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Sample records for active episomal hat

  1. Beyond Pilgrim Hats and Turkey Hands: Using Thanksgiving to Promote Citizenship and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Erica M.; Montgomery, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In many elementary classrooms, Thanksgiving is celebrated by donning homemade Pilgrim hats, grocery bag vests, and colorful construction-paper headdresses, as students join together to reenact the "first" Thanksgiving with a mock feast. Students compose journal entries on the topic, "what I am thankful for." These typical Thanksgiving activities,…

  2. The diversification and activity of hAT transposons in Musa genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Heitkam, Tony; Seibt, Kathrin M; Nouroz, Faisal; Müller-Stoermer, Manuela; Heslop-Harrison, John S; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing of plant genomes often identified the hAT superfamily as the largest group of DNA transposons. Nevertheless, detailed information on the diversity, abundance and chromosomal localization of plant hAT families are rare. By in silico analyses of the reference genome assembly and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences, respectively, we performed the classification and molecular characterization of hAT transposon families in Musa acuminata. Musa hAT transposons are organized in three families designated MuhAT I, MuhAT II and MuhAT III. In total, 70 complete autonomous elements of the MuhAT I and MuhAT II families were detected, while no autonomous MuhAT III transposons were found. Based on the terminal inverted repeat (TIR)-specific sequence information of the autonomous transposons, 1722 MuhAT I- and MuhAT II-specific miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MuhMITEs) were identified. Autonomous MuhAT I and MuhAT II elements are only moderately abundant in the sections of the genus Musa, while the corresponding MITEs exhibit an amplification in Musa genomes. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), autonomous MuhAT transposons as well as MuhMITEs were localized in subtelomeric, most likely gene-rich regions of M. acuminata chromosomes. A comparison of homoeologous regions of M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana BACs revealed the species-specific mobility of MuhMITEs. In particular, the activity of MuhMITEs II showing transduplications of genomic sequences might indicate the presence of active MuhAT transposons, thus suggesting a potential role of MuhMITEs as modulators of genome evolution of Musa.

  3. Safety-modified episomal vectors for human gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark J.; Lippa, Mara; Payne, Jennifer M.; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; Reifenberg, Erica; Fayazi, Behnaz; Perales, Jose C.; Morrison, Laura J.; Templeton, Dennis; Piekarz, Richard L.; Tan, June

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of ongoing gene therapy trials may be limited by the expression characteristics of viral and plasmid-based vectors. To enhance levels of heterologous gene expression, we have developed a safety-modified episomal expression vector that replicates extrachromosomally in human cells. This vector system employs a simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen mutant (107/402-T) that is deficient in binding to human tumor suppressor gene products, including p53, retinoblastoma, and p107, yet retains replication competence. These SV40-based episomes replicate to thousands of copies by 2–4 days after gene transfer in multiple types of human cell lines, with lower activity in hamster cells, and no detectable activity in dog, rat, and murine cell lines. Importantly, 107/402-T has enhanced replication activity compared with wild-type T antigen; this finding may be due, in part, to the inability of p53 and retinoblastoma to inactivate 107/402-T function. We demonstrate that the level and duration of 107/402-T expression regulates the observed episomal copy number per cell. Compared with standard plasmid constructs, episomes encoding 107/402-T yield approximately 10- to 100-fold enhanced levels of gene expression in unselected populations of transient transfectants. To determine if 107/402-T-based episomes replicate extrachromosomally in vivo, tumor explants in nude mice were directly injected with liposome/DNA complexes. Using a PCR-based assay, we demonstrate that SV40-based episomes replicate in human cells after direct in vivo gene transfer. These data suggest that safety-modified SV40-based episomes will be effective for cancer gene therapy because high level expression of therapeutic genes in transient transfectants should yield enhanced tumor elimination. PMID:9177238

  4. Designer diatom episomes delivered by bacterial conjugation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karas, Bogumil J; Diner, Rachel E; Lefebvre, Stephane C; McQuaid, Jeff; Phillips, Alex P R; Noddings, Chari M; Brunson, John K; Valas, Ruben E; Deerinck, Thomas J; Jablanovic, Jelena; Gillard, Jeroen T F; Beeri, Karen; Ellisman, Mark H; Glass, John I; Hutchison, 3rd, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Venter, J Craig; Allen, Andrew E; Dupont, Christopher L; Weyman, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we describe the first nuclear episomal vector for diatoms and a plasmid delivery method via conjugation from Escherichia coli to the diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana...

  5. Imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities in the PBMCs of patients with ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis and influence of HDAC inhibitors on TNF alpha production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Toussirot

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins may modulate cytokine gene transcription such as TNF alpha (TNF. We evaluated the balance between histone deacetytlase (HDAC and histone acetyltransferase (HAT in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or ankylosing spondylitis (AS compared to healthy controls (HC and determined the influence of HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A -TSA- or Sirtinol -Sirt- on these enzymatic activities and on the PBMC production of TNF. METHODS: 52 patients with RA, 21 with AS and 38 HC were evaluated. HAT and HDAC activities were measured on nuclear extracts from PBMC using colorimetric assays. Enzymatic activities were determined prior to and after ex vivo treatment of PBMC by TSA or Sirt. TNF levels were evaluated in PBMC culture supernatants in the absence or presence of TSA or Sirt. RESULTS: HAT and HDAC activities were significantly reduced in AS, while these activities reached similar levels in RA and HC. Ex vivo treatment of PBMC by HDACi tended to decrease HDAC expression in HC, but Sirt significantly reduced HAT in RA. TNF production by PBMC was significantly down-regulated by Sirt in HC and AS patients. CONCLUSION: HAT and HDAC were disturbed in AS while no major changes were found in RA. HDACi may modulate HDAC and HAT PBMC expression, especially Sirt in RA. Sirtinol was able to down regulate TNF production by PBMC in HC and AS. An imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities might provide the rationale for the development of HDACi in the therapeutic approach to inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  6. TCUP: A novel hAT transposon active in maize tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eSmith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are capable of inducing heritable de novo genetic variation. The sequences capable of reactivation, and environmental factors that induce mobilization, remain poorly defined even in well-studied genomes such as maize. We treated maize tissue culture with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxcytidine and examined long-term tissue culture lines to discover silenced transposable elements that have the potential to induce heritable genetic variation. Through these screens we have identified a novel low copy number hAT transposon, Tissue Culture Up-Regulated (TCUP, which is transcribed at high levels in long-term maize Black Mexican Sweet (BMS tissue culture and up-regulated in response to treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Analysis of the TIGR Maize Gene Index revealed that this element is the most frequently represented EST from the BMS cell culture library and is not represented in other tissue libraries, which is the basis for its name. A full-length sequence was assembled in inbred B73 that contains the putative functional motifs required for autonomous movement of a hAT transposon. Transposon display detected movement of TCUP in two long-term tissue cultured cell lines of the genotype Hi-II AxB and BMS. This research implicates TCUP as a transposon that is capable of reactivation and which may also be particularly sensitive to the stress of the tissue culture environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic alterations potentiate genomic responses to stress during clonal propagation of plants.

  7. Designer diatom episomes delivered by bacterial conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Bogumil J; Diner, Rachel E; Lefebvre, Stephane C; McQuaid, Jeff; Phillips, Alex P R; Noddings, Chari M; Brunson, John K; Valas, Ruben E; Deerinck, Thomas J; Jablanovic, Jelena; Gillard, Jeroen T F; Beeri, Karen; Ellisman, Mark H; Glass, John I; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Venter, J Craig; Allen, Andrew E; Dupont, Christopher L; Weyman, Philip D

    2015-04-21

    Eukaryotic microalgae hold great promise for the bioproduction of fuels and higher value chemicals. However, compared with model genetic organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, characterization of the complex biology and biochemistry of algae and strain improvement has been hampered by the inefficient genetic tools. To date, many algal species are transformable only via particle bombardment, and the introduced DNA is integrated randomly into the nuclear genome. Here we describe the first nuclear episomal vector for diatoms and a plasmid delivery method via conjugation from Escherichia coli to the diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. We identify a yeast-derived sequence that enables stable episome replication in these diatoms even in the absence of antibiotic selection and show that episomes are maintained as closed circles at copy number equivalent to native chromosomes. This highly efficient genetic system facilitates high-throughput functional characterization of algal genes and accelerates molecular phytoplankton research.

  8. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P; Robertson, Erle S; Schildkraut, Carl L; Verma, Subhash C

    2016-05-05

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Association with the origin recognition complex suggests a novel role for histone acetyltransferase Hat1p/Hat2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenblatt Jack F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications have been implicated in the regulation of transcription and, more recently, in DNA replication and repair. In yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially acetylates lysine residues 5 and 12 on histone H4. Results Here, we report that a nuclear sub-complex consisting of Hat1p and its partner Hat2p interacts physically and functionally with the origin recognition complex (ORC. While mutational inactivation of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT gene HAT1 alone does not compromise origin firing or initiation of DNA replication, a deletion in HAT1 (or HAT2 exacerbates the growth defects of conditional orc-ts mutants. Thus, the ORC-associated Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase activity suggests a novel linkage between histone modification and DNA replication. Additional genetic and biochemical evidence points to the existence of partly overlapping histone H3 acetyltransferase activities in addition to Hat1p/Hat2p for proper DNA replication efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated a dynamic association of Hat1p with chromatin during S-phase that suggests a role of this enzyme at the replication fork. Conclusion We have found an intriguing new association of the Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase in addition to its previously known role in nuclear chromatin assembly (Hat1p/Hat2p-Hif1p. The participation of a distinct Hat1p/Hat2p sub-complex suggests a linkage of histone H4 modification with ORC-dependent DNA replication.

  10. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri G Edwards

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25 acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa. A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  11. DNA damage repair genes controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) episome levels under conditions of stability and extreme instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Terri G; Vidmar, Thomas J; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K; Fisher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) genes and pathways controlling the stability of HPV episomal DNA are reported here. We set out to understand the mechanism by which a DNA-binding, N-methylpyrrole-imidazole hairpin polyamide (PA25) acts to cause the dramatic loss of HPV DNA from cells. Southern blots revealed that PA25 alters HPV episomes within 5 hours of treatment. Gene expression arrays identified numerous DDR genes that were specifically altered in HPV16 episome-containing cells (W12E) by PA25, but not in HPV-negative (C33A) cells or in cells with integrated HPV16 (SiHa). A siRNA screen of 240 DDR genes was then conducted to identify enhancers and repressors of PA25 activity. Serendipitously, the screen also identified many novel genes, such as TDP1 and TDP2, regulating normal HPV episome stability. MRN and 9-1-1 complexes emerged as important for PA25-mediated episome destruction and were selected for follow-up studies. Mre11, along with other homologous recombination and dsDNA break repair genes, was among the highly significant PA25 repressors. The Mre11 inhibitor Mirin was found to sensitize HPV episomes to PA25 resulting in a ∼5-fold reduction of the PA25 IC50. A novel assay that couples end-labeling of DNA to Q-PCR showed that PA25 causes strand breaks within HPV DNA, and that Mirin greatly enhances this activity. The 9-1-1 complex member Rad9, a representative PA25 enhancer, was transiently phosphorylated in response to PA25 treatment suggesting that it has a role in detecting and signaling episome damage by PA25 to the cell. These results establish that DNA-targeted compounds enter cells and specifically target the HPV episome. This action leads to the activation of numerous DDR pathways and the massive elimination of episomal DNA from cells. Our findings demonstrate that viral episomes can be targeted for elimination from cells by minor groove binding agents, and implicate DDR pathways as important mediators of this process.

  12. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  13. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-09-06

    Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m 2 and a pant waist size of >38'. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (reference no H

  14. MAR characteristic motifs mediate episomal vector in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Li, Zhaoxi; Wang, Tianyun; Wang, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li; Dong, Weihua; Jing, Changqin; Yang, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations in safety and reproducibility. Recent researches' insight into the ability of chromosomal matrix attachment regions (MARs) to mediate episomal maintenance of genetic elements allowed the development of a circular episomal vector. Although a MAR-mediated engineered vector has been developed, little is known on which motifs of MAR confer this function during interaction with the host genome. Here, we report an artificially synthesized DNA fragment containing only characteristic motif sequences that served as an alternative to human beta-interferon matrix attachment region sequence. The potential of the vector to mediate gene transfer in CHO cells was investigated. The short synthetic MAR motifs were found to mediate episomal vector at a low copy number for many generations without integration into the host genome. Higher transgene expression was maintained for at least 4 months. In addition, MAR was maintained episomally and conferred sustained EGFP expression even in nonselective CHO cells. All the results demonstrated that MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can function as stable episomes in CHO cells, supporting long-term and effective transgene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A role for MRE11, NBS1, and recombination junctions in replication and stable maintenance of EBV episomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraju Dheekollu

    Full Text Available Recombination-like structures formed at origins of DNA replication may contribute to replication fidelity, sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome segregation, and overall genome stability. The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV origin of plasmid replication (OriP provides episomal genome stability through a poorly understood mechanism. We show here that recombinational repair proteins MRE11 and NBS1 are recruited to the Dyad Symmetry (DS region of OriP in a TRF2- and cell cycle-dependent manner. Depletion of MRE11 or NBS1 by siRNA inhibits OriP replication and destabilized viral episomes. OriP plasmid maintenance was defective in MRE11 and NBS1 hypomorphic fibroblast cell lines and only integrated, non-episomal forms of EBV were detected in a lympoblastoid cell line derived from an NBS1-mutated individual. Two-dimensional agarose gel analysis of OriP DNA revealed that recombination-like structures resembling Holliday-junctions form at OriP in mid S phase. MRE11 and NBS1 association with DS coincided with replication fork pausing and origin activation, which preceded the formation of recombination structures. We propose that NBS1 and MRE11 promote replication-associated recombination junctions essential for EBV episomal maintenance and genome stability.

  16. Fluorescent tagged episomals for stoichiometric induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher E; Morales, Blanca M; Schmitz, Ellen M H; Hawkins, John S; Lizama, Carlos O; Zape, Joan P; Hsiao, Edward C; Zovein, Ann C

    2017-06-05

    Non-integrating episomal vectors have become an important tool for induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. The episomal vectors carrying the "Yamanaka reprogramming factors" (Oct4, Klf, Sox2, and L-Myc + Lin28) are critical tools for non-integrating reprogramming of cells to a pluripotent state. However, the reprogramming process remains highly stochastic, and is hampered by an inability to easily identify clones that carry the episomal vectors. We modified the original set of vectors to express spectrally separable fluorescent proteins to allow for enrichment of transfected cells. The vectors were then tested against the standard original vectors for reprogramming efficiency and for the ability to enrich for stoichiometric ratios of factors. The reengineered vectors allow for cell sorting based on reprogramming factor expression. We show that these vectors can assist in tracking episomal expression in individual cells and can select the reprogramming factor dosage. Together, these modified vectors are a useful tool for understanding the reprogramming process and improving induced pluripotent stem cell isolation efficiency.

  17. What history tells us XIX. The notion of the episome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-11-30

    Nov 30, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6. What history tells us XIX. The notion of the episome. Michel Morange. Series Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 845-848. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/034/06/0845-0848 ...

  18. DIY teleport hats - the consolation of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    This instructable describes how to make a set of teleport hats. A teleport hat is a crocheted hat which doubles as a device with which you can teleport yourself to a person wearing the same type of hat in case you miss oneanother and want to be together without the hassle of driving, jetting...

  19. Glucocorticoid regulation of transcription at an amplified, episomal promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, M.C.; Richard-Foy, H.; Wolford, R.G.; Berard, D.S.; Hager, G.L.

    1983-11-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) has been introduced into cultured murine cells, using the 69% transforming fragment of bovine papiloma virus type 1 (BVP). Transformed cells contain up to 200 copies of the chimeric molecules per diploid genome. The restriction endonuclease map of the acquired recombinants, as well as the physical structure of the DNA, indicates that the LTR-BVP molecules present in these cells occur exclusively as unintegrated, extrachromosomal episome. When a 72-base pair direct repeat ''enhancer'' element (derived from the Harvey sarcoma retrovirus) was included in the MMTV LTR-BPV chimeric plasmids, DNA acquired through transfection, with a single exception, was integrated or rearranged or both. Two approaches showed that the MMTV LTR present in the episomal state was capable of supporting glucocorticoid hormone-regulated transcription. The authors have therefore demonstrated the hormone response for the first time in a totally defined primary sequence environment. Significant differences both in the basal level of MMTV-initiated transcription and in the extend of glucocorticoid induction were observed in individual cell lines with similar episomal copy numbers. These phenotypic variations suggest that epigenetic structure is an important component of the mechanism of regulation.

  20. Hat cycle dynamic simulation; Simulazione dinamica di un impianto HAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Macchine e Sistemi Energetici; Pini Prato, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Centrali Termiche; Porro, S.

    1999-06-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment. [Italian] L'impianto di turbina a gas ad aria umida (HAT - Humid Air Turbine) e', tra gli impianti di tipo innovativo recentemente proposti in letteratura, quello che sembra meglio rispodere ai principali requisiti del mercato energetico: alto rendimento in un vasto campo funzionamento, basse emissioni inquinanti, basso costo di installazione. Si presentano qui i risultati di un'analisi del comportamento dell'impianto ai carichi parziali e in transitorio, ottenuti utilizzando un simulatore costruito con moduli originali in ambiente LEGO.

  1. Efficient feeder-free episomal reprogramming with small molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Yu

    Full Text Available Genetic reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could offer replenishable cell sources for transplantation therapies. To fulfill their promises, human iPSCs will ideally be free of exogenous DNA (footprint-free, and be derived and cultured in chemically defined media free of feeder cells. Currently, methods are available to enable efficient derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs. However, each of these methods has its limitations. We have previously derived footprint-free human iPSCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery, but the process was inefficient and required feeder cells. Here, we have greatly improved the episomal reprogramming efficiency using a cocktail containing MEK inhibitor PD0325901, GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021, TGF-β/Activin/Nodal receptor inhibitor A-83-01, ROCK inhibitor HA-100 and human leukemia inhibitory factor. Moreover, we have successfully established a feeder-free reprogramming condition using chemically defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements and chemically defined human ESC medium mTeSR1 for the derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs. These improvements enabled the routine derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs from skin fibroblasts, adipose tissue-derived cells and cord blood cells. This technology will likely be valuable for the production of clinical-grade human iPSCs.

