients are immunosuppressed as evidenced by anergy to recall antigens and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The immunosuppression appears to be a critical factor or a predictive sign for the development of ATL in carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This study was aimed at assessing the immune status of asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with the immunity specific to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus with oncogenic potential. Forty-three asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were examined for their EBV serology and EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell (EBV-CTL) activity, in comparison with 10 HTLV-I-non-infected normal controls. Both carriers and controls were all positive for EBV capsid antigen (VCA) IgG. Significantly elevated titer of VCAIgG and lower titer of EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies were observed in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers, suggesting reactivation of EBV. Among the HTLV-I carriers, 9 (20.9%) had reduced activity of EBV-CTL as revealed by lower incidence of regression of in vitro EBV-induced B-cell transformation. Accordingly, asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were divided into three groups: the carriers with reduced EBV-specific cellular immunity (group I), the carriers showing normal cellular immunity but aberrant EBV-specific antibody titers (group II), and the carriers with normal EBV-specific cellular immunity and serology (group III). Higher positive rate of anti-HTLV-I Tax antibody was found in the former two groups (44.4% and 56.5%, respectively) compared with group III (18.2%). An immunosuppressive agent, 4-deoxyphorbol ester induced a remarkable decrease of EBV-CTL activity in the carriers of group II and III at the concentration that affected none of the normal controls. These findings indicate that asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers suffer stepwise impairment of EBV-specific immunities, which may be caused by HTLV-I infection.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-positive nodal peripheral T cell lymphomas: clinicopathologic and gene expression profiling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sang Yun; Sung, Jiyeon; Ju, Hyunjung; Karube, Kennosuke; Kim, Soek Jin; Kim, Won Seog; Seto, Masao; Ko, Young-Hyeh

    2013-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (EBV+ PTCL-NOS), in which virtually all neoplastic T cells harbor EBV, is a very rare disease with poor prognosis. To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and gene expression profile, we retrospectively collected six cases of EBV+ PTCL-NOS with no known primary immunodeficiency. The patients were 5 men and 1 woman, their age ranging from 48 years to 88 years (median 61.5 years). Lymphadenopathy was the most common presentation. Four patients had underlying disease, including HBV carrier, HCV infection, diabetes mellitus, and prostate cancer. All patients showed fatal clinical course in spite of chemotherapy. Histopathologically, monotonous infiltration of atypical lymphocytes of small to medium size was shown in four patients and medium to large tumor cells in two patients. Five patients showed CD4-/CD8+/bF-1+ phenotype with TIA-1 expression. In gene expression analysis using mRNA microarray, genes differentially expressed in EBV+ PTCL-NOS compared to normal reactive lymph nodes included 1515 genes (Mann-Whitney U-test pgenes involved in B cell differentiation or activation were mostly down-regulated, and T cell activation was mostly suppressed by down-regulation of activation genes and up-regulation of regulatory genes. Genes associated with cytotoxic activity were mostly up-regulated. Based on its peculiar clinical, histopathologic, and gene expression findings in EBV+ PTCL-NOS, we suggest EBV+ PTCL-NOS as a distinct disease entity from PTCL-NOS. In this study, the finding that most significantly enriched the functional term was immune response, suggesting a specific relation between EBV infection and alteration of immune response in the patients with EBV+ PTCL-NOS.

  6. Frequent monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in unfractionated whole blood is essential for early detection of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in high-risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, SJC; Verschuuren, EAM; Pronk, [No Value; van der Bij, W; Harmsen, MC; The, TH; Meijer, CJLM; van den Brule, AJC; Middeldorp, JM

    2001-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a frequent and severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated complication in transplantation recipients that is caused by iatrogenic suppression of T-cell function, The diagnostic value of weekly EBV DNA load monitoring was investigated in prospectiv

  7. B-lymphoblastoid cell lines from multiple sclerosis patients and a healthy control producing a putative new human retrovirus and Epstein-Barr virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, M; Møller-Larsen, A; Christensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    with MS who had a reactivated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Both LCLs were found by EM to produce RVLP and EBV particles. Reverse transcriptase (RT) assays were positive in purified viral material from both LCLs. To substantiate these findings we initiated an intensified culturing procedure and were...

  8. Associations among Epstein-Barr virus subtypes, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in bone marrow transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görzer, Irene; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; Cornelissen, Jan J

    2007-01-01

    The association between Epstein-Barr virus subtype, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder was examined in a group of 25 bone marrow transplant recipients. A highly statistically significant correlation was observed between th

  9. The H3K27me3 demethylase, KDM6B, is induced by Epstein-Barr virus and over-expressed in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderton, J A; Bose, S; Vockerodt, M;

    2011-01-01

    ), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancy. KDM6B is over-expressed in primary HL and induced by the EBV oncogene, latent membrane protein (LMP1) in GC B cells, the presumptive progenitors of HL. Consistent with these observations, we found that KDM6B transcriptional targets in GC B cells are enriched...

  10. Analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene and promoter in Hodgkin's disease isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Andresen, B S; Zhou, X G;

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To study the distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) variants containing mutations in the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) oncogene and promoter in EBV associated Hodgkin's disease and infectious mononucleosis compared with previous findings in asymptomatic EBV carriers. METHODS: Sequence...

  11. Role of Epstein-Barr virus DNA measurement in plasma in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low risk area.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalpoe, J.; Dekker, P.B.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Jong, R.J.; Kroes, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of quantitative measurement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a low tumour risk area (western Europe). METHODS: 22 consecutive Dutch NPC patients (11 europid) were studied. EBV DNA load in pretreatment and

  12. Co-existence of Chiari malformation type I and Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in a 3-year-old child: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomou, E.K.; Kotsarini, C.; Badra, F.A. [University Hospital of Patras, Department of Radiology, Rio (Greece); Krepis, A.; Papanastasiou, D. [University Hospital of Patras, Pediatric Clinic, Patras (Greece); Patriarcheas, G. [Diagnostic Centre B Diagnosis, Patras (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    In the present report we describe an unusual case of a 3-year-old girl who was admitted to our hospital with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse abnormalities in white matter and Chiari I malformation with cervical and thoracic hydro-syringomyelia. (orig.)

  13. Silencing the shutoff protein of Epstein-Barr virus in productively infected B cells points to (innate) targets for immune evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Boer, Ingrid G J; Geerdink, Ruben J; Lindenbergh, Marthe F S; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Ressing, Maaike E

    2015-01-01

    During productive infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a dramatic suppression of cellular protein expression is caused by the viral alkaline exonuclease BGLF5. Among the proteins downregulated by BGLF5 are multiple immune components. Here, we show that shutoff reduces expression of the innate EB

  14. Significance of Cell-Free Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Monitoring Prognosis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SurmeiCao; HuaqingMin; JinsongGao; MinghuongHong; XibinXiao; ChangqingZhong; XiaodongLiu; AilonZhong; XiangGuo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It has been reported that cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBVDNA) in plasma was useful in diagnosing and monitoring nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The current study was designed to evaluate the significance of EBV-DNA in monitoring the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and comparing its significance with that of plasma VCA/IgA and EA/IgA levels. METHODS EBV-DNA, VCA/IgA, and EA/IgA levels in plasma were determined in NPC patients with different prognosis after radiotherapy, including 30 distant metastatic patients, 22 local recurrence patients and 24 individuals with remission who had been followed-up for more than 2 years after treatment. EBV-DNA was determined using a real-time quantitative PCR system, and levels of VCA/IgA and EA/IgA were measured using standard immunofluorescence. In a cohort study, the indexes were determined after different radiation periods for the 20 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. RESULTS The median plasma EBV-DNA concentration was 135,100 copies/ml (interquartile range: 5,525-1,003 750)in metastatic group, 20,500 copies/ml (interquartile range: 0-58,500) in the local recurrence group and 0 copies/ml (interquartile range: 0-0) in the continuous remission group (P<0.05). The levels of VCA/IgA and EA/IgA showed no significant differences among the different groups. The high level of EBV-DNA concentration in the metastatic group was more than that in the local recurrence group. A level of 1,000,000 copies/ml of EBV DNA was an indication of distant metastasis of the NPC patients with a sensitivity of 27.3%. However, the sensitivity was 0 in the local recurrence group. For the 20 new patients, EBV-DNA concentration gradually decreased during the radiation period. Before radiation there were 32,050 copies/ml (interquartile range: 3,880-317,750), 0 copies/ml (interquartile range: 0-14 375) after a 40 Gy radiation dose and 0 copies/ml (interquartile range: 0-2940)after the radiation was finished (P<0.05). However, the levels of

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 modulates cyclin D1 by c-Jun/Jun B heterodimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Xin; TAO; Yongguang; ZENG; Liang; YANG; Jing; TANG; F

    2005-01-01

    In our recent studies, we found that LMP1 encoded by Epstein-Barr virus could accelerate the formation of active c-Jun/Jun B heterodimer. We studied the regulation of cyclinD1 by c-Jun/Jun B heterodimers by laser scanning confocal influorescence microscopy, Western blot, luciferase activity assay, super-EMSA and flow cytometry in the Tet-on-LMP1 HNE2 cell line, in which LMP1 expression was regulated by Tet-on system. c-Jun/Jun B heterodimers induced by LMP1 could up regulate cyclin D1 promoter activity and expression. Overexpression of cyclinD1 accelerated the progression of cell cycle.

  16. Consideration of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 as a Functional Backup of Viral Oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Kristina M; Pimienta, Genaro

    2016-01-19

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 are highly abundant through all four latency stages of EBV infection (III-II-I-0) and have been associated with an oncogenic phenotype when expressed in cell lines cultured in vitro. In vivo, EBV-infected B cells derived from freshly isolated lymphocytes show that EBER1/2 deletion does not impair viral latency. Based on published quantitative proteomics data from BJAB cells expressing EBER1 and EBER2, we propose that the EBERs, through their activation of AKT in a B-cell-specific manner, are a functionally redundant backup of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-an essential oncoprotein in EBV-associated malignancies, with a main role in AKT activation. Our proposed model may explain the lack of effect on viral latency establishment in EBER-minus EBV infection.

  17. Consideration of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 as a Functional Backup of Viral Oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Herbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 are highly abundant through all four latency stages of EBV infection (III-II-I-0 and have been associated with an oncogenic phenotype when expressed in cell lines cultured in vitro. In vivo, EBV-infected B cells derived from freshly isolated lymphocytes show that EBER1/2 deletion does not impair viral latency. Based on published quantitative proteomics data from BJAB cells expressing EBER1 and EBER2, we propose that the EBERs, through their activation of AKT in a B-cell-specific manner, are a functionally redundant backup of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1—an essential oncoprotein in EBV-associated malignancies, with a main role in AKT activation. Our proposed model may explain the lack of effect on viral latency establishment in EBER-minus EBV infection.

  18. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Repress Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) Expression and Proliferation of Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Natural Killer Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquey, Mohammed Nure Alam; Kanazawa, Tetsuhiro; Goshima, Fumi; Kawashima, Daisuke; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1 is a major oncoprotein expressed in latent infection. It functions as a TNFR family member and constitutively activates cellular signals, such as NFκB, MAPK, JAK/STAT and AKT. We here screened small molecule inhibitors and isolated HSP90 inhibitors, Radicicol and 17-AAG, as candidates that suppress LMP1 expression and cell proliferation not only in EBV-positive SNK6 Natural Killer (NK) cell lymphoma cells, but also in B and T cells. Tumor formation in immuno-defficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mice was also retarded. These results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors can be alternative treatments for patients with EBV-positive malignancies. PMID:23658841

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in Chinese children with tonsillar and/or adenoidal hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-cheng; Chen, Xiao-ping; Yao, Wen-hao; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Guang-bin; Tan, Xue-jun

    2014-06-01

    Tonsillar and adenoidal hypertrophy are prevalent otolaryngologic disorders in children, but their pathogenesis is largely unknown. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in 146 tonsil and/or adenoid tissue specimens from 104 Chinese children with tonsillar and/or adenoidal hypertrophy were screened using flow-through hybridization gene-chip technology and real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR. Then, the relationships between the prevalence of the viruses and other clinical characteristics of tonsillar and/or adenoidal hypertrophy were analyzed. No patient had HPV DNA. EBV DNA was detected in 19/42 (45.2%) tonsil tissues and 72/104 (69.2%) adenoid tissue specimens (P hypertrophy. Adenoid tissues might more susceptible than tonsil tissues to EBV infection. In addition, EBV infection did not aggravate snoring in patients with tonsillar and/or adenoidal hypertrophy.

  20. Detection of Epstein Barr virus in formalin-fixed paraffin tissues by fluorescent direct in situ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Marziliano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific viral laboratory diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection is usually based on antibody-detection assays. However, molecular detection is also considered the reference standard assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and of most cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. One-step or nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR has rapidly replaced immunological assays based on virus-specific Ig antibodies for the laboratory diagnosis of Herpesvirus infections, even if serological methods are considered an additional tool for defining clinical diagnosis. In this article, we will present a rapid, sensitive and robust molecular tool for the viral detection of EBV (EBNA-1 within tissue specimens by making use of in situ PCR (IS-PCR.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and mouse mammary tumour virus as multiple viruses in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Glenn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV, high risk human papillomavirus (HPV, and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV co-exist in some breast cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc. RESULTS: EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk - EBV (35%, HPV, 20% and MMTV (32% of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that (i EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer.

  2. Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis of Central Nervous System and Lung Driven by Epstein Barr Virus Proliferation: Successful Treatment with Rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Fernandez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG is a very rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography showed multiple nodules in both lung fields. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for EBV and biopsy of lung node yielded a diagnosis of LYG, grade III. Shortly after initiation of treatment with chemotherapy, neurologic deterioration appeared. Radiologic findings revealed hydrocephalus and PCR analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for EBV. Treatment with intravenous rituximab led to rapid reduction of EBV load in CSF, along with radiological and clinical improvement. After completion of treatment with immunochemotherapy, an autologous stem cell transplantation was performed. Patient stays in remission one year after diagnosis.

  3. The interplay of host genetic factors and Epstein-Barr virus in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Li Lung; Arthur Kwok Leung Cheung; Josephine Mun Yee Ko; Hong Lok Lung; Yue Cheng; Wei Dai

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between host cell genetics and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Understanding the host genetic and epigenetic alterations and the influence of EBV on cell signaling and host gene regulation will aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of NPC and provide useful biomarkers and targets for diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we provide an update of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes associated with NPC, as wel as genes associated with NPC risk including those involved in carcinogen detoxification and DNA repair. We also describe the importance of host genetics that govern the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex and immune responses, and we describe the impact of EBV infection on host cell signaling changes and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. High-power genomic sequencing approaches are needed to elucidate the genetic basis for inherited susceptibility to NPC and to identify the genes and pathways driving its molecular pathogenesis.

  4. The presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male Chinese lichen sclerosus patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male lichen sclerosus patients. We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded foreskin tissue blocks of 47 male LS patients and 30 healthy men and performed real-time PCR test to detect HPV and EBV. None of the 47 LS patients and 30 healthy men had detectable HPV infection. EBV was detected in 18 LS patients (38.3% and four healthy men (13.3%, the difference is significant (P < 0.05. Tissue blocks with significant inflammatory reaction tend to have higher EBV load. HPV has no significant relationship with LS. Male LS patients have higher EBV infection rate, but the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of LS needs further investigate.

  5. Combined immunodeficiency and Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell malignancy in humans with inherited CD70 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Edwards, Emily S. J.; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2017-01-01

    is a novel cause of combined immunodeficiency and EBV-associated diseases, reminiscent of inherited CD27 deficiency. Overall, human CD70-CD27 interactions therefore play a nonredundant role in T and B cell-mediated immunity, especially for protection against EBV and humoral immunity.......In this study, we describe four patients from two unrelated families of different ethnicities with a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly manifesting as susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. Three patients presented with EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma...... and hypogammaglobulinemia; one also had severe varicella infection. The fourth had viral encephalitis during infancy. Homozygous frameshift or in-frame deletions in CD70 in these patients abolished either CD70 surface expression or binding to its cognate receptor CD27. Blood lymphocyte numbers were normal...

  6. Composite Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder and Tubular Adenoma in a Rectal Polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Amy A; Gao, Juehua; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Composite tumors are formed when there is intermingling between two components of separate tumors seen histologically. Cases demonstrating composite tubular adenoma with other types of tumors in the colon are rare. Composite tubular adenomas with nonlymphoid tumors including carcinoids, microcarcinoids, and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma have been reported in the literature. The occurrence of composite lymphoma and tubular adenoma within the colorectal tract is extremely rare. Only three cases have been reported and include one case of mantle cell lymphoma and two cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in composite tubular adenomas. We present the first case of composite Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and tubular adenoma in a rectal polyp with a benign endoscopic appearance.

  7. Primary nasopharyngeal non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its relationship with Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 宗永生; 何洁华; 钟碧玲; 林素暇

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the immunophenotypes of primary nasopharyngeal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NPL) and their relationship to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.Methods The clinical data and biopsies of 73 patients with NPL were collected in Guangzhou. In situ hybridization was performed to detect the EBV-encoded small non-polyadenylated nuclear RNAs (EBERs) on biopsy slides. Immunohistochemistry was used to classify the immunophenotypes of NPL and detect EBV antigen expression. Results Forty-four (60.27%) of the 73 NPLs were of B cell lineage (CD79α+/CD3-/CD56-) while the 29 others (39.73%) were of non-B cell lineage. Seventy-three NPLs could be classified into 3 major immunophenotypes: B cell (CD79α+/CD3-/CD56-, 44 cases), peripheral T cell (CD79α-/CD3+/CD56-,22) and NK/T cell (CD79α-/CD3+/CD56+, 7). The percentages of EBV infection differed among the 3 major immunophenotypes (B cell: 11.36%, 5/44; peripheral T cell: 81.82%, 18/22; NK/T cell: 100%, 7/7). Both CD56-positive and CD56-negative immunophenotypes could further be divided into 4 subtypes: CD8-/CD4-,CD8+/CD4-, CD8-/CD4+ and CD8+/CD4+. All the CD8-/CD4- NPLs with CD56-positivity (7) or CD56-negativity (2) were infected with EBV. The neoplastic cells of a nasopharyngeal Burkitt’s lymphoma expressed EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV RNA (EBERs) only. In the other 29 EBV-infected NPLs, most of the lymphoma cells harboring EBV also expressed EBNA1 and EBERs; 21 of the 29 NPLs had a considerable number of neoplastic cells expressing latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) (21/29, 72.41%) and 23 of 29 NPLs expressed latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) (23/29, 79.31%). A few lymphoma cells in 17 (17/29, 58.62%), 23 (23/29, 79.31%) and 22 NPLs (22/29, 75.86%) expressed Zta (Bam HI Z transactivator), viral capsid antigen (VCA) and membrane antigen (MA), respectively.Conclusions The prevalence ratio of the 3 immunophenotypes, namely, B cell, peripheral T cell and NK/T cell lymphoma, is about 6∶3∶1. However

  8. Epstein-Barr virus encoded nuclear protein EBNA-3 binds a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein George

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects resting B-lymphocytes and transforms them into immortal proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs in vitro. The transformed immunoblasts may grow up as immunoblastic lymphomas in immuno-suppressed hosts. Results In order to identify cellular protein targets that may be involved in Epstein-Barr virus mediated B-cell transformation, human LCL cDNA library was screened with one of the transformation associated nuclear antigens, EBNA-3 (also called EBNA-3A, using the yeast two-hybrid system. A clone encoding a fragment of a novel human protein was isolated (clone 538. The interaction was confirmed using in vitro binding assays. A full-length cDNA clone (F538 was isolated. Sequence alignment with known proteins and 3D structure predictions suggest that F538 is a novel human uridine kinase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. The GFP-F538 fluorescent fusion protein showed a preferentially cytoplasmic distribution but translocated to the nucleus upon co-expression of EBNA-3. A naturally occurring splice variant of F538, that lacks the C-terminal uracil phosphoribosyltransferase part but maintain uridine kinase domain, did not translocate to the nucleus in the presence of EBNA3. Antibody that was raised against the bacterially produced GST-538 protein showed cytoplasmic staining in EBV negative Burkitt lymphomas but gave a predominantly nuclear staining in EBV positive LCL-s and stable transfected cells expressing EBNA-3. Conclusion We suggest that EBNA-3 by direct protein-potein interaction induces the nuclear accumulation of a novel enzyme, that is part of the ribonucleotide salvage pathway. Increased intranuclear levels of UK/UPRT may contribute to the metabolic build-up that is needed for blast transformation and rapid proliferation.

  9. An atlas of the Epstein-Barr virus transcriptome and epigenome reveals host-virus regulatory interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Aaron; Tempera, Italo; Tsai, Kevin; Chen, Horng-Shen; Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Klichinsky, Michael; Leslie, Christina; Lieberman, Paul M

    2012-08-16

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with multiple human tumors, persists as a minichromosome in the nucleus of B lymphocytes and induces malignancies through incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we present a large-scale functional genomic analysis of EBV. Our experimentally generated nucleosome positioning maps and viral protein binding data were integrated with over 700 publicly available high-throughput sequencing data sets for human lymphoblastoid cell lines mapped to the EBV genome. We found that viral lytic genes are coexpressed with cellular cancer-associated pathways, suggesting that the lytic cycle may play an unexpected role in virus-mediated oncogenesis. Host regulators of viral oncogene expression and chromosome structure were identified and validated, revealing a role for the B cell-specific protein Pax5 in viral gene regulation and the cohesin complex in regulating higher order chromatin structure. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of latent viral persistence in oncogenesis and establish a valuable viral genomics resource for future exploration.