  2. HAT-P-38h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Bun'ei; Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gaspar Á.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-38b, a Saturn-mass exoplanet, transiting the V = 12.56 dwarf star GSC 2314-00559 on a P = 4.6404 d circular orbit. The host star is a 0.89 M-circle dot late G dwarf, with solar metallicity and a radius of 0.92 R-circle dot. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.......27 M-J and a radius of 0.82 R-J. HAT-P-38b is one of the planets the mass and radius of which have ever been discovered to be the closest to those of Saturn....

  3. HAT-P-25b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, S.N.; Bakos, G. 'A; Hartman, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-25b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 13.19 G5 dwarf star GSC 1788-01237, with a period P = 3.652836 +/- 0.000019 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455176.85173 +/- 0.00047 (BJD), and transit duration 0.1174 +/- 0.0017 days. The host star has mass of 1.01 +...

  4. "The Cat in the Hat." A Literature Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan

    Intended as an aid to primary school teachers, this handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "The Cat in the Hat" (Dr. Seuss). It begins with sample lesson plans, a unit planner, getting to know the book and author, and suggestions for using the unit activities. Next, a section offers unit activities focusing on…

  5. Delivery of episomal vectors into primary cells by means of commercial transfection reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na Rae; Lee, Hyun; Baek, Song; Yun, Jung Im; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2015-05-29

    Although episomal vectors are commonly transported into cells by electroporation, a number of electroporation-derived problems have led to the search for alternative transfection protocols, such as the use of transfection reagents, which are inexpensive and easy to handle. Polyplex-mediated transport of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm has been conducted successfully in immortalized cell lines, but no report exists of successful transfection of primary cells using this method. Accordingly, we sought to optimize the conditions for polyplex-mediated transfection for effective delivery of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Episomal vectors were complexed with the commercially available transfection reagents Lipofectamine 2000, FuGEND HD and jetPEI. The ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vectors was varied, and the subsequent transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of the complexes were analyzed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. No cytotoxicity and the highest transfection yield were observed when the ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vector was 4 (v/wt) in the cases of Lipofectamine 2000 and FuGENE HD, and 2 in the case of jetPEI. Of the three transfection reagents tested, jetPEI showed the highest transfection efficiency without any cytotoxicity. Thus, we confirmed that the transfection reagent jetPEI could be used to effectively deliver episomal vectors into primary cells without electroporation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arucha L Ekeowa-Anderson

    Full Text Available Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV, particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma- PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC. We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.

  7. HAT2 mediates histone H4K4 acetylation and affects micrococcal nuclease sensitivity of chromatin in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin K Jha

    Full Text Available Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs such as acetylation and methylation are known to affect chromatin higher order structures. Primary targets of these modifications include basic residues present at N-terminus tail region of core histones. Four histone acetyltransferase (HAT genes have been identified in trypanosomatids. HAT1, HAT3 and HAT4 of Leishmania donovani have been partially characterized. However, there is no report about HAT2 of Leishmania donovani. Lysine residues present on the N-terminal tail of Leishmania donovani histone H4 are conserved in other trypanosomatids and humans. PTMs of lysines modulate various functions at chromatin level. The four histone acetyltransferases encoded in Leishmania genome were over-expressed to analyse their functional activity. All four HATs were found actively acetylating core histones H3/H4. Similar to L. donovani HAT3 and HAT4, HAT2 was found to be a member of MYST family protein and have SAS2 type domain. Over-expression of HAT2 significantly increases acetylation of H4K4. To analyse the effect of HAT2 over-expression on chromatin accessibility, micrococcal nuclease digestion assay was performed. MNase digestion resulted in a higher proportion of the mononucleosomes and dinucleosomes in HAT2 over-expressing cells as compared to WT L. donovani cells. Acetylation of lysine-4 neutralizes the amino terminal region of histone H4. This weakens its interaction with neighbouring nucleosomes and the linker DNA. HAT2 over-expression in L. donovani resulted in highly accessible chromatin suggesting chromatin decondensation. HAT2 may have an important role to play in global regulation of transcription in L. donovani. Better understanding of these epigenetic determinants of parasite would help in designing novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  9. The stealth episome: suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A C Godfrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causative agent of halo blight in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola race 4 strain 1302A contains the avirulence gene avrPphB (syn. hopAR1, which resides on PPHGI-1, a 106 kb genomic island. Loss of PPHGI-1 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A following exposure to the hypersensitive resistance response (HR leads to the evolution of strains with altered virulence. Here we have used fluorescent protein reporter systems to gain insight into the mobility of PPHGI-1. Confocal imaging of dual-labelled P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A strain, F532 (dsRFP in chromosome and eGFP in PPHGI-1, revealed loss of PPHGI-1::eGFP encoded fluorescence during plant infection and when grown in vitro on extracted leaf apoplastic fluids. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS of fluorescent and non-fluorescent PPHGI-1::eGFP F532 populations showed that cells lost fluorescence not only when the GI was deleted, but also when it had excised and was present as a circular episome. In addition to reduced expression of eGFP, quantitative PCR on sub-populations separated by FACS showed that transcription of other genes on PPHGI-1 (avrPphB and xerC was also greatly reduced in F532 cells harbouring the excised PPHGI-1::eGFP episome. Our results show how virulence determinants located on mobile pathogenicity islands may be hidden from detection by host surveillance systems through the suppression of gene expression in the episomal state.

  10. Incidence of Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (HAT) in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In spite of guidelines, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilised, and hospital acquired thrombosis (HAT) continues to be a problem. This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of HAT in a tertiary referral centre and to examine whether VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis (TP) were implemented. Patients 18 years and above, with a radiologically-confirmed acute VTE during the study period of 15 weeks were included. Acute VTE was diagnosed in 100 patients and HAT was diagnosed in 48. There were 12,024 admissions over the study period, therefore the incidence of HAT was 0.4%. TP was prescribed in only 35% of patients, and 65% did not receive any or appropriate TP. Hospitals without active implementation of a formal risk assessment tool and TP policy are likely to continue to have increased incidence of HAT.

  11. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  12. Plasticity of DNA replication initiation in Epstein-Barr virus episomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Norio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, the activity of the sites of initiation of DNA replication appears to be influenced epigenetically, but this regulation is not fully understood. Most studies of DNA replication have focused on the activity of individual initiation sites, making it difficult to evaluate the impact of changes in initiation activity on the replication of entire genomic loci. Here, we used single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD to study the latent duplication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV episomes in human cell lines. We found that initiation sites are present throughout the EBV genome and that their utilization is not conserved in different EBV strains. In addition, SMARD shows that modifications in the utilization of multiple initiation sites occur across large genomic regions (tens of kilobases in size. These observations indicate that individual initiation sites play a limited role in determining the replication dynamics of the EBV genome. Long-range mechanisms and the genomic context appear to play much more important roles, affecting the frequency of utilization and the order of activation of multiple initiation sites. Finally, these results confirm that initiation sites are extremely redundant elements of the EBV genome. We propose that these conclusions also apply to mammalian chromosomes.

  13. Plasticity of DNA Replication Initiation in Epstein-Barr Virus Episomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the activity of the sites of initiation of DNA replication appears to be influenced epigenetically, but this regulation is not fully understood. Most studies of DNA replication have focused on the activity of individual initiation sites, making it difficult to evaluate the impact of changes in initiation activity on the replication of entire genomic loci. Here, we used single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD) to study the latent duplication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episomes in human cell lines. We found that initiation sites are present throughout the EBV genome and that their utilization is not conserved in different EBV strains. In addition, SMARD shows that modifications in the utilization of multiple initiation sites occur across large genomic regions (tens of kilobases in size). These observations indicate that individual initiation sites play a limited role in determining the replication dynamics of the EBV genome. Long-range mechanisms and the genomic context appear to play much more important roles, affecting the frequency of utilization and the order of activation of multiple initiation sites. Finally, these results confirm that initiation sites are extremely redundant elements of the EBV genome. We propose that these conclusions also apply to mammalian chromosomes. PMID:15208711

  14. Physiological levels of HBB transgene expression from S/MAR element-based replicating episomal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgourou, Argyro; Routledge, Samantha; Spathas, Dionysios; Athanassiadou, Aglaia; Antoniou, Michael N

    2009-08-20

    Replicating episomal vectors (REV) are in principle able to provide long-term transgene expression in the absence of integration into the target cell genome. The scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) located 5' of the human beta-interferon gene (IFNB1) has been shown to confer a stable episomal replication and retention function within plasmid vectors when stably transfected and selected in mammalian cells. The minimal requirement for the IFNB1 S/MAR to function in DNA replication and episomal retention is transcription through this element. We used the erythroid beta-globin locus control region-beta-globin gene (betaLCR-HBB) microlocus cassette as a model to assess tissue-specific expression from within an IFNB1 S/MAR-based plasmid REV. The betaLCR-HBB plus S/MAR combination constructs provided either high or low levels of transcription through the S/MAR element. Our results show that the betaLCR-HBB microlocus is able to reproducibly and stably express at full physiological levels on an episome copy number basis. In addition, our data show that even low levels of transcription from betaLCR-HBB through the S/MAR element are sufficient to allow efficient episomal replication and retention. These data provide the principles upon which generic and flexible expression cassette-S/MAR-based REVs can be designed for a wide range of applications.

  15. Become a CERN WhiteHat

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Discovering CERN's weaknesses is as important as ever. Become a CERN WhiteHat and help us poking around CERN computing services and web applications. All you need is to apply and get the appropriate training...

  16. "Work smart, wear your hard hat"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Falling objects and collisions are frequent occurrences in work sites and hazardous areas. Hard hats can help prevent many types of accident and can even save lives. Just imagine an 800 g spanner falling from a 13 m high scaffold onto the head of someone standing below - a nightmare scenario! The impact to the head is equivalent to that of a 5 kg weight falling from 2 metres. That is just what happened to Gerd Fetchenhauer when he was working on the UA1 experiment. Fortunately, he was wearing a hard hat at the time. "That hat saved my life," he explains. "It punched a hole right through the hat and I was a bit dazed for a couple of hours but otherwise I was OK." Since that day, Gerd Fetchenhauer, now working on CMS, is never seen on a work site without his hard hat on. Work sites have proliferated at CERN with the construction of the LHC and its detectors, and the wearing of hard hats is compulsory (not to mention life-saving). In the underground caverns and experiment halls, where gantry cranes and other h...

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  18. Refinement of the Diatom Episome Maintenance Sequence and Improvement of Conjugation-based DNA Delivery Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Diner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugation of episomal plasmids from bacteria to diatoms advances diatom genetic manipulation by simplifying transgene delivery and providing a stable and consistent gene expression platform. To reach its full potential, this nascent technology requires new optimized expression vectors and a deeper understanding of episome maintenance. Here we present the development of an additional diatom vector (pPtPBR1, based on the parent plasmid pBR322, to add a plasmid maintained at medium copy number in E. coli to the diatom genetic toolkit. Using this new vector, we evaluated the contribution of individual yeast DNA elements comprising the 1.4-kb tripartite CEN6-ARSH4-HIS3 sequence that enables episome maintenance in P. tricornutum. While various combinations of these individual elements enable efficient conjugation and high ex-conjugant yield in P. tricornutum, individual elements alone do not. Conjugation of episomes containing CEN6-ARSH4 and a small sequence from the low GC content 3’ end of HIS3 produced the highest number of diatom ex-conjugant colonies, resulting in a smaller and more efficient vector design. Our findings suggest that the CEN6 and ARSH4 sequences function differently in yeast and diatoms, and that low GC content regions of greater than ~500 bp are a potential indicator of a functional diatom episome maintenance sequence. Additionally, we have developed improvements to the conjugation protocol including a higher-throughput option utilizing 12-well plates, and plating methods that improve ex-conjugant yield and reduce time and materials required for the conjugation protocol. The data presented offer additional information regarding the mechanism by which the yeast-derived sequence enables diatom episome maintenance, and demonstrate options for flexible vector design.

  19. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line CERAi001-A-6 using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C.B. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the generation of the hiPSC line CERAi001-A-6 from primary human dermal fibroblasts. Reprogramming was performed using episomal vector delivery of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 and shRNA for p53.

  20. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line CERAi001-A-6 using episomal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raymond C B; Hung, Sandy S; Jackson, Stacey; Singh, Vikrant; Khan, Shahnaz; Liang, Helena H; Kearns, Lisa S; Nguyen, Tu; Conquest, Alison; Daniszewski, Maciej; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice

    2017-07-01

    We report the generation of the hiPSC line CERAi001-A-6 from primary human dermal fibroblasts. Reprogramming was performed using episomal vector delivery of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 and shRNA for p53. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hats Off: A Study of Different Operating Room Headgear Assessed by Environmental Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Gormley, Thomas; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Wise, Angie; Rajala, Jonathan; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Wagner, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of operating room headgear in preventing airborne contamination has been called into question. We hypothesized that bouffant style hats would be as effective in preventing bacterial and particulate contamination in the operating room compared with disposable or cloth skull caps, and bouffant style hats would have similar permeability, particle penetration, and porosity compared with skull caps. Disposable bouffant and skull cap hats and newly laundered cloth skull caps were tested. A mock surgical procedure was used in a dynamic operating room environment. Airborne particulate and microbial contaminants were sampled. Hat fabric was tested for permeability, particle transmission, and pore sizes. No significant differences were observed between disposable bouffant and disposable skull caps with regard to particle or actively sampled microbial contamination. However, when compared with disposable skull caps, disposable bouffant hats did have significantly higher microbial shed at the sterile field, as measured by passive settle plate analysis (p < 0.05). When compared with cloth skull caps, disposable bouffants yielded higher levels of 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm particles and significantly higher microbial shed detected with passive analysis. Fabric assessment determined that disposable bouffant hats had larger average and maximum pore sizes compared with cloth skull caps, and were significantly more permeable than either disposable or cloth skull caps. Disposable bouffant hats had greater permeability, penetration, and greater microbial shed, as assessed by passive microbial analysis compared with disposable skull caps. When compared with cloth skull caps, disposable bouffants yielded greater permeability, greater particulate contamination, and greater passive microbial shed. Disposable style bouffant hats should not be considered superior to skull caps in preventing airborne contamination in the operating room. Copyright © 2017 American College of

  2. Wer hat Angst vor Ayn Rand?

    OpenAIRE

    Brühwiler, Claudia Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Das Werk der amerikanischen Schriftstellerin Ayn Rand hat in den USA sowohl die Politik als auch die Populärkultur geprägt. Ihre Ideen finden sich im amerikanischen Kongress wie auch bei den Simpsons. Die neue Übersetzung ihres Hauptwerks macht sie nun auch im deutschsprachigen Raum wieder zugänglich.

  3. Die ganzen zahlen hat Gott gemacht

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A quote attributed to the famous mathematician L Kro- necker is 'Die Ganzen Zahlen hat Gatt gemacht, alles andere ist M enschenwerk.' A translation might be 'God gave us integers and all else is man's work.' An of us are familiar already from middle school with the similarities between the set of integers and the set of all ...

  4. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  5. Generation of Footprint-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Using Episomal Plasmid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have provided novel insights into the etiology of disease and are set to transform regenerative medicine and drug screening over the next decade. The generation of human iPSCs free of a genetic footprint of the reprogramming process is crucial for the realization of these potential uses. Here we describe in detail the generation of human iPSC from control and disease-carrying individuals' fibroblasts using episomal plasmids.

  6. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  7. Smartphone Household Wireless Electroencephalogram Hat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Szu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary brain machine interface has existed for the gaming industry. Here, we propose a wireless, real-time, and smartphone-based electroencephalogram (EEG system for homecare applications. The system uses high-density dry electrodes and compressive sensing strategies to overcome conflicting requirements between spatial electrode density, temporal resolution, and spatiotemporal throughput rate. Spatial sparseness is addressed by close proximity between active electrodes and desired source locations and using an adaptive selection of N active among 10N passive electrodes to form m-organized random linear combinations of readouts, m≪N≪10N. Temporal sparseness is addressed via parallel frame differences in hardware. During the design phase, we took tethered laboratory EEG dataset and applied fuzzy logic to compute (a spatiotemporal average of larger magnitude EEG data centers in 0.3 second intervals and (b inside brainwave sources by Independent Component Analysis blind deconvolution without knowing the impulse response function. Our main contributions are the fidelity of quality wireless EEG data compared to original tethered data and the speed of compressive image recovery. We have compared our recovery of ill-posed inverse data against results using Block Sparse Code. Future work includes development of strategies to filter unwanted artifact from high-density EEGs (i.e., facial muscle-related events and wireless environmental electromagnetic interferences.

  8. Targeting Specific HATs for Neurodegenerative Disease Treatment: Translating Basic Biology to Therapeutic Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K. Pirooznia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic epigenetic regulation of neurons is emerging as a fundamental mechanism by which neurons adapt their transcriptional responses to specific developmental and environmental cues. While defects within the neural epigenome have traditionally been studied in the context of early developmental and heritable cognitive disorders, recent studies point to aberrant histone acetylation status as a key mechanism underlying acquired inappropriate alterations of genome structure and function in post-mitotic neurons during the aging process. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the lifetime of neurons through mechanisms related to loss of function of histone acetyltransferase (HATs activity. Several HATs have been shown to participate in vital neuronal functions such as regulation of neuronal plasticity and memory formation. As such, dysregulation of such HATs has been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In order to counteract the loss of HAT function in neurodegenerative diseases, the current therapeutic strategies involve the use of small molecules called histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors that antagonize HDAC activity and thus enhance acetylation levels. Although this strategy has displayed promising therapeutic effects, currently used HDAC inhibitors lack target specificity, raising concerns about their applicability. With rapidly evolving literature on HATs and their respective functions in mediating neuronal survival and higher order brain function such as learning and memory, modulating the function of specific HATs holds new promises as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in research regarding epigenetic histone acetylation mechanisms underlying neuronal activity and cognitive function. We discuss the current understanding of specific HDACs and

  9. Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Addendum D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junctions Project Office in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. The objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on- pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra- 226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

  10. Learning to Look, Learning to Read: Dr. Seuss'"The Cat in the Hat."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, George

    1997-01-01

    States that "The Cat in the Hat" (1957), written from a basic 225 word list, explores the level of activity that a child needs to keep secret from the adult world, and is a picture book which is also nominally a "reader" and not a storybook. Includes questions for stimulating student response; encapsulates classic elements in…

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy and photometry for HAT-P-50--HAT-P-53 (Hartman+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; Bakos, G. A.; Bieryla, A.; Kovacs, G.; Latham, D. W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Penev, K.; Buchhave, L. A.; Torres, G.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Isaacson, H.; Sato, B.; Boisse, I.; Falco, E.; Everett, M. E.; Szklenar, T.; Fulton, B. J.; Shporer, A.; Kovacs, T.; Hansen, T.; Beky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2016-04-01

    The HATNet network consists of six identical fully automated instruments, with four at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) in AZ, and two on the roof of the Submillimeter Array Hangar Building at Mauna Kea Observatory (MKO) in HI. The light-gathering elements of each instrument include an 11cm diameter telephoto lens, a Sloan r filter, and a 4K*4K front-side-illuminated CCD camera. Observations made in 2007 and early 2008 were carried out using a Cousins R filter. The instruments have a field of view of 10.6°*10.6° and a pixel scale of 9"/pixel at the center of an image. Additional time-series photometric measurements were obtained for all four of the systems using Keplercam on the FLWO 1.2m telescope. For HAT-P-50 we also obtained follow-up photometry with the CCD imager on the Byrne Observatory at Sedgwick (BOS) 0.8m telescope, located at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Ynez Valley, CA, and operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope institute (LCOGT). HAT-P-50 was observed with HAT-10/G316 on 2008 Nov-2009 May, with HAT-5/G364 on 2009 May, with HAT-9/G364 on 2008 Dec-2009 May, with BOS on 2012 Feb 15, on 2012 Feb 21 and on 2012 Apr 08, and with Keplercam on 2012 Feb 18, on 2012 Nov 28, on 2012 Dec 23, on 2013 Jan 14, and on 2013 Jan 17. HAT-P-51 was observed with HAT-6/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-9/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-10/G165 on 2010 Sep-2011 Jan, with HAT-5/G165 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-8/G165 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-6/G209 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-9/G209 on 2010 Nov-2011 Feb, with HAT-7/G210 on 2010 Nov-2011 Jan, and with Keplercam on 2011 Oct 21, on 2012 Jan 05, on 2012 Oct 05, on 2012 Oct 26, and on 2012 Nov 12. HAT-P-52 was observed with HAT-5/G212 on 2010 Sep-Nov, with HAT-8/G212 on 2010 Aug-Nov, and with Keplercam on 2010 Dec 23, on 2011 Sep 05, on 2011 Sep 27, on 2011 Nov 21, and on 2012 Jan 07. HAT-P-53 was observed with HAT-6/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with HAT-9/G164 on 2007 Sep-2008 Feb, with

  12. Regulation of episomal gene expression by KRAB/KAP1-mediated histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Isabelle; Laurenti, Elisa; Verp, Sonia; Groner, Anna Claire; Towne, Christopher; Padrun, Viviane; Aebischer, Patrick; Trumpp, Andreas; Trono, Didier

    2009-06-01

    KAP1 is an essential cofactor of KRAB zinc finger proteins, a family of vertebrate-specific epigenetic repressors of largely unknown functions encoded in the hundreds by the mouse and human genomes. So far, KRAB/KAP1-mediated gene regulation has been studied within the environment of chromosomal DNA. Here we demonstrate that KRAB/KAP1 regulation is fully functional within the context of episomal DNA, such as adeno-associated viral and nonintegrated lentiviral vectors, and is correlated with histone modifications typically associated with this epigenetic regulator.

  13. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  14. X-ray structure of a novel endolysin encoded by episomal phage phiSM101 of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Eiji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Nariya, Hirofumi; Miyata, Shigeru; Okabe, Akinobu; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Maki, Jun; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2014-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall composed of a mesh polymer of peptidoglycans, which provides physical protection. Endolysins encoded by phages infecting bacteria can hydrolyse peptidoglycans in the bacterial cell wall, killing the host bacteria immediately. The endolysin (Psm) encoded by episomal phage phiSM101 of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A strain SM101 exhibits potent lytic activity towards most strains of Clostridium perfringens. Psm has an N-terminal catalytic domain highly homologous to N-acetylmuramidases belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 25 family, and C-terminal tandem repeated bacterial Src homology 3 (SH3_3) domains as the cell wall-binding domain. The X-ray structure of full-length Psm and a catalytic domain of Psm in complex with N-acetylglucosamine were determined to elucidate the catalytic reaction and cell wall recognition mechanisms of Psm. The results showed that Psm may have adopted a neighbouring-group mechanism for the catalytic hydrolysing reaction in which the N-acetyl carbonyl group of the substrate was involved in the formation of an oxazolinium ion intermediate. Based on structural comparisons with other endolysins and a modelling study, we proposed that tandem repeated SH3_3 domains of Psm recognized the peptide side-chains of peptidoglycans to assist the catalytic domain hydrolysing the glycan backbone. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conversion of adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into induced neural stem cell by using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (NSCs hold great promise for research and therapy in neural diseases. Many studies have shown direct induction of NSCs from human fibroblasts, which require an invasive skin biopsy and a prolonged period of expansion in cell culture prior to use. Peripheral blood (PB is routinely used in medical diagnoses, and represents a noninvasive and easily accessible source of cells. Here we show direct derivation of NSCs from adult human PB mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery. These induced NSCs (iNSCs can expand more than 60 passages, can exhibit NSC morphology, gene expression, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capability and can give rise to multiple functional neural subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the iNSCs carry a specific regional identity and have electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our findings provide an easily accessible approach for generating human iNSCs which will facilitate disease modeling, drug screening, and possibly regenerative medicine.

  16. An episomally replicating vector binds to the nuclear matrix protein SAF-A in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Bok Hee C.; Fetzer, Christian P.; Stehle, Isa M.; Jönsson, Franziska; Fackelmayer, Frank O.; Conradt, Harald; Bode, Jürgen; Lipps, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    pEPI-1, a vector in which a chromosomal scaffold/matrix-attached region (S/MAR) is linked to the simian virus 40 origin of replication, is propagated episomally in CHO cells in the absence of the virally encoded large T-antigen and is stably maintained in the absence of selection pressure. It has been suggested that mitotic stability is provided by a specific interaction of this vector with components of the nuclear matrix. We studied the interactions of pEPI-1 by crosslinking with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, after which it is found to copurify with the nuclear matrix. In a south-western analysis, the vector shows exclusive binding to hnRNP-U/SAF-A, a multifunctional scaffold/matrix specific factor. Immunoprecipitation of the crosslinked DNA–protein complex demonstrates that pEPI-1 is bound to this protein in vivo. These data provide the first experimental evidence for the binding of an artificial episome to a nuclear matrix protein in vivo and the basis for understanding the mitotic stability of this novel vector class. PMID:11897664

  17. [Walcher's hat brim line rule--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Krocker, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The first description in the forensic medical literature of a demarcation line for the localization of head injuries resulting from falling to the ground appears in Kratter (1919). Regarding a similar line, Walcher (1931) later introduced the relation to the hat brim (Hutkrempe), which gave the rule its name: the hat brim line rule (Hutkrempenregel). Thenceforth it was supposed to be called Kratter's and Walcher's hat brim line rule (Kratter-Walcher'sche Hutkrempenregel). Over the following decades, not only its content but also the area of application and the definition of the hat brim line rule were repeatedly, and in part significantly, altered. This could be one of the reasons for the confusing diversity of academic opinions about the rule's applicability. Generally, the hat brim line rule should be retained in its original sense: Fall-related injuries do not lie above the hat brim line if the fall occurred from a standing position to the ground, without intermediary blows to the head. If applied in this way, the rule can be a helpful point of orientation for experts. The demarcation line in the original anatomical definition according to Kratter (1919) should also be used henceforth: the line which connects "the frontal eminence, the parietal eminence and the tip of the occipital plate" and lies "somewhat.above the usual saw-line of the calvarium". This line corresponds roughly to the hat brim line as it is understood by hat makers. The hat brim line rule should not be applied with regard to small children, as they show a different falling behaviour due to their disproportionately large and heavy heads. The rule is also in no way applicable to the assessment of injuries from blows, falls from a height (including from stairs) or traffic accidents. There is an urgent need for research as to the applicability of the hat brim line rule in relation to falling backwards, particularly in cases of high alcohol consumption.

  18. UMTRA Project Site Observational Work Plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Surface cleanup activities at the Mexican Hat UMTRA processing site are nearing completion. Ground Water contamination at the Mexican Hat site is a result of uranium milling operations. The extent of residual process water has been identified, and it is limited to the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the site. Deeper aquifers are not affected because of an upward hydraulic gradient and the presence of a confining unit (the deeper aquifers are protected by hydrogeologic isolation). The uppermost unit is returning to its pre-milling, mainly unsaturated state. The unit that contains the contaminated water is not a ground water resource because it qualifies as Class III (limited use) based on limited yield. Ground water in the uppermost unit is currently not used and is not anticipated to be used as a ground water resource. The nearby San Juan River and a converted oil exploration well provide all of the water needs for the area. There are no current threats to human health or livestock; and, because the zone of contamination does not represent a ground water resource, none are anticipated in the future. There are, however, seeps where contaminated water is exposed at land surface. The seeps create potential exposure pathways for plants and wildlife. It is not known at this time if there is a risk to the environment. Additional investigations are needed and are described in this document to confirm the presence or absence of potential environmental risks. Additional hydrogeologic investigations are not required. The proposed ground water compliance strategy for the site is no remediation, because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer (which is also the zone of contamination) qualifies for supplemental standards based on Class III, limited yield, and because there are no threats to human health. Domestic and agricultural water is pumped from a deeper aquifer that is isolated from the contaminated zone.

  19. Monitoring of BTX by passive sampling in Hat Yai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proespichaya Kanatharana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-built passive samplers were used for monitoring of trace benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX in Hat Yai from 28 July to 12 August, 2003. Sampler bottles contained activated Tenax TA 60/80 meshand a lab-built thermal well were developed and evaluated for the sampling and analysis of BTX. The sampling was carried out for two weeks before the passive samplers were thermally desorbed, trapped ina sampling loop by a laboratory built purge and trap system and analysed by gas chromatography (GC equipped with a flame ionization detector. After optimization and calibration, the developed method showed high selectivity, a good sensitivity with detection limits for BTX of 0.8, 1.1 and 13.0 µg/m3 respectively and an acceptable precision. Ambient BTX measurements were conducted at many monitoring site i.e. hot spots (high exposure, residential areas/work places (common exposure and park (low exposure. The concentration at hot spots range from 3.2 to 5.4 µg/m3 for benzene, 38.0 to 80.3 µg/m3 for toluene and 29.7 to 66.7 µg/m3 for xylene.The low BTX were found at the city periphery (Tesco-Lotus billboard sampling stations, roof level and in Hat Yai Municipal Park but no absolute background concentration could be defined. The monitoring results showed that at higher level from the street surface, the level of BTX tended to decrease and the BTX pollution built up along a street canyon (Sanehanuson Road according to the wind direction. The highest BTX were found at the underground parking, 23.5 725.1 and 267.9 µg/m3 respectively where both WHO guideline for Benzene (16.3 µg/m3 and Toluene (260 µg/m3 were exceeded.

  20. In vivo reinsertion of excised episomes by the V(DJ recombinase: a potential threat to genomic stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Vanura

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that signal joints, the byproducts of V(DJ recombination, are not involved in the dynamics of the rearrangement process. Evidence has now started to accumulate that this is not the case, and that signal joints play unsuspected roles in events that might compromise genomic integrity. Here we show both ex vivo and in vivo that the episomal circles excised during the normal process of receptor gene rearrangement may be reintegrated into the genome through trans-V(DJ recombination occurring between the episomal signal joint and an immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor target. We further demonstrate that cryptic recombination sites involved in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations constitute hotspots of insertion. Eventually, the identification of two in vivo cases associating episomal reintegration and chromosomal translocation suggests that reintegration events are linked to genomic instability. Altogether, our data suggest that V(DJ-mediated reintegration of episomal circles, an event likely eluding classical cytogenetic screenings, might represent an additional potent source of genomic instability and lymphoid cancer.

  1. In vivo reinsertion of excised episomes by the V(D)J recombinase: a potential threat to genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanura, Katrina; Montpellier, Bertrand; Le, Trang; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Cabaud, Olivier; Roulland, Sandrine; Vachez, Elodie; Prinz, Immo; Ferrier, Pierre; Marculescu, Rodrig; Jäger, Ulrich; Nadel, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    It has long been thought that signal joints, the byproducts of V(D)J recombination, are not involved in the dynamics of the rearrangement process. Evidence has now started to accumulate that this is not the case, and that signal joints play unsuspected roles in events that might compromise genomic integrity. Here we show both ex vivo and in vivo that the episomal circles excised during the normal process of receptor gene rearrangement may be reintegrated into the genome through trans-V(D)J recombination occurring between the episomal signal joint and an immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor target. We further demonstrate that cryptic recombination sites involved in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations constitute hotspots of insertion. Eventually, the identification of two in vivo cases associating episomal reintegration and chromosomal translocation suggests that reintegration events are linked to genomic instability. Altogether, our data suggest that V(D)J-mediated reintegration of episomal circles, an event likely eluding classical cytogenetic screenings, might represent an additional potent source of genomic instability and lymphoid cancer.

  2. The "Burgundian" hat from Herjolfsnes, Greenland: new discoveries, new dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michèle Hayeur; Arneborg, Jette; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    of the Greenland Norse colony but also its enduring cultural links with continental European fashions, following a comment to this effect published by Nørlund himself. In 1996, the hat was dated to the early fourteenth century by Arneborg, a century earlier than Nørlund’s dating, based on stylistic comparisons...... with European examples. Recent research on North Atlantic textiles led to a re-examination of the hat, with different sections sampled and resubmitted for accelerated mass spectrometry dating. The results suggest that the body of the hat and its crown are of different periods with c. 100 years between them...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: i filter photometry for HATS-25 through HATS-30 (Espinoza+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, N.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Jordan, A.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; Rabus, M.; Penev, K.; Bento, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Suc, V.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Tan, T. G.; Noyes, R.

    2017-05-01

    The photometric detection data of the six exoplanets come from the three HATSouth sites, namely, the site at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile (LCO, whose stations are designated HS-1 and HS-2), the site at of the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (HESS) in Namibia (whose stations are designated HS-3 and HS-4) and the site at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia whose stations are designated HS-5 and HS-6). HATS-25 was observed with an r SDSS filter on 2011 Mar-2011 Aug using HS-2.1, on 2011 Jul-2011 Aug using HS-4.1, and on 2011 May with HS-6.1. HATS-26 was observed with an r SDSS filter on 2012 Feb-2012 Jun using HS-2.3, HS-4.3, and HS-6.3. HATS-27 was observed with an r SDSS filter on 2011 Apr-2012 Jul using HS-2.1, on 2011 Jul-2012 Jul using HS-4.1, and on 2011 May-2012 Jul using HS-6.1. HATS-28 was observed with an r SDSS filter on 2013 Mar-2013 Oct using HS-1.2, on 2013 Sep-2013 Oct using HS-2.2, on 2013 Apr-2013 Nov using HS-3.2, on 2013 Sep-2013 Nov using HS-4.2 and HS-6.2, and 2013 Mar-2013 Nov using HS-5.2. HATS-29 was observed with an r SDSS filter on 2013 Apr-2013 May using HS-1.1, on 2013 Sep-2013 Oct using HS-2.1, on 2013 Apr-2013 Nov using HS-3.1, on 2013 Sep-2013 Nov using HS-4.1 and HS-6.1, and on 2013 Mar-2013 Nov using HS-5.1. HATS-30 was observed using an r SDSS filter on 2012 Sep-2012 Dec using HS-2.3, HS-6.3 and HS-2.4, on 2012 Sep-2013 Jan using HS-4.4, on 2012 Sep-2012 Dec using HS-6.4, and on 2011 Jul-2012 Oct using HS-1.1, HS-3.1 and HS-5.1. Photometric follow-up for the six systems was obtained mainly from 1m-class telescopes at different sites of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network, using the i filter. In particular, one partial transit and a full transit was observed for HATS-25b on 2015 February 23 at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and 2015 March 16 at SSO, respectively; three partial transits were observed for HATS-26b on 2015 April 19 and 2015 May 21 at CTIO, and 2015 June 04 at SSO

  4. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    This document is a revision of the original Mexiacan Hat Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. This RAP has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3. 0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 presents the water resources protection strategy. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on- site workers. Section 7.0 lists the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan.

  5. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Yuen Yung Loh

    Full Text Available Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration.