  10. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is an Effective and Non-perturbing Vector for Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继军; 姚堃; 彭光勇; 谢芳艺; 丁传林; 朱建中; 秦健

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effects of dendritic cells (DC) transfected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A(LMP2A) gene,and to provide evidence for further investigation on the therapeutic vaccines against EBV-associated malignancies.MethodsMature DC were transfected with EBV-LMP2A recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV-LMP2A).Before and after the transfection,the expression of surface antigens on mature DC including CD1a,CD83,CD40,CD80,HLA-DR was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and the function of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation was measured by mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR).ResultsLMP2A protein was highly expressed (66.1%) in DC after the transfection of rVV-LMP2A.No significant changes in the primary surface antigens expression and in the MLR were detected during the transfection.Transfected DC still had strong potential in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.ConclusionRecombinant vaccinia virus was an effective and non-perturbing vector to mediate the transfection of LMP2A into DC.The functions of mature DC were not affected significantly by the transfection of Vac-LMP2A.This study could provide evidence for the further immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies,e.g.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).``

  11. Mechanisms That Regulate Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA-1 Gene Transcription during Restricted Latency Are Conserved among Lymphocryptoviruses of Old World Primates

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the only known human lymphocryptovirus (LCV), displays a remarkable degree of genetic and biologic identity to LCVs that infect Old World primates. Within their natural hosts, infection by these viruses recapitulates many key aspects of EBV infection, including the establishment of long-term latency within B lymphocytes, and is therefore a potentially valuable animal model of EBV infection. However, it is unclear whether these LCVs have adopted or maintained the same...

  12. Modulation of innate immunity system by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded non-coding RNA and oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Mrinal; Takada, Kenzo

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are polyA-, non-coding RNAs that are expressed abundantly in all forms of cells latently infected with EBV. EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) contribute to the clonal proliferation of EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells in soft agar, tumorigenicity in SCID mice, up-regulation of the bcl-2 oncoprotein, resistance to apoptosis, and maintenance of malignant phenotypes in BL cells. EBERs induce the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in BL cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, IL-9 in T cells, and IL-6 in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Additionally, each of these cytokines acts as an autocrine growth factor. In BL cells, EBERs bind the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR, inhibit its phosphorylation, and thereby prevent IFN-alpha-mediated apoptosis. In epithelial cells, EBERs confer resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis by blocking PKR activity. EBERs form complexes with PKR, ribosomal protein L22, lupus erythematosis-associated antigen (La), and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). In BL cells, EBERs activate RIG-I signaling and induce the expression of type-I IFNs and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) through the activation of RIG-I substrates, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), and anti-inflamatory cytokine IL-10 through IRF-3 but not NF-kappaB signaling. EBERs also play critical roles in the growth transformation of B lymphocytes. Although EBER1 and EBER2 exhibit similarities in their primary (54%) and secondary structures, recent findings have shown that recombinant EBVs carrying only the EBER2 gene play a greater role in the growth transformation of B lymphocytes than EBVs carrying only the EBER1 gene. Thus, EBERs play multiple roles in various cell types, and we present a model that highlights the functions of EBERs in EBV-mediated oncogenesis in BL cells.

  13. Restricted TET2 Expression in Germinal Center Type B Cells Promotes Stringent Epstein-Barr Virus Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Coral K; Li, Yangguang; Rui, Lixin; Johannsen, Eric C; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects normal B cells and contributes to the development of certain human lymphomas. Newly infected B cells support a highly transforming form (type III) of viral latency; however, long-term EBV infection in immunocompetent hosts is limited to B cells with a more restricted form of latency (type I) in which most viral gene expression is silenced by promoter DNA methylation. How EBV converts latency type is unclear, although it is known that type I latency is associated with a germinal center (GC) B cell phenotype, and type III latency with an activated B cell (ABC) phenotype. In this study, we have examined whether expression of TET2, a cellular enzyme that initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), regulates EBV latency type in B cells. We found that TET2 expression is inhibited in normal GC cells and GC type lymphomas. In contrast, TET2 is expressed in normal naive B cells and ABC type lymphomas. We also demonstrate that GC type cell lines have increased 5mC levels and reduced 5hmC levels in comparison to those of ABC type lines. Finally, we show that TET2 promotes the ability of the EBV transcription factor EBNA2 to convert EBV-infected cells from type I to type III latency. These findings demonstrate that TET2 expression is repressed in GC cells independent of EBV infection and suggest that TET2 promotes type III EBV latency in B cells with an ABC or naive phenotype by enhancing EBNA2 activation of methylated EBV promoters.IMPORTANCE EBV establishes several different types of viral latency in B cells. However, cellular factors that determine whether EBV enters the highly transforming type III latency, versus the more restricted type I latency, have not been well characterized. Here we show that TET2, a cellular enzyme that initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), regulates EBV latency type in B cells by

  14. Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2.

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    Genaro Pimienta

    Full Text Available In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV latent infection, the EBV-encoded RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 accumulate in the host cell nucleus to ~10(6 copies. While the expression of EBERs in cell lines is associated with transformation, a mechanistic explanation of their roles in EBV latency remains elusive. To identify EBER-specific gene expression features, we compared the proteome and mRNA transcriptome from BJAB cells (an EBV-negative B lymphoma cell line stably transfected with an empty plasmid or with one carrying both EBER genes. We identified ~1800 proteins with at least 2 SILAC pair measurements, of which only 8 and 12 were up- and downregulated ≥ 2-fold, respectively. One upregulated protein was PIK3AP1, a B-cell specific protein adapter known to activate the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, which regulates alternative splicing and translation in addition to its pro-survival effects. In the mRNA-seq data, the mRNA levels for some of the proteins changing in the SILAC data did not change. We instead observed isoform switch events. We validated the most relevant findings with biochemical assays. These corroborated the upregulation of PIK3AP1 and AKT activation in BJAB cells expressing high levels of both EBERs and EBNA1 (a surrogate of Burkitt's lymphoma EBV latency I relative to those expressing only EBNA1. The mRNA-seq data in these cells showed multiple upregulated oncogenes whose mRNAs are enriched for 3´-UTR AU-rich elements (AREs, such as ccl3, ccr7, il10, vegfa and zeb1. The CCL3, CCR7, IL10 and VEGFA proteins promote cell proliferation and are associated with EBV-mediated lymphomas. In EBV latency, ZEB1 represses the transcription of ZEBRA, an EBV lytic phase activation factor. We previously found that EBER1 interacts with AUF1 in vivo and proposed stabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs. Thus, the ~10(6 copies of EBER1 may promote not only cell proliferation due to an increase in the levels of ARE-containing genes like ccl3, ccr7, il10, and vegfa, but

  15. Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Genaro; Fok, Victor; Haslip, Maria; Nagy, Maria; Takyar, Seyedtaghi; Steitz, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection, the EBV-encoded RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 accumulate in the host cell nucleus to ~10(6) copies. While the expression of EBERs in cell lines is associated with transformation, a mechanistic explanation of their roles in EBV latency remains elusive. To identify EBER-specific gene expression features, we compared the proteome and mRNA transcriptome from BJAB cells (an EBV-negative B lymphoma cell line) stably transfected with an empty plasmid or with one carrying both EBER genes. We identified ~1800 proteins with at least 2 SILAC pair measurements, of which only 8 and 12 were up- and downregulated ≥ 2-fold, respectively. One upregulated protein was PIK3AP1, a B-cell specific protein adapter known to activate the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, which regulates alternative splicing and translation in addition to its pro-survival effects. In the mRNA-seq data, the mRNA levels for some of the proteins changing in the SILAC data did not change. We instead observed isoform switch events. We validated the most relevant findings with biochemical assays. These corroborated the upregulation of PIK3AP1 and AKT activation in BJAB cells expressing high levels of both EBERs and EBNA1 (a surrogate of Burkitt's lymphoma EBV latency I) relative to those expressing only EBNA1. The mRNA-seq data in these cells showed multiple upregulated oncogenes whose mRNAs are enriched for 3´-UTR AU-rich elements (AREs), such as ccl3, ccr7, il10, vegfa and zeb1. The CCL3, CCR7, IL10 and VEGFA proteins promote cell proliferation and are associated with EBV-mediated lymphomas. In EBV latency, ZEB1 represses the transcription of ZEBRA, an EBV lytic phase activation factor. We previously found that EBER1 interacts with AUF1 in vivo and proposed stabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs. Thus, the ~10(6) copies of EBER1 may promote not only cell proliferation due to an increase in the levels of ARE-containing genes like ccl3, ccr7, il10, and vegfa, but also the

  16. Cloning of the Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus Viral Capsid Antigen and Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Small RNA Homologues and Use in Diagnosis of Acute and Persistent Infections

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    Rao, Pasupuleti; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. A closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (LCV) genera as EBV naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying EBV pathogenesis. We cloned the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) homologue from the rhesus LCV and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine whether e...

  17. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

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    Vincent Pedergnana; Laurène Syx; Aurélie Cobat; Julien Guergnon; Pauline Brice; Christophe Fermé; Patrice Carde; Olivier Hermine; Catherine Le-Pendeven; Corinne Amiel; Yassine Taoufik; Alexandre Alcaïs; Ioannis Theodorou; Caroline Besson; Laurent Abel

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid an...

  18. Effect of methotrexate and anti-TNF on Epstein-Barr virus T-cell response and viral load in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondylarthropathies

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    Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Gestermann, Nicolas; Amiel, Corinne; Sellam, Jérémie; Ittah, Marc; Pavy, Stephan; Urrutia, Alejandra; Girauld, Isabelle; Carcelain, Guislaine; Venet, Alain; Mariette, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There is a suspicion of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferations in patients with inflammatory arthritides receiving immunosuppressive drugs. We investigated the EBV load and EBV-specific T-cell response in patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) or anti-TNF therapy. Methods Data for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 58) or spondylarthropathy (SpA) (n = 28) were analyzed at baseline in comparison with controls (n = 22) and after 3 mon...

  19. Central nervous system involvement in Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature

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    Marcelo Corti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial and intraspinal involvement is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. We report a case of a patient with diagnosis of AIDS and Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed brain and spinal involvement at the time of the relapse of the neoplasm disease. Mixed cellularity histology was the subtype of Hodgkin's disease in our patient; we identified the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the Reed-Sternberg cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

  20. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

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    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  1. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

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    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  2. EB病毒LMP1在肿瘤研究中的进展%Advancement of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded LMP1 in Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐微; 朱建思

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr vims is a kind of herpes virus that has oncogenic potential and is related to the tumor genesis process of various malignancy. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of cancer, which as the main oncogenic protein of EBV, through a variety of intracellular signal transduction pathways to regulate and control cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. This article mainly reviews its structure, biological function, signaling pathway and the related progress with tumor.%EB病毒(Epstein-Barr virus,EBV)是具有致瘤潜能的疱疹病毒,与多种恶性肿瘤的发生相关.EB病毒编码的潜伏性膜蛋白1(Latent membrane protein-1,LMP1)作为其主要的致瘤蛋白,能通过细胞内多种信号传导通路,调节和控制细胞的生长、增殖、分化、迁移与凋亡,从而在癌变的发生和发展过程中发挥重要的作用.本文主要就LMP1的结构、生物学功能、介导的信号通路及其与肿瘤关系的相关进展做一阐述.

  3. Caspase-1 promotes Epstein-Barr virus replication by targeting the large tegument protein deneddylase to the nucleus of productively infected cells.

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    Stefano Gastaldello

    Full Text Available The large tegument proteins of herpesviruses contain N-terminal cysteine proteases with potent ubiquitin and NEDD8-specific deconjugase activities, but the function of the enzymes during virus replication remains largely unknown. Using as model BPLF1, the homologue encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, we found that induction of the productive virus cycle does not affect the total level of ubiquitin-conjugation but is accompanied by a BPLF1-dependent decrease of NEDD8-adducts and accumulation of free NEDD8. Expression of BPLF1 promotes cullin degradation and the stabilization of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs substrates in the nucleus, while cytoplasmic CRLs and their substrates are not affected. The inactivation of nuclear CRLs is reversed by the N-terminus of CAND1, which inhibits the binding of BPLF1 to cullins and prevents efficient viral DNA replication. Targeting of the deneddylase activity to the nucleus is dependent on processing of the catalytic N-terminus by caspase-1. Inhibition of caspase-1 severely impairs viral DNA synthesis and the release of infectious virus, pointing a previously unrecognized role of the cellular response to danger signals triggered by EBV reactivation in promoting virus replication.

  4. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and varicella zoster virus among pregnant women in Bradford: a cohort study.

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    Lucy Pembrey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV among pregnant women in Bradford by ethnic group and country of birth. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 949 pregnant women enrolled in the Born in Bradford birth cohort was selected to ensure sufficient numbers of White UK born women, Asian UK born women and Asian women born in Asia. Serum samples taken at 24-28 weeks' gestation were tested for CMV IgG, EBV IgG and VZV IgG. Each woman completed a questionnaire which included socio-demographic information. RESULTS: CMV seroprevalence was 49% among the White British women, 89% among South Asian UK born women and 98% among South Asian women born in South Asia. These differences remained after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. In contrast, VZV seroprevalence was 95% among women born in the UK but significantly lower at 90% among South Asian women born in Asia. EBV seroprevalence was 94% overall and did not vary by ethnic group/country of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although about half of White British women are at risk of primary CMV infection in pregnancy and the associated increased risk of congenital infection, most congenital CMV infections are likely to be in children born to South Asian women with non-primary infection during pregnancy. South Asian women born in South Asia are at risk of VZV infection during pregnancy which could produce congenital varicella syndrome or perinatal chickenpox. Differences in CMV and VZV seroprevalence by ethnic group and country of birth must be taken into account when universal immunisation against these viruses is contemplated.

  5. Increased T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus with high viral load in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Satoko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Miyauchi, Hidemasa; Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Onoda, Hiroshi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Ito, Masafumi; Miyamura, Kouichi; Nagai, Hirokazu; Moritani, Suzuko; Sugiura, Isamu; Tsushita, Keitaro; Mihara, Hidetsugu; Ohbayashi, Kaneyuki; Iba, Sachiko; Emi, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Masataka; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Morishima, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    The immunological status of patients with Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) without obvious immunodeficiency has not been elucidated. A multicenter prospective study was conducted to assess pretreatment T-cell responses to EBV, EBV-DNA load and anti-EBV antibody in these patients. The proliferative and interferon (IFN)-γ-producing capacity of T-cells in response to autologous B-lymphoblastoid cell lines was determined using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based assay. Frequencies of EBV-specific CD4+ T-cells in patients with EBV+ DLBCL (n = 13) were significantly higher than in healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16) after both ex vivo and in vitro stimulation. Frequencies of EBV-specific CD8+ T-cells in patients with EBV+ DLBCL tended to be higher than in HCs after in vitro stimulation. Patients with EBV+ DLBCL also showed increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to lytic EBV-encoded antigens. Pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA level was significantly higher in patients with EBV+ DLBCL than in patients with EBV- DLBCL or HCs. In conclusion, EBV-specific T-cells showed increased reactivity, accompanied by higher levels of plasma virus DNA in patients with EBV+ DLBCL.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in a patient with dengue fever presenting with post-infectious cerebellitis: a case report

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    Karunarathne Suneth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-infectious cerebellitis is an acute form of inflammatory encephalitis mainly limited to the cerebellum. It is commonly found in children, especially after viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus. Post-infectious cerebellitis presents with acute onset dysarthria and ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of post-infectious cerebellitis in a patient with both dengue and Epstein-Barr viral infection confirmed on serology. Case presentation A 43-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhala man presented with an acute febrile illness associated with thrombocytopenia. While being managed as uncomplicated dengue fever, our patient developed dysarthria, ataxia and cerebellar signs. Our patient's infectious disease screen was positive for both dengue and Epstein-Barr specific immunoglobulin M. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis was suggestive of viral meningoencephalitis while cerebrospinal fluid serology was positive for dengue immunoglobulin G. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were consistent with post-viral cerebellitis. The patient was given full supportive care and he made an uneventful complete recovery. Conclusion There have been no previously reported cases of post-infectious cerebellitis associated with both Epstein-Barr and dengue viral infections confirmed by serology. Our patient's clinical features and findings on the imaging studies were consistent with post-viral cerebellitis. This report highlights the need to screen for other possible more common etiologies of a particular presentation before coming to a specific diagnosis based on initial findings. Uncomplicated cases of cerebellitis can be successfully managed with appropriate supportive measures with good prognosis, as in this case.

  7. Perbedaan Kadar Calprotectin Sebelum Dan Sesudah Radioterapi Pada Pasien Karsinoma Nasofaring Akibat Infeksi Epstein-Barr Virus

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    Rurie Ratna Shantiningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV adalah anggota herpes virus berkaitan dengan etiologi karsinoma nasofaring (KNF. Pada pasien KNF jumlah monosit dalam sel darah tepi mengalami penurunan dan kebanyakan masih dalam bentuk immature sehingga menurunkan respon imun pasien serta meningkatkan kemungkinan terjadinya penyakit periodontal. Radioterapi merupakan salah satu metode terapi yang banyak digunakan untuk kasus KNF. Calprotectin diproduksi dalam sitoplasma sel monosit dan levelnya meningkat pada beberapa penyakit inflamasi, termasuk inflamasi jaringan periodontal, ditandai dengan peningkatan kadar calprotectin pada cairan sulkus gingiva (CSG. Tujuan: mengkaji perbedaan kadar calprotectin pada pasien KNF sebelum dan setelah dilakukan radioterapi, pada sel monosit, serum dan CSG. Metode Penelitian: sepuluh pasien KNF akibat infeksi EBV digunakan sebagai subjek dalam penelitian ini. Lima orang sebagai sampel kelompok sebelum radioterapi dan 5 orang sebagai sampel kelompok sesudah radioterapi. Dari masing-masing pasien diambil sel monosit dan serum darah tepi serta CSG. Kadar calprotectin diukur menggunakan metode ELISA. Hasil: kadar calprotectin pada kelompok sampel sebelum radioterapi lebih rendah dibandingkan kelompok sam pel sesudah radioterapi dilihat melalui sel monosit dan serum darah tepi. Sementara dari CSG, kadar calprotectin kelompok sampel sebelum radioterapi nampak lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok sesudah radioterapi. Hasil analisis statistik Anova menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05. Kesimpulan: terdapat perbedaan kadar calprotectin pada sel monosit, serum darah tepi dan CSG pasien KNF antara sebelum dan sesudah radioterapi. Pada sel monosit dan serum darah tepi, terjadi penurunan kadar calprotectin, sementara pada CSG terjadi peningkatan kadar calprotectin antara sebelum dan sesudah radioterapi.

  8. Transcription profiling of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA-1 expressing cells suggests targeting of chromatin remodeling complexes.

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    Ramakrishna Sompallae

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded nuclear antigen (EBNA-1 regulates virus replication and transcription, and participates in the remodeling of the cellular environment that accompanies EBV induced B-cell immortalization and malignant transformation. The putative cellular targets of these effects of EBNA-1 are largely unknown. To address this issue we have profiled the transcriptional changes induced by short- and long-term expression of EBNA-1 in the EBV negative B-cell lymphoma BJAB. Three hundred and nineteen cellular genes were regulated in a conditional transfectant shortly after EBNA-1 induction while a ten fold higher number of genes was regulated upon continuous EBNA-1 expression. Promoter analysis of the differentially regulated genes demonstrated a significant enrichment of putative EBNA-1 binding sites suggesting that EBNA-1 may directly influence the transcription of a subset of genes. Gene ontology analysis of forty seven genes that were consistently regulated independently on the time of EBNA-1 expression revealed an unexpected enrichment of genes involved in the maintenance of chromatin architecture. The interaction network of the affected gene products suggests that EBNA-1 may promote a broad rearrangement of the cellular transcription landscape by altering the expression of key components of chromatin remodeling complexes.

  9. Glucocorticoid receptors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes from patients with glucocorticoid resistance and a glucocorticoid-resistant New World primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, M; Brandon, D D; Chrousos, G P; Vingerhoeds, A C; Foster, C M; Fowler, D; Loriaux, D L; Lipsett, M B

    1986-06-01

    Members of a previously reported family with glucocorticoid resistance and several New World primates have high plasma cortisol concentrations without any signs of glucocorticoid excess. The glucocorticoid receptor in circulating leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from these patients and the animals is characterized by a decreased affinity for dexamethasone. On the other hand, the cell content of receptor is similar to that of corresponding tissues of normal humans. Detailed biochemical-biophysical studies of the glucocorticoid receptor in this familial syndrome and animal model became possible with the use of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocyte lines. Cell lines from patients with this syndrome and from the marmoset (Saguinus oedipus) contained decreased amounts of glucocorticoid receptors with concomitant decreases in nuclear receptor content compared to cultured Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes from normal human subjects. This may reflect diminished induction of glucocorticoid receptor during viral transformation of cells from the patients and the animal model. Receptors from a severely affected glucocorticoid-resistant patient and the marmoset had decreased affinity for dexamethasone. Evidence for a mild affinity defect of the glucocorticoid receptor in a patient with asymptomatic glucocorticoid resistance was obtained by increased hormone-receptor dissociation at an elevated temperature. Thermal stability, mero-receptor formation, thermal activation of cytosolic receptor, and mol wt of receptors from all cell lines were normal. Only the receptors of the severely affected patient had a discernible defect in temperature-induced activation of intact cells. We conclude that the major detectable change in the receptor in both the patients and the animal model is the decreased affinity for glucocorticoid. Viral receptor induction is decreased in both patient and marmoset cells. The physiological relevance of this phenomenon is not known. Gross

  10. [Aplastic crisis due to parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoz Gordillo, I; Pérez Suárez, E

    2015-01-01

    Anemic syndrome in childhood requires a diagnosis and urgent treatment guided by systematic protocols that can avoid unnecessary additional testing. The case of a 4 year-old girl with fatigue and intermittent fever of 7 days duration, accompanied by abdominal pain is presented. She had regular general health status, with mucocutaneous jaundice, a grade III/VI/iv murmur, and painful abdomen with hepatosplenomegaly. The blood analysis showed a hypo-regenerative anemia with increased LDH and indirect bilirubin. The Coombs Test was negative, with spherocytes being observed in the peripheral blood smear. The IgM and IgG were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM and Epstein Barr virus, leading to the diagnosis of aplastic crisis in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis. No specific treatment was required. Under the suspicion of anemic syndrome in emergencies, the ABCDE sequence must be followed. Through the history, physical examination and basic laboratory tests, an initial diagnostic approach can be made. Specific etiological tests should be based on this first study.