  6. The Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen DNA Binding Domain Dorsal Positive Electrostatic Patch Facilitates DNA Replication and Episome Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Tan, Min; Juillard, Franceline; Ponnusamy, Rajesh; Correia, Bruno; Simas, J Pedro; Carrondo, Maria A; McVey, Colin E; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2015-11-20

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates persistence of viral episomes in latently infected cells. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and segregates episomes to progeny nuclei. The structure of the LANA DNA binding domain was recently solved, revealing a positive electrostatic patch opposite the DNA binding surface, which is the site of BET protein binding. Here we investigate the functional role of the positive patch in LANA-mediated episome persistence. As expected, LANA mutants with alanine or glutamate substitutions in the central, peripheral, or lateral portions of the positive patch maintained the ability to bind DNA by EMSA. However, all of the substitution mutants were deficient for LANA DNA replication and episome maintenance. Mutation of the peripheral region generated the largest deficiencies. Despite these deficiencies, all positive patch mutants concentrated to dots along mitotic chromosomes in cells containing episomes, similar to LANA. The central and peripheral mutants, but not the lateral mutants, were reduced for BET protein interaction as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. However, defects in BET protein binding were independent of episome maintenance function. Overall, the reductions in episome maintenance closely correlated with DNA replication deficiencies, suggesting that the replication defects account for the reduced episome persistence. Therefore, the electrostatic patch exerts a key role in LANA-mediated DNA replication and episome persistence and may act through a host cell partner(s) other than a BET protein or by inducing specific structures or complexes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Appendix D, Addenda D1--D7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation foe the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Project Office, in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. the objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on-pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra-226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

  8. Stable transformation of an episomal protein-tagging shuttle vector in the piscine diplomonad Spironucleus vortens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronembold Daniela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diplomonads are common free-living inhabitants of anoxic aquatic environments and are also found as intestinal commensals or parasites of a wide variety of animals. Spironucleus vortens is a putatively commensal diplomonad of angelfish that grows to high cell densities in axenic culture. Genomic sequencing of S. vortens is in progress, yet little information is available regarding molecular and cellular aspects of S. vortens biology beyond descriptive ultrastructural studies. To facilitate the development of S. vortens as an additional diplomonad experimental model, we have constructed and stably transformed an episomal plasmid containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP tag, an AU1 epitope tag, and a tandem affinity purification (TAP tag. This construct also contains selectable antibiotic resistance markers for both S. vortens and E. coli. Results Stable transformants of S. vortens grew relatively rapidly (within 7 days after electroporation and were maintained under puromycin selection for over 6 months. We expressed the enhanced GFP variant, eGFP, under transcriptional control of the S. vortens histone H3 promoter, and visually confirmed diffuse GFP expression in over 50% of transformants. Next, we generated a histone H3::GFP fusion using the S. vortens conventional histone H3 gene and its native promoter. This construct was also highly expressed in the majority of S. vortens transformants, in which the H3::GFP fusion localized to the chromatin in both nuclei. Finally, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the episomal plasmid to show that the transformed plasmid localized to only one nucleus/cell and was present at roughly 10–20 copies per nucleus. Because S. vortens grows to high densities in laboratory culture, it is a feasible diplomonad from which to purify native protein complexes. Thus, we also included a TAP tag in the plasmid constructs to permit future tagging and subsequent purification

  9. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-04-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry for HATS-31 through HATS-35 (de Val-Borro+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Bakos, G. A.; Brahm, R.; Hartman, J. D.; Espinoza, N.; Penev, K.; Ciceri, S.; Jordan, A.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Zhou, G.; Rabus, M.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Tan, T. G.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Bailey, J.; Suc, V.; Durkan, S.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2017-05-01

    The HATSouth survey is a global network of homogeneous, completely automated wide-field telescopes located at three sites in the Southern Hemisphere: HS-1 and -2 are located at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile, HS-3 and -4 are located at the High Energy Stereoscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site in Namibia, and HS-5 and -6 are located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. Observations are performed using a Sloan-r filter with four-minute exposures. The HATSouth network was commissioned in 2009 and since then has proved to be a robust system for the monitoring of time-variable phenomena. Each HATSouth unit consists of four Takahashi E180 astrographs with an aperture of 18cm and an f/2.8 focal ratio on a common mount, equipped with Apogee 4096*4096 U16M ALTA cameras. HATS-31 was observed with the HS-1.4/G565 on 2012 Dec-2013 Jun, with the HS-3.4/G565 on 2012 Dec-2013 Jul, and with the HS-5.4/G565 on 2012 Dec-2013 Jul. HATS-32 was observed with the HS-2.3/G586 on 2010 Aug-2011 Nov, with the HS-4.3/G586 on 2010 Aug-2011 Nov, and with the HS-6.3/G586 on 2010 Aug-2011 Nov. HATS-33 was observed with the HS-1.4/G747 on 2013 Mar-2013 Oct, with the HS-2.4/G747 on 2013 Sep-2013 Oct, with the HS-3.4/G747 on 2013 Apr-2013 Nov, with the HS-4.4/G747 on 2013 Sep-2013 Nov, with the HS-5.4/G747 on 2013 Mar-2013 Nov, and with the HS-6.4/G747 on 2013 Sep-2013 Nov. HATS-34 was observed with the HS-2.4/G754 on 2012 Sep-2012 Dec, with the HS-4.4/G754 on 2012 Sep-2013 Jan, and with the HS-6.4/G754 on 2012 Sep-2012 Dec. HATS-35 was observed with the HS-2.4/G778 on 2011 May-2012 Nov, with the HS-4.4/G778 on 2011 Jul-2012 Nov, with the HS-6.4/G778 on 2011 Apr-2012 Oct. The egress of HATS-31b was observed on 2015 February 28 and 2015 April 02 with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) 1m+Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) telescope network and the Swope 1m telescopes, respectively. Additionally, an almost full transit of HATS-31b was observed with LCOGT 1

  11. Barriers for Deriving Transgene-Free Pig iPS Cells with Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuguang; Feng, Tao; Yu, Dawei; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zou, Huiying; Ma, Shuangyu; Feng, Chong; Huang, Yongye; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Dengke; Li, Ning; Wu, Sen

    2015-11-01

    To date no authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) line or germline-competent-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line has been established for large animals. Despite this fact, there is an impression in the field that large animal ESCs or iPSCs are as good as mouse counterparts. Clarification of this issue is important for a healthy advancement of the stem cell field. Elucidation of the causes of this failure in obtaining high quality iPSCs/ESCs may offer essential clues for eventual establishment of authentic ESCs for large animals including humans. To this end, we first generated porcine iPSCs using nonintegrating replicating episomal plasmids. Although these porcine iPSCs met most pluripotency criteria, they could neither generate cloned piglets through nuclear transfer, nor contribute to later stage chimeras through morula injections or aggregations. We found that the reprogramming genes in iPSCs could not be removed even under negative selection, indicating they are required to maintain self-renewal. The persistent expression of these genes in porcine iPSCs in turn caused differentiation defects in vivo. Therefore, incomplete reprogramming manifested by a reliance on sustained expression of exogenous-reprogramming factors appears to be the main reason for the inability of porcine iPSCs to form iPSC-derived piglets. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a minigene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ≃32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ≃40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH.

  13. Vector Boson + Jets with BlackHat and SHERPA

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C F; Dixon, L J; Cordero Febres, F; Forde, D; Gleisberg, T; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D

    2010-01-01

    We review recent NLO QCD results for W,Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computed using BlackHat and SHERPA. We also include some new results for Z + 3-jet production at the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions -- including dipole-subtraction terms -- to the p_T distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.

  14. Shear buckling analysis of a hat-stiffened panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1994-01-01

    A buckling analysis was performed on a hat-stiffened panel subjected to shear loading. Both local buckling and global buckling were analyzed. The global shear buckling load was found to be several times higher than the local shear buckling load. The classical shear buckling theory for a flat plate was found to be useful in predicting the local shear buckling load of the hat-stiffened panel, and the predicted local shear buckling loads thus obtained compare favorably with the results of finite element analysis.

  15. pEPito: a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogris Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 depends on a transcription unit starting from the constitutively expressed Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-IEP and directed into a 2000 bp long matrix attachment region sequence (MARS derived from the human β-interferon gene. The original pEPI-1 vector contains two mammalian transcription units and a total of 305 CpG islands, which are located predominantly within the vector elements necessary for bacterial propagation and known to be counterproductive for persistent long-term transgene expression. Results Here, we report the development of a novel vector pEPito, which is derived from the pEPI-1 plasmid replicon but has considerably improved efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The pEPito vector is significantly reduced in size, contains only one transcription unit and 60% less CpG motives in comparison to pEPI-1. It exhibits major advantages compared to the original pEPI-1 plasmid, including higher transgene expression levels and increased colony-forming efficiencies in vitro, as well as more persistent transgene expression profiles in vivo. The performance of pEPito-based vectors was further improved by replacing the CMV-IEP with the human CMV enhancer/human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (hCMV/EF1P element that is known to be less affected by epigenetic silencing events. Conclusions The novel vector pEPito can be considered suitable as an improved vector for biotechnological applications in vitro and for non-viral gene delivery in vivo.

  16. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The test sequence was to measure electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case when a simulated lightning discharge strikes an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was conducted between 21 June and 17 July 1990. Thirty-six high rate-of-rise Marx generator discharges and eight high current bank discharges were injected onto three different test article configurations. Attach points included three locations on the top hat cover simulator and two locations on the mounting bolts. Top hat cover simulator and mounting bolt damage and grain cover damage was observed. Overall electric field levels were well below 30 kilowatts/meter. Electric field levels ranged from 184.7 to 345.9 volts/meter and magnetic field levels were calculated from 6.921 to 39.73 amperes/meter. It is recommended that the redesigned solid rocket motor top hat cover be used in Configuration 1 or Configuration 2 as an interim lightning protection device until a lightweight cover can be designed.

  17. Effectiveness Of Six Thinking Hats Training In Improving The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Six Thinking Hats Training in improving the psychological well- being of prisoners. The study consisted of 24 convicted prisoners whose ages ranged from 19-60 years with a mean of 22.50 years. A 2x2 experimental group design was adopted, and subjects were randomly ...

  18. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  19. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36...

  20. The long duration flight of the TopHat experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Aguirre, J.; Bezaire, J.

    2003-01-01

    The TopHat instrument was designed to operate on the top of a high altitude balloon. From this location, the experiment could efficiently observe using a clean beam with extremely low contamination from the far side lobes of the instrument beam. The experiment was designed to scan a large portion...

  1. FACTORS & ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIX THINKING HATS TECHNIQUE USING ABCD FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. P. S. Aithal; V. T. Shailashree; Dr. P. M. Suresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    De Bono's Six Thinking Hats technique suggests different types of thinking corresponding to six thinking roles for the analyst, associated with hats of six different colors. The technique correlates different thinking styles used in a systematic problem solving procedure with different coloured hats. Alternately, by conceptualizing each type of hat, the person focuses on the style of thinking associated with each colour so that the problem can be analysed from different angles and frame of re...

  2. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Krebs, Carmen; Diez, Mercedes; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT), in a B. vulgaris BAC library as well as in whole genome sequencing-derived data sets. Additionally, 116 complete and 497 truncated non-autonomous BvhAT derivatives lacking the transposase gene were in silico-detected. The 116 complete derivatives were subdivided into four BvhATpin groups each characterized by a distinct terminal inverted repeat motif. Both BvhAT and BvhATpin transposons are specific for species of the genus Beta and closely related species, showing a localization on B. vulgaris chromosomes predominantely in euchromatic regions. The lack of any BvhAT transposase function together with the high degree of degeneration observed for the BvhAT and the BvhATpin genomic fraction contrasts with the abundance and activity of autonomous and non-autonomous hAT transposons revealed in other plant species. This indicates a possible genus-specific structural and functional repression of the hAT transposon superfamily during Beta diversification and evolution.

  3. White Hats Chasing Black Hats: Careers in IT and the Skills Required to Get There. Advisory from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Eric; Lawrence, Cameron; Clouse, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the exciting world in which "white hat crackers" operate and to suggest topics that can help prepare students to enter this high-demand field. While currently there is extraordinary demand for graduates to fill these positions that have relatively high starting salaries, employers find it difficult…

  4. Structural and Functional Basis for an EBNA1 Hexameric Ring in Epstein-Barr Virus Episome Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakyne, Julianna S; Malecka, Kimberly A; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a stable latent infection that can persist for the life of the host. EBNA1 is required for the replication, maintenance, and segregation of the latent episome, but the structural features of EBNA1 that confer each of these functions are not completely understood. Here, we have solved the X-ray crystal structure of an EBNA1 DNA-binding domain (DBD) and discovered a novel hexameric ring oligomeric form. The oligomeric interface pivoted around residue T585 as a joint that links and stabilizes higher-order EBNA1 complexes. Substitution mutations around the interface destabilized higher-order complex formation and altered the cooperative DNA-binding properties of EBNA1. Mutations had both positive and negative effects on EBNA1-dependent DNA replication and episome maintenance with OriP. We found that one naturally occurring polymorphism in the oligomer interface (T585P) had greater cooperative DNA binding in vitro , minor defects in DNA replication, and pronounced defects in episome maintenance. The T585P mutant was compromised for binding to OriP in vivo as well as for assembling the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2) and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at OriP. The T585P mutant was also compromised for forming stable subnuclear foci in living cells. These findings reveal a novel oligomeric structure of EBNA1 with an interface subject to naturally occurring polymorphisms that modulate EBNA1 functional properties. We propose that EBNA1 dimers can assemble into higher-order oligomeric structures important for diverse functions of EBNA1. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is a human gammaherpesvirus that is causally associated with various cancers. Carcinogenic properties are linked to the ability of the virus to persist in the latent form for the lifetime of the host. EBNA1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is consistently expressed in EBV tumors and is the only viral protein required to maintain the viral

  5. Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ equation for non-relativistic sources derived from Einstein's inertial motion and the Newtonian law for relative acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    With Einstein's inertial motion (free-falling and non-rotating relative to gyroscopes), geodesics for non-relativistic particles can intersect repeatedly, allowing one to compute the space-time curvature $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ exactly. Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ for strong gravitational fields and for relativistic source-matter is identical with the Newtonian expression for the relative radial acceleration of neighboring free-falling test-particles, spherically averaged.--- Einstein's field equations follow from Newtonian experiments, local Lorentz-covariance, and energy-momentum conservation combined with the Bianchi identity.

  6. Mexican Hat Wavelet Kernel ELM for Multiclass Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Song, Yi-Fan; Ma, Tian-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) is a novel feedforward neural network, which is widely used in classification problems. To some extent, it solves the existing problems of the invalid nodes and the large computational complexity in ELM. However, the traditional KELM classifier usually has a low test accuracy when it faces multiclass classification problems. In order to solve the above problem, a new classifier, Mexican Hat wavelet KELM classifier, is proposed in this paper. The proposed classifier successfully improves the training accuracy and reduces the training time in the multiclass classification problems. Moreover, the validity of the Mexican Hat wavelet as a kernel function of ELM is rigorously proved. Experimental results on different data sets show that the performance of the proposed classifier is significantly superior to the compared classifiers.

  7. Mexican Hat Wavelet Kernel ELM for Multiclass Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM is a novel feedforward neural network, which is widely used in classification problems. To some extent, it solves the existing problems of the invalid nodes and the large computational complexity in ELM. However, the traditional KELM classifier usually has a low test accuracy when it faces multiclass classification problems. In order to solve the above problem, a new classifier, Mexican Hat wavelet KELM classifier, is proposed in this paper. The proposed classifier successfully improves the training accuracy and reduces the training time in the multiclass classification problems. Moreover, the validity of the Mexican Hat wavelet as a kernel function of ELM is rigorously proved. Experimental results on different data sets show that the performance of the proposed classifier is significantly superior to the compared classifiers.

  8. RELATIVE PHOTOMETRY OF HAT-P-1b OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bakos, Gaspar A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: bbeky@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of two occultations of the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-1b. By measuring the planet to star flux ratio near opposition, we constrain the geometric albedo of the planet, which is strongly linked to its atmospheric temperature gradient. An advantage of HAT-P-1 as a target is its binary companion ADS 16402 A, which provides an excellent photometric reference, simplifying the usual steps in removing instrumental artifacts from HST time-series photometry. We find that without this reference star, we would need to detrend the lightcurve with the time of the exposures as well as the first three powers of HST orbital phase, and this would introduce a strong bias in the results for the albedo. However, with this reference star, we only need to detrend the data with the time of the exposures to achieve the same per-point scatter, therefore we can avoid most of the bias associated with detrending. Our final result is a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.64 for the geometric albedo of HAT-P-1b between 577 and 947 nm.

  9. Earthquake Hazard and Segmented Fault Evolution, Hat Creek Fault, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, M. W.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Precise insight into surface rupture and the evolution and mechanical interaction of segmented normal fault systems is critical for assessing the potential seismic hazard. The Hat Creek fault is a ~35 km long, NNW trending segmented normal fault system located on the western boundary of the Modoc Plateau and within the extending backarc basin of the Cascadia subduction zone in northern California. The Hat Creek fault has a prominent surface rupture showing evidence of multiple events in the past 15 ka, although there have been no historic earthquakes. In response to interactions with volcanic activity, the fault system has progressively migrated several km westward, causing older scarps to become seemingly inactive, and producing three distinct, semi-parallel scarps with different ages. The oldest scarp, designated the “Rim”, is the farthest west and has up to 352 m of throw. The relatively younger “Pali” scarp has up to 174 m of throw. The young “Active” scarp has a maximum throw of 65 m in the 24±6 ka Hat Creek basalt, with 20 m of throw in ~15 ka glacial gravels (i.e., a Holocene slip rate of ~1.3 mm/yr). Changes in the geometry and kinematics of the separate scarps during the faulting history imply the orientation of the stress field has rotated clockwise, now inducing oblique right-lateral motion. Previous studies suggested that the Active scarp consists of 7 left-stepping segments with a cumulative length of 23.5 km. We advocate that the Active scarp is actually composed of 8 or 9 segments and extends 4 km longer than previous estimates. This addition to the active portion of the fault is based on detailed mapping of a young surface rupture in the northern portion of the fault system. This ~30 m high young scarp offsets lavas that erupted from Cinder Butte, a low shield volcano, but has a similar geometry and properties as the Active scarp in the Hat Creek basalt. At its northern end, the Active scarp terminates at Cinder Butte. Our mapping

  10. Acquired vorinostat resistance shows partial cross-resistance to 'second-generation' HDAC inhibitors and correlates with loss of histone acetylation and apoptosis but not with altered HDAC and HAT activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Dedes, Ioannis; Imesch, Patrick; von Bueren, André O; Fink, Daniel; Fedier, André

    2009-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), valproic acid, romidepsin (FK-228), and LBH589 comprise a relatively new class of potent anticancer agents. This study provides evidence for the potential of vorinostat to cause acquisition of multidrug resistance protein-independent resistance in HCT116 colon tumor cells. This acquired resistance is moderate (two-fold to three-fold), is nonreversible, and correlates with the loss of responses typically seen with HDAC inhibitors, that is the loss of acetylation of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, the loss of the G2/M checkpoint activation, and the loss of caspase 3-dependent and caspase 7-dependent apoptosis. This acquired resistance also associates with cross-resistance to the hydroxamate-class (LBH589 and JNJ26481585) and to the aliphatic acid-class (valproic acid) HDAC inhibitors but not to the benzamide-class (MGCD0103) and the cyclic peptide-class (romidepsin) HDAC inhibitors. The acquired HDAC inhibitor resistance described hereis not a result of altered HDAC and histone acetyltransferase activities and differs from that previously reported for romidepsin.

  11. The acetyltransferase HAT1 moderates the NF-κB response by regulating the transcription factor PLZF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Anthony J; Suliman, Bandar A; Yu, Liang; Yuan, Xiangliang; Wang, Die; Irving, Aaron T; Sarvestani, Soroush T; Banerjee, Ashish; Mansell, Ashley S; Liu, Jun-Ping; Gerondakis, Steve; Williams, Bryan R G; Xu, Dakang

    2015-04-13

    To date, the activities of protein kinases have formed the core of our understanding of cell signal transduction. Comprehension of the extent of protein acetylation has raised expectations that this alternate post-transcriptional modification will be shown to rival phosphorylation in its importance in mediating cellular responses. However, limited instances have been identified. Here we show that signalling from Toll-like or TNF-α receptors triggers the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2) to activate histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), which then acetylates the transcriptional regulator PLZF. Acetylation of PLZF promotes the assembly of a repressor complex incorporating HDAC3 and the NF-κB p50 subunit that limits the NF-κB response. Accordingly, diminishing the activity of CaMK2, the expression levels of PLZF or HAT1, or mutating key residues that are covalently modified in PLZF and HAT1, curtails control of the production of inflammatory cytokines. These results identify a central role for acetylation in controlling the inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional programme.