  11. Genital ulcers as initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection: two new cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Brevig, Trine; Aas, Torkild; Skar, Anne Grete; Slevolden, Ellen Margrethe; Moi, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Genital ulceration is an uncommon manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present here two cases of genital ulcers probably caused by EBV. The first case is a 12-year-old girl with a genital ulcer appearing before specific EBV serology could identify a primary infection. However, serology was positive 13 days after the ulcer appeared. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV was positive in the biopsy from the ulcer as well. The second case is an 18-year-old female in whom the specific EBV serology was positive 8 days after appearance of the ulcer. The ulcers in both cases healed after 21 days. We reviewed the literature and a total of 26 cases of EBV-associated genital ulcers in females are now published. Median age of the 26 cases is 14.5 years of whom only 6 reports previous sexual contact. Mean healing time for the ulcers is 18 days. Our two cases correspond well with clinical reports of 24 EBV-associated genital ulcers in the literature.

  12. A novel recombinant variant of latent membrane protein 1 from Epstein Barr virus in Argentina denotes phylogeographical association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantuz, Magdalena; Lorenzetti, Mario Alejandro; Chabay, Paola Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection in Argentina occurs at an early age and occasionally develops infectious mononucleosis (IM). EBV is also related with lymphomas. LMP1, the viral oncoprotein is polymorphic and is used to define viral variants. Aim To study LMP1 variants distribution among children with EBV+ malignant and benign conditions as well as in healthy carriers. Methods Oral secretions and blood cells from 31 children with IM, and biopsies from 14 EBV+ reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 33 EBV+ lymphomas were included. LMP1 was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic reconstructions were made under Maximun Likelihood, Bayesian and coalescent algorithms. Results Six clades were defined (China1, China2, Med-, Alaskan, B95.8 and Argentine). Argentine variants, the most prevalent (46%), harbored 3 distinctive mutations and were a recombination between Raji and China1. Despite no pathology or compartment associations were observed for LMP1, the Argentine clade showed a phylogeographic association with our region. LMP1 estimated evolution rate was 8.591x10-5s/s/y and the estimated tMRCA for Raji and Argentine was 136ybp. Conclusions An LMP1 Argentine clade was defined. LMP1 evolutionary rate was higher than expected for herpesviruses. The tMRCA for Raji and the Argentine agrees with African immigration and could explain the recombinant nature of the Argentine variant. PMID:28328987

  13. Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an independent predictor of clinical course and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Carlo; Falisi, Erika; Young, Ken H; Pascarella, Michela; Perbellini, Omar; Carli, Giuseppe; Novella, Elisabetta; Rossi, Davide; Giaretta, Ilaria; Cavallini, Chiara; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; De Rossi, Anita; D'Amore, Emanuele Stefano Giovanni; Rassu, Mario; Gaidano, Gianluca; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Ambrosetti, Achille; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2015-07-30

    The relation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load and clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unknown. We assessed EBV DNA load by quantitative PCR at CLL presentation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 220 prospective patients that were enrolled and followed-up in two major Institutions. In 20 patients EBV DNA load was also assessed on plasma samples. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects were tested for EBV DNA load on MNC. Findings were validated in an independent retrospective cohort of 112 patients with CLL. EBV DNA load was detectable in 59%, and high (≥2000 copies/µg DNA) in 19% of patients, but it was negative in plasma samples. EBV DNA load was significantly higher in CLL patients than in healthy subjects (P EBV load and clinical stage or biological variables, except for 11q deletion (P = .004), CD38 expression (P = .003), and NOTCH1 mutations (P = .05). High EBV load led to a 3.14-fold increase in the hazard ratio of death and to a shorter overall survival (OS; P = .001). Poor OS was attributable, at least in part, to shorter time-to-first-treatment (P = .0008), with no higher risk of Richter's transformation or second cancer. Multivariate analysis selected high levels of EBV load as independent predictor of OS after controlling for confounding clinical and biological variables. EBV DNA load at presentation is an independent predictor of OS in patients with CLL.

  14. High incidence of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 6 infections in children with cancer

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    Horvath Radek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective single-center study was performed to study infection with lymphotropic herpesviruses (LH Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 in children with cancer. Methods The group of 186 children was examined for the presence of LH before, during and 2 months after the end of anticancer treatment. Serology of EBV and CMV was monitored in all children, serology of HHV-6 and DNA analysis of all three LH was monitored in 70 children. Results At the time of cancer diagnosis (pre-treatment, there was no difference between cancer patients and age-matched healthy controls in overall IgG seropositivity for EBV (68.8% vs. 72.0%; p = 0.47 and CMV (37.6% vs. 41.7%; p = 0.36. During anticancer therapy, primary or reactivated EBV and CMV infection was present in 65 (34.9% and 66 (35.4% of 186 patients, respectively, leading to increased overall post-treatment IgG seropositivity that was significantly different from controls for EBV (86.6% vs. 72.0%; p = 0.0004 and CMV (67.7% vs. 41.7%; p Conclusion EBV, CMV and HHV-6 infections are frequently present during therapy of pediatric malignancy.

  15. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  16. Pretreatment whole blood Epstein-Barr virus-DNA is a significant prognostic marker in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Kim, Shin; Park, Jung Sun; Park, Chan-Sik; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Sang-Wook; Huh, Jooryung; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the peripheral blood has become a significant predictor of clinical outcomes in EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to its relative rarity, prevalence and prognostic role of circulating EBV-DNA has not been well established in Asian patients. Seventy patients with newly diagnosed HL were prospectively registered between October 2007 and January 2013, and underwent pretreatment whole blood (WB) EBV-DNA quantitation using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). WB EBV-DNA in baseline and serial RT-PCR within 1 year were investigated. Clinicopathologic parameters of the patients according to pretreatment WB EBV-DNA were also explored. Twelve patients (17.1 %) demonstrated WB EBV-DNA(+), which was significantly associated to older age, advanced stages, frequent involvements of extranodal sites, low serum albumin and hemoglobin levels, and high international prognostic scores ≥2. Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly inferior in patients with pretreatment WB EBV-DNA(+) (53.5 vs 67.0 and 65.6 vs 90.2 %) (p EBV-DNA within 1 year after chemotherapy also significantly affected favorable EFS (p EBV-DNA(+) may be a significant predictor of inferior EFS and OS over EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH)(+) in Korean patients with HL. Serial EBV-DNA monitoring following chemotherapy also seems helpful to predict survival outcomes.

  17. BamHI-A rightward frame 1, an Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogene and immune modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebe, Eveline K; Le Large, Tessa Y S; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2013-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes several benign and malignant disorders of lymphoid and epithelial origin. EBV-related tumors display distinct patterns of viral latent gene expression, of which the BamHI-A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) is selectively expressed in carcinomas, regulated by cellular differentiation factors including ΔNp63α. BARF1 functions as a viral oncogene, immortalizing and transforming epithelial cells of different origin by acting as a mitogenic growth factor, inducing cyclin-D expression, and up-regulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2, stimulating host cell growth and survival. In addition, secreted hexameric BARF1 has immune evasive properties, functionally corrupting macrophage colony stimulating factor, as supported by recent functional and structural data. Therefore, BARF1, an intracellular and secreted protein, not only has multiple pathogenic functions but also can function as a target for immune responses. Deciphering the role of BARF1 in EBV biology will contribute to novel diagnostic and treatment options for EBV-driven carcinomas. Herein, we discuss recent insights on the regulation of BARF1 expression and aspects of structure-function relating to its oncogenic and immune suppressive properties.

  18. [LMP1 gene polymorphism in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric carcinomas in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtsevich, V E; Smirnova, K V; Diduk, S V; Goncharova, E V; Shcherbak, L N; Seniuta, N B; Kovrigina, A M; Stepina, V N; Nikulin, M P; Iakovleva, L S

    2010-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the molecular characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1 gene samples amplified from the tumor and intact tissues of patients with EBV-negative forms of gastric carcinoma (GC). The genetic structure of these samples determined by their sequencing was compared with that of the gene samples isolated from the cells of oropharyngeal washing specimens from the same patients with GC, as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) and blood donors. The findings suggest that the samples of tumor tissue LMP1 from patients with GC have higher divergence than those from patients with IM and blood donors although no specific variants of the gene for GC were found. Comparison of LMP1 sequences from tumor tissue and cells of oropharyngeal washing specimens from the same patients with EBV-negative GC revealed the common LMP1 variant in 2 cases while they differed in 3 cases. The findings are an initial step in studying the role of EBV in the carcinogenesis of EBV-negative GC that is likely to be established by investigations on representative clinical material, by applying the up-to-date technologies.

  19. Comparison of Epstein-Barr virus genotypes and clinicohistopathological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma between Guilin, China and Fukuoka, Japan.

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    Zhou, Yingqiong; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Koga, Kaori; Aoki, Mikiko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Hamasaki, Makoto; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Guilin, China, but not Fukuoka, Japan. To examine whether the NPC in these two cities are distinct in their association with EBV, we analyzed the histology and EBV genotypes in 163 NPC from Guilin, 52 NPC from Fukuoka and non-cancerous control nasopharyngeal tissues (n=22 each) by in situ hybridization and PCR. The proportion of EBV-positive NPC from Guilin (95%) was higher than that of Fukuoka (55%, pEBV-positivity was higher in NKC-U than KSCC in the two cities. EBV genotype A was highly prevalent in Guilin and Fukuoka. However, the BamHI f variant was predominant in Guilin (79%), whereas all the identified types were the F prototype in Fukuoka. The genetic structure and biological functions of the EBV strain associated with endemic NPC in Guilin were probably different from those of Fukuoka. The genetic differences between Guilin and Fukuoka may mirror the differences in histology and patient profiles.

  20. Establishment of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Stably Expressing Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Nuclear Antigen 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Ping REN; Ming ZHAO; Wen-Jiao SHAN; Xu-Yu YANG; Zhi-Hua YIN; Xing-Jun JIANG; Hong-Bo ZHANG; Kai-Tai YAO

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have the capability of unlimited undifferentiated proliferation,yet maintain the potential to form perhaps any cell type in the body. Based on the high efficiency of the Epstein-Barr virus-based episomal vector in introducing exogenous genes of interest into mammalian cells,we applied this system to hES cells, expecting that this would resolve the problem of poor transfection efficiency existing in current hES cell research. Therefore, the first step was to establish EBNAl-positive hES cells. Using the Fugene 6 transfection reagent, we transfected hES cells with the EBNA1 expression vector and subsequently generated hES cell clones that stably expressed EBNA 1 under drug selection. These clones were confirmed to express EBNA1 mRNA by RT-PCR and to express EBNA1 protein by Western blotting. Furthermore, luciferase reporter gene analysis was performed on the EBNA1 clones and revealed that the expressed EBNA1 protein was functional. When the EBNAl-positive cells were injected into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, they formed teratoma tissues containing all three embryonic germ layers and EBNA1 protein was detected in these teratoma tissues by Western blotting. All the results show that we have successfully created stable EBNA1-hES cells, thus laying a good foundation for further research.

  1. Epstein-barr virus-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases: three distinct cases from a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanay, Sule Mine; Kaygusuz, Gülşah; Topçuoğlu, Pervin; Sengül, Sule; Tunçalı, Timur; Keven, Kenan; Kuzu, Işınsu; Uysal, Akın; Arat, Mutlu

    2014-03-01

    Three cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease that occurred 6 to 8 years after renal transplantation are reported. The patients respectively had gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and atypical Burkitt lymphoma. Absence of EBV in the tissue samples was demonstrated by both in situ hybridization for EBV early RNA and polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA. Patients were treated with reduction in immunosuppression and combined chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab. Despite the reduction in immunosuppression, patients had stable renal functions without loss of graft functions. The patient with atypical Burkitt lymphoma had an abnormal karyotype, did not respond to treatment completely, and died due to disease progression. The other patients are still alive and in remission 5 and 3 years after diagnosis, respectively. EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases are usually late-onset and are reported to have poor prognosis. Thus, reduction in immunosuppression is usually not sufficient for treatment and more aggressive approaches like rituximab with combined chemotherapy are required.

  2. Isotypes of Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Association with Rheumatoid Factors and Citrulline-Dependent Antibodies

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    Marie Wulff Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the humoral immune response against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to compare it with the two major autoantibody types in RA, plasma samples from 77 RA patients, 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and 28 healthy controls (HCs were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Increased percentages of positives and concentrations of IgG/IgA/IgM antibodies against the latent EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 were observed in RA patients compared to SLE patients and HCs. Increased concentrations and percentages of positives of IgG/IgA/IgM against the early lytic EBV antigen diffuse (EAD were also found in RA patients compared to HCs but were highest in SLE patients. Furthermore, associations between the elevated EBNA-1 IgA and EBNA-1 IgM levels and the presence of IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors (RFs and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs, IgG and between elevated IgA concentrations against EAD and the presence of RFs and ACPAs in RA patients were found. Thus, RA patients had elevated antibodies of all isotypes characteristic of latent EBV infection (whereas SLE patients had elevated antibodies characteristic of lytic EBV infection. Notably, for IgM and IgA (but not IgG, these were associated with the presence of characteristic RA autoantibodies.

  3. In vivo dynamics of EBNA1-oriP interaction during latent and lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tohru; Kudoh, Ayumi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sugaya, Yutaka; Isomura, Hiroki; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2004-12-24

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is required for maintenance of the viral genome DNA during the latent phase of EBV replication but continues to be synthesized after the induction of viral productive replication. An EBV genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that EBNA1 constantly binds to oriP of the EBV genome during not only latent but also lytic infection. Although the total levels of EBNA1 proved constant throughout the latter, the levels of the oriP-bound form were increased as lytic infection proceeded. EBV productive DNA replication occurs at discrete sites in nuclei, called replication compartments, where viral replication proteins are clustered. Confocal laser microscopic analyses revealed that whereas EBNA1 was distributed broadly in nuclei as fine punctate dots during the latent phase of infection, the protein became redistributed to the viral replication compartments and localized as distinct spots within and/or nearby the compartments after the induction of lytic replication. Taking these findings into consideration, oriP regions of the EBV genome might be organized by EBNA1 into replication domains that may set up scaffolding for lytic replication and transcription.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus miR-BART20-5p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoji; Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2015-01-28

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI A rightward transcript (BART) microRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed in EBV-associated tumors, the role of most BART miRNAs is unclear. In this study, we showed that Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) expression was significantly lower in EBV-infected AGS-EBV cells than in EBV-negative AGS cells and investigated whether BART miRNAs target BAD. Using bioinformatics analysis, five BART miRNAs showing seed match with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BAD were selected. Of these, only miR-BART20-5p reduced BAD expression when individually transfected into AGS cells. A luciferase assay revealed that miR-BART20-5p directly targets BAD. The expression of BAD mRNA and protein was decreased by miR-BART20-5p and increased by an inhibitor of miR-BART20-5p. PE-Annexin V staining and cell proliferation assays showed that miR-BART20-5p reduced apoptosis and enhanced cell growth. Furthermore, miR-BART20-5p increased chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel. Our data suggest that miR-BART20-5p contributes to tumorigenesis of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of BAD.

  5. Host shutoff during productive Epstein-Barr virus infection is mediated by BGLF5 and may contribute to immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Martin; Glaunsinger, Britt; van Leeuwen, Daphne; Zuo, Jianmin; Sweetman, David; Ganem, Don; Middeldorp, Jaap; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Ressing, Maaike E

    2007-02-27

    Relatively little is known about immune evasion during the productive phase of infection by the gamma(1)-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The use of a unique system to isolate cells in lytic cycle allowed us to identify a host shutoff function operating in productively EBV-infected B cells. This impairment of protein synthesis results from mRNA degradation induced upon expression of the early lytic-cycle gene product BGLF5. Recently, a gamma(2)-herpesvirus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, has also been shown to encode a host shutoff function, indicating that host shutoff appears to be a general feature of gamma-herpesviruses. One of the consequences of host shutoff is a block in the synthesis of HLA class I and II molecules, reflected by reduced levels of these antigen-presenting complexes at the surface of cells in EBV lytic cycle. This effect could lead to escape from T cell recognition and elimination of EBV-producing cells, thereby allowing generation of viral progeny in the face of memory T cell responses.

  6. Performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit for Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Quantification in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2017-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in standardized and quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA testing for the management of EBV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit (BioSewoom, Korea) in whole blood (WB). Nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR were performed by using the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and 7500 Fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, USA), respectively. Assay sensitivity, linearity, and conversion factor were determined by using the World Health Organization international standard diluted in EBV-negative WB. We used 81 WB clinical specimens to compare performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit and artus EBV RG PCR Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Real-Q kit were 453 and 750 IU/mL, respectively. The conversion factor from EBV genomic copies to IU was 0.62. The linear range of the assay was from 750 to 10⁶ IU/mL. Viral load values measured with the Real-Q assay were on average 0.54 log₁₀ copies/mL higher than those measured with the artus assay. The Real-Q assay offered good analytical performance for EBV DNA quantification in WB.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus as a possible etiologic agent in primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent individuals

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    Tandon Ashwani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL occurs in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been implicated in immunosuppressed individuals but its role is not established in immunocompetent individuals. Aims: To study the possible role of EBV in PCNSL in immunocompetent individuals.Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with PCNSL were studied immunohistochemically with antibodies to CD45, CD20, CD3 and EBV latent membrane protein-1 (EBV LMP-1. In situ hybridization was done in 19 patients where enough tissue was available using a specific oligonucleotide probe for EBV-Early RNA (EBER. Results: All the patients were immunocompetent and mean age was 41.6 years. Histologically they were diffuse large cell lymphoma: 25 (83.3% were B cell, 1(3.3% was T cell and 4 (13.3% were unclassified. EBV LMP-1 showed variable membrane and cytoplasmic positivity in 24 (80% patients. In situ hybridization for EBER was negative in all the 19 patients studied. Conclusion: In this region of the world probably EBV has no etiologic role in PCNSL in immunocompetent individuals.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus-Negative Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Diseases: Three Distinct Cases from a Single Center

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    Şule Mine Bakanay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease that occurred 6 to 8 years after renal transplantation are reported. The patients respectively had gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and atypical Burkitt lymphoma. Absence of EBV in the tissue samples was demonstrated by both in situ hybridization for EBV early RNA and polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA. Patients were treated with reduction in immunosuppression and combined chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab. Despite the reduction in immunosuppression, patients had stable renal functions without loss of graft functions. The patient with atypical Burkitt lymphoma had an abnormal karyotype, did not respond to treatment completely, and died due to disease progression. The other patients are still alive and in remission 5 and 3 years after diagnosis, respectively. EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases are usually late-onset and are reported to have poor prognosis. Thus, reduction in immunosuppression is usually not sufficient for treatment and more aggressive approaches like rituximab with combined chemotherapy are required.

  9. Heterodimer formation between c-Jun and Jun B proteins mediated by Epstein Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin; TAO Yongguang; TAN Yunnian; Leo M. Lee; DENG Xiyun; WU Qiao; CAO Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) may trigger the transcription factor AP-1 including c-Jun and c-fos. In this report, using a Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by the Tet-on system, we show that Jun B can efficiently form a new heterodimeric complex with the c-Jun protein under the regulation of LMP1, phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser 63, ser 73) and Jun B is involved in the process of the new heterodimeric formation. We also find that this heterodimeric form can bind to the AP-1 consensus sequence. Transfection studies suggest that JNK interaction protein (JIP) could inhibit the heterodimer formation of c-Jun and Jun B through blocking the AP-1 signaling pathway triggered by LMP1. The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  10. Ekspresi produk gen laten virus epstein-barr pada karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut (The expressions of latent gene product of epstein-barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Indah Budhy S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a type of cancer often found in oral cavity and the area of head and neck at about 90%. Based on the geographical incidence oral SCC (OSCC has many types of different emerging. This case probably has connection with ethnic group, habit and social and economical condition. In East Java, the incidence is about 2.64% and it increases every year. The virus is known as one of the main factors that result in this disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has potential capability of carcinogenesis. EBV is the family of herpesviridae that can infect cell through the linking of CD 21 receptor of the epithel with glycol protein 350/220 of the virus capsule. After primary infection, the virus will form latent-gene in human cell. Periodically, the latent-gene product can disturb proliferation and apoptotic regulator. In Indonesia, the expression of EBV latent geneproduct in the OSCC has not been reported yet. This study wanted to know the expression of EBV latent gene product found in the OSCC. This study found 25 cases of OSCC in which 17 were infected by EBV. Detection of EBV infection could be done by insitu hybridization to identify RNA EBV (EBER. To find the expression of EBV latent gene product, immunohistochemical analysis was done. The conclusion was that the emerging of expression of EBV latent gene product in OSCC were latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1, EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 and RNA EBV (EBER. They were 28.28%, 25.26% and 46.47%. It was suggested to do the following research on OSCC infected by EBV and the emerging of expression of EBV latent gene product with regulator gene of proliferation and apoptotic in OSCC.