  12. Chameau HAT and DRpd3 HDAC function as antagonistic cofactors of JNK/AP-1-dependent transcription during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Benoit; Sagnier, Thierry; Berenger, Hélène; Bohmann, Dirk; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine

    2006-01-01

    Gene regulation by AP-1 transcription factors in response to Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling controls essential cellular processes during development and in pathological situations. Here, we report genetic and molecular evidence that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Chameau and the histone deacetylase DRpd3 act as antagonistic cofactors of DJun and DFos to modulate JNK-dependent transcription during thorax metamorphosis and JNK-induced apoptosis in Drosophila. We demonstrate in cultured cells that DFos phosphorylation mediated by JNK signaling plays a central role in coordinating the dynamics of Chameau and DRpd3 recruitment and function at AP-1-responsive promoters. Activating the pathway stimulates the HAT function of Chameau, promoting histone H4 acetylation and target gene transcription. Conversely, in response to JNK signaling inactivation, DRpd3 is recruited and suppresses histone acetylation and transcription. This study establishes a direct link among JNK signaling, DFos phosphorylation, chromatin modification, and AP-1-dependent transcription and its importance in a developing organism.

  13. A HAT for sleep?: epigenetic regulation of sleep by Tip60 in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooznia, Sheila K; Elefant, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Unfortunately, how AD is mechanistically linked with interference of the body's natural sleep rhythms remains unclear. Our recent findings provide insight into this question by demonstrating that sleep disruption associated with AD is driven by epigenetic changes mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Tip60. In this study, we show that Tip60 functionally interacts with the AD associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) to regulate axonal growth of Drosophila small ventrolateral neuronal (sLNv) pacemaker cells, and their production of neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) that stabilizes appropriate sleep-wake patterns in the fly. Loss of Tip60 HAT activity under APP neurodegenerative conditions causes decreased PDF production, retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for PDF release and disruption of sleep-wake cycles in these flies. Remarkably, excess Tip60 in conjunction with APP fully rescues these sleep-wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for Tip60 in these processes. Our studies highlight the importance of epigenetic based mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in neurodegenerative diseases like AD.

  14. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  15. The functional role of S/MARs in episomal vectors as defined by the stress-induced destabilization profile of the vector sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Aristeidis; Stavrou, Eleana F; Zarkadis, Ioannis; Zoumbos, Nicholas; Thrasher, Adrian J; Athanassiadou, Aglaia

    2009-04-17

    The scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) are chromosomal elements that participate in the formation of chromatin domains and have origin of replication support functions. Because of all these functions, in recent years, they have been used as part of episomal vectors for gene transfer. The S/MAR of the human beta-interferon gene has been shown to support efficient episome retention and transgene expression in various mammalian cells. In Jurkat and other cells, DNA plasmid vectors containing Epstein-Barr virus origin of replication (EBV OriP) and the EBV nuclear antigen-1 gene mediate prolonged episome retention in the host cell nucleus, which, however, diminishes over time. In order to enhance retention, we combined this system with an S/MAR element. Unexpectedly, this completely eliminated the capacity of episomes to replicate. Calculation of the stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization profile of the vectors suggested that the S/MAR element had created an increase in molecular stability at the OriP site that may have disturbed replicative potential. In contrast, introduction of an alternative initiation of replication region from the beta-globin gene locus, instead of EBV OriP and the EBV nuclear antigen-1 gene, restored replicative capacity and enhanced episome retention mediated by the S/MAR. These effects were associated with a destabilization profile at the initiation of replication region. These data demonstrate a correlation between S/MAR-mediated vector retention and the presence of an unstable duplex at a replication origin, in this particular setting. We consider that the calculation of stress-induced duplex destabilization may be an informative first step in the design of units that replicate extrachromosomally, particularly as the latter present a safer and, therefore, attractive alternative to integrating viral vectors for gene therapy applications.

  16. Tectonic Geomorphology and Volcano-Tectonic Interaction in the Eastern Boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben), California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguican, E. M. R.; Bursik, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben), California, USA is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor with spectacular, high, steep scarps in a bedrock of late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary deposits. The morphology of the graben is a result of the plate motions associated with multiple tectonic provinces, faulting, and recurring volcanic activity from more than 500 vents, over the past 7 my. The graben is at the boundary between two distinct geologic and geomorphic areas -- the Cascade Range on the west and the Modoc Plateau on the east -- between Mt. Shasta and Medicine Lake Highlands volcano, and Lassen Volcanic Center on the north and south, respectively. This study describes the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, to understand the volcano-tectonic and geomorphology relationships in the Hat Creek Graben. We interpret topographic models generated from satellite images to create a database of volcanic centers and structures, and analyze the spatial distribution of the volcanic centers in the Hat Creek Graben. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis reveals a clustered distribution of volcanic centers, implying continuous or recurrent activity of magma sources as it propagates to the surface. Volcanic centers in the Hat Creek Graben have multiple preferred alignments, typical for extensional tectonic environments because of competing regional and local stress field influences and the presence of pre-existing, near-surface fractures. Most small stratovolcanoes ("lava cones") on the west are influenced by normal regional stress, and have crater amphitheater openings perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress (σHmax), while those on the east, in a transcurrent regional stress regime, are at an acute angle. These results can be used as an indicator of the degree of impingement of the Walker Lane shear zone on the Cascades region.

  17. Slip History and Evolution of the Hat Creek Fault, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. L.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Normal faults commonly exhibit unique surface features in basalt such as vertical scarps and fault-trace monoclines that provide clues to the fault evolution. The Hat Creek fault, 25 km north of Lassen volcano in northern California, is a segmented fault system within Pleistocene and younger basalts. The fault is located along the western boundary of the Modoc plateau in the extended backarc of the Cascades. The fault geometry tells of a varied extensional history that likely reflects a complex interplay between tectonic and magmatic influences. In response, the northern portion of the fault system migrated progressively westward, abandoning older scarps in its wake, whereas the southern portion continues to utilize Pleistocene slip surfaces. This spatial evolution has created three distinct scarps. From oldest (easternmost) to youngest (westernmost), they are informally identified as: the rim (max. throw of 352 m), the pali (max. throw of 174 m), and the active scarp (max. throw of 65 m). The rim is oriented N-S, consistent with the regional E-W extension direction, and consists of 7 predominantly right-stepping segments (NNW oriented) that are physically linked through lower ramp breaches. This geometry implies a clockwise rotation of the stress field after the segments developed, with linkage driven by right-lateral oblique motion. Throw profiles along the rim illustrate mechanical interactions and partitioning of displacement between adjacent segments. The pali is a relatively younger fault plane located up to 3.3 km west of the northern portion of the rim. The pali is oriented NW-SE and consists of 5 left-stepping segments that are physically connected through upper ramp breaches, also consistent with right-lateral oblique motion. The pali likely nucleated along its central segment, where throw is maximized, in response to a magmatic perturbation of the stress field (causing a local NE-SW extension), possibly related to dike injection that culminated in the

  18. Kepler and Ground-Based Transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro V.; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W.; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Haase, Plynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp = 4.31 R xor 0.06 R xor and Rs = 0.683 R solar mass 0.009 R solar mass, both about 3 sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases 0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12 deg 5 deg to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  19. Home Automated Telemanagement (HAT System to Facilitate Self-Care of Patients with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful patient self-management requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes regular patient assessment, disease-specific education, control of medication adherence, implementation of health behavior change models and social support. Existing systems for computer-assisted disease management do not provide this multidisciplinary patient support and do not address treatment compliance issues. We developed the Home Automated Telemanagement (HAT system for patients with different chronic health conditions to facilitate their self-care. The HAT system consists of a home unit, HAT server, and clinician units. Patients at home use a palmtop or a laptop connected with a disease monitor on a regular basis. Each HAT session consists of self-testing, feedback, and educational components. The self-reported symptom data and objective results obtained from disease-specific sensors are automatically sent from patient homes to the HAT server in the hospital. Any web-enabled device can serve as a clinician unit to review patient results. The HAT system monitors self-testing results and patient compliance. The HAT system has been implemented and tested in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy, patients with asthma, COPD and other health conditions. Evaluation results indicated high level of acceptance of the HAT system by the patients and that the system has a positive impact on main clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with medical care.

  20. Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) a decade later : A brief update on science and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Blanken, Peter; Haasen, Christian; Rehm, Juergen; Schechter, Martin T.; Strang, John; van den Brink, Wim

    Since the initial Swiss heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) study conducted in the mid-1990s, several other jurisdictions in Europe and North America have implemented HAT trials. All of these studies embrace the same goal-investigating the utility of medical heroin prescribing for problematic opioid

  1. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  2. HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Brahm, R.; Mancini, L.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Jordán, A.; Rabus, M.; Espinoza, N.; Csubry, Z.; Howard, A. W.; Fulton, B. J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Isaacson, H.; Noyes, R. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Suc, V.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth network of HATS-7b, a transiting Super-Neptune with a mass of 0.120 ± 0.012 {M}{{J}}, a radius of {0.563}-0.034+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and an orbital period of 3.1853 days. The host star is a moderately bright (V=13.340\\+/- 0.010 mag, {K}S=10.976\\+/- 0.026 mag) K dwarf star with a mass of 0.849 ± 0.027 {M}⊙ , a radius of {0.815}-0.035+0.049 {R}⊙ , and a metallicity of [{Fe}/{{H}}] =+0.250\\+/- 0.080. The star is photometrically quiet to within the precision of the HATSouth measurements, has low RV jitter, and shows no evidence for chromospheric activity in its spectrum. HATS-7b is the second smallest radius planet discovered by a wide-field ground-based transit survey, and one of only a handful of Neptune-size planets with mass and radius determined to 10% precision. Theoretical modeling of HATS-7b yields a hydrogen-helium fraction of 18 ± 4% (rock-iron core and H2-He envelope), or 9 ± 4% (ice core and H2-He envelope), i.e., it has a composition broadly similar to that of Uranus and Neptune, and very different from that of Saturn, which has 75% of its mass in H2-He. Based on a sample of transiting exoplanets with accurately (Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the 10 m Keck-I telescope at Mauna Kea, the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper uses observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  3. Supernova 1987 A - The nebular loops and 'Napoleon's Hat'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wampler, E. J.

    1992-08-01

    We discuss observations of the circumstellar environment of SN 1987A that were obtained between August 1989 and January 1992 at ESO's New Technology Telescope. We find that the angular dimensions of the two nebular loops (Wampler et al., 1990) have not changed during this period. Therefore these loops are confined to a small region. The expansion velocity of the loops is less than about 40 km/s if the loops expanded with a uniform velocity from a common origin. This structure and velocity is hard to reproduce with existing wind interaction models. Our observations further suggest that the Napoleon's Hat nebula does not originate from the general background LMC dust, but from a bow shock dust whose origins are closely related to the stellar winds from the progenitor star of SN 1987A.

  4. "Top hat"-shaped penetrating keratoplasty using the femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Roger F; Ignacio, Teresa S; Sarayba, Melvin A

    2007-04-01

    To determine the feasibility of using a modified femtosecond laser to perform penetrating corneal resections. Controlled laboratory study. Fourteen corneoscleral rims were mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Eight underwent traditional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and six underwent "top hat"-shaped PKP using a femtosecond laser. Wound leakage pressure and induced astigmatism were compared between the two groups. Deep corneal resection with the femtosecond laser was feasible. Wound leakage occurred at 38 +/- 11 mm Hg in the traditional PKP eyes and at 240 +/- 69 mm Hg in the laser-shaped PKP groups. Initial induced astigmatism was 3.76 +/- 0.82 diopters and 3.46 +/- 1.36 diopters in the traditional and shaped PKP groups, respectively. Shaped PKP using the femtosecond laser is feasible and provides superior incision integrity compared to traditional PKP. Initial induced astigmatism is dominated by suture effects.

  5. The man who mistook his wife for a hat

    CERN Document Server

    Sacks, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Oliver Sacks’s The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat tells the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations: patients who have lost their memories and with them the greater part of their pasts; who are no longer able to recognize people and common objects; who are stricken with violent tics and grimaces or who shout involuntary obscenities; whose limbs have become alien; who have been dismissed as retarded yet are gifted with uncanny artistic or mathematical talents. If inconceivably strange, these brilliant tales remain, in Dr. Sacks’s splendid and sympathetic telling, deeply human. They are studies of life struggling against incredible adversity, and they enable us to enter the world of the neurologically impaired, to imagine with our hearts what it must be to live and feel as they do. A great healer, Sacks never loses sight of medicine’s ultimate responsibility: “the suffering, afflicted, fighting human subject.”

  6. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  8. A comparison of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, DNA fragments and AAV-1 for targeted episomal and chromosomal gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for gene therapy of inherited diseases consist in adding functional copies of the gene that is defective. An attractive alternative to these approaches would be to correct the endogenous mutated gene in the affected individual. This study presents a quantitative comparison of the repair efficiency using different forms of donor nucleic acids, including synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, double stranded DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 200 to 2200 bp and sequences carried by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-1. Evaluation of each gene repair strategy was carried out using two different reporter systems, a mutated eGFP gene or a dual construct with a functional eGFP and an inactive luciferase gene, in several different cell systems. Gene targeting events were scored either following transient co-transfection of reporter plasmids and donor DNAs, or in a system where a reporter construct was stably integrated into the chromosome. Results In both episomal and chromosomal assays, DNA fragments were more efficient at gene repair than oligonucleotides or rAAV-1. Furthermore, the gene targeting frequency could be significantly increased by using DNA repair stimulating drugs such as doxorubicin and phleomycin. Conclusion Our results show that it is possible to obtain repair frequencies of 1% of the transfected cell population under optimized transfection protocols when cells were pretreated with phleomycin using rAAV-1 and dsDNA fragments.

  9. An old HAT in human p300/CBP and yeast Rtt109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, J Fernando

    2008-06-15

    The crystal structure of the human p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain reveals a familiar alpha + beta fold with unique structural elaborations that merit its classification as a third divergent HAT branch alongside the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) and MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60) families. Two key departures from the core GNAT/MYST HAT fold--a long unstructured chain (or "flap") overlaying the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding groove, and a four-alpha-helix "tower" excursion from the main beta-sheet--critically contribute to the recognition and presumptive catalytic machinery of p300/CBP HAT enzymes. Kinetic and mutant analysis of this enlarged residue constellation in p300 (which is distinct from functional fingerprints drawn from GNAT or MYST complexes) led Liu et al., to suggest that p300/CBP works with an unorthodox "hit and run" mechanism that enlists Tyr1467 as the critical catalytic residue. In order to extend the evolutionary testbed for this variant HAT mechanism beyond the thin roll of p300/CBP orthologs, I propose that Rtt109, a novel yeast HAT that has so far eluded classification, is the prototype of a fungal clan of p300-related enzymes that preserve the embellished HAT fold, but further diversify its catalytic options.

  10. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduce Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. This paper applies a methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project.

  11. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  12. Maximizing prosthetic valve size with the Top Hat supra-annular aortic valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jan; Geha, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    -annular mechanical prostheses (CarboMedics, Inc., Arvada, CO, USA) at two institutions. Size frequency distribution was compared to published series, and to the manufacturer's US registry. The ventriculoaortic junction (VAJ) size was available in 234 patients, and compared to the size of the Top Hat valve implanted......BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The CarboMedics Top Hat supra-annular aortic valve allows a one-size (and often two-size) increase over the standard intra-annular valve. This advantage should minimize the risk of patient-prosthesis mismatch, where the effective prosthetic valve orifice area...... is less than that of a normal valve. It is suggested that the ability to implant Top Hat valves having greater size, relative to standard intra-annular valves, may currently be under-utilized. Further, there has been some concern that Top Hat implantation can cause obstruction of the coronary ostia...

  13. Risk factors associated with early and late HAT after adult liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhao, Ji-Chun; Yan, Lu-Nan; Ma, Yu-Kui; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Li, Bo; Wen, Tian-Fu; Wang, Wen-Tao; Xu, Ming-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin

    2014-08-14

    To identify risk factors that might contribute to hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation (LT). The perioperative and follow-up data of a total of 744 liver transplants, performed from February 1999 to July 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. HAT developed in 20 patients (2.7%). HAT was classified as early (occurring in fewer than 30 d post LT) or late (occurring more than 30 d post LT). Early HAT developed in 14 patients (1.9%). Late HAT developed in 6 patients (0.8%). Risk factors associated with HAT were analysed using the χ(2) test for univariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Lack of ABO compatibility, recipient/donor weight ratio ≥ 1.15, complex arterial reconstruction, duration time of hepatic artery anastomosis > 80 min, duration time of operation > 10 h, dual grafts, number of units of blood received intraoperatively ≥ 7, number of units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) received intraoperatively ≥ 6, postoperative blood transfusion and postoperative FFP use were significantly associated with early HAT in the univariate analysis (P hepatic artery anastomosis > 80 min (OR = 5.429), number of units of blood received intraoperatively ≥ 7 (OR = 4.059) and postoperative blood transfusion (OR = 6.898). Graft type (whole/living-donor/split), duration of operation > 10 h, retransplantation, rejection reaction, recipients with diabetes preoperatively and recipients with a high level of blood glucose or diabetes postoperatively were significantly associated with late HAT in the univariate analysis (P 10 h (OR = 6.394), retransplantation (OR = 21.793) and rejection reactions (OR = 16.936). Early detection of these risk factors, strict surveillance protocols by Doppler ultrasound and prophylactic anticoagulation for recipients at risk might be determined prospectively.

  14. Episome-Based Gene Therapy Strategy for Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    roles in invasive and tissue remodeling processes, including angiogenesis and trophoblast implantation (Dano et al.,1985). Plasminogen activator is a...recogni- phic HLA antigens in metastatic breast and colon carci- tion of DNA by oligonucleotide-directed triple helix for- noma. Br J Cancer. 1991;64

  15. HATS-50b through HATS-53b: Four Transiting Hot Jupiters Orbiting G-type Stars Discovered by the HATSouth Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Th.; Mancini, L.; Sarkis, P.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Bhatti, W.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Espinoza, N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H. T.; Jordán, A.; Marcy, G. W.; Penev, K.; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Tan, T. G.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Zhou, G.; Durkan, S.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of four close-in transiting exoplanets (HATS-50b through HATS-53b), discovered using the HATSouth three-continent network of homogeneous and automated telescopes. These new exoplanets belong to the class of hot Jupiters and orbit G-type dwarf stars, with brightness in the range V = 12.5–14.0 mag. While HATS-53 has many physical characteristics similar to the Sun, the other three stars appear to be metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=0.2{--}0.3), larger, and more massive. Three of the new exoplanets, namely HATS-50b, HATS-51b, and HATS-53b, have low density (HATS-50b: 0.39+/- 0.10 {M}{{J}}, 1.130+/- 0.075 {R}{{J}}; HATS-51b: 0.768+/- 0.045 {M}{{J}}, 1.41+/- 0.19 {R}{{J}}; HATS-53b: 0.595+/- 0.089 {M}{{J}}, 1.340+/- 0.056 {R}{{J}}) and similar orbital periods (3.8297 days, 3.3489 days, 3.8538 days, respectively). Instead, HATS-52b is more dense (mass 2.24+/- 0.15 {M}{{J}} and radius 1.382+/- 0.086 {R}{{J}}) and has a shorter orbital period (1.3667 days). It also receives an intensive radiation from its parent star and, consequently, presents a high equilibrium temperature ({T}{eq}=1834+/- 73 K). HATS-50 shows a marginal additional transit feature consistent with an ultra-short-period hot super Neptune (upper mass limit 0.16 {M}{{J}}), which will be able to be confirmed with TESS photometry. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on observations made with the ESO 3.6 m, the NTT, the MPG 2.2 m and Euler 1.2 m Telescopes at the ESO Observatory in

  16. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendices C--E. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    This document provides appendices C, D, and E this Remedial Action Plan (RAP) which is a revision of the original Mexican Hat Remedial Action Plan and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. Appendix C provide the Radiological Support Plan, Appendix D provides the Site Characterization, and Appendix E provides the Water Resources Protection Strategy.

  17. Performance of the SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid test in various diagnostic algorithms for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Lumbala

    Full Text Available We carried out a study to compare the performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of the new SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid diagnostic test (RDT with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Participants were enrolled actively by four mobile teams, and passively at four health facilities in three provinces. Consenting participants were tested concurrently with the RDT and CATT on whole blood. Those found positive by either test were tested with CATT on serial dilutions of plasma, and with a parasitological composite reference standard (CRS. Cases were only the individuals found positive by the CRS, while controls were negative by both CATT and RDT, as well as those that were positive by CATT or RDT, but were negative by the CRS, and had no history of HAT. Over five months, 131 cases and 13,527 controls were enrolled. The sensitivity of the RDT was 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI = 86.1-95.5, which was significantly higher than CATT (sensitivity 69.1%; 95% CI = 60.7-76.4. The sensitivity of CATT on plasma at a dilution of 1:8 was 59.0% (95% CI = 50.2-67.2. The specificity of the RDT was 97.1% (95% CIs = 96.8-97.4 while that of CATT was 98.0% (95% CIs = 97.8, 98.2 and specificities of algorithms involving CATT at 1:8 dilution were 99.6% (95% CI = 99.5-99.7. Reproducibility of results was excellent. We concluded that an algorithm in which the SD BIOLINE® HAT RDT is used for screening is optimal for case detection in both passive and active screening settings. However, the lower specificity of the RDT compared to that of CATT would result in a larger number of false positive individuals undergoing confirmatory testing.

  18. Synchrony, waves and ripple in spatially coupled Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Stewart; Ermentrout, G Bard

    2015-06-01

    Spatiotemporal waves of synchronized activity are known to arise in oscillatory neural networks with lateral inhibitory coupling. How such patterns respond to dynamic changes in coupling strength is largely unexplored. The present study uses analysis and simulation to investigate the evolution of wave patterns when the strength of lateral inhibition is varied dynamically. Neural synchronization was modeled by a spatial ring of Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat lateral coupling. Broad bands of coexisting stable wave solutions were observed at all levels of inhibition. The stability of these waves was formally analyzed in both the infinite ring and the finite ring. The broad range of multi-stability predicted hysteresis in transitions between neighboring wave solutions when inhibition is slowly varied. Numerical simulation confirmed the predicted transitions when inhibition was ramped down from a high initial value. However, non-wave solutions emerged from the uniform solution when inhibition was ramped upward from zero. These solutions correspond to spatially periodic deviations of phase that we call ripple states. Numerical continuation showed that stable ripple states emerge from synchrony via a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation was derived analytically, and its predictions compared against the numerical results. Ripple states were also found to bifurcate from wave solutions, but these were locally unstable. Simulation also confirmed the existence of hysteresis and ripple states in two spatial dimensions. Our findings show that spatial synchronization patterns can remain structurally stable despite substantial changes in network connectivity.

  19. Top Hat HELLISH (Hot electron light emitting and lasing in heterostructures)

    CERN Document Server

    Wah, J Y

    2003-01-01

    Hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor heterostructures (HELLISH) is a longitudinal transport structure comprising of a GaAs Quantum Well within an Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As pn junction. The light emission from the HELLISH device was previously believed to be merely due to hot electron effects. In the current work, we showed, however, that the device can be operated even at low applied electric fields where the hot electron effects are essentially negligible. Thus, a novel model for operation with the new concept of 'quasi-flatband condition' is introduced. In order to investigate new functionalities of the HELLISH devices, a new structure with longer p-channel, nicknamed Top Hat HELLISH (THH), is also fabricated and demonstrated. In terms of the energy band profile, the HELLISH device has a monotonic build-in potential barrier along the heterojunction. The operation is through tilting the bands and hence allowing carrier diffusion into the active region under the quasi-flatband condit...

  20. Half top hat wound configuration for penetrating keratoplasty: 1-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserman, I; Bahar, I; Slomovic, A R; Rootman, D S

    2009-12-01

    To compare the 1-year outcomes after half-top-hat (HTH) penetrating keratoplasty (PK) versus top-hat (TH) PK and regular PK. We reviewed the clinical notes of 87 consecutive patients who had undergone either HTH PK (23 eyes), TH PK (36 eyes) or regular PK (35 eyes) at Toronto Western Hospital between 2002 and 2007. We evaluated best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), topographic and refractive results, high-order ocular aberrations, endothelial cell counts and complication rates. The three groups of patients did not differ significantly in their demographics (age, gender and laterality), donor endothelial cell counts, preoperative visual acuity or intraocular pressure (IOP). At 12 months postoperatively, BCVA was similar in the three groups, as was the mean spherical equivalent and cylinder. The time to sutures removal was significantly shorter in the HTH PK versus regular PK groups (3.8 (1.2) vs 9.7 (1.1) months, pastigmatism treated with relaxing incisions (n = 7 vs n = 2 in HTH PK) and dehiscence of wound incision (n = 2, versus n = 0 in HTH PK). BCVA and refractive results are similar after half-top-hat, top-hat and regular PK. Half-top-hat PK substantially speeds up visual recovery and contributes to significantly higher endothelial cell counts in the grafts 1 year after surgery.

  1. Pope's hat sign: another valuable CT finding of early acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seo-Youn; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Ji Eun; Min, Ji Hye; Moon, Ji Yoon; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-02

    To determine the diagnostic performance of minor computed tomography (CT) findings for acute cholecystitis and demonstrate the incremental benefit of pope's hat sign as an additional minor CT finding in patients suspected to have early acute cholecystitis. Two radiologists reviewed CT scans of 116 patients with early acute cholecystitis and 116 control patients. All cases in the patient group were surgically proven to have acute cholecystitis and preoperative dynamic CT scans. Evaluated CT parameters included major criteria (gallstone, distension of gallbladder (GB) lumen, GB wall edema, pericholecystic fat infiltration, and pericholecystic fluid collection) and minor criteria (GB bed hyperemia, tensile GB fundus sign, hyperdense GB wall sign, increased bile attenuation within GB, and pope's hat sign). In a univariate analysis, among the minor criteria, GB bed hyperemia, tensile GB fundus sign, increased bile attenuation within GB, and pope's hat sign were more frequently observed (P sign, and GB lumen > 3.05 cm were significant findings for differentiating the two groups (P sign exhibited the highest specificity (96.5%) and the combination of all three findings showed the highest sensitivity (94.0%). Pope's hat sign is a new finding that could improve CT diagnostic performance for early acute cholecystitis in patients with RUQ pain in the emergency department. The combination of pope's hat sign with GB bed hyperemia or GB lumen distension > 3.05 cm may be even more helpful in the early stage or in mild forms of acute cholecystitis.

  2. Measurement of nonlinear index by a relay-imaged top-hat Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, T.; Kurnit, N.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physics Div.; Sheik-Bahae, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear index of a number of optical materials of interest for the National Ignition Facility have been performed at 1,064 nm and 355 nm by a modified version of the ``top-hat`` technique and the results compared with the more standard gaussian-beam Z-scan technique. The top-hat technique has the advantages of higher sensitivity and smaller uncertainties introduced by beam-quality considerations. The authors have made what they feel to be an additional improvement by placing the defining aperture for the top hat at the front focal plane of the lens that focuses the beam into the sample and then reimaging the input aperture with a second lens onto a ccd camera. Reimaging eliminates diffraction fringes and provides a stationary image even for a wedged sample; recording the entire image permits minimization of spurious effects such as varying interference fringes.

  3. Half-top-hat keratoplasty is effective method for bullous keratopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate outcomes of the half-top-hat keratoplasty.Methods: the study included 58 eyes that had bullous keratopathy and underwent half-top-hat keratoplasty.Results: 40 (69% patients had clear corneas whole period of observation. Graft rejection occurred in 1 eye. Mean BSCVA was0.47±0.21. Average astigmatism was 5.0±2.1 D. Mean cell endothelial count in 2 years was 2189±399 cell/mm2.Conclusion: Half-top-hat keratoplasty is effective method for bullous keratopathy surgical treatment. the operation is equal pen- etration keratoplasty in refractive results and operation time. But time of rehabilitation is shorter, sealing is better, cell endothelialcount is greater.

  4. Half-top-hat keratoplasty is effective method for bullous keratopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate outcomes of the half-top-hat keratoplasty.Methods: the study included 58 eyes that had bullous keratopathy and underwent half-top-hat keratoplasty.Results: 40 (69% patients had clear corneas whole period of observation. Graft rejection occurred in 1 eye. Mean BSCVA was0.47±0.21. Average astigmatism was 5.0±2.1 D. Mean cell endothelial count in 2 years was 2189±399 cell/mm2.Conclusion: Half-top-hat keratoplasty is effective method for bullous keratopathy surgical treatment. the operation is equal pen- etration keratoplasty in refractive results and operation time. But time of rehabilitation is shorter, sealing is better, cell endothelialcount is greater.

  5. [Remedial action plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah]. Appendix F, Groundwater hydrology calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This document contains the ground water hydrology calculations for the remedial action plan for the codisposal and stabilization of uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. Included are calculations for the following: slug test analyses for monitor wells, analyses of packer tests, hydraulic gradients and ground water velocities, volume of released water, aquifer pumping test analysis, slug test analysis to determine hydraulic conductivity, and gradient calculations.

  6. Virtual Screening of Phytochemicals to Novel Target (HAT) Rtt109 in Pneumocystis Jirovecii using Bioinformatics Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Ramya; Adithavarman, Abhinand Ponneri; Dakshinamoorthi, Anusha; David, Darling Chellathai; Ragunath, Padmavathi Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV and other immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with the currently available antifungals is challenging and associated with considerable adverse effects. There is a need to develop drugs against novel targets with minimal human toxicities. Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) Rtt109 is a potential therapeutic target in Pneumocystis jirovecii species. HAT is linked to transcription and is required to acetylate conserved lysine residues on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to form e-N-acetyl lysine. Therefore, inhibitors of HAT can be useful therapeutic options in Pneumocystis pneumonia. To screen phytochemicals against (HAT) Rtt109 using bioinformatics tool. The tertiary structure of Pneumocystis jirovecii (HAT) Rtt109 was modeled by Homology Modeling. The ideal template for modeling was obtained by performing Psi BLAST of the protein sequence. Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PDB structure 3Q35) was chosen as the template. The target protein was modeled using Swiss Modeler and validated using Ramachandran plot and Errat 2. Comprehensive text mining was performed to identify phytochemical compounds with antipneumonia and fungicidal properties and these compounds were filtered based on Lipinski's Rule of 5. The chosen compounds were subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109 using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.5. Osiris Property Explorer and Open Tox Server were used to predict ADME-T properties of the chosen phytochemicals. Tertiary structure model of HAT Rtt 109 had a ProSA score of -6.57 and Errat 2 score of 87.34. Structure validation analysis by Ramachandran plot for the model revealed 97% of amino acids were in the favoured region. Of all the phytochemicals subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109, baicalin exhibited highest binding affinity towards the

  7. Highly efficient charge generation and electron injection of m-MTDATA/m-MTDATA:HAT-CN/HAT-CN organic heterojunction on ITO cathode for high efficiency inverted white organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Shi, Changsheng; Guo, Qingxun; Chen, Jiangshan; Qiao, Xianfeng; Ma, Dongge; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Bae, Sang Soon

    2017-09-01

    The charge generation and electron injection characteristics of m-MTDATA/m-MTDATA:HAT-CN/HAT-CN organic heterojunction made of 4,4',4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) p-type organic semiconductor and 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) n-type semiconductor were well studied. It was found that m-MTDATA/m-MTDATA:HAT-CN/HAT-CN organic heterojunction showed better charge generation ability than m-MTDATA/HAT-CN organic heterojuntion, and realized highly efficient electron injection when using it as charge generator on indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode. The investigations of capacitance-frequency and current density-voltage characteristics of the electron-only devices based on m-MTDATA/m-MTDATA:HAT-CN/HAT-CN organic heterojunction demonstrated that the amounts of the injected electrons were dependent on the properties of the used n-doping electron transporting layer (n-ETL). Therefore, by optimization, high efficiency inverted white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with ITO as cathode were successfully fabricated using m-MTDATA/m-MTDATA:HAT-CN/HAT-CN organic heterojunction as charge injector and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) doped bathophenanthroline (BPhen) as n-ETL. The resulting inverted white OLEDs achieved the maximum external quantum efficiency of 12.9%, current efficiency of 42.6 cd/A and power efficiency of 50.5 lm/W, and still remained 12.5%, 41.0 cd/A and 45.0 lm/W at the luminance of 1000 cd/m2, respectively, exhibiting extremely low efficiency roll-off.

  8. Six Thinking Hats and Social Workers' Innovative Competence: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Razaq Olugbenga

    2016-01-01

    Employees, no doubt, are the main force in organizations, and their innovative behaviours are vital for outcome efficacy. Innovative organisations, therefore, need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process of innovation. This study investigated the effect of six thinking hats creativity technique on innovative competence of…

  9. Planet-induced Stellar Pulsations in HAT-P-2's Eccentric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, Julien de [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fuller, Jim [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Antoci, Victoria [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fulton, Benjamin J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shporer, Avi [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91009 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3550 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2A7 (Canada); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Extrasolar planets on eccentric short-period orbits provide a laboratory in which to study radiative and tidal interactions between a planet and its host star under extreme forcing conditions. Studying such systems probes how the planet’s atmosphere redistributes the time-varying heat flux from its host and how the host star responds to transient tidal distortion. Here, we report the insights into the planet–star interactions in HAT-P-2's eccentric planetary system gained from the analysis of ∼350 hr of 4.5 μ m observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope . The observations show no sign of orbit-to-orbit variability nor of orbital evolution of the eccentric planetary companion, HAT-P-2 b. The extensive coverage allows us to better differentiate instrumental systematics from the transient heating of HAT-P-2 b’s 4.5 μ m photosphere and yields the detection of stellar pulsations with an amplitude of approximately 40 ppm. These pulsation modes correspond to exact harmonics of the planet’s orbital frequency, indicative of a tidal origin. Transient tidal effects can excite pulsation modes in the envelope of a star, but, to date, such pulsations had only been detected in highly eccentric stellar binaries. Current stellar models are unable to reproduce HAT-P-2's pulsations, suggesting that our understanding of the interactions at play in this system is incomplete.

  10. Morphological hat-transform scale spaces and their use in pattern classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    In this paper we present a multi-scale method based on mathematical morphology which can successfully be used in pattern classification tasks. A connected operator similar to the morphological hat-transform is defined, and two scale-space representations are built. The most important features are

  11. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: ebechter@nd.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  12. Visual structure analysis of compound reliefs of milli hats used by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Milli hat is one of the most elaborately hand-woven crafts created by Kurdish women in Makriyan region. They use diverse ways of symmetry to bring graceful and exquisite reliefs into being and present them to their men. The present study aims to collect, identify and visually analyze the compound recurring reliefs on ...

  13. Pengaruh Metode The Six Thinking Hats Dalam Bimbingan Klasikal Untuk Meningkatkan Emotional Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Badrujaman, Aip; Filliani, Retty; Herdiyani, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh metode the six thinking hats dalam bimbingan klasikal untuk meningkatkan emotional literacy peserta didik kelas VII di SMP Dharma Putra Nusantara 86 Jakarta. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimen dengan pretestposttest control group design. Sampel penelitian ini populasinya berjumlah 60 orang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan instrumen yang dikembangkan melalui aspek-aspek emotional literacy yang dikemukakan Claude Steiner...

  14. Top Hat et l’intermédialité de la comédie musicale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The musical comedy Top Hat by Mark Sandrich (1935) was one of the most successful films in United States. While the use of genre conventions and the presence of American social norms undoubtedly contributed to its success, the author of this text shows that the film's media structures also played a

  15. A Study of the Use of the HAT Afrikaanse Skoolwoordeboek by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study of the Use of the HAT Afrikaanse Skoolwoordeboek by Primary School Children. ... The process was undertaken in cooperation with Grade 4 teachers to ensure that a ... Dictionary Functions, School Dictionary, Spelling, Reading, Design-Based Research, Learning Ecology, Semantic Information ... PDF Views.

  16. Near-IR Transmission Spectrum of HAT-P-32b using HST/WFC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, M.; Morello, G.; Tsiaras, A.; Zingales, T.; Tinetti, G.

    2017-07-01

    We report here the analysis of the near-infrared transit spectrum of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32b, which was recorded with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. HAT-P-32b is one of the most inflated exoplanets discovered, making it an excellent candidate for transit spectroscopic measurements. To obtain the transit spectrum, we have adopted different analysis methods, both parametric and non-parametric (Independent Component Analysis, ICA), and compared the results. The final spectra are all consistent within 0.5σ. The uncertainties obtained with ICA are larger than those obtained with the parametric method by a factor of ˜1.6-1.8. This difference is the trade-off for higher objectivity due to the lack of any assumption about the instrument systematics compared to the parametric approach. The ICA error bars are therefore worst-case estimates. To interpret the spectrum of HAT-P-32b we used { T }-REx, our fully Bayesian spectral retrieval code. As for other hot Jupiters, the results are consistent with the presence of water vapor ({{log}{{H}}}2{{O}}=-{3.45}-1.65+1.83), clouds (top pressure between 5.16 and 1.73 bar). Spectroscopic data over a broader wavelength range are needed to de-correlate the mixing ratio of water vapor from clouds and identify other possible molecular species in the atmosphere of HAT-P-32b.