  11. Determination of Roles of Microgravity and Ionizing Radiation on the Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K; Renner, Ashlie; Stowe, Raymond; Bloom, David; Pierson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes virus reactivation during spaceflight. We have shown increases in reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and shedding in body fluids (saliva and urine) in astronauts during space travel. Alterations in immunity, increased stress hormone levels, microgravity, increased radiation, and other conditions unique to spaceflight may promote reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Unique mechanico-physico forces associated with spaceflight can have profound effects on cellular function, especially immune cells. In space flight analog studies such as Antarctica, bed rest studies, and NASA's undersea habitat (Aquarius), reactivation of these viruses occurred, but to a lesser extent than spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs model some spaceflight factors, but none of the analogs recreates all factors experienced in space. Most notably, microgravity and radiation are not included in many analogs. Stress, processed through the HPA axis and SAM systems, induces viral reactivation. However, the respective roles of microgravity and increased space radiation levels or if any synergy exists are not known. Therefore, we studied the effect of modeled space radiation and/or microgravity, independent of the immune system on the changes in cellular gene expression that results in viral (EBV) reactivation. The effects of modeled microgravity and low shear on EBV replication and cellular and EBV gene expression were studied in human B-lymphocyte cell cultures. Latently infected B-lymphocytes were propagated in the rotating wall bioreactor and irradiated with the various dosages of gamma irradiation. At specific time intervals following exposure to modeled microgravity, the cells and supernatant were harvested and reactivation of EBV were assessed by measuring EBV and gene expression, DNA methylation, and infectious virus production.

  12. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced tumor suppressor microRNA MiR-34a is growth promoting in EBV-infected B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Eleonora; Salinas, Raul E; Chang, Christina; Zhou, Ting; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Gottwein, Eva; Jacobs, Cassandra; Jima, Dereje; Li, Qi-Jing; Dave, Sandeep S; Luftig, Micah A

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B cells drives their indefinite proliferation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). B cell immortalization depends on expression of viral latency genes, as well as the regulation of host genes. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating fundamental cellular processes, in this study, we assayed changes in host miRNA expression during primary B cell infection by EBV. We observed and validated dynamic changes in several miRNAs from early proliferation through immortalization; oncogenic miRNAs were induced, and tumor suppressor miRNAs were largely repressed. However, one miRNA described as a p53-targeted tumor suppressor, miR-34a, was strongly induced by EBV infection and expressed in many EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected lymphoma cell lines. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was sufficient to induce miR-34a requiring downstream NF-κB activation but independent of functional p53. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-34a was not toxic in several B lymphoma cell lines, and inhibition of miR-34a impaired the growth of EBV-transformed cells. This study identifies a progrowth role for a tumor-suppressive miRNA in oncogenic-virus-mediated transformation, highlighting the importance of studying miRNA function in different cellular contexts.

  13. Shutoff of BZLF1 gene expression is necessary for immortalization of primary B cells by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianming; McCarthy, Patrick J; Wang, Zhenxun; Gorlen, Daniel A; Mertz, Janet E

    2012-08-01

    The BZLF1 gene controls the switch between latent and lytic infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We previously reported that both the ZV and ZIIR elements within the BZLF1 promoter, Zp, are potent transcription silencers within the context of an intact EBV genome. We report here identification of another sequence element, ZV', which synergized with ZV in repressing Zp via binding ZEB1 or ZEB2. We then determined the phenotype of a variant of EBV strain B95.8 in which the ZV, ZV', and ZIIR elements were concurrently mutated. HEK293 cell lines infected with this triple mutant (tmt) virus spontaneously synthesized 6- to 10-fold more viral BZLF1, BRLF1, BMRF1, and BLLF1 RNAs, 3- to 6-fold more viral Zta, Rta, and EAD proteins, 3- to 5-fold more viral DNA, and 7- to 9-fold more infectious virus than did 293 cell lines latently infected with either the ZV ZV' double mutant (dmt) or ZIIR mutant (mt) virus. While ZV ZV' ZIIR tmt EBV efficiently infected human primary blood B cells in vitro, it was highly defective in immortalizing them. Instead of the nearly complete silencing of BZLF1 gene expression that occurs within 4 days after primary infection with wild-type EBV, the ZV ZV' ZIIR tmt-infected cells continued to synthesize BZLF1 RNA, with 90% of them dying within 9 days postinfection. BL41 cells infected with this "superlytic" virus also exhibited increased synthesis of BZLF1 and BMRF1 RNAs. Thus, we conclude that the ZV, ZV', and ZIIR silencing elements act synergistically to repress transcription from Zp, thereby tightly controlling BZLF1 gene expression, which is crucial for establishing and maintaining EBV latency.

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus and Human herpes virus 6 Type A DNA Enhance IL-17 Production in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Elias A; Hajjar, Helene; Rajeh, Mirna; Yamout, Bassem; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown a potential association between the Herpesviridae members, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), and an increased risk of autoimmune disease development. Because of the ability of these viruses to cause recurrent infections, various viral antigens, including viral DNA, are consistently shed. These antigens may then play a role in triggering autoimmune processes or contributing to autoimmune mechanisms. Therefore, this study examined whether the DNA of EBV or that of HHV-6A is capable of triggering IL-17, the autoimmune-associated cytokine, in mice. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with various copy numbers of either EBV or HHV-6A DNA. One group was injected with sterile water (the DNA solvent), and another was left uninjected. A mouse group that was administered DNA obtained from Staphylococcus epidermidis was included to ensure that any observed effects would pertain to the viral DNA tested. Mice were sacrificed and their sera were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-17 and IL-23, as pro-autoimmune cytokines, IL-10, as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and IFN-γ, as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on days 3, 6, and 9 post-injection. All mouse groups injected with different copy numbers of EBV DNA or HHV-6A DNA displayed higher IL-17 levels than did the group injected with water on days 3, 6, and 9 post-injection. The highest IL-17 levels appeared to coincide with a marked increase in IL-23 and a decrease in IL-10 levels. Unlike the S. epidermidis DNA, which increased IFN-γ levels but not IL-17 or IL-23 levels, the viral DNA tested increased all three mediators, indicating that triggering Th17 responses is a specific property of EBV and HHV-6A DNA. In conclusion, EBV and HHV-6A viral DNA are capable of enhancing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17, which has been shown to play a role in autoimmune diseases.

  15. Constitutive autophagy contributes to resistance to TP53-mediated apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus-positive latency III B-cell lymphoproliferations.

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    Pujals, Anaïs; Favre, Loëtitia; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Robert, Aude; Meurice, Guillaume; Le Gentil, Marion; Chelouah, Sonia; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Le Cam, Eric; Guettier, Catherine; Raphaël, Martine; Vassilev, Lyubomir T; Gaulard, Philippe; Codogno, Patrice; Lipinski, Marc; Wiels, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with various lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas. We have previously demonstrated that treating wild-type TP53-expressing B cell lines with the TP53 pathway activator nutlin-3 induced apoptosis in EBV-negative and EBV-positive latency I cells whereas EBV-positive latency III cells remained much more apoptosis-resistant. Here, we report a constitutively high level of autophagy in these resistant cells which express high levels of the proautophagic protein BECN1/Beclin 1 based, at least in part, on the activation of the NFKB signaling pathway by the viral protein LMP1. Following treatment with nutlin-3, several autophagy-stimulating genes were upregulated both in EBV-negative and EBV-positive latency III cells. However the process of autophagy was only triggered in the latter and was associated with an upregulation of SESN1/sestrin 1 and inhibition of MTOR more rapid than in EBV-negative cells. A treatment with chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, potentiated the apoptotic effect of nutlin-3, particularly in those EBV-positive cells which were resistant to apoptosis induced by nutlin-3 alone, thereby showing that autophagy participates in this resistant phenotype. Finally, using immunohistochemical staining, clinical samples from various B cell lymphoproliferations with the EBV-positive latency II or III phenotype were found to harbor a constitutively active autophagy.

  16. Truncated Form of the Epstein-Barr Virus Protein EBNA-LP Protects against Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis by Inhibiting Protein Phosphatase 2A▿

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    Garibal, Julie; Hollville, Émilie; Bell, Andrew I.; Kelly, Gemma L.; Renouf, Benjamin; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Rickinson, Alan B.; Wiels, Joëlle

    2007-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded leader protein, EBNA-LP, strongly activates the EBNA2-mediated transcriptional activation of cellular and viral genes and is therefore important for EBV-induced B-cell transformation. However, a truncated form of EBNA-LP is produced in cells infected with variant EBV strains lacking EBNA2 due to a genetic deletion. The function of this truncated form is unknown. We show here that some Burkitt's lymphoma cells harboring defective EBV strains are specifically resistant to the caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by verotoxin 1 (VT-1) or staurosporine. These cells produced low-molecular-weight Y1Y2-truncated isoforms of EBNA-LP, which were partly localized in the cytoplasm. The transfection of sensitive cells with constructs encoding truncated EBNA-LP isoforms, but not full-length EBNA-LP, induced resistance to caspase-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, VT-1 induced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation in sensitive cells but not in resistant cells, in which the truncated EBNA-LP interacted with this protein. Thus, the resistance to apoptosis observed in cells harboring defective EBV strains most probably results from the inactivation of PP2A via interactions with low-molecular-weight Y1Y2-truncated EBNA-LP isoforms. PMID:17494066

  17. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

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    Beth Holder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  18. Herpesvirus pan encodes a functional homologue of BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus v-Bcl-2

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    Williams Tracey

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV latently infects about 90% of the human population and is associated with benign and malignant diseases of lymphoid and epithelial origin. BHRF1, an early lytic cycle antigen, is an apoptosis suppressing member of the Bcl-2 family. In vitro studies imply that BHRF1 is dispensable for both virus replication and transformation. However, the fact that BHRF1 is highly conserved not only in all EBV isolates studied to date but also in the analogous viruses Herpesvirus papio and Herpesvirus pan that infect baboons and chimpanzees respectively, suggests BHRF1 may play an important role in vivo. Results Herpesvirus papio BHRF1 has been shown to function in an analogous manner to EBV BHRF1 in response to DNA damaging agents in human keratinocytes. In this study we show that the heterologous expression of the previously uncharacterised Herpesvirus pan BHRF1 in the human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Ramos-BL provides similar anti-apoptotic functions to that of EBV BHRF1 in response to apoptosis triggered by serum withdrawal, etoposide treatment and ultraviolet (UV radiation. We also map the amino acid changes onto the recently solved structure of the EBV BHRF1 and reveal that these changes are unlikely to alter the 3D structure of the protein. Conclusions These findings show that the functional conservation of BHRF1 extends to a lymphoid background, suggesting that the primate virus proteins interact with cellular proteins that are themselves highly conserved across the higher primates. Further weight is added to this suggestion when we show that the difference in amino acid sequences map to regions on the 3D structure of EBV BHRF1 that are unlikely to change the conformation of the protein.

  19. Quantitative detection of epstein-barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

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    Clementina E Cocuzza

    Full Text Available The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood (PB samples collected from 55 patients with clinical and radiologically-active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and 51 subjects with other neurological diseases was determined using standardized commercially available kits for viral nucleic acid extraction and quantitative EBV DNA detection. Both cell-free and cell-associated CSF and PB fractions were analyzed, to distinguish latent from lytic EBV infection. EBV DNA was detected in 5.5% and 18.2% of cell-free and cell-associated CSF fractions of patients with RRMS as compared to 7.8% and 7.8% of controls; plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC positivity rates were 7.3% and 47.3% versus 5.8% and 31.4%, respectively. No significant difference in median EBV viral loads of positive samples was found between RRMS and control patients in all tested samples. Absence of statistically significant differences in EBV positivity rates between RRMS and control patients, despite the use of highly sensitive standardized methods, points to the lack of association between EBV and MS disease activity.

  20. Quantitative Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Samples of Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Rosario; Oggioni, Davide; Andreoni, Simona; Gardinetti, Margherita; Fusco, Letizia; Frigo, Maura; Banfi, Paola; Rottoli, Maria R.; Confalonieri, Paolo; Rezzonico, Monica; Ferrò, Maria T.; Cavaletti, Guido; Frigeni, Barbara; Mascoli, Nerina; Conti, Marta; Antozzi, Carlo; Andreetta, Francesca; Ambrosoni, Elena; Mainardi, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) samples collected from 55 patients with clinical and radiologically-active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 51 subjects with other neurological diseases was determined using standardized commercially available kits for viral nucleic acid extraction and quantitative EBV DNA detection. Both cell-free and cell-associated CSF and PB fractions were analyzed, to distinguish latent from lytic EBV infection. EBV DNA was detected in 5.5% and 18.2% of cell-free and cell-associated CSF fractions of patients with RRMS as compared to 7.8% and 7.8% of controls; plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) positivity rates were 7.3% and 47.3% versus 5.8% and 31.4%, respectively. No significant difference in median EBV viral loads of positive samples was found between RRMS and control patients in all tested samples. Absence of statistically significant differences in EBV positivity rates between RRMS and control patients, despite the use of highly sensitive standardized methods, points to the lack of association between EBV and MS disease activity. PMID:24722060

  1. Quantitative detection of epstein-barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Clementina E; Piazza, Fabrizio; Musumeci, Rosario; Oggioni, Davide; Andreoni, Simona; Gardinetti, Margherita; Fusco, Letizia; Frigo, Maura; Banfi, Paola; Rottoli, Maria R; Confalonieri, Paolo; Rezzonico, Monica; Ferrò, Maria T; Cavaletti, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) samples collected from 55 patients with clinical and radiologically-active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 51 subjects with other neurological diseases was determined using standardized commercially available kits for viral nucleic acid extraction and quantitative EBV DNA detection. Both cell-free and cell-associated CSF and PB fractions were analyzed, to distinguish latent from lytic EBV infection. EBV DNA was detected in 5.5% and 18.2% of cell-free and cell-associated CSF fractions of patients with RRMS as compared to 7.8% and 7.8% of controls; plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) positivity rates were 7.3% and 47.3% versus 5.8% and 31.4%, respectively. No significant difference in median EBV viral loads of positive samples was found between RRMS and control patients in all tested samples. Absence of statistically significant differences in EBV positivity rates between RRMS and control patients, despite the use of highly sensitive standardized methods, points to the lack of association between EBV and MS disease activity.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 triggers regulation of the ERK-mediated Op18/stathmin signaling pathway in association with cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuechi; Tang, Min; Tao, Yongguang; Li, Lili; Liu, Sufang; Guo, Lili; Li, Zijian; Ma, Xiaoqian; Xu, Juan; Cao, Ya

    2012-06-01

    The MAPKs are activated by a variety of cellular stimuli to participate in a series of signaling cascades and mediate diverse intracellular responses. One potential target of the MAPKs is Op18/stathmin, a molecule that acts as an integrator of diverse cell signaling pathways and regulates the dynamics of microtubules, which are involved in modulating a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and cell growth. Our study focused on the regulation of the MAPK-mediated Op18/stathmin signaling pathway, which is triggered by the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 ( LMP1) oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The results showed that the activity of MAPK, which was induced by LMP1, varied with cell cycle progression; LMP1 upregulated phosphorylation of ERK during the G(1)/S phase, but negatively regulated phosphorylation of ERK during the G(2)/M phase. We found that the regulation of Op18/stathmin signaling by LMP1 was mainly mediated through ERK. The inhibition of LMP1 expression attenuated the interaction of ERK with Op18/stathmin and promoted microtubule depolymerization. These findings indicate the existence of a new cell cycle-associated signaling pathway in which LMP1 regulates ERK-mediated Op18/stathmin signaling.

  3. Ileal mass-like lesion induced by Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with aplastic anemia.

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    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Jung, Ho Young; Han, Hye Seung; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Sung-Yong; Kim, Wan Seop; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wook Youn

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by activated macrophages engulfing erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursor cells in bone marrow, liver, spleen, or lymph nodes. We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated HLH unusually presenting as an ileal mass. A 23-year-old man presented initially with persistent fever unresponsive to antibiotics and pancytopenia. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were used to diagnose the patient with aplastic anemia and HLH. A relatively well-defined low-density mass was radiologically noted in the terminal ileum, along with enlarged lymph nodes, and was suspected to be malignant lymphoma or an abscess. The ileocecectomy specimen revealed a transmural hemorrhagic infarction with numerous activated macrophages phagocytosing erythrocytes, plasma cells, and lymphocytes, and he was diagnosed with EBV-associated HLH. The patient received an allo-unrelated peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation and expired due to graft-versus-host disease following liver failure. The present case is very unique, in that EBV-associated HLH presented with an unusual ileal mass resulting from hemorrhagic infarction in a patient with aplastic anemia, suggesting variability in the biological behavior of EBV-associated disease.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

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    Chen, Yen-Ju; Tsai, Wan-Hua; Chen, Yu-Lian; Ko, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Jen-Yang; Lin, Su-Fang

    2011-03-10

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1) an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2) a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

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    Yen-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1 an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2 a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  6. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

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    Wang, Feng-Wei [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Xian-Rui [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Sheng [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Shi-Juan, E-mail: maishj@sysucc.org.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Dan, E-mail: xied@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-12-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  7. AID expression in peripheral blood of children living in a malaria holoendemic region is associated with changes in B cell subsets and Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Joel R; Asito, Amolo S; Wei, Chungwen; Piriou, Erwan; Sumba, P Odada; Sanz, Iñaki; Rochford, Rosemary

    2015-03-15

    The development of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and holoendemic malaria infections. The role of EBV in the development of malignancy has been studied in depth, but there is still little known about the mechanisms by which malaria affects Burkitt's lymphomagenesis. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression is necessary for the introduction of c-myc translocations that are characteristic of BL, but a link between AID and EBV or malaria is unclear. To determine whether frequency of malaria exposure leads to increased AID expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) we examined two cohorts of children in western Kenya with endemic and sporadic malaria transmission dynamics. High frequency of malaria exposure led to increased expression of AID, which coincided with decreases in the IgM(+) memory B cells. In the children from the malaria endemic region, the presence of a detectible EBV viral load was associated with higher AID expression compared to children with undetectable EBV, but this effect was not seen in children with sporadic exposure to malaria. This study demonstrates that intensity of malaria transmission correlates with AID expression levels in the presence of EBV suggesting that malaria and EBV infection have a synergistic effect on the development of c-myc translocations and BL.

  8. Induction of T-cell immunity against Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors by means of adenovirally transduced dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华; 姚堃; 陈云; 周锋

    2004-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells to induce specific T-cell immunity, which plays an important role in the body's anti-tumor responses. In this study, we assessed the feasibility and efficacy of inducing T-cell immunity against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors in vivo using dendritic cells transfected with EBV latent membrane 2A (LMP2A) recombinant adenovirus.Methods Cytokine-activated bone marrow-derived DCs transfected with EBV LMP2A recombinant adenovirus were infused into BALB/c mice. Splenic cytotoxic T-cell responses were evaluated by cytotoxicity and interferon-γ production assays. In vivo immune protection was then assessed in the mice tumor models implanted with tumor cells expressing EBV LMP2A.Results DCs transfected with EBV LMP2A recombinant adenovirus could strongly induce EBV LMP2A-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses and upregulate interferon-γ production in vivo. Vaccination using these DCs led to prolongation of overall survival rates in the mice tumor models and retarded tumor growth. Conclusions The results suggest that DCs transfected with EBV LMP2A recombinant adenovirus can serve as a feasible and effective tool for eliciting LMP2A-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses against EBV LMP2A in vivo in the treatment of EBV-associated tumors.