  17. Derivation, Expansion, and Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Non-Integrating Episomal Vectors and a Defined Xenogeneic-free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wentao; He, Yongpei; Xiong, Yongjie; Lu, Hong; Chen, Hong; Hou, Limin; Qiu, Zhandong; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Suming

    2016-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patient-derived somatic cells provides the opportunity for model development in order to study patient-specific disease states with the potential for drug discovery. However, use of lentivirus and exposure of iPSCs to animal-derived products limit their therapeutic utility and affect lineage differentiation and subsequent downstream functionality of iPSC derivatives. Within the context of this study, we describe a simple and practical protocol enabling the efficient reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult fibroblasts into integration-free human iPSCs (hiPSCs) using a combination of episomal plasmids with small molecules (SMs). Using this approach, there was a 10-fold increase in reprogramming efficiency over single plasmid vector-based methods. We obtained approximately 100 iPSCs colonies from 1 × 10(5) human adult dermal fibroblasts (HADFs) and achieved approximately 0.1% reprogramming efficiencies. Concurrently, we developed a highly conducive culture system using xeno-free media and human vitronectin. The resulting hiPSCs were free of DNA integration and had completely lost episomal vectors, maintained long-term self-renewal, featured a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent stem cell markers, and possessed the capability of differentiating into components of all three germ layers in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the integration-free hiPSCs could be differentiated into motor neurons under xeno-free culture conditions. This induction method will promote the derivation of patient-specific integration-free and xeno-free iPSCs and improve the strategy for motor neuron derivation. Our approach provides a useful tool for human disease models, drug screen, and clinical applications.

  18. How a hat may affect 3-month-olds' recognition of a face: an eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Bulf

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that infants' face recognition rests on a robust face representation that is resilient to a variety of facial transformations such as rotations in depth, motion, occlusion or deprivation of inner/outer features. Here, we investigated whether 3-month-old infants' ability to represent the invariant aspects of a face is affected by the presence of an external add-on element, i.e. a hat. Using a visual habituation task, three experiments were carried out in which face recognition was investigated by manipulating the presence/absence of a hat during face encoding (i.e. habituation phase and face recognition (i.e. test phase. An eye-tracker system was used to record the time infants spent looking at face-relevant information compared to the hat. The results showed that infants' face recognition was not affected by the presence of the external element when the type of the hat did not vary between the habituation and test phases, and when both the novel and the familiar face wore the same hat during the test phase (Experiment 1. Infants' ability to recognize the invariant aspects of a face was preserved also when the hat was absent in the habituation phase and the same hat was shown only during the test phase (Experiment 2. Conversely, when the novel face identity competed with a novel hat, the hat triggered the infants' attention, interfering with the recognition process and preventing the infants' preference for the novel face during the test phase (Experiment 3. Findings from the current study shed light on how faces and objects are processed when they are simultaneously presented in the same visual scene, contributing to an understanding of how infants respond to the multiple and composite information available in their surrounding environment.

  19. THE SOCIAL ASPECT OF THE COMPULSORY HAT WEARING (HAT EVOLUTION / ŞAPKA İNKILÂBININ SOSYAL VE EKONOMİK YÖNÜ DESTEKLER VE KÖSTEKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fahri SAKAL

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The hat revolution was one of the most significant acts of Atatürk affecting daily life of the Turkish society. Altough there was no connection with religion, “fes” had been seen by the society as a symbol of being a Muslim. As a result of it, there was some opposition against the compulsory hat wearing.Some opponents were led by political, economic and cultural motives which had not been observed and not taken into account by the administration. As a result, serious revolts broke out and many considerably simple events turned to be rebellion. In addition, the other leading figures of the administration could not carry out similar campaign such as touring the country wearing hat that might have people accepted the hat. If the administration had considered the society as a social existence the reform period could have been much easier for Atatürk

  20. High multiplicity processes at NLO with BlackHat and Sherpa

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J; Hoeche, Stefan; Cordero, Fernando Febres; Ita, Harald; Kosower, David; Maître, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we review recent progress with fixed-order QCD predictions for the production of a vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders, using the programs BlackHat and SHERPA. We review general features of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for the production of a massive vector boson in association with four jets. We also discuss how precise descriptions of vector-boson production can be applied to the determination of backgrounds to new physics signals. Here we focus on data-driven backgrounds to a missing-energy-plus-jets search performed by CMS. Finally, we review recent progress in developing theoretical tools for high-multiplicity loop-computation within the BlackHat-library. In particular, we discuss methods for handling the color degrees of freedom in multi-jet predictions at NLO.

  1. Acoustic, fluorescent diagnosis of malignant lesions using HAT-D01 and ATX-S10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakata, Isao

    1995-03-01

    We have synthesized approximately 700 kinds of porphyrin derivatives and studied their side chain structures and affinities for tumor tissues. On the basis of these studies, a tumor localizing photo-chlorine photosensitizer named ATX-S10 has been synthesized for PDT and fluorescent diagnosis of malignant lesions. A non-photosensitive fluorescent diagnostic agent named HAT-D01 has also been synthesized. Both derivatives have the fluorescence near 680 nm that is far from the auto-fluorescence of biological tissue. For detection of tumor tissue, we have developed a new device that can pick up 670 - 680 nm fluorescence selectively and convert the intensity of fluorescence to the sound. By using this simple new device after ATX- S10, HAT-D01 administration we could detect well the malignant lesions.

  2. Origin of the Napoleon's hat nebula around SN1987A and implications for the progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Fabian, A. C.; Stevens, I. R.

    1991-11-01

    A simple geometrical model for the emission nebula around SN1987A, whose morphology has been likened to Napoleon's hat, is presented. The model consists of a ring and a truncated double cone. When the effects of light travel time are included, the model reproduces the important topological structures of the nebula and makes detailed quantitative predictions for its future appearance. In particular, the hat-shaped northern rim is simply explained as the interaction of the light front with the northern cone. To explain the origin of the double cone, it is argued that the progenitor of SN1987A was in a binary system: its strong wind, colliding with a weaker wind from the companion star, created an asymptotic shock surface that was spread out into the required geometry by the rotation of the binary.

  3. Characterizing Giant Exoplanets through Multiwavelength Transit Observations: HAT-P-8b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Kyla L.; Cole, Jackson Lane; Gardner, Cristilyn N.; Garver, Bethany Ray; Kar, Aman; McGough, Aylin Marie; PeQueen, David Jeffrey; Rivera, Daniel Ivan; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kobulnicky, Henry; Dale, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Discovering and characterizing gas giants is important to the search for other life, as gas giants greatly affect the habitability of a solar system. Transits of exoplanets observed in visual photometric bands have been used to characterize their atmospheres and confirm planet parameters. We observed two primary transits of the hot gas giant HAT-P-8b with the Wyoming Infrared Observatory’s 2.3-meter telescope. Using multi-filter photometry in the g, r, i, and z bands (Sloan filters) we were able to update HAT-P-8b’s planet parameters and constrain characteristics of its atmosphere. Preliminary findings show that there is wavelength dependence in the depth of the transit observations. An infrared spectroscopic follow up of this candidate could yield more details on its atmospheric composition.

  4. Potential ground water resources of Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand by gravity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawutti Lohawijarn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual gravity anomaly with a minimum of about -140 mm s-2 with approximately NS trend and a limited axial length was observed over Hat Yai Basin in Peninsular Thailand. The modeled Hat Yai basin is about 1 km deep at its deepest, 60 km long and 20 km wide. The porosity of basin sediment and the amount of potential ground water reserves within the basin are estimated to be 39% and 121.7±0.8 km3 respectively, assuming full saturation. Within the topmost 80 m of ground where the present extraction is concentrated, the estimated ground water reserve is 12.5±0.5 km3.

  5. The Red Hat Society: Exploring the role of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay Yarnal, Careen

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on play. Yet, the role of play in older adults' lives has received limited attention. Strikingly absent is research on play and older women. Missing from the literature is how older women use play as a liminal context for social interaction and communitas. This is odd because by 2030 one in four American women will be over the age of sixty-five. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the roles of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives. The focus is the Red Hat Society, a social group for women over age 50 that fosters play and fun. Using qualitative interviews with focus groups and participant observation of a regional Red Hat Society event, the study highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of current conceptualizations of play, liminality, and communitas.

  6. Characterizing Giant Exoplanets through Multiwavelength Transit Observations: HAT-P-5 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    PeQueen, David Jeffrey; Cole, Jackson Lane; Gardner, Cristilyn N.; Garver, Bethany Ray; Jarka, Kyla L.; Kar, Aman; McGough, Aylin M.; Rivera, Daniel Ivan; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kobulnicky, Henry; Dale, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    During the summer of 2017, we observed hot Jupiter-type exoplanet transit events using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory’s 2.3 meter telescope. We observed 14 unique exoplanets during transit events; one such target was HAT-P-5 b. In total, we collected 53 usable science images in the Sloan filter set, particularly with the g’, r’, z’, and i’ band wavelength filters. This exoplanet transited approximately 40 minutes earlier than the currently published literature suggests. After reducing the data and running a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we present results describing the planetary radius, semi-major axis, orbital period, and inclination of HAT-P-5 b. Characteristics of Rayleigh scattering are present in the atmosphere of this exoplanet. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST 1560461.

  7. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Takeya Nakagawa; Tsuyoshi Ikehara; Masamichi Doiguchi; Yuko Imamura; Miki Higashi; Mitsuhiro Yoneda; Takashi Ito

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) famil...

  8. HAT-P-68b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Around a K5 Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindor, Bethlee; Hartman, Joel D.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main goals of the astrophysical society has been to detect sources of life outside of Earth. To aid this search, astronomers have spent the last 2 decades focused on the discovery and characterization of exoplanets. The most effective method for doing so has been transit photometry, wherein we measure the brightness of stars over periods of time. These measurements, or light curves, are later analyzed for dips in brightness caused by objects passing in front of the star. However, variations in these time series can also occur due to non-planetary systems and a meticulous process is needed to distinguish the planets from the various false positives that are detected. HATNet is one of many surveys involved in this endeavor, and in this work I analyze HAT-P-68. First, I model the system as a single star with a transiting planet and derive estimates of the stellar and planetary physical parameters. I also model HAT-P-68 as a number of a false positives such as a pair of stars in an eclipsing binary blended with a background star, and a planet-sized star orbiting a Sun-like star. In order to rule out the possibility that HAT-P-68 is a blend, I carried out a statistical blend analysis of the photometric data and find that all blend models tested can be ruled out. Thus, I conclude that HAT-P-68 is a system with a transiting hot jupiter and consider what future observations would be most promising to further characterize the system.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differential photometry of the EB* HATS551-027 (Zhou+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Rabus, M.; Bakos, G. A.; Jordan, A.; Brahm, R.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Mancini, L.; Espinoza, N.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Murphy, S. J.; Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J.; Thompson, I.; Suc, V.; Noyes, R. W.

    2017-11-01

    The eclipses of HATS551-027 were first identified by observations from the HATSouth survey (Bakos et al. 2013PASP..125..154B). HATSouth is a global network of identical, fully robotic telescopes, providing continuous monitoring of selected 128 deg2 fields of the southern sky. A total of 16622 observations of HATS551-027 were obtained from HATSouth units HS-1, HS-2 in Chile, HS-3, HS-4 in Namibia, and HS-6 in Australia from 2009 September to 2010 September. Two secondary eclipses of HATS551-027 were observed by the Merope camera on 2-m Faulkes Telescope South (FTS), at Siding Spring Observatory, on 2012 December 12 and 2013 March 20. A near-complete primary eclipse of HATS551-027 was observed by the SITe#3 camera on the Swope 1 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, on 2013 February 26. (1 data file).

  10. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 2. Appendix A: Resistance measurements. Appendix B: Lightning test data plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Resistance measurements are given in graphical for when a simulated lightning discharge strikes on an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was to measure the electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case.

  11. iHAT: interactive Hierarchical Aggregation Table for Genetic Association Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Julian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the search for single-nucleotide polymorphisms which influence the observable phenotype, genome wide association studies have become an important technique for the identification of associations between genotype and phenotype of a diverse set of sequence-based data. We present a methodology for the visual assessment of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using interactive hierarchical aggregation techniques combined with methods known from traditional sequence browsers and cluster heatmaps. Our tool, the interactive Hierarchical Aggregation Table (iHAT, facilitates the visualization of multiple sequence alignments, associated metadata, and hierarchical clusterings. Different color maps and aggregation strategies as well as filtering options support the user in finding correlations between sequences and metadata. Similar to other visualizations such as parallel coordinates or heatmaps, iHAT relies on the human pattern-recognition ability for spotting patterns that might indicate correlation or anticorrelation. We demonstrate iHAT using artificial and real-world datasets for DNA and protein association studies as well as expression Quantitative Trait Locus data.

  12. Image registration algorithm using Mexican hat function-based operator and grouped feature matching strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jin

    Full Text Available Feature detection and matching are crucial for robust and reliable image registration. Although many methods have been developed, they commonly focus on only one class of image features. The methods that combine two or more classes of features are still novel and significant. In this work, methods for feature detection and matching are proposed. A Mexican hat function-based operator is used for image feature detection, including the local area detection and the feature point detection. For the local area detection, we use the Mexican hat operator for image filtering, and then the zero-crossing points are extracted and merged into the area borders. For the feature point detection, the Mexican hat operator is performed in scale space to get the key points. After the feature detection, an image registration is achieved by using the two classes of image features. The feature points are grouped according to a standardized region that contains correspondence to the local area, precise registration is achieved eventually by the grouped points. An image transformation matrix is estimated by the feature points in a region and then the best one is chosen through competition of a set of the transformation matrices. This strategy has been named the Grouped Sample Consensus (GCS. The GCS has also ability for removing the outliers effectively. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has high registration accuracy and small computational volume.

  13. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, G.; Krebs, C.; Diez, M.; Holtgrawe, D.; Weisshaar, B.; Minoche, A.; Dohm, J.; Himmelbauer, H.; Schmidt, T.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT)...

  14. Signatures of rocky planet engulfment in HAT-P-4. Implications for chemical tagging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Jofré, E.; Martioli, E.; Flores, M.; Petrucci, R.; Jaque Arancibia, M.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the possible chemical signature of planet formation in the binary system HAT-P-4 by studying the trends of abundance vs. condensation temperature Tc. The star HAT-P-4 hosts a planet detected by transits, while its stellar companion does not have any detected planet. We also study the lithium content, which might shed light on the problem of Li depletion in exoplanet host stars. Methods: We derived for the first time both stellar parameters and high-precision chemical abundances by applying a line-by-line full differential approach. The stellar parameters were determined by imposing ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines, with an updated version of the FUNDPAR program, together with ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the MOOG code. We derived detailed abundances of different species with equivalent widths and spectral synthesis with the MOOG program. Results: The exoplanet host star HAT-P-4 is found to be 0.1 dex more metal rich than its companion, which is one of the highest differences in metallicity observed in similar systems. This could have important implications for chemical tagging studies. We rule out a possible peculiar composition for each star, such as is the case for λ Boötis and δ Scuti, and neither is this binary a blue straggler. The star HAT-P-4 is enhanced in refractory elements relative to volatile when compared to its stellar companion. Notably, the Li abundance in HAT-P-4 is greater than that of its companion by 0.3 dex, which is contrary to the model that explains the Li depletion by the presence of planets. We propose a scenario where at the time of planet formation, the star HAT-P-4 locked the inner refractory material in planetesimals and rocky planets, and formed the outer gas giant planet at a greater distance. The refractories were then accreted onto the star, possibly as a result of the migration of the giant planet. This explains the higher metallicity, the higher Li content, and the negative Tc trend we

  15. Automatic segmentation of coronary arteries using a multiscale Top-Hat operator and multiobjective optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Cruz Aceves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un nuevo método de segmentación de arterias coronarias en imágenes angiográficas de rayos X consistente en dos etapas. En la primera etapa, un operador top-hat multiescala basado en las propiedades de la matriz Hessiana es introducido para realzar estructuras con forma arterial en el angiograma. Los resultados del operador top-hat multiescala propuesto son comparados con métodos multiescala basados en filtros de correspondencia Gaussiana, matriz Hessiana y operadores morfológicos, los cuales son analizados usando el área (zA bajo la curva característica operativa del receptor. En la segunda etapa, un nuevo método de umbralización basado en optimización multiobjetivo mediante la aproximación de la suma ponderada para clasificar pixeles arteriales y no arteriales es presentado. El desempeño del método multiobjetivo es comparado con siete métodos de umbralización automática utilizando angiogramas delineados por un especialista mediante las medidas de sensibilidad, especificidad y exactitud. Finalmente, el método propuesto es comparado con cinco métodos de segmentación arterial pertenecientes al estado del arte. Los resultados de realzado arterial mediante el operador top-hat multiescala demostraron la mejor exactitud conzA= 0.942 usando un conjunto de entrenamiento de 40 angiogramas y zA = 0.965 con un conjunto de prueba independiente de 40 angiogramas. Los resultados de segmentación de arterias coronarias usando el método de umbralización multiobjetivo proporcionaron un desempeño promedio de 0.923 con el conjunto de prueba de angiogramas.

  16. Refined System Parameters and TTV Study of Transiting Exoplanetary System HAT-P-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leilei; Gu, Shenghong; Wang, Xiaobin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dongtao; Wang, Yibo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Ng, Eric; Grau Horta, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system HAT-P-20, obtained using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China, from 2010 to 2013, and Observatori Ca l’Ou, Sant Marti Sesgueioles, Spain, from 2013 to 2015. The observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse de-correlation and SYSREM algorithms, so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. In order to consistently model the star spots and transits of this exoplanetary system, we develop a highly efficient tool STMT based on the analytic models of Mandel & Agol and Montalto et al. The physical parameters of HAT-P-20 are refined by homogeneously analyzing our new data, the radial velocity data, and the earlier photometric data in the literature with the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. New radii and masses of both host star and planet are larger than those in the discovery paper due to the discrepancy of the radius among K-dwarfs between predicted values by standard stellar models and empirical calibration from observations. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times calculated with the normal model and spotted model, we conclude that the periodic transit timing variations in these transit events revealed by employing the normal model are probably induced by spot crossing events. From the analysis of the distribution of occulted spots by HAT-P-20b, we constrain the misaligned architecture between the planetary orbit and the spin of the host star.