  9. Desarrollo de improntas para el diagnóstico del virus Epstein-Barr por inmunofluorescencia indirecta Development of slides for Epstein-Barr virus diagnosis by indirect immunofluorescence

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    Germán R. Pérez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB es el principal agente oncogénico linfotrópico dentro de la familia Herpesviridae y se encuentra mundialmente distribuido. La primoinfección se produce en adultos jóvenes y se manifiesta como mononucleosis infecciosa. La detección de anticuerpos anti-viral capside antigen (VCA indica infección previa o presente con VEB. Además, se observan títulos elevados de anticuerpos anti-VCA en las enfermedades neoplásicas asociadas al VEB como los linfomas, en individuos HIV-positivos. El objetivo de este estudio fue el desarrollo y puesta a punto de improntas de células P3HR1 para la detección serológica del VEB por técnicas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Se estimularon cultivos de células P3HR1 en crecimiento exponencial con phorbol-12-mirystoil-13-acetato, y se recolectaron alícuotas a distintos tiempos para realizar improntas. Se realizó una IFI con cada impronta usando como anticuerpo primario un suero VEB-positivo. Se observó un aumento del 11% en la expresión del VCA a las 40 horas post-estimulación, decayendo al 3.5% a las 48 horas. Estos datos fueron corroborados por ensayo de western blot con inmunodetección. La precisión intra- e inter-lote de las improntas fue evaluada para anticuerpos IgM e IgG, con sueros probados previamente por equipos para esta determinación disponibles en el mercado para el VEB y con sueros reactivos para otros miembros de la familia Herpesviridae. No se obtuvieron resultados falsos-negativos ni falsos-positivos para el VEB ni se observó reactividad cruzada con otros herpesvirus. Las improntas desarrolladas constituyen un instrumento para el diagnóstico de la primoinfección del VEB y la detección serológica de anticuerpos IgG anti-VCA de neoplasias asociadas al VEB.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the main oncogenic lymphotropic agent of the Herpesviridae family and is globally distributed. EBV acute infection occurs in young adults producing infectious

  10. Dual Infection with Hepatitis B and Epstein-Barr Virus Presenting with Severe Jaundice, Coagulopathy, and Hepatitis B Virus Chronicity Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sirish C.; Ashraf, Imran; Mir, Fazia; Samiullah, Sami; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 34 Final Diagnosis: HBV and EBV dual infection Symptoms: Jaundice • fatigue • anorexia • subjective weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported as a coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case Report: A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with epigastric pain and severe acute hepatitis manifested as jaundice associated with hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, and coagulopathy. The patient was diagnosed with acute HBV with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection leading to subsequent chronic hepatitis B. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this patient case is the first reported case of HBV and EBV coinfection reported in the literature. HBV and EBV coinfection may cause severe acute hepatitis with HBV chronicity. PMID:28202897

  11. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in Brazil: comparison between in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcos Antonio Pereira; Ferreira, Márcia Valéria Pitombeira; Barros, Marcos Aurélio Pessoa; Pardini, Maria Inês de Moura Campos; Ferrasi, Adriana Camargo; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with 10% of gastric carcinomas. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of EBV in gastric carcinomas in Brazil assessed by in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR, which would contribute to the characterization of the clinical and pathological aspects of EBV-associated gastric carcinomas. One hundred and ninety-two gastric carcinoma cases were collected at hospitals in two Brazilian states. Seventy-three out of 151 cases were PCR(+), while 11/160 cases were ISH(+). Nine out of eleven ISH(+) cases displayed a diffuse staining pattern and 2 out of 11 a focal pattern. Both techniques showed that the EBV(+) cases were characterized by their association with males, older patients, lower gastric region, intestinal type, advanced stage and poorly to moderately differentiated tumors. The concordance between the two techniques was 55.8% (Cohen’s kappa index = 0.034). Four cases were ISH(+)/PCR(-), while 49 cases were PCR(+)/ISH(-). Only two cases showed stained lymphocytes by ISH and one of them was PCR(-). The observed discrepancy between the two techniques could not be explained just by the elevated accuracy of PCR. ISH(+)/PCR(-) carcinomas may be encountered if EBV is not present in the whole tumor tissue or if there are polymorphisms in the sequences of the viral genome amplified. On the other hand, the high frequency of PCR(+) results associated with the absence of ISH staining in lymphocytes and/or tumors cells suggests that the virus may be present in tumor cells or other cell types without expressing EBER1, the target of the ISH technique. PMID:24031845

  12. Higher prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in deeper periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ayako; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis, a complex chronic inflammatory disease caused by subgingival infection, is among the most prevalent microbial diseases in humans. Although traditional microbiological research on periodontitis has focused on putative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, the herpes virus is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis because bacterial etiology alone does not adequately explain various clinical aspects. In this study, we established for the first time, more Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is found deeper in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients. Subgingival samples were collected from 85 patients with chronic periodontitis having two periodontal sites with probing depths (PD) of ≤ 3 mm (shallow) or ≥ 5 mm (deep) and were subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was more frequently detected in patients with deeper PD sites (66%) than in those with shallow PD sites (48%) or healthy controls (45%). Coexistence of EBV DNA and P. gingivalis was significantly higher in patients with deeper PD sites (40%) than in those with shallow PD sites (14%) or healthy controls (13%). Although no difference in clinical index for periodontitis, the odds ratio of EBV DNA in patients with deeper PD sites was 2.36, which was 2.07-fold higher than that in those with shallow PD sites. Interestingly, the odds of acquiring chronic periodontitis (PD ≥ 5 mm) were higher in the presence of both EBV DNA and P. gingivalis compared with either EBV DNA or P. gingivalis only. In addition, we also observed that EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in positive cells of human gingival tissues. These results would suggest that EBV DNA may serve as a pathogenic factor leading to chronic periodontitis among Japanese patients.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus and inflammatory bowel disease%EB病毒与炎症性肠病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏璐; 吴小平

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the first human virus related to oncogenesis.EBV infection is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with unknown causality.The prevalence of EBV in intestinal tissue from patients with IBD is significantly higher and related to the exacerbation of the disease and refractory IBD.Immunosuppressive therapy has improved outcomes associated with IBD.However,it is also associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infection,and lymphoproliferative disorders (LDs) maybe due to EBV infection.Here we review our current understanding of the pathogenesis of EBV infection in colonic mucosal inflammation,EBV-induced disease exacerbation,lymphomagenesis in IBD,and clinical approaches therefrom.%EB病毒(EBV)是首个发现的与肿瘤发生相关的人类病毒,EBV感染和炎症性肠病有一定的相关性,但原因不明.研究发现IBD患者中肠黏膜感染EBV的比例大大增加,并且EBV感染和IBD病情加重及其难治性病程相关.免疫抑制治疗明显改善了IBD的预后,但可能造成机会感染增加,并诱发可能与EBV相关的淋巴组织增殖性疾病.本文总结了目前对EBV造成肠黏膜炎症的病理生理机制、EBV与IBD病情加重及淋巴组织增殖性疾病的关系的认识及相应的临床对策.

  14. Higher prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in deeper periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kato

    Full Text Available Periodontitis, a complex chronic inflammatory disease caused by subgingival infection, is among the most prevalent microbial diseases in humans. Although traditional microbiological research on periodontitis has focused on putative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, the herpes virus is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis because bacterial etiology alone does not adequately explain various clinical aspects. In this study, we established for the first time, more Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA is found deeper in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients. Subgingival samples were collected from 85 patients with chronic periodontitis having two periodontal sites with probing depths (PD of ≤ 3 mm (shallow or ≥ 5 mm (deep and were subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was more frequently detected in patients with deeper PD sites (66% than in those with shallow PD sites (48% or healthy controls (45%. Coexistence of EBV DNA and P. gingivalis was significantly higher in patients with deeper PD sites (40% than in those with shallow PD sites (14% or healthy controls (13%. Although no difference in clinical index for periodontitis, the odds ratio of EBV DNA in patients with deeper PD sites was 2.36, which was 2.07-fold higher than that in those with shallow PD sites. Interestingly, the odds of acquiring chronic periodontitis (PD ≥ 5 mm were higher in the presence of both EBV DNA and P. gingivalis compared with either EBV DNA or P. gingivalis only. In addition, we also observed that EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER in positive cells of human gingival tissues. These results would suggest that EBV DNA may serve as a pathogenic factor leading to chronic periodontitis among Japanese patients.

  15. Dual functions of interferon regulatory factors 7C in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes.

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    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is associated with several human malignancies. Interferon (IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7 has several splicing variants, and at least the major splicing variant (IRF-7A has oncogenic potential and is associated with EBV transformation processes. IRF-7C is an alternative splicing variant with only the DNA-binding domain of IRF-7. Whether IRF-7C is present under physiological conditions and its functions in viral transformation are unknown. In this report, we prove the existence of IRF-7C protein and RNA in certain cells under physiological conditions, and find that high levels of IRF-7C are associated with EBV transformation of human primary B cells in vitro as well as EBV type III latency. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1 stimulates IRF-7C expression in B lymphocytes. IRF-7C has oncogenic potential in rodent cells and partially restores the growth properties of EBV-transformed cells under a growth-inhibition condition. A tumor array experiment has identified six primary tumor specimens with high levels of IRF-7C protein--all of them are lymphomas. Furthermore, we show that the expression of IRF-7C is apparently closely associated with other IRF-7 splicing variants. IRF-7C inhibits the function of IRF-7 in transcriptional regulation of IFN genes. These data suggest that EBV may use splicing variants of IRF-7 for its transformation process in two strategies: to use oncogenic properties of various IRF-7 splicing variants, but use one of its splicing variants (IRF-7C to block the IFN-induction function of IRF-7 that is detrimental for viral transformation. The work provides a novel relation of host/virus interactions, and has expanded our knowledge about IRFs in EBV transformation.

  16. Identification and functional analysis of the BIM interactome; new clues on its possible involvement in Epstein-Barr Virus-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouka, Erasmia; Kyriakou, Despoina

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a common feature in the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-related lymphomas and carcinomas. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between EBV latency in B-cells and epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene BIM. This study aimed to the construction and functional analysis of the BIM interactome in order to identify novel host genes that may be targeted by EBV. Fifty-nine unique interactors were found to compose the BIM gene network. Ontological analysis at the pathway level highlighted infectious diseases along with neuropathologies. These results underline the possible interplay between the BIM interactome and EBV-associated disorders.

  17. Positive Correlation between Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load and Anti-Viral Capsid Immunoglobulin G Titers Determined for Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients and Their Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Caroline; Amiel, Corinne; Le-Pendeven, Catherine; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Abel, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Markers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection include measures of specific serological titers and of viral load (VLo) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Few studies have investigated the correlation between these two phenotypes. Here, we found that there was no correlation between VLo and either anti-EBV nuclear antigen type 1 or anti-early antigen immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer but that anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG titer increased with VLo in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pa...

  18. Cytomegalovirus reactivation after low-dose steroid treatment for hemolytic anemia in a patient with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj-Vukic, Biserka; Milotic, Irena; Milotic, Franko; Crnic-Martinovic, Marija; Grahovac, Blazenka

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus reactivation is a well described event occurring after intensive therapeutic suppression of the immune function in patients with latent infection. Treatment protocols for suppression of the immune response often include high-dose steroids. However, it is not known whether even a low-dose steroid treatment can reactivate latent cytomegalovirus in otherwise healthy persons. We documented cytomegalovirus reactivation after low-dose steroid treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia as a complication of Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis in an immunocompetent 21-year-old man.

  19. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis associated with infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus infection: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Makoto; Yoshioka, Tomoki; Yamakawa, Taishi; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Shimizu, Hideaki; Fujita, Yoshiro; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-02-01

    Although the aetiology of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis remains unclear, it is generally believed that environmental factors such as infections contribute to its development of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Prior Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is reported to be a trigger of systemic vasculitis. We herein report three cases of ANCA-associated vasculitis presenting with infectious mononucleosis due to primary EBV infection. The causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, but primary EBV infection may play a role in the initiation or exacerbation of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Future studies are necessary to determine the interaction between these diseases conditions.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  1. Latent Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-Encoded Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I TAP Inhibitor, BNLF2a, in EBV-Positive Gastric Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Michael J; Laskow, Thomas; Nakhoul, Hani; Blanchard, Eugene; Liu, Yaozhong; Wang, Xia; Baddoo, Melody; Lin, Zhen; Yin, Qinyan; Flemington, Erik K

    2015-10-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF2a gene product provides immune evasion properties to infected cells through inhibition of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-mediated transport of antigen peptides. Although BNLF2a is considered to be a lytic gene, we demonstrate that it is expressed in nearly half of the EBV-associated gastric carcinomas analyzed. Further, we show that BNLF2a expression is dissociated from lytic gene expression. BNLF2a is therefore expressed in this latency setting, potentially helping protect the infected tumor cells from immunosurveillance.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoepithelioma-Like Gastric Carcinoma Presenting as a Submucosal Mass: CT Findings with Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Chang Jin; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Kyun; Jeong, Dong Jun [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, characterized by a carcinoma with heavy lymphocyte infiltration, is one of the histological patterns observed in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma. Less than half of invasive carcinomas with lymphoepithelioma-like histology can grow to make a submucosal mass. These tumors generally have a better prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. We report a case of an EBV-associated lymphoepitheliomalike gastric carcinoma that presented as a submucosal mass on multi-detector (MD) CT and correlate them with the pathology

  3. Cyclophosphamide therapy for corticoresistant drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome in a patient with severe kidney and eye involvement and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Emilie; Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Eva; Pourreau, François; Yacoub, Mokrane; Sztermer, Emilie; Guillet, Gérard; Touchard, Guy; Bridoux, Frank

    2010-03-01

    DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome is a severe adverse drug reaction with significant mortality, characterized by erythroderma, fever, lymphadenopathy, and visceral involvement. We report a case of multivisceral DRESS syndrome with posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis responsible for dialysis-dependent acute kidney failure in the context of reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Because of resistance of the skin and kidney manifestations to prolonged corticosteroid therapy, a 6-month course of oral cyclophosphamide resulted in complete recovery of all symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing the efficacy of cyclophosphamide in severe DRESS syndrome.

  4. Complete Remission of Methotrexate-Related Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Hodgkin-Like Lymphoma following Withdrawal of MTX Coupled with Clarithromycin Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Takemori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are known to develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs during the course of illness, particularly in cases treated with methotrexate (MTX for long periods. We describe a case of MTX-related Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV- associated LPD resembling Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL, in which a dramatic complete remission was achieved after withdrawal of MTX coupled with clarithromycin (CAM administration. Withdrawal of MTX coupled with CAM administration seemed to be effective for treating MTX-related EBV-associated LPDs. In particular, an immunomodulative effect of CAM might have been involved in achieving complete remission.

  5. Prevalencia de la infección por virus de Epstein Barr (VEB) en mujeres gestantes y con aborto, durante las primeras semanas de embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangel Ramos; César Pérez

    2013-01-01

    El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) es un agente patógeno común para los humanos y su efecto en la infección vertical es poco estudiado. Durante el embarazo hay riesgo a contraer infecciones que afectan al feto. La infección adquirida antes del nacimiento ocasiona abortos, mortinatos, malformaciones, retraso en el crecimiento intrauterino, prematuridad y secuelas por infección postnatal crónica. Los efectos inmediatos o a largo plazo representan un problema a nivel mundial. Durante el embarazo se ...

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a retrospective study of 78 pediatric cases in mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ying-kang; XIE Zheng-de; YANG Shuang; LU Gen; SHEN Kun-ling

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) are largely unreported in the pediatric patients in mainland of China. The main aim of this study was to recognize the clinical features of EBV-HLH in children and to explore its prognosis and risk factors.Methods A retrospective study was performed on 78 pediatric patients with EBV-HLH who were admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between 2003 and 2008. All patients' medical records were reviewed and analyzed. For each patient, demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome information was collected. Statistical analysis was conducted via multivariate and univariate analysis.Results The age of onset peaked between 1-2 years and boys were more likely developed EBV-HLH. EBV-HLH occurred mainly in the serological pattern with EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) positive (70.5%). The overall fatality of the disease was 56.7%. Twelve of the 39 fatalities (30.8%) died rapidly within 2 months after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that not receiving chemotherapy (P=0.002), ≥4 weeks of illness prior to diagnosis (P=0.004), and albumin levels <20 g/L (P=0.045) significantly predicted an increased fatality risk.Conclusions EBV-HLH is a severe disease with a high fatality rate that occurs mainly in the serological pattern with EBNA positive. Early initiation of chemotherapy and timely diagnosis significantly improves survival rate. Practical strategies should focus on reducing the likelihood of early death.

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNAs are Expressed in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Correlate with Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Ivan, Cristina; Ciccone, Maria; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Kita, Yoshiaki; Ohtsuka, Masahisha; D'Abundo, Lucilla; Qiang, Jun; Lerner, Susan; Nouraee, Nazila; Rabe, Kari G; Rassenti, Laura Z; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Manning, John T; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Xinna; Shanafelt, Tait D; Wierda, William G; Sabbioni, Silvia; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Estrov, Zeev; Radovich, Milan; Liang, Han; Negrini, Massimo; Kipps, Thomas J; Kay, Neil E; Keating, Michael; Calin, George A

    2015-06-01

    Although numerous studies highlighted the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in B-cell transformation, the involvement of EBV proteins or genome in the development of the most frequent adult leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), has not yet been defined. We hypothesized that EBV microRNAs contribute to progression of CLL and demonstrated the presence of EBV miRNAs in B-cells, in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies and in the plasma of patients with CLL by using three different methods (small RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR [q-RT-PCR] and miRNAs in situ hybridization [miRNA-ISH]). We found that EBV miRNA BHRF1-1 expression levels were significantly higher in the plasma of patients with CLL compared with healthy individuals (p < 0 · 0001). Notably, BHRF1-1 as well as BART4 expression were detected in the plasma of either seronegative or seropositive (anti-EBNA-1 IgG and EBV DNA tested) patients; similarly, miRNA-ISH stained positive in bone marrow specimens while LMP1 and EBER immunohistochemistry failed to detect viral proteins and RNA. We also found that BHRF1-1 plasma expression levels were positively associated with elevated beta-2-microglobulin levels and advanced Rai stages and observed a correlation between higher BHRF1-1 expression levels and shorter survival in two independent patients' cohorts. Furthermore, in the majority of CLL cases where BHRF1-1 was exogenously induced in primary malignant B cells the levels of TP53 were reduced. Our findings suggest that EBV may have a role in the process of disease progression in CLL and that miRNA RT-PCR and miRNAs ISH could represent additional methods to detect EBV miRNAs in patients with CLL.

  8. Genetic and structural basis for selection of a ubiquitous T cell receptor deployed in Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Miles

    Full Text Available Despite the ∼10(18 αβ T cell receptor (TCR structures that can be randomly manufactured by the human thymus, some surface more frequently than others. The pinnacles of this distortion are public TCRs, which exhibit amino acid-identical structures across different individuals. Public TCRs are thought to result from both recombinatorial bias and antigen-driven selection, but the mechanisms that underlie inter-individual TCR sharing are still largely theoretical. To examine this phenomenon at the atomic level, we solved the co-complex structure of one of the most widespread and numerically frequent public TCRs in the human population. The archetypal AS01 public TCR recognizes an immunodominant BMLF1 peptide, derived from the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus, bound to HLA-A*0201. The AS01 TCR was observed to dock in a diagonal fashion, grasping the solvent exposed peptide crest with two sets of complementarity-determining region (CDR loops, and was fastened to the peptide and HLA-A*0201 platform with residue sets found only within TCR genes biased in the public response. Computer simulations of a random V(DJ recombination process demonstrated that both TCRα and TCRβ amino acid sequences could be manufactured easily, thereby explaining the prevalence of this receptor across different individuals. Interestingly, the AS01 TCR was encoded largely by germline DNA, indicating that the TCR loci already comprise gene segments that specifically recognize this ancient pathogen. Such pattern recognition receptor-like traits within the αβ TCR system further blur the boundaries between the adaptive and innate immune systems.

  9. Quantitative profiling of housekeeping and Epstein-Barr virus gene transcription in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines using an oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niggli Felix K

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with lymphoid malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL, and can transform human B cells in vitro. EBV-harboring cell lines are widely used to investigate lymphocyte transformation and oncogenesis. Qualitative EBV gene expression has been extensively described, but knowledge of quantitative transcription is lacking. We hypothesized that transcription levels of EBNA1, the gene essential for EBV persistence within an infected cell, are similar in BL cell lines. Results To compare quantitative gene transcription in the BL cell lines Namalwa, Raji, Akata, Jijoye, and P3HR1, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray chip, including 17 housekeeping genes, six latent EBV genes (EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3C, LMP1, LMP2, and four lytic EBV genes (BZLF1, BXLF2, BKRF2, BZLF2, and used the cell line B95.8 as a reference for EBV gene transcription. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to validate microarray results. We found that transcription levels of housekeeping genes differed considerably among BL cell lines. Using a selection of housekeeping genes with similar quantitative transcription in the tested cell lines to normalize EBV gene transcription data, we showed that transcription levels of EBNA1 were quite similar in very different BL cell lines, in contrast to transcription levels of other EBV genes. As demonstrated with Akata cells, the chip allowed us to accurately measure EBV gene transcription changes triggered by treatment interventions. Conclusion Our results suggest uniform EBNA1 transcription levels in BL and that microarray profiling can reveal novel insights on quantitative EBV gene transcription and its impact on lymphocyte biology.

  10. HLA class II alleles and the presence of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in greek patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanikiotis, C. [424 Army General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Daniilidis, M.; Karyotis, N.; Nikolaou, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki School of Medicine (Greece); Bakogiannis, C. [Hygeia Hospital, Athens (Greece); Economopoulos, T. [' Attikon' Univ. Hospital, Athens (Greece); Murray, S. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papamichael, D. [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece); Samantas, E. [' Agii Anargiri' Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Skoura, L. [' Hippokration' Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tselis, N.; Zamboglou, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Offenbach Hospital (Germany); Fountzilas, G. [' Papageorgiou' Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki School of Medicine (Greece)

    2008-06-15

    Background and purpose: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents a seldom malignancy in most developed countries. Nevertheless, NPC receives an endemic form in concrete racial entities. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in peripheral blood of NPC patients, to molecularly define human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DRB1*, DQA1* and DQB1* allele frequencies, and, finally, to determine whether the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC depends on the liability to EBV infection. Patients and methods: a total of 101 patients of Hellenic origin and nationality, with histologically proven NPC, participated in this study. EBV-DNA detection was also applied in 66 patients with EBV-related malignancies (Hodgkin's [HL] and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL]) and infectious mononucleosis (IM), as well as in 80 healthy EBV-seropositive controls. Results: 81% of the NPC patients, 77.8% with HL, 72.2% with NHL, and 66.7% with IM were EBV-DNA positive, whereas the EBV genome was detected only in 15% of the healthy controls. These differences were statistically significant in all cases. Analysis of HLA class II antigens showed decreased frequency of the DRB1*07 (p = 0.003), DQA1*0103 (p = 0.002), and DQA1*0201 (p = 0.003) alleles among NPC patients. A significant association between the HLA-DR/DQ alleles and the presence of EBV-DNA in peripheral whole blood was not established. Conclusion: circulating EBV-DNA and specific HLA class II alleles may predispose to or protect from NPC. However, the results of this study suggest that the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC is independent of the liability to EBV infection. (orig.)

  11. Prognostic impact of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA copy number at diagnosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin-Hua; Gao, Rui; Xia, Yi; Gale, Robert Peter; Chen, Rui-Ze; Yang, Yu-Qiong; Wang, Li; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Cao, Lei; Hong, Min; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yan; Fan, Lei; Chen, Yao-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Bin; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-12

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA is detected in the blood of some persons with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at diagnosis. Whether this is important in the development or progression of CLL is controversial. We interrogated associations between blood EBV-DNA copy number and biological and clinical variables in 243 new-diagnosed consecutive subjects with CLL. Quantification of EBV-DNA copies was done by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). All subjects had serological evidence of prior EBV-infection. However, only 24 subjects (10%) had a EBV-DNA-positive test at diagnosis. EBV-DNA-positive subjects at diagnosis had lower hemoglobin concentrations and platelet levels, higher thymidine kinase-1 and serum ferritin levels, un-mutated IGHV genes and a greater risk of Richter transformation compared with EBV-DNA-negative subjects. Percent CD20-, CD148- and ZAP70-positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of each cluster designation were also increased in EBV-DNA-positive subjects at diagnosis. EBV-DNA test positivity was associated with a briefer time-to-treatment interval (HR 1.85; [95% confidence interval, 1.13, 3.03]; P=0.014) and worse survival (HR 2.77; [1.18, 6.49]; P=0.019). Reduction in EBV copies was significantly associated with therapy-response. A positive blood EBV-DNA test at diagnosis and sequential testing of EBV copies during therapy were significantly associated with biological and clinical variables, time-to-treatment, therapy-response and survival. If validated these data may be added to CLL prognostic scoring systems.

  12. Detection of free circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in plasma of patients with Hodgkin’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Garcez Musacchio

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Free circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA is often present in the plasma of Hodgkin’s disease patients. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of this finding, its correlation with the immunohistochemical expression of LMP-1 (latent membrane protein 1 and the influence of other clinical factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in two public tertiary institutions: Hematology Service, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, and Oncology Service, Instituto Nacional do Câncer, Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: A cohort of 30 patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin’s disease was studied. The control group consisted of 13 healthy adult volunteers. EBV DNA was determined by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The median age was 28 years, and 16 patients were women. Advanced disease was present in 19 patients, and six were HIV-positive. EBV DNA was present in the plasma of 13 patients and one control (43% versus 8%, p = 0.03. EBV DNA prevalence was higher in HIV-positive patients (100% versus 29%, p = 0.0007 and those with advanced disease (63% versus 9%, p = 0.006. Among HIV-negative patients alone, EBV DNA prevalence remained higher in those with advanced disease. EBV DNA was found in 10/11 patients with LMP-1 expression in the lymph nodes, and in 3/19 without LMP-1 expression (kappa coefficient = 0.72. CONCLUSION: EBV DNA was present in 91% of patients with EBV-associated Hodgkin’s disease, and in all patients with HIV-associated Hodgkin’s disease. EBV DNA prevalence was higher in patients with advanced disease, irrespective of HIV status.

  13. Latent Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit apoptosis in B cells by blocking the induction of NOXA expression.

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    Jade Yee

    Full Text Available Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been shown to protect Burkitt's lymphoma-derived B cells from apoptosis induced by agents that cause damage to DNA, in the context of mutant p53. This protection requires expression of the latency-associated nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and correlates with their ability to cooperate in the repression of the gene encoding the pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein BIM. Here we confirm that latent EBV in B cells also inhibits apoptosis induced by two other agents--ionomycin and staurosporine--and show that these act by a distinct pathway that involves a p53-independent increase in expression of another pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein, NOXA. Analyses employing a variety of B cells infected with naturally occurring EBV or B95.8 EBV-BAC recombinant mutants indicated that the block to NOXA induction does not depend on the well-characterized viral latency-associated genes (EBNAs 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, the LMPs or the EBERs or expression of BIM. Regulation of NOXA was shown to be at least partly at the level of mRNA and the requirement for NOXA to induce cell death in this context was demonstrated by NOXA-specific shRNA-mediated depletion experiments. Although recombinant EBV with a deletion removing the BHRF1 locus--that encodes the BCL2-homologue BHRF1 and three microRNAs--partially abrogates protection against ionomycin and staurosporine, the deletion has no effect on the EBV-mediated block to NOXA accumulation.

  14. BARF1 gene silencing triggers caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus-positive malignant cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taznim Begam Mohd Mohidin; Ching Ching Ng

    2015-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded BARF1 (BamH1-A Rightward Frame-1) is expressed in EBV-positive malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, EBV-associated gastric cancer, B-cell lymphoma and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and has been shown to have an important role in oncogenesis. However, the mechanism by which BARF1 elicits its biological effects is unclear. We investigated the effects of BARF1 silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis in EBV-positive malignant cells. We observed that BARF1 silencing significantly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis-mediated cell death by collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential in AG876 and Hone-Akata cells. BARF1 knockdown up-regulates the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and down-regulates the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. In BARF1-down-regulated cells, the Bcl-2/BAX ratio is decreased. The caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk was found to rescue siBARF1-induced apoptosis in these cells. Immunoblot analysis showed significant increased levels of cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9. We observed a significant increase in cytochrome c level as well as the formation of apoptosome complex in BARF1-silenced cells. In conclusion, siRNA-mediated BARF1 down-regulation induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway through modulation of Bcl-2/BAX ratio in AG876 and Hone-Akata cells. Targeting BARF1 using siRNA has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: Evidence of age-dependence among a Mexican population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Herrera-Goepfert; Suminori Akiba; Chihaya Koriyama; Shan Ding; Edgardo Reyes; Tetsuhiko Itoh; Yoshie Minakami; Yoshito Eizuru

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate features of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) among a Mexican population.METHODS: Cases of primary gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from the files of the Departments of anatomic site of the gastric neoplasia was identified, and carcinomas were histologically classified as intestinal and diffuse types and subclassified as proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. EBV-encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA-1 (EBER-1)in situ hybridization was conducted to determine the presence of EBV in neoplastic cells.RESULTS: We studied 330 consecutive, non-selected,primary gastric carcinomas. Among these, there were173 male and 157 female patients (male/female ratio1.1/1). EBER-1 was detected in 24 (7.3%) cases (male/female ratio: 1.2/1). The mean age for the entire group was 58.1 years (range: 20-88 years), whereas the mean age for patients harboring EBER-1-positive gastric carcinomas was 65.3 years (range: 50-84 years). Age and histological type showed statistically significant differences, when EBER-1-positive and -negative gastric carcinomas were compared. EBER-1 was detected in hyperplastic- and dysplastic-gastric mucosa surrounding two EBER-1-negative carcinomas, respectively.CONCLUSION: Among Latin-American countries, Mexico has the lowest frequency of EBVaGC. Indeed, the Mexican population >50 years of age was selectively affected. Ethnic variations are responsible for the epidemiologic behavior of EBVaGC among the worldwide population.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus antibodies mark systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma patients negative for anti-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, Ittai; Shental, Noam; Molad, Yair; Gabrielli, Armando; Pokroy-Shapira, Elisheva; Oren, Shirly; Livneh, Avi; Langevitz, Pnina; Pauzner, Rachel; Sarig, Ofer; Gafter, Uzi; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R

    2014-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can attack many different body organs; the triggering event is unknown. SLE has been associated with more than 100 different autoantibody reactivities - anti-dsDNA is prominent. Nevertheless, autoantibodies to dsDNA occur in only two-thirds of SLE patients. We previously reported the use of an antigen microarray to characterize SLE serology. We now report the results of an expanded study of serology in SLE patients and scleroderma (SSc) patients compared with healthy controls. The analysis validated and extended previous findings: two-thirds of SLE patients reacted to a large spectrum of self-molecules that overlapped with their reactivity to dsDNA; moreover, some SLE patients manifested a deficiency of natural IgM autoantibodies. Most significant was the finding that many SLE patients who were negative for autoantibodies to dsDNA manifested abnormal antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): these subjects made IgG antibodies to EBV antigens to which healthy subjects did not respond or they failed to make antibodies to EBV antigens to which healthy subjects did respond. This observation suggests that SLE may be associated with a defective immune response to EBV. The SSc patients shared many of these serological abnormalities with SLE patients, but differed from them in increased IgG autoantibodies to topoisomerase and centromere B; 84% of SLE patients and 58% of SSc patients could be detected by their abnormal antibodies to EBV. Hence an aberrant immune response to a ubiquitous viral infection such as EBV might set the stage for an autoimmune disease.

  17. Latent Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit apoptosis in B cells by blocking the induction of NOXA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jade; White, Robert E; Anderton, Emma; Allday, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to protect Burkitt's lymphoma-derived B cells from apoptosis induced by agents that cause damage to DNA, in the context of mutant p53. This protection requires expression of the latency-associated nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and correlates with their ability to cooperate in the repression of the gene encoding the pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein BIM. Here we confirm that latent EBV in B cells also inhibits apoptosis induced by two other agents--ionomycin and staurosporine--and show that these act by a distinct pathway that involves a p53-independent increase in expression of another pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein, NOXA. Analyses employing a variety of B cells infected with naturally occurring EBV or B95.8 EBV-BAC recombinant mutants indicated that the block to NOXA induction does not depend on the well-characterized viral latency-associated genes (EBNAs 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, the LMPs or the EBERs) or expression of BIM. Regulation of NOXA was shown to be at least partly at the level of mRNA and the requirement for NOXA to induce cell death in this context was demonstrated by NOXA-specific shRNA-mediated depletion experiments. Although recombinant EBV with a deletion removing the BHRF1 locus--that encodes the BCL2-homologue BHRF1 and three microRNAs--partially abrogates protection against ionomycin and staurosporine, the deletion has no effect on the EBV-mediated block to NOXA accumulation.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus interactions with the Bcl-2 protein family and apoptosis in human tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin FU; Chen HE; Zheng-rong MAO

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV),a human gammaherpesvirus carried by more than 90% of the world's population,is associated with malignant tumors such as Burkitt's lymphoma (BL),Hodgkin lymphoma,post-transplant lymphoma,extra-nodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma,and nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas in immune-compromised patients.In the process of infection,EBV faces challenges:the host cell environment is harsh,and the survival and apoptosis of host cells are precisely regulated.Only when host cells receive sufficient survival signals may they immortalize.To establish efficiently a lytic or long-term latent infection,EBV must escape the host cell immunologic mechanism and resist host cell apoptosis by interfering with multiple signaling pathways.This review details the apoptotic pathway disrupted by EBV in EBV-infected cells and describes the interactions of EBV gene products with host cellular factors as well as the function of these factors,which decide the fate of the host cell.The relationships between other EBV-encoded genes and proteins of the B-cell leukemia/lymphoma (Bcl) family are unknown.Still,EBV seems to contribute to establishing its own latency and the formation of tumors by modifying events that impact cell survival and proliferation as well as the immune response of the infected host.We discuss potential therapeutic drugs to provide a foundation for further studies of tumor pathogenesis aimed at exploiting novel therapeutic strategies for EBV-associated diseases.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) isolated from EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Wenjun; Pan, Yaqi; Ji, Jiafu; Lu, Zheming; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to the development of a variety of malignancies, including EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In this study, EBVaGC was detected in 15 (7.3%) of 206 GC cases. To identify the EBV genomic variation, EBV genomic sequences isolated from 9 EBVaGC biopsy specimens were successfully retrieved, designated EBVaGC1 to EBVaGC9. By comparative analysis of these strains with another 6 completely sequenced EBV strains, EBV-wild type, B95-8, AG876, GD1, GD2, and HKNPC1, it was demonstrated that EBVaGC1 to 9 were most closely related to the GD1 strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the GC biopsy specimen-derived EBV (GC-EBV) genomes was subsequently performed to assess their genomic diversity and it exhibited the greatest divergence from the type 2 strain, AG876. Compared with the reference EBV strain GD1, they harbored 961 variations in total, including 919 substitutions, 23 insertions, and 19 deletions. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density varied substantially across all known open reading frames and was highest in latency-associated genes. Moreover, we identified 2 interstrain recombinants at the EBNA1 locus, which provided a further mechanism for the generation of diversity. Some T-cell epitope sequences in EBNA1 and LMP2A genes showed extensive variation across strains, which implied their importance in the development of vaccines and T-cell therapy. In conclusion, we reported the first genome-wide view of sequence variation of EBV isolated from primary EBVaGC biopsy specimens, which might serve as an effective method for further understanding the genomic variations contribute to EBVaGC carcinogenesis and treatment.

  20. Meta-analysis of the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus infection and clinicopathological features of patients with gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been causally associated with occurrence of many malignant neoplasms. EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) have been detected from about 10% of gastric carcinoma tissue cells, suggesting that EBV infection is associated with the development of gastric carcinoma. The present study pooled the data from the papers concerning EBV-related gastric cancers and performed a meta-analysis of 22 research papers. Among these papers, a total of 5475 cases with gastric cancer were enrolled, of whom 411 cases were found EBV-positive, with the EBV-positive rate being 7.5%. Among the EBV-positive gastric cancer cases, the detection rate was 11.1% in males and 3.0% in females. Compared with EBV-negative gastric cancer, EBV-positive gastric cancer had less lymph node metastasis. Based on the histological typing, of the EBV-positive gastric cancers, the diffuse type was 8.1%, and intestinal type was 8.0%. The examined specimen types included stored paraffin blocks and fresh surgically removed specimens, their EBV positive rates were 7.9% and 6.5% respectively. In terms of geographical distribution, the detection rate of EBV-positive gastric cancer was 9.4% in America, 6.1% in Asia and 9.1% in Europe. Meta-analysis showed that EBV infection occurred only in gastric cancer tissue cells and was significantly associated with the patients’ gender, lymph node metastases, and the location where tumor tissue generated and geographical distribution (P<0.05), but was not significantly associated with the patients’ histological types of tumor and the types of specimens (P>0.05). These results suggested that EBV-positive gastric cancer has distinct clinicopathological features.

  1. Early T Cell Recognition of B Cells following Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Identifying Potential Targets for Prophylactic Vaccination.

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    Jill M Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, has strong aetiologic links with several malignancies and has been implicated in certain autoimmune diseases. Efforts to develop a prophylactic vaccine to prevent or reduce EBV-associated disease have, to date, focused on the induction of neutralising antibody responses. However, such vaccines might be further improved by inducing T cell responses capable of recognising and killing recently-infected B cells. In that context, EBNA2, EBNA-LP and BHRF1 are the first viral antigens expressed during the initial stage of B cell growth transformation, yet have been poorly characterised as CD8+ T cell targets. Here we describe CD8+ T cell responses against each of these three "first wave" proteins, identifying target epitopes and HLA restricting alleles. While EBNA-LP and BHRF1 each contained one strong CD8 epitope, epitopes within EBNA2 induced immunodominant responses through several less common HLA class I alleles (e.g. B*3801 and B*5501, as well as subdominant responses through common class I alleles (e.g. B7 and C*0304. Importantly, such EBNA2-specific CD8+ T cells recognised B cells within the first day post-infection, prior to CD8+ T cells against well-characterised latent target antigens such as EBNA3B or LMP2, and effectively inhibited outgrowth of EBV-transformed B cell lines. We infer that "first wave" antigens of the growth-transforming infection, especially EBNA2, constitute potential CD8+ T cell immunogens for inclusion in prophylactic EBV vaccine design.

  2. Assessment of immunological changes in Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in Egyptian chronic HCV patients

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    Sahar Shoman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV plays a major role in liver pathology. Similar to other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV establishes a persistent infection in more than 90% of adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EBV and chronic hepatitis C co-infection (HCV on biochemical and immunological responses in patients. The study was conducted in 62 patients and 33 apparently healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: group I, consisting of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC, group II, consisting of eight patients with EBV infection and without HCV infection and group III, consisting of 23 patients with EBV and chronic HCV. The percentage of CD3+ cells, helper CD4+ cells and CD19+ B-cells was measured by flow cytometry. Human interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-15 levels were measured by an ELISA. The levels of liver alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes were higher in EBV/HCV patients compared to that in EBV and HCV mono-infected patients. EBV/HCV patients had significantly reduced percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ cells compared to EBV patients. Serum IFN-γ levels were significantly reduced in EBV/HCV patients (3.86 pg/mL compared to CHC patients (6.76 pg/mL and normal controls (4.69 pg/mL. A significant increase in serum IL-15 levels was observed in EBV/HCV patients (67.7 pg/mL compared to EBV patients (29.3 pg/mL. Taken together, these observations suggest that HCV and EBV co-infection can potentiate immune response dampening in patients.

  3. [Epstein Barr and cytomegaloviruses in ocular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdei, Corina; Cuşnir, Valeriu; Bârcâ, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) are Herpesviridae family representative and presents a real danger for human. A very high infect risk of population farther the danger The ocular pathology induced by them can affect all media and tunics of optic analyzer. An etiologic differentiation is necessary for the mentioned viruses induced diseases. The etiologic differentiation has like purpose the enforcement of an effective and optimal antiviral and immunomodulating therapy.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus large tegument protein BPLF1 contributes to innate immune evasion through interference with toll-like receptor signaling.

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    Michiel van Gent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection triggers an early host response through activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR. TLR signaling cascades induce production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines involved in establishing an anti-viral state as well as in orchestrating ensuing adaptive immunity. To allow infection, replication, and persistence, (herpesviruses employ ingenious strategies to evade host immunity. The human gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a large, enveloped DNA virus persistently carried by more than 90% of adults worldwide. It is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignant tumors. EBV activates TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9. Interestingly, both the expression of and signaling by TLRs is attenuated during productive EBV infection. Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating TLR signaling and is controlled by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs. The EBV genome encodes three proteins reported to exert in vitro deubiquitinase activity. Using active site-directed probes, we show that one of these putative DUBs, the conserved herpesvirus large tegument protein BPLF1, acts as a functional DUB in EBV-producing B cells. The BPLF1 enzyme is expressed during the late phase of lytic EBV infection and is incorporated into viral particles. The N-terminal part of the large BPLF1 protein contains the catalytic site for DUB activity and suppresses TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB at, or downstream of, the TRAF6 signaling intermediate. A catalytically inactive mutant of this EBV protein did not reduce NF-κB activation, indicating that DUB activity is essential for attenuating TLR signal transduction. Our combined results show that EBV employs deubiquitination of signaling intermediates in the TLR cascade as a mechanism to counteract innate anti-viral immunity of infected hosts.

  5. EBV感染与胃癌关系的研究进展%Advances in understanding the relationship between EpsteinBarr virus infection and gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 朱冠保

    2011-01-01

    EB病毒(Epstein-Barr virus,EBV)是引起胃癌的重要生物学因素之一,其感染与胃癌的发生和发展密切相关.随着分子生物学技术的发展和应用,研究者对与EBV感染相关胃癌(EBVaGC)的特征和发生机制进行了深入研究,发现EBV潜伏感染和细胞恶性转化是EBV致EBVaGC的重要基础,为EBVaGC的诊断、治疗和预防提供了理论基础.%Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and EBV infection is closely related to the development and progression of gastric cancer. Advances in molecular biology techniques have deepened our understanding of the characteristics of EBV-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC). It has been found that latent EBV infection and EBV-induced malignant transformation are an important basis for the pathogenesis of EBVaGC. Understanding the pathogenesis of EBVaGC provides a theoretical basis for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this disease.

  6. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in healthy children and adolescents in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Figueira-Silva Cecília M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and age distribution of Epstein-Barr virus infection varies in different populations and there is little information about the epidemiology of this infection in Brazil. We studied the prevalence of EBV antibodies in a sample of 283 children and adolescents between 1 and 21 years old. The sample was taken from two neighborhoods in Vitória (capital city of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The São Pedro (SP neighborhood represented an area with lower socioeconomic status and the Praias (P neighborhood represented an area with higher SES. Anti-VCA (Virus Capsid Antigen antibodies were detected by ELISA and anti-EBNA (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen antibodies were detected by an anti-complement immunofluorescence method, both using commercial kits. The results showed an overall prevalence rates of anti-VCA and anti-EBNA of 71% and 54% respectively. The prevalence for both anti-EBV antibodies was higher and probably the infection occurred earlier in the SP neighborhood. Among the various socioeconomic factors studied only low family income and maternal education level were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of positive serology for anti-VCA. These results demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of EBV antibodies in children and adolescents living in Vitória, that occurs more frequently at a younger age in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition, the results demonstrate an intermediate age distribution pattern between those reported in developed and underdeveloped countries.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus in oral hairy leukoplakia scrapes: identification by PCR Vírus Epstein-Barr em esfregaço de leucoplasia pilosa oral: identificação por PCR

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    Tatiana Lucianelli Komatsu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is a lesion associated with a compromised immune system, and its diagnosis is determined by the demonstration of the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in lesional tissue. The purpose of this article was to develop a simple technique to help the diagnosis of OHL, using PCR as an alternative technique to evidence EBV in scrapings. DNA samples were obtained by scraping the lateral border of the tongue of 38 adult patients: 29 HIV-positive patients (4 with clinical evidence of OHL; 4 with history of OHL, but without lesion at the moment the samples were collected; and 21 without clinical evidence of OHL, and 9 healthy volunteers for the control group. DNA was extracted from scrapes and amplified by PCR using specific primers for EBV. Of the 29 cases of HIV-positive patients, 22 (75.86% were positive for EBV: 2 patients with clinical evidence of OHL, 4 patients with history of OHL, but without lesion at the moment the samples were collected, and 16 patients without clinical evidence of OHL. In the control group, samples of 5 (55.56% healthy volunteers presented amplification for EBV. We concluded that the use of PCR in oral scrapes suggests a high sensitivity but low specificity for the diagnosis of OHL.A leucoplasia pilosa (LP é uma lesão associada ao comprometimento do sistema imune e seu diagnóstico é determinado pela demonstração da presença do vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV no tecido lesionado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia simples para auxiliar no diagnóstico da LP, utilizando-se a técnica da PCR como uma alternativa para evidenciar o EBV em esfregaços da lesão. Amostras de DNA foram obtidas por meio de raspado de borda lateral de língua, de 38 pacientes adultos, sendo estes: 29 pacientes HIV positivos (4 com evidência clínica de leucoplasia pilosa, 4 que haviam apresentado LP previamente, mas não no momento da coleta, e 21 sem evidência clínica de leucoplasia pilosa e 9

  8. Epstein-barr virus latency in B cells leads to epigenetic repression and CpG methylation of the tumour suppressor gene Bim.

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    Kostas Paschos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In human B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, latency-associated virus gene products inhibit expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family member Bim and enhance cell survival. This involves the activities of the EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and appears to be predominantly directed at regulating Bim mRNA synthesis, although post-transcriptional regulation of Bim has been reported. Here we show that protein and RNA stability make little or no contribution to the EBV-associated repression of Bim in latently infected B cells. However, treatment of cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT enzymes indicated that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the down-regulation of Bim. This was initially confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of histone acetylation levels on the Bim promoter. Consistent with this, methylation-specific PCR (MSP and bisulphite sequencing of regions within the large CpG island located at the 5' end of Bim revealed significant methylation of CpG dinucleotides in all EBV-positive, but not EBV-negative B cells examined. Genomic DNA samples exhibiting methylation of the Bim promoter included extracts from a series of explanted EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL biopsies. Subsequent analyses of the histone modification H3K27-Me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 and CpG methylation at loci throughout the Bim promoter suggest that in EBV-positive B cells repression of Bim is initially associated with this repressive epigenetic histone mark gradually followed by DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides. We conclude that latent EBV initiates a chain of events that leads to epigenetic repression of the tumour suppressor gene Bim in infected B cells and their progeny. This reprogramming of B cells could have important implications for our understanding of EBV persistence and the pathogenesis of EBV-associated disease, in particular BL.

  9. The Epstein-Barr Virus Immunoevasins BCRF1 and BPLF1 Are Expressed by a Mechanism Independent of the Canonical Late Pre-initiation Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jessica; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; El-Guindy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Subversion of host immune surveillance is a crucial step in viral pathogenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes two immune evasion gene products, BCRF1 (viral IL-10) and BPLF1 (deubiquitinase/deneddylase); both proteins suppress antiviral immune responses during primary infection. The BCRF1 and BPLF1 genes are expressed during the late phase of the lytic cycle, an essential but poorly understood phase of viral gene expression. Several late gene regulators recently identified in beta and gamma herpesviruses form a viral pre-initiation complex for transcription. Whether each of these late gene regulators is necessary for transcription of all late genes is not known. Here, studying viral gene expression in the absence and presence of siRNAs to individual components of the viral pre-initiation complex, we identified two distinct groups of late genes. One group includes late genes encoding the two immunoevasins, BCRF1 and BPLF1, and is transcribed independently of the viral pre-initiation complex. The second group primarily encodes viral structural proteins and is dependent on the viral pre-initiation complex. The protein kinase BGLF4 is the only known late gene regulator necessary for expression of both groups of late genes. ChIP-seq analysis showed that the transcription activator Rta associates with the promoters of eight late genes including genes encoding the viral immunoevasins. Our results demonstrate that late genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins are transcribed by a mechanism distinct from late genes encoding viral structural proteins. Understanding the mechanisms that specifically regulate expression of the late immunomodulatory proteins could aid the development of antiviral drugs that impair immune evasion by the oncogenic EB virus. PMID:27855219

  10. Nuclear translocation and regulation of intranuclear distribution of cytoplasmic poly(A-binding protein are distinct processes mediated by two Epstein Barr virus proteins.

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    Richard Park

    Full Text Available Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs. During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E, was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors.

  11. Sequence variations of latent membrane protein 2A in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas from Guangzhou, southern China.

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    Jing Han

    Full Text Available Latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A, expressed in most Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated malignancies, has been demonstrated to be responsible for the maintenance of latent infection and epithelial cell transformation. Besides, it could also act as the target for a CTL-based therapy for EBV-associated malignancies. In the present study, sequence variations of LMP2A in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC and healthy EBV carriers from Guangzhou, southern China, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is endemic, were investigated. Widespread sequence variations in the LMP2A gene were found, with no sequence identical to the B95.8 prototype. No consistent mutation was detected in all isolates. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM and PY motifs in the amino terminus of LMP2A were strictly conserved, suggesting their important roles in virus infection; while 8 of the 17 identified CTL epitopes in the transmembrane region of LMP2A were affected by at least one point mutation, which may implicate that the effect of LMP2A polymorphisms should be considered when LMP2A-targeted immunotherapy is conducted. The polymorphisms of LMP2A in EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma (GRC were for the first time investigated in the world. The LMP2A sequence variations in EBVaGC in GRC were somewhat different from those in EBVaGC in conventional gastric carcinoma. The sequence variations of LMP2A in EBVaGC were similar to those in throat washing of healthy EBV carriers, indicating that these variations are due to geographic-associated polymorphisms rather than EBVaGC-associated mutations. This, to our best knowledge, is the first detailed investigation of LMP2A polymorphisms in EBVaGC in Guangzhou, southern China, where NPC is endemic.

  12. Genomic sequencing and comparative analysis of Epstein-Barr virus genome isolated from primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsy.

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    Hin Kwok

    Full Text Available Whether certain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV strains are associated with pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is still an unresolved question. In the present study, EBV genome contained in a primary NPC tumor biopsy was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and sequenced using next-generation (Illumina and conventional dideoxy-DNA sequencing. The EBV genome, designated HKNPC1 (Genbank accession number JQ009376 is a type 1 EBV of approximately 171.5 kb. The virus appears to be a uniform strain in line with accepted monoclonal nature of EBV in NPC but is heterogeneous at 172 nucleotide positions. Phylogenetic analysis with the four published EBV strains, B95-8, AG876, GD1, and GD2, indicated HKNPC1 was more closely related to the Chinese NPC patient-derived strains, GD1 and GD2. HKNPC1 contains 1,589 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 132 insertions or deletions (indels in comparison to the reference EBV sequence (accession number NC007605. When compared to AG876, a strain derived from Ghanaian Burkitt's lymphoma, we found 322 SNVs, of which 76 were non-synonymous SNVs and were shared amongst the Chinese GD1, GD2 and HKNPC1 isolates. We observed 88 non-synonymous SNVs shared only by HKNPC1 and GD2, the only other NPC tumor-derived strain reported thus far. Non-synonymous SNVs were mainly found in the latent, tegument and glycoprotein genes. The same point mutations were found in glycoprotein (BLLF1 and BALF4 genes of GD1, GD2 and HKNPC1 strains and might affect cell type specific binding. Variations in LMP1 and EBNA3B epitopes and mutations in Cp (11404 C>T and Qp (50134 G>C found in GD1, GD2 and HKNPC1 could potentially affect CD8(+ T cell recognition and latent gene expression pattern in NPC, respectively. In conclusion, we showed that whole genome sequencing of EBV in NPC may facilitate discovery of previously unknown variations of pathogenic significance.

  13. Identification of potential hot spots in the carboxy-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF-1 gene in both malignant and benign EBV-associated diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Peh, S C; Andresen, B S;

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the C-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-BNLF-1 gene encoding for the latent membrane protein-1 from tissues of EBV-positive Danish Hodgkin's disease (HD) and of Danish and Malaysian peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTLs) and from tonsils of Danish infectious...

  14. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); M.F.C. Callan (Margareth); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); S. Kostense; L.C. Tan; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfu

  15. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a frequent event after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and quantitatively predicts EBV-lymphoproliferative disease following T-cell--depleted SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, J W; van der Holt, B; Meijer, E; Niesters, H G; Trenschel, R; Thijsen, S F; van Loon, A M; Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A; Schaefer, U W; Osterhaus, A D; Gratama, J W; Löwenberg, B; Verdonck, L F; Cornelissen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may evoke a protective cellular immune response or may be complicated by the development of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). So far, very little is known about the incidence, recurrence, and

  16. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D; Hovenkamp, E; Callan, M F; Wolthers, K C; Kostense, S; Tan, L C; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D; McMichael, A J; van Oers, M H; Miedema, F

    2001-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfunction of EB

  17. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Meij; B. Löwenberg (Bob); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); J.W.J. van Esser (Joost); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); N. Blake; A.B. Rickinson; I. Leiner; E. Pamer

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted

  18. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Pauline; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; van Baarle, Debbie; Miedema, Frank; Blake, Neil; Rickinson, Alan B; Leiner, Ingrid; Pamer, Eric; Lowenberg, Bob; Cornelissen, Jan J; Gratama, Jan W

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted SCT and studied the interacti

  19. Comparison of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV assay for measuring plasma EBV DNA loads in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Solano, Carlos; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

    2017-02-24

    The ability of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV PCR assay to detect and quantify plasma EBV DNAemia was compared. The agreement between these assays was 95.8%. The EBV DNA loads measured by the two assays significantly correlated (P=< 0.0001).

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the central nervous system, after renal transplantation with a discrepancy in viral load between peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Marijke Nynke; van der Zanden, Adri; Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; Sanders, Jan Stephan; de Vries, Peter Alexander Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old female developed an EpsteinBarr virus (EBV)-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the central nervous system (CNS), 14 years after renal transplantation. One year prior to presentation, the patients treatment regimen was altered from cyclosporine, azathioprine

  1. Combined Linkage and Association Studies Show that HLA Class II Variants Control Levels of Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobat, Aurélie; Guergnon, Julien; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Pendeven, Catherine Le-; Amiel, Corinne; Taoufik, Yassine; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Theodorou, Ioannis; Besson, Caroline; Abel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10–5 for rs9268403). The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02). In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL. PMID:25025336

  2. Combined linkage and association studies show that HLA class II variants control levels of antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pedergnana

    Full Text Available Over 95% of the adult population worldwide is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. EBV infection is associated with the development of several cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL. Elevated levels of anti-EBV antibodies have been associated with increased risk of HL. There is growing evidence that genetic factors control the levels of antibodies against EBV antigens. Here, we conducted linkage and association studies to search for genetic factors influencing either anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA or anti-Epstein Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 IgG levels in a unique cohort of 424 individuals of European origin from 119 French families recruited through a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL patient. No major locus controlling anti-VCA antibody levels was identified. However, we found that the HLA region influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers. Refined association studies in this region identified a cluster of HLA class II variants associated with anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers (e.g. p = 5×10(-5 for rs9268403. The major allele of rs9268403 conferring a predisposition to high anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels was also associated with an increased risk of HL (p = 0.02. In summary, this study shows that HLA class II variants influenced anti-EBNA-1 IgG titers in a European population. It further shows the role of the same variants in the risk of HL.

  3. The large groove found in the gH/gL structure is an important functional domain for Epstein-Barr virus fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mediates viral entry into cells using four glycoproteins-gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42-and fusion is cell type specific. gB and gH/gL are required for epithelial cell fusion; B cell fusion also requires gp42. To investigate functional domains within the gH/gL structure, we constructed site-directed EBV gH/gL mutants with alterations of residues located in a large groove that separates domain I (D-I) from domain II (D-II) within the gH/gL structure. We found that substitution of alanine for leucine 207 reduces both epithelial and B cell fusion and is accompanied by reduced gp42 binding. We also observed that substitution of alanine for arginine 152, histidine 154, or threonine 174 reduces fusion with epithelial cells but not with B cells. To test whether flexibility of the region between D-I and D-II of gH/gL could be important for membrane fusion activity and to allow potential interactions across the D-I/D-II groove, we mutated D-I amino acids V47, P48, and G49 to cysteine, allowing novel intersubunit disulfide bonds to form with the free C153 located in D-II. We found that the G49C mutant, predicted to bridge D-I and D-II with C153 of gH/gL, had normal B cell fusion activity but reduced epithelial cell fusion activity, which was partially restored by treatment with dithiothreitol. We conclude that structural rearrangements and/or interactions across the D-I/D-II groove of gH/gL are required for fusion with epithelial cells but not for fusion with B cells.

  4. Identification of Novel Small Organic Compounds with Diverse Structures for the Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic Cycle in EBV-Positive Epithelial Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chung King; Ho, Dona N; Hui, Kwai Fung; Kao, Richard Y; Chiang, Alan K S

    2015-01-01

    Phorbol esters, which are protein kinase C (PKC) activators, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which cause enhanced acetylation of cellular proteins, are the main classes of chemical inducers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in latently EBV-infected cells acting through the PKC pathway. Chemical inducers which induce EBV lytic cycle through alternative cellular pathways may aid in defining the mechanisms leading to lytic cycle reactivation and improve cells' responsiveness towards lytic induction. We performed a phenotypic screening on a chemical library of 50,240 novel small organic compounds to identify novel class(es) of strong inducer(s) of EBV lytic cycle in gastric carcinoma (GC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Five hit compounds were selected after three successive rounds of increasingly stringent screening. All five compounds are structurally diverse from each other and distinct from phorbol esters or HDAC inhibitors. They neither cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins nor significant PKC activation at their working concentrations, suggesting that their biological mode of action are distinct from that of the known chemical inducers. Two of the five compounds with rapid lytic-inducing action were further studied for their mechanisms of induction of EBV lytic cycle. Unlike HDAC inhibitors, lytic induction by both compounds was not inhibited by rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKCδ. Interestingly, both compounds could cooperate with HDAC inhibitors to enhance EBV lytic cycle induction in EBV-positive epithelial cancer cells, paving way for the development of strategies to increase cells' responsiveness towards lytic reactivation. One of the two compounds bears structural resemblance to iron chelators and the other strongly activates the MAPK pathways. These structurally diverse novel organic compounds may represent potential new classes of chemicals that can be used to investigate any alternative mechanism(s) leading to EBV

  5. The Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein inhibits tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression through effects on cellular C/EBP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Jillian A; Robinson, Amanda R; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Kenney, Shannon C

    2010-12-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein, BZLF1 (Z), initiates the switch between latent and lytic infection and plays an essential role in mediating viral replication. Z also inhibits expression of the major receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNFR1, thus repressing TNF cytokine signaling, but the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Z prevents both C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation of the TNFR1 promoter (TNFR1p) by interacting directly with both C/EBP family members. We show that Z interacts directly with C/EBPα and C/EBPβ in vivo and that a Z mutant altered at alanine residue 204 in the bZIP domain is impaired for the ability to interact with both C/EBP proteins. Furthermore, we find that the Z(A204D) mutant is attenuated in the ability to inhibit the TNFR1p but mediates lytic viral reactivation and replication in vitro in 293 cells as well as wild-type Z. Although Z does not bind directly to the TNFR1p in EMSA studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies indicate that Z is complexed with this promoter in vivo. The Z(A204D) mutant has reduced interaction with the TNFR1p in vivo but is similar to wild-type Z in its ability to complex with the IL-8 promoter. Finally, we show that the effect of Z on C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation is promoter dependent. These results indicate that Z modulates the effects of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ in a promoter-specific manner and that in some cases (including that of the TNFR1p), Z inhibits C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cells as efficient antigen presenting cells to propagate Aspergillus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal

    2008-01-01

    To overcome the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) expansion limitations imposed by the lack of sufficient dendritic cells (DC) alternative sources of autologous antigen presenting cells (APC) such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL), which are easy to establish in vitro, have been considered and studied in the present work. Non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three healthy donors were repeatedly primed with autologous Aspergillus fumigatus commercial culture-filtrate antigen-pulsed fast monocyte-derived DC (Aspf-CFA-DC) alone, Aspf-CFA-pulsed BLCL (Aspf-CFA-BLCL) alone or Aspf-CFA-BLCL after one, two, or three primings with Aspf-CFA-DC (1DC/BLCL, 2DC/BLCL or 3DCIBLCL; respectively). After 5th priming, lines generated by Aspf-CFA-BLCL only showed strong/weak lytic activity for EBV/Aspf; respectively. Aspf-specific lytic activity in all donors was increased by increasing the number of primings with Aspf-CFA-DC before switching to Aspf-CFA-BLCL (18.20 +/- 1.65% versus 35.67 +/- 1.02% and 40.03 +/- 1.41% in bulk cultures generated by 1DC/BLCL versus 2DC/BLCL and 3DC/BLCL, respectively). Bulk cultures generated by Aspf-CFA-BLCL after at least two primings with Aspf-CFA-DC showed approximately the same Aspf-specific lytic activity, effector cell phenotype, expansion level and percentage expression of IFN-gamma, CD69 and CD107a without any significant differences (p > 0.05) as standard bulk cultures generated by only Aspf-CFA-DC. Thus, this study explored the use of a combined DC/BLCL protocol to establish/propagate Aspf-specific CTL for adoptive immunotherapy to prevent or treat invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

  7. Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin by enhancing NF-κB p50 homodimer formation and downregulating NAPA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zchong-Zcho; Chow, Kai-Ping N; Kuo, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chao, Chuck C-K

    2011-12-15

    Expression of the oncogenic latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus is involved in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoma. In previous studies, we found that expression of LMP1 was sufficient to transform BALB/c-3T3 cells. In contrast, other studies have shown that LMP1 induces apoptosis in a NF-κB-dependent manner and also inhibits the growth of tumors in mice, thereby indicating that LMP1 may produce various biological effects depending on the biological and cellular context. Still, the mechanism underlying the pro-apoptotic activity of LMP1 remains unclear. In the present study, we found that LMP1 inhibits the expression of NAPA, an endoplasmic reticulum SNARE protein that possesses anti-apoptotic properties against the DNA-damaging drug cisplatin. Accordingly, LMP1-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells were sensitized to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas no sensitization effect was noted following treatment with the mitotic spindle-damaging drugs vincristine and taxol. Knockdown of LMP1 with antisense oligonucleotides restored NAPA protein level and rendered the cells resistant to cisplatin. Similarly, overexpression of NAPA reduced the effect of LMP1 and induced resistance to cisplatin. LMP1 was shown to upregulate the NF-κB subunit p50, leading to formation of p50 homodimers on the NAPA promoter. These findings suggest that the viral protein LMP1 may sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin chemotherapy by downregulating NAPA and by enhancing the formation of p50 homodimers which in turn inhibit the expression of NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic genes. These findings provide an explanatory mechanism for the pro-apoptotic activity of LMP1 as well as new therapeutic targets to control tumor growth.

  8. A Rapid Embryonic Stem Cell-Based Mouse Model for B-cell Lymphomas Driven by Epstein-Barr Virus Protein LMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Zhaoqing; Meng, Fei-Long; Gostissa, Monica; Huang, Pei-Yi; Ke, Qiang; Wang, Zhe; Dao, Mai N.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Rajewsky, Klaus; Baochun, Zhang; Alt, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) contributes to oncogenic human B-cell transformation. Mouse B cells conditionally expressing LMP1 are not predisposed to B-cell malignancies, as LMP1-expressing B cells are eliminated by T cells. However, mice with conditional B-cell LMP1 expression and genetic elimination of α/β and γ/δ T cells (“CLT” mice) die early in association with B-cell lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis. Generation of CLT mice involves in-breeding multiple independently segregating alleles. Thus, while introduction of additional activating or knock-out mutations into the CLT model is desirable for further B-cell expansion and immunosurveillance studies, doing such experiments by germline breeding is time-consuming, expensive and sometimes unfeasible. To generate a more tractable model, we generated clonal CLT ES cells from CLT embryos and injected them into RAG2-deficient blastocysts to generate chimeric mice, which like germline CLT mice harbor splenic CLT B cells and lack T cells. CLT chimeric mice generated by this RAG2-deficient blastocyst complementation (“RDBC”) approach die rapidly in association with B-cell lymphoproliferation and lymphoma. As CLT lymphomas routinely express the Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) antibody diversifier, we tested potential AID roles by eliminating the AID gene in CLT ES cells and testing them via RDBC. We found that CLT and AID-deficient CLT ES chimeras had indistinguishable phenotypes, showing that AID is not essential for LMP1-induced lymphomagenesis. Beyond expanding accessibility and utility of CLT mice as a cancer immunotherapy model, our studies provide a new approach for facilitating generation of genetically complex mouse cancer models. PMID:25934172

  9. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1 protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP, regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA

  10. Sequence analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV BRLF1 gene in nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas

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    Jing Yongzheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has a biphasic infection cycle consisting of a latent and a lytic replicative phase. The product of immediate-early gene BRLF1, Rta, is able to disrupt the latency phase in epithelial cells and certain B-cell lines. The protein Rta is a frequent target of the EBV-induced cytotoxic T cell response. In spite of our good understanding of this protein, little is known for the gene polymorphism of BRLF1. Results BRLF1 gene was successfully amplified in 34 EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs, 57 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs and 28 throat washings (TWs samples from healthy donors followed by PCR-direct sequencing. Fourteen loci were found to be affected by amino acid changes, 17 loci by silent nucleotide changes. According to the phylogenetic tree, 5 distinct subtypes of BRLF1 were identified, and 2 subtypes BR1-A and BR1-C were detected in 42.9% (51/119, 42.0% (50/119 of samples, respectively. The distribution of these 2 subtypes among 3 types of specimens was significantly different. The subtype BR1-A preferentially existed in healthy donors, while BR1-C was seen more in biopsies of NPC. A silent mutation A/G was detected in all the isolates. Among 3 functional domains, the dimerization domain of Rta showed a stably conserved sequence, while DNA binding and transactivation domains were detected to have multiple mutations. Three of 16 CTL epitopes, NAA, QKE and ERP, were affected by amino acid changes. Epitope ERP was relatively conserved; epitopes NAA and QKE harbored more mutations. Conclusions This first detailed investigation of sequence variations in BRLF1 gene has identified 5 distinct subtypes. Two subtypes BR1-A and BR1-C are the dominant genotypes of BRLF1. The subtype BR1-C is more frequent in NPCs, while BR1-A preferentially presents in healthy donors. BR1-C may be associated with the tumorigenesis of NPC.

  11. Identification of a sub-population of B cells that proliferates after infection with epstein-barr virus

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    Ye Jianjiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-driven B cell proliferation is critical to its subsequent persistence in the host and is a key event in the development of EBV-associated B cell diseases. Thus, inquiry into early cellular events that precede EBV-driven proliferation of B cells is essential for understanding the processes that can lead to EBV-associated B cell diseases. Methods Infection with high titers of EBV of mixed, primary B cells in different stages of differentiation occurs during primary EBV infection and in the setting of T cell-immunocompromise that predisposes to development of EBV-lymphoproliferative diseases. Using an ex vivo system that recapitulates these conditions of infection, we correlated expression of selected B cell-surface markers and intracellular cytokines with expression of EBV latency genes and cell proliferation. Results We identified CD23, CD58, and IL6, as molecules expressed at early times after EBV-infection. EBV differentially infected B cells into two distinct sub-populations of latently infected CD23+ cells: one fraction, marked as CD23hiCD58+IL6- by day 3, subsequently proliferated; another fraction, marked as CD23loCD58+, expressed IL6, a B cell growth factor, but failed to proliferate. High levels of LMP1, a critical viral oncoprotein, were expressed in individual CD23hiCD58+ and CD23loCD58+ cells, demonstrating that reduced levels of LMP1 did not explain the lack of proliferation of CD23loCD58+ cells. Differentiation stage of B cells did not appear to govern this dichotomy in outcome either. Memory or naïve B cells did not exclusively give rise to either CD23hi or IL6-expressing cells; rather memory B cells gave rise to both sub-populations of cells. Conclusions B cells are differentially susceptible to EBV-mediated proliferation despite expression of viral gene products known to be critical for continuous B cell growth. Cellular events, in addition to viral gene expression, likely play a

  12. The synergistic effect of chemical carcinogens enhances Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

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    Chih-Yeu Fang

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and sodium butyrate (SB in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical

  13. Epstein Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.

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    María G Cárdenas-Mondragón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN and none polymorphonuclear (PMN cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0 and PMN (PR 7.2 cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious

  14. 基于氨基酸性质的EB病毒抗原MHC-I类分子限制性表位的定量构效关系建模%Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of MHC class-Ⅰrestrained antigenic epitope of Epstein-Barr virus based on the properties of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英子; 王远强; 胡勇; 纪永军; 路亚阔; 蓝君; 罗鸿; 林治华

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立EB病毒(EBBV)抗原表位的理论计算模型并用于其定量预测,为肿瘤免疫的多肽疫苗设计提供理论基础.方法 从表位数据库中收集33条EBV抗原表位,使用逐步回归(STR)方法筛选2个对平衡解离常数(KD)贡献较大的结构参数用于表位的结构表征,最后用多元线性回归(MLR)方法建立结构参数与KD的定量构效关系(QSAR)模型.结果 该模型具有较好的稳定性(R2=0.637,Q2=0.581)与预测能力(R2test=0.501).结论 此方法可确定表位中各个氨基酸的物理性质对于平衡解离常数的贡献,为表位设计与改造提供直接线索;STR和MLR相结合建模方法具有物化意义明确、易于解释及操作简便易行等优点.%Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with several neoplastic diseases. The development of vaccine based on the antigenic epitope is very important for immunotherapies of human cancers. It is necessary to construct theoretical model for quantitative prediction of epitope, because the identification and screen of epitope need long time and high cost through experiments. In this study, 33 epitopes from EBV had been collected from epitope database. Then, the properties with significant contribution for equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) were screened by the stepwise, which were used to characterize the epitopes. Finally, the quantitative structure-activity relationship model between structural variables and KD was constructed by multiple linear regressions (MLR). The QSAR model has good reliability (R2=0.637, Q2=0.581) and predictive ability (R2test=0.501), and can provide more clues for the design and modification of epitope. The QSAR model constructed by STR and MLR has some advantages, such as good reliability and predictive ability, definitive physiochemical meaning and easier operation, and it can guide the rational design and structural modification of epitope directly.

  15. Incorporation of the purified epstein barr virus/C3d receptor (CR2) into liposomes and demonstration of its dual ligand binding functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mold, C.; Cooper, N.R.; Nemerow, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    The 145-kDA molecule that has been identified as the C3d receptor CR2 was isolated from lysates of Raji cells by affinity chromatography by using the monoclonal antibody (MoAb)HB-5. The purified protein was incorporated into /sup 14/C-phosphatidylcholine liposomes by deoxycholate dialysis followed by flotation on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Incorporation of the receptor was verified by testing the gradient fractions for CR2 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liposomes were shown to be unilamellar vesicles ranging in diameter from 25 to 100 nm by electron microscopy. The external orientation of CR2 in the membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. The functional activities of liposomes containing CR2 and liposomes without protein were compared. CR2 liposomes bound to EC3d, but not to E, and this binding was inhibited by the anti-CR2 MoAb OKB7 and by a MoAb specific for C3d. Control liposomes failed to bind to either E or EC3D. The ability of CR2 to function as a receptor for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) was tested in two ways. First, CR2 liposomes bound to B95-8, a cell line expressing EBV membrane antigens, but not to B95-8 cells treated with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoformic acid. Second, liposomes containing CR2 were shown by ultracentrifugal analyses to bind directly to purified EBV, and this binding was also inhibited by OKB7. Control liposomes did not bind to B95-8 cells or to EBV. These findings show that CR2 purified from detergent extracts of Raji cells can be reconstituted into lipid membranes with maintenance of its dual functions as a receptor for C3d and EBV.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A partially coincides with EBNA3C genome-wide and is tethered to DNA through BATF complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefanie C S; Jiang, Sizun; Zhou, Hufeng; Willox, Bradford; Holthaus, Amy M; Kharchenko, Peter V; Johannsen, Eric C; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-01-13

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) conversion of B-lymphocytes to Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines (LCLs) requires four EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) oncoproteins: EBNA2, EBNALP, EBNA3A, and EBNA3C. EBNA2 and EBNALP associate with EBV and cell enhancers, up-regulate the EBNA promoter, MYC, and EBV Latent infection Membrane Proteins (LMPs), which up-regulate BCL2 to protect EBV-infected B-cells from MYC proliferation-induced cell death. LCL proliferation induces p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF)-mediated cell senescence. EBNA3A and EBNA3C jointly suppress p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF), enabling continuous cell proliferation. Analyses of the EBNA3A human genome-wide ChIP-seq landscape revealed 37% of 10,000 EBNA3A sites to be at strong enhancers; 28% to be at weak enhancers; 4.4% to be at active promoters; and 6.9% to be at weak and poised promoters. EBNA3A colocalized with BATF-IRF4, ETS-IRF4, RUNX3, and other B-cell Transcription Factors (TFs). EBNA3A sites clustered into seven unique groups, with differing B-cell TFs and epigenetic marks. EBNA3A coincidence with BATF-IRF4 or RUNX3 was associated with stronger EBNA3A ChIP-Seq signals. EBNA3A was at MYC, CDKN2A/B, CCND2, CXCL9/10, and BCL2, together with RUNX3, BATF, IRF4, and SPI1. ChIP-re-ChIP revealed complexes of EBNA3A on DNA with BATF. These data strongly support a model in which EBNA3A is tethered to DNA through a BATF-containing protein complexes to enable continuous cell proliferation.

  17. The Epstein-Barr Virus-encoded miR-BART22 targets MAP3K5 to promote host cell proliferative and invasive abilities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruichao; Zhang, Minfeng; Li, Qiulian; Xiong, Hanzhen; Liu, Shaoyan; Fang, Weiyi; Zhang, Qianbing; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Xuehu; Jiang, Qingping

    2017-01-01

    miR-BART22, a new discovered Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) miRNA, is abundant in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). It has been reported that miR-BART22 promoted the tumor development by down-modulating EBV LMP2 expression to evade the host immune response. But its cell target genes have still been obscure. We have reported an inverse correlation between the BART-22 and MAP3K5 protein expression in NPC tissues and NPC cell lines. Meanwhile, MAP3K5 protein expression level was significantly decreased in primary NPC tissues compared with nasopharyngitis when MAP3K5 mRNA expression was consistent in two group tissues. According to our data and target prediction by miRnada, we assume MAP3K5 is an important target gene of NPC. MAP3K5, also named apoptosis signal-regulating kinase1 (ASK1), is an important early answer gene in P38MAPK pathway and an apoptosis-related gene. In present study, MAP3K5 was verified the target gene of miR-BART22 by luciferase assay. miRBART-22 decreased MAP3K5 protein level. Moreover, it also decreased MAP3K5 downstream gene MAP2K4 expression in P38MAPK pathway, and even their activated phosphorylation forms. Additionally, we found stable transfection of miR-BAT22 could improve tumor cells' proliferative and invasive abilities in NPC cell line 5-8F. The data highlight the role of the EBV miR-BART22 in regulating genes involving in apoptosis and some important pathways to promote cancer development. And it also raises the possibility that inhibitors of miR-BART22 can be as a therapeutic strategy for NPC and other EBV-infected tumors treatment. PMID:28243335

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Immediate-Early Protein Zta Co-Opts Mitochondrial Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein To Promote Viral and Inhibit Mitochondrial DNA Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Andreas; Wang, Pu; Zhou, Jing; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of cellular metabolic processes and usurpation of host proteins are hallmarks of herpesvirus lytic infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication is initiated by the immediate-early protein Zta. Zta is a multifunctional DNA binding protein that stimulates viral gene transcription, nucleates a replication complex at the viral origin of lytic replication, and inhibits cell cycle proliferation. To better understand these functions and identify cellular collaborators of Zta, we purified an epitope-tagged version of Zta in cells capable of supporting lytic replication. FLAG-tagged Zta was purified from a nuclear fraction using FLAG antibody immunopurification and peptide elution. Zta-associated proteins were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The Zta-associated proteins included members of the HSP70 family and various single-stranded DNA and RNA binding proteins. The nuclear replication protein A subunits (RPA70 and RPA32) and the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) were confirmed by Western blotting to be specifically enriched in the FLAG-Zta immunopurified complex. mtSSB coimmunoprecipitated with endogenous Zta during reactivation of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Small interfering RNA depletion of mtSSB reduced Zta-induced lytic replication of EBV but had only a modest effect on transcription activation function. A point mutation in the Zta DNA binding domain (C189S), which is known to reduce lytic cycle replication, eliminated mtSSB association with Zta. The predominantly mitochondrial localization of mtSSB was shifted to partly nuclear localization in cells expressing Zta. Mitochondrial DNA synthesis and genome copy number were reduced by Zta-induced EBV lytic replication. We conclude that Zta interaction with mtSSB serves the dual function of facilitating viral and blocking mitochondrial DNA replication. PMID:18305033

  19. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein Zta co-opts mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein to promote viral and inhibit mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Andreas; Wang, Pu; Zhou, Jing; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2008-05-01

    Disruption of cellular metabolic processes and usurpation of host proteins are hallmarks of herpesvirus lytic infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication is initiated by the immediate-early protein Zta. Zta is a multifunctional DNA binding protein that stimulates viral gene transcription, nucleates a replication complex at the viral origin of lytic replication, and inhibits cell cycle proliferation. To better understand these functions and identify cellular collaborators of Zta, we purified an epitope-tagged version of Zta in cells capable of supporting lytic replication. FLAG-tagged Zta was purified from a nuclear fraction using FLAG antibody immunopurification and peptide elution. Zta-associated proteins were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The Zta-associated proteins included members of the HSP70 family and various single-stranded DNA and RNA binding proteins. The nuclear replication protein A subunits (RPA70 and RPA32) and the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) were confirmed by Western blotting to be specifically enriched in the FLAG-Zta immunopurified complex. mtSSB coimmunoprecipitated with endogenous Zta during reactivation of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Small interfering RNA depletion of mtSSB reduced Zta-induced lytic replication of EBV but had only a modest effect on transcription activation function. A point mutation in the Zta DNA binding domain (C189S), which is known to reduce lytic cycle replication, eliminated mtSSB association with Zta. The predominantly mitochondrial localization of mtSSB was shifted to partly nuclear localization in cells expressing Zta. Mitochondrial DNA synthesis and genome copy number were reduced by Zta-induced EBV lytic replication. We conclude that Zta interaction with mtSSB serves the dual function of facilitating viral and blocking mitochondrial DNA replication.

  20. CD8+ T-Cell Deficiency, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Steps to Autoimmunity: A Unifying Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Pender

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T-cell deficiency is a feature of many chronic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, vitiligo, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia areata, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, and pernicious anaemia. It also occurs in healthy blood relatives of patients with autoimmune diseases, suggesting it is genetically determined. Here it is proposed that this CD8+ T-cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells which would otherwise die in the target organ by activation-induced apoptosis. Autoimmunity is postulated to evolve in the following steps: (1 CD8+ T-cell deficiency, (2 primary EBV infection, (3 decreased CD8+ T-cell control of EBV, (4 increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies, (5 EBV infection in the target organ, (6 clonal expansion of EBV-infected autoreactive B cells in the target organ, (7 infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the target organ, and (8 development of ectopic lymphoid follicles in the target organ. It is also proposed that deprivation of sunlight and vitamin D at higher latitudes facilitates the development of autoimmune diseases by aggravating the CD8+ T-cell deficiency and thereby further impairing control of EBV. The hypothesis makes predictions which can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases by controlling EBV infection.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leiomyosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and review of the literature; Leiomyosarcome primitif du systeme nerveux central associe au virus d'Epstein-Barr (EBV) et survenu apres transplantation renale: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, A.; Noel, G.; Feuvret, L.; Jauffret, E.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Centre des Tumeurs, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Feuvret, L. [Centre de Protontherapie d' Orsay, 91 (France); Figuerella-Branger, D. [Hopital de la Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Goncalves, A. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2003-10-01

    Central nervous system leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare, however, they became more frequent among immuno-deficient patients, either in a patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or after organ transplantation. The data of the literature indicate that the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causal role in the development of these tumours but its precise role in the onco-genesis remains unresolved. We report a new case of EBV associated leiomyosarcoma of the left cavernous sinus occurring after renal transplantation. The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and therapeutic characteristics of these tumours are discussed. (authors)

  2. Co-infection ofEpstein-Barr virus andhuman papillomavirus inhuman tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingShi; SongLingPeng; LiFangYang; XueChen; YongGuangTao; YaCao

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections contribute to approximately 12% of cancers worldwide, with the vast majority occurring in developing countries and areas. Two DNA viruses, Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), are associated with 38% of all virus‑associated cancers. The probability of one patient infected with these two distinct types of viruses is increasing. Here, we summarize the co‑infection of EBV and HPV in human malignancies and address the possible mechanisms for the co‑infection of EBV and HPV during tumorigenesis.

  3. Mannose-binding lectin genotypes and susceptibility to epstein-barr virus infection in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Jeppe T; Jarrett, Ruth F; Koch, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    In a cohort study of children Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels were determined. EBV seropositivity was significantly lower and time to seroconversion increased in MBL-insufficient compared with MBL-sufficient children...

  4. Prevalence of Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Morshed, Kamal; Jarzyński, Adrian; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK virus, Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in oropharyngeal cancer, and to test our hypothesis that BKV/HPV/EBV co-infection plays a role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The correlation between viral infection, OSCC, anatomic location, pre-treatment staging, evidence of metastases to lymph nodes, and grading was also investigated. The examination samples were collected from 62 patients from paraffin tissue blocks. Males (90.3%) with, smoking (83.9%) and alcohol abuse (67.7%) problems prevailed in the studied group. G2 histological type was recognized in 80.6% cases. T4 (77.4%) and N2 (56.5%) traits occurred in the majority of patients. No cases of metastasis were observed (M0 100%). HPV - 24.2%, EBV - 27.4% and BKV 17.7% were detected in the studied samples. We observed co-infection EBV/BKV in 8% of cases, HPV/BKV in 4.8%, and HPV/EBV in 9% cases. Only in two cases co-infection of all three viruses was found.

  5. Role of the 2B4 Receptor in CD8+ T-Cell-Dependent Immune Control of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Mice With Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijioke, Obinna; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Moretta, Alessandro; Capaul, Riccarda; Münz, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease due to deficiency in the adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) are highly susceptible to one specific viral pathogen, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This susceptibility might result from impaired CD8(+) T-cell and natural killer cell responses to EBV infection in these patients. We demonstrate that antibody blocking of the SAP-dependent 2B4 receptor is sufficient to induce XLP-like aggravation of EBV disease in mice with reconstituted human immune system components. CD8(+) T cells require 2B4 for EBV-specific immune control, because 2B4 blockade after CD8(+) T-cell depletion did not further aggravate symptoms of EBV infection.

  6. Primary effusion lymphoma associated with Human Herpes Virus-8 and Epstein Barr virus in an HIV-infected woman from Kampala, Uganda: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuwat Lawrence O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary effusion lymphoma is a recently recognized entity of AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Despite Africa being greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, an extensive MEDLINE/PubMed search failed to find any report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. To our knowledge this is the first report of primary effusion lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the clinical, cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical findings of a patient with primary effusion lymphoma. Case presentation A 70-year-old newly diagnosed HIV-positive Ugandan African woman presented with a three-month history of cough, fever, weight loss and drenching night sweats. Three weeks prior to admission she developed right sided chest pain and difficulty in breathing. On examination she had bilateral pleural effusions. Haematoxylin and eosin stained cytologic sections of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell block made from the pleural fluid were processed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Immunohistochemistry was done at the Institute of Haematology and Oncology "L and A Seragnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy, using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In situ hybridization was used for detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The tumor cells were CD45+, CD30+, CD38+, HHV-8 LANA-1+; but were negative for CD3-, CD20-, CD19-, and CD79a- and EBV RNA+ on in situ hybridization. CD138 and Ki-67 were not evaluable. Our patient tested HIV positive and her CD4 cell count was 127/μL. Conclusions A definitive diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma rests on finding a proliferation of large immunoblastic, plasmacytoid and anaplastic cells; HHV-8 in the tumor cells, an immunophenotype that is CD45+, pan B-cell marker negative and lymphocyte activated marker positive. It is essential for clinicians and pathologists to have a high index of suspicion of

  7. The AT-hook DNA binding ability of the Epstein Barr virus EBNA1 protein is necessary for the maintenance of viral genomes in latently infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Adityarup; Sugden, Bill

    2015-10-01

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a human tumor virus that is causally linked to malignancies such as Burkitt׳s lymphoma, and gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Tethering of EBV genomes to cellular chromosomes is required for the synthesis and persistence of viral plasmids in tumor cells. However, it is not established how EBV genomes are tethered to cellular chromosomes. We test the hypothesis that the viral protein EBNA1 tethers EBV genomes to chromosomes specifically through its N-terminal AT-hook DNA-binding domains by using a small molecule, netropsin, that has been shown to inhibit the AT-hook DNA-binding of EBNA1 in vitro. We show that netropsin forces the loss of EBV genomes from epithelial and lymphoid cells in an AT-hook dependent manner and that EBV-positive lymphoma cells are significantly more inhibited in their growth by netropsin than are corresponding EBV-negative cells.

  8. CD8-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-cells in a rheumatoid arthritis patient under methotrexate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koji, Hitoshi; Yazawa, Takuya; Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Fujioka, Yasunori; Kamma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a 48-year-old female who developed lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with methotrexate (MTX). She presented with multiple tumors in the cervical lymph nodes (LNs), multiple lung shadows and round shadows in both kidneys with pancytopenia and a high CRP level. The LN showed CD8-positive T-cell LPD associated with Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-infected B-cells. Clonality assays for immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor gamma (TCRγ) were negative. The cessation of MTX without chemotherapy resulted in the complete disappearance of the tumors and abnormal clinical features. We compared this case with previously published ones and discuss the pathological findings, presuming that the proliferation of CD8 T-cells was a reactive manifestation to reactivated EB virus-infected B-cells.

  9. Analysis ulcerative colitis for presence Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction technique