  17. Welche Chancen hat die ökologische Milchviehhaltung? [Which chances has the organic dairy sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold; Oppermann, Rainer; Barth, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    Die ökologische Milchkuhhaltung ist weniger entwickelt als andere Produktionszweige der ökologischen Landwirtschaft und hat gegenwärtig erst rund 1% Anteil an der gesamten Milchproduktion in Deutschland. Die Steigerungsraten in den letzten Jahren waren jedoch überproportional und lagen im Jahr 2001 bei 100%. Bis 2010 wird mit jährlichen Steigerungsraten zwischen 25 bis 35% gerechnet. Länder wie Dänemark oder Österreich zeigen bereits heute, wo die deutsche ökologische Milchkuhhaltung im Jahr ...

  18. The TopHat experiment: A balloon-borne instrument for mapping millimeter and submillimeter emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R.F.; Cheng, E.S.; Aguirre, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The TopHat experiment was designed to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on angular scales from 0.degrees 3 to 30 degrees and the thermal emission from both Galactic and extragalactic dust. The balloon-borne instrument had five spectral bands spanning frequencies...... a region 48 degrees in diameter centered on the south polar cap with a highly cross-linked and redundant pattern with nearly uniform sky coverage. The Long Duration Balloon flight over Antarctica in 2001 January surveyed about 6% of the sky. Here we describe the design of the instrument and the achieved in...

  19. Inhibition of different histone acetyltransferases (HATs) uncovers transcription-dependent and -independent acetylation-mediated mechanisms in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschbaecher, Katja; Hatko, Lucyna; Folz, Jennifer; Mueller, Uli

    2016-02-01

    Acetylation of histones changes the efficiency of the transcription processes and thus contributes to the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In our comparative study, we used two inhibitors to characterize the contribution of different histone acetyl transferases (HATs) to appetitive associative learning in the honeybee. For one we applied garcinol, an inhibitor of the HATs of the p300 (EP300 binding protein)/CBP (CREB-binding protein) family, and the HATs of the PCAF (p300/CBP-associated factor) family. As comparative agent we applied C646, a specific inhibitor that selectively blocks HATS of the p300/CBP family. Immunochemical analysis reveals differences in histone H3 acetylation in the honeybee brain, in response to the injection of either C646 or garcinol. Behavioral assessment reveals that the two drugs cause memory impairment of different nature when injected after associative conditioning: processes disturbed by garcinol are annihilated by the established transcription blocker actinomycin D and thus seem to require transcription processes. Actions of C646 are unaltered by actinomycin D, and thus seem to be independent of transcription. The outcome of our different approaches as summarized suggests that distinct HATs contribute to different acetylation-mediated processes in memory formation. We further deduce that the acetylation-mediated processes in memory formation comprise transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms. © 2016 Merschbaecher et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Jaroslav; Salimova, Lilia; McClellan, Steven; van Kelle, Mathieu; Kehl, Debora; Laurini, Javier; Cinelli, Paolo; Owen, Laurie; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Weber, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to rapidly and efficiently reacquire pluripotency which together with their easy recovery makes them an attractive cell source for reprogramming. The reprogramming process as well as the resulting iPSC epigenome could potentially benefit from the unspecialized nature of AFSC. iPSC derived from AFSC also have potential in disease modeling, such as Down syndrome or β-thalassemia. Previous experiments involving AFSC reprogramming have largely relied on integrative vector transgene delivery and undefined serum-containing, feeder-dependent culture. Here, we describe non-integrative oriP/EBNA-1 episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of AFSC into iPSC and culture in fully chemically defined xeno-free conditions represented by vitronectin coating and E8 medium, a system that we found uniquely suited for this purpose. The derived AF-iPSC lines uniformly expressed a set of pluripotency markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 in a pattern typical for human primed PSC. Additionally, the cells formed teratomas, and were deemed pluripotent by PluriTest, a global expression microarray-based in-silico pluripotency assay. However, we found that the PluriTest scores were borderline, indicating a unique pluripotent signature in the defined condition. In the light of potential future clinical translation of iPSC technology, non-integrating reprogramming and chemically defined culture are more acceptable.

  1. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Iro, N. [Theoretical Meteorology Group Klimacampus, University of Hamburg Grindelberg 5, D-20144, Hamburg (Germany); Desidera, S., E-mail: Marco.Montalto@astro.up.pt [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy)

    2015-09-20

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R{sub p}/R{sub *} = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported.

  2. The nature of the Napoleon's Hat nebula of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Dyson, J. E.; Kahn, F. D.

    1993-03-01

    The interstellar and circumstellar environment of SN 1987A is modeled. The geometries of Napoleon's Hat nebula and the dark bay suggest that there is relative motion between the SN progenitor and the surrounding ISM. Most of the dark bay can be identified with the bubble produced by the fast blue supergiant (BSG) wind before the red supergiant (RSG) stage. The relative motion between the star and the ISM is the primary reason for the star being at the edge of this bubble. After the first BSG stage, the star evolves to the RSG stage; the wind velocity is now typically 10 km/s and the mass loss rate is around 10 exp -5 solar mass/yr. The star eventually breaks through the bubble produced in the early BSG stage and starts to interact directly with the ISM outside, thus producing Napoleon's Hat. The success of this model is convincing proof of the BSG-RSG-BSG evolutionary model for the SN 1987A progenitors, and shows that is has moved from the site where it was formed.

  3. Femtosecond laser shaped penetrating keratoplasty: one-year results utilizing a top-hat configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Francis W; Price, Marianne O

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate use of a femtosecond laser to create shaped corneal grafts in penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in treatment of corneal disease. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. Six eyes of six patients were treated in this initial series. Two had herpetic scarring, two had pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, one had Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and one had endothelial dystrophy with a corneal scar. Preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) ranged from count fingers to 20/50. Donor and recipient corneas were cut in a "top-hat" shaped configuration utilizing a 15-kHz femtosecond laser. All eyes were successfully treated without intraoperative complications. Mean time to complete suture removal was 7.0 +/- 1.9 months (range, 4.1 to 9.7 months). At the one-year postoperative exam, mean endothelial cell density was 2030 +/- 600 cells/mm(2) (range, 1007 to 2497 cells/mm(2)), which was comparable with cell density measured in a prior series of traditional PKs (P = .21). BSCVA ranged from 20/400 to 20/25. In two eyes, preexisting retinal conditions limited visual improvement following transplantation. Use of the femtosecond laser allowed precise dissection of donor and recipient corneas even when significant opacities were present. The use of a top-hat configuration allowed for an increased area of wound healing in these eyes.

  4. A Bayesian analysis of HAT-P-7b using the EXONEST algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, Ben [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany NY (United States); Knuth, Kevin H. [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany NY, USA and Department of Informatics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany NY (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The study of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) is revolutionizing the way we view our universe. High-precision photometric data provided by the Kepler Space Telescope (Kepler) enables not only the detection of such planets, but also their characterization. This presents a unique opportunity to apply Bayesian methods to better characterize the multitude of previously confirmed exoplanets. This paper focuses on applying the EXONEST algorithm to characterize the transiting short-period-hot-Jupiter, HAT-P-7b (also referred to as Kepler-2b). EXONEST evaluates a suite of exoplanet photometric models by applying Bayesian Model Selection, which is implemented with the MultiNest algorithm. These models take into account planetary effects, such as reflected light and thermal emissions, as well as the effect of the planetary motion on the host star, such as Doppler beaming, or boosting, of light from the reflex motion of the host star, and photometric variations due to the planet-induced ellipsoidal shape of the host star. By calculating model evidences, one can determine which model best describes the observed data, thus identifying which effects dominate the planetary system. Presented are parameter estimates and model evidences for HAT-P-7b.

  5. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Sing, David K; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S; Lewis, Nikole K; Mandell, Avi M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M

    2017-05-12

    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b's atmospheric heavy element content ([Formula: see text] times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R.; Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D.; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Mandell, Avi M.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M.

    2017-05-01

    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b’s atmospheric heavy element content (4.8-4.0+21.5 times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b’s atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals.

  7. Mapping of histone modifications in episomal HBV cccDNA uncovers an unusual chromatin organization amenable to epigenetic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropberger, Philipp; Mercier, Alexandre; Robinson, Margaret; Zhong, Weidong; Ganem, Don E.; Holdorf, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 240 million people worldwide and is a major risk factor for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy inhibits cytoplasmic HBV genomic replication, but is not curative because it does not directly affect nuclear HBV closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the genomic form that templates viral transcription and sustains viral persistence. Novel approaches that directly target cccDNA regulation would therefore be highly desirable. cccDNA is assembled with cellular histone proteins into chromatin, but little is known about the regulation of HBV chromatin by histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here, using a new cccDNA ChIP-Seq approach, we report, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide maps of PTMs in cccDNA-containing chromatin from de novo infected HepG2 cells, primary human hepatocytes, and from HBV-infected liver tissue. We find high levels of PTMs associated with active transcription enriched at specific sites within the HBV genome and, surprisingly, very low levels of PTMs linked to transcriptional repression even at silent HBV promoters. We show that transcription and active PTMs in HBV chromatin are reduced by the activation of an innate immunity pathway, and that this effect can be recapitulated with a small molecule epigenetic modifying agent, opening the possibility that chromatin-based regulation of cccDNA transcription could be a new therapeutic approach to chronic HBV infection. PMID:26438841

  8. HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b: Two Transiting Inflated Hot Jupiters and Observational Evidence for the Reinflation of Close-in Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Torres, G.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Buchhave, L.; Kovács, T.; Quinn, S.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Fulton, B. J.; Everett, M. E.; Esquerdo, G.; Béky, B.; Szklenar, T.; Falco, E.; Santerne, A.; Boisse, I.; Hébrard, G.; Burrows, A.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of the transiting exoplanets HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, with orbital periods of 2.6055 and 2.9721 days, masses of 0.527+/- 0.083 {M}{{J}} and 0.783+/- 0.057 {M}{{J}}, and inflated radii of 1.89+/- 0.13 {R}{{J}} and {1.59}-0.10+0.16 {R}{{J}}, respectively. They orbit moderately bright (V=13.145+/- 0.029 and V=12.993+/- 0.052) stars of mass 1.212+/- 0.050 {M}⊙ and {1.255}-0.054+0.107 {M}⊙ . The stars are at the main-sequence turnoff. While it is well known that the radii of close-in giant planets are correlated with their equilibrium temperatures, whether or not the radii of planets increase in time as their hosts evolve and become more luminous is an open question. Looking at the broader sample of well-characterized close-in transiting giant planets, we find that there is a statistically significant correlation between planetary radii and the fractional ages of their host stars, with a false-alarm probability of only 0.0041%. We find that the correlation between the radii of planets and the fractional ages of their hosts is fully explained by the known correlation between planetary radii and their present-day equilibrium temperatures; however, if the zero-age main-sequence equilibrium temperature is used in place of the present-day equilibrium temperature, then a correlation with age must also be included to explain the planetary radii. This suggests that, after contracting during the pre-main-sequence, close-in giant planets are reinflated over time due to the increasing level of irradiation received from their host stars. Prior theoretical work indicates that such a dynamic response to irradiation requires a significant fraction of the incident energy to be deposited deep within the planetary interiors. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology

  9. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  10. Next-to-Leading Order Jet Physics with BlackHat

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C F; Dixon, L J; Cordero, F Febres; Forde, D; Gleisberg, T; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D

    2009-01-01

    We present several results obtained using the BlackHat next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z+3-jet distributions. The Z+2-jet predictions for the second-jet P_T distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W+2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P_T at the LHC.

  11. Soft computing for modeling the value of social capital at Red Hat

    OpenAIRE

    Siderska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Artykuł finansowany ze stypendium naukowe w ramach projektu Urzędu Marszałkowskiego Województwa Podlaskiego „Stypendia dla doktorantów województwa podlaskiego” finansowanego w ramach Działania 8.2 – Transfer Wiedzy, Poddziałanie 8.2.2 – Regionalne Strategie Innowacji, Priorytet VIII PO KL, współfinansowanego ze środków EFS, budżetu państwa oraz środków budżetu województwa podlaskiego. The main objective of this paper is to predict the value of social capital at Red Hat Corporation, using a...

  12. Generation of an ultra-flexible focused top-hat beam profile with aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhl, A.; Wickenhagen, S.; Fuchs, U.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for a uniform intensity distribution in the focal region of the working beam is growing steadily, especially in the field of laser material processing. To generate such a top-hat beam profile, it was shown in the past, that the use of refractive beam shaping solutions provides very good results. In this work, existing beam shaping knowledge is combined with an intelligent modular approach to create a new beam shaping solution, that simplifies both, handling and integration into existing set-ups. Furthermore, the present system enables not just a flattop intensity distribution, but even donut shaped beam profile without adding any further components to the system. Additionally, this beam shaping system is built and successfully tested. Some results of the characterization are presented.

  13. Simulated response of top-hat electrostatic analysers - importance of phase-space resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rossana; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    We use a numerical code able to reproduce the angular/energy response of a typical electrostatic analyzer of top-hat type starting from velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical imulations.The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function in multi-dimensional geometry in phase space, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. Virtual satellites launched through the simulation box measure the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are interpolated into a spacecraft reference frame and moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real electrostatic sensor in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath for different conditions. We discuss the results of this study with respect to the importance of phase-space resolution for a space plasma experiment meant to investigate kinetic plasma regime.

  14. Self-assembled ordered structures in thin films of HAT5 discotic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Morales

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of the discotic liquid crystal hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5, prepared from solution via casting or spin-coating, were investigated by atomic force microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy, revealing large-scale ordered structures substantially different from those typically observed in standard samples of the same material. Thin and very long fibrils of planar-aligned liquid crystal were found, possibly formed as a result of an intermediate lyotropic nematic state arising during the solvent evaporation process. Moreover, in sufficiently thin films the crystallization seems to be suppressed, extending the uniform order of the liquid crystal phase down to room temperature. This should be compared to the bulk situation, where the same material crystallizes into a polymorphic structure at 68 °C.

  15. 3D spin-orbit angle of Kepler-25 and HAT-P-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benomar Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of discovered exoplanets now exceeds 1500, mostly due to the Kepler space instrument observations. Many of these planet orbit in less than a week around their host stars. This implies that the inward migration of those planets is a basic ingredient of successful theories of planet formation and evolution. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed periods, which lead to different orbit eccentricity and obliquity distributions. Here we summarise and discuss the results of obliquities for two Kepler stars: HAT-P-7 and Kepler-25. These are interesting stellar systems as we could carry out a joint analysis using asteroseismology, transit lightcurve and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in order to measure the three dimensional obliquity.

  16. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  17. Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) Processes Promoted by the Quinolinimide-N-oxyl Radical. A Kinetic and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLabio, Gino A; Franchi, Paola; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Lucarini, Fiorella; Lucarini, Marco; Mazzonna, Marco; Prasad, Viki Kumar; Ticconi, Barbara

    2017-06-16

    A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from a series of organic compounds to the quinolinimide-N-oxyl radical (QINO) was performed in CH3CN. The HAT rate constants are significantly higher than those observed with the phthalimide-N-oxyl radical (PINO) as a result of enthalpic and polar effects due to the presence of the N-heteroaromatic ring in QINO. The relevance of polar effects is supported by theoretical calculations conducted for the reactions of the two N-oxyl radicals with toluene, which indicate that the HAT process is characterized by a significant degree of charge transfer permitted by the π-stacking that occurs between the toluene and the N-oxyl aromatic rings in the transition state structures. An increase in the HAT reactivity of QINO was observed in the presence of 0.15 M HClO4 and 0.15 M Mg(ClO4)2 due to the protonation or complexation with the Lewis acid of the pyridine nitrogen that leads to a further decrease in the electron density in the N-oxyl radical. These results fully support the use of N-hydroxyquinolinimide as a convenient substitute for N-hydroxyphthalimide in the catalytic aerobic oxidations of aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized by relatively high C-H bond dissociation energies.

  18. BALTIMORE’S M.S. LEVY AND SONS: Straw Hat Makers to the World, 1870-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica I. Elfenbein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1860 to 1960, Baltimore was an important center of the men’s ready-to- wear clothing industries. German-speaking Jews created many businesses that manufactured and sold underwear, men’s suits, and specialty items like hats and umbrellas. The straw hat making firm started by M.S. Levy is an interesting example of a Baltimore-based, family-owned niche business that existedfor 90 years, through three generations ofa singlefamily. The M.S. Levy and Sons story has two main chapters. The first covers the period from its founding by Michael Simon Levy in the 1870s through his son Julius’ death in 1926. This is the story of ascension. A premonition about the coming popularity of straw hats, together with a small but important technological breakthrough, positioned a family and a small industry for significant expansion. The second period began in 1930 with the introduction of wool felt hats and the death of William, M.S. Levy’s oldest son, and includes the Great Depression, unionization, merger, third generation leadership, and finally, in 1959, the family’s withdrawal from the industry. This later period, as told by grandsons of the founder, is the story of struggle followed by decline.

  19. Relativistic and correlation effects on molecular properties .2. The hydrogen halides HF, HCl, HBr, HI, and HAt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Styszynski, J.; Nieuwpoort, W.C

    1996-01-01

    A benchmark study of a number of four-component relativistic correlation methods is presented. Bond lengths, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of the molecules HF, HCl, HBr, HI, and HAt are calculated at various levels of theory, using both the Schrodinger and the Dirac-Coulomb-(Gaunt)

  20. The Candida albicans Histone Acetyltransferase Hat1 Regulates Stress Resistance and Virulence via Distinct Chromatin Assembly Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tscherner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human fungal pathogens like Candida albicans respond to host immune surveillance by rapidly adapting their transcriptional programs. Chromatin assembly factors are involved in the regulation of stress genes by modulating the histone density at these loci. Here, we report a novel role for the chromatin assembly-associated histone acetyltransferase complex NuB4 in regulating oxidative stress resistance, antifungal drug tolerance and virulence in C. albicans. Strikingly, depletion of the NuB4 catalytic subunit, the histone acetyltransferase Hat1, markedly increases resistance to oxidative stress and tolerance to azole antifungals. Hydrogen peroxide resistance in cells lacking Hat1 results from higher induction rates of oxidative stress gene expression, accompanied by reduced histone density as well as subsequent increased RNA polymerase recruitment. Furthermore, hat1Δ/Δ cells, despite showing growth defects in vitro, display reduced susceptibility to reactive oxygen-mediated killing by innate immune cells. Thus, clearance from infected mice is delayed although cells lacking Hat1 are severely compromised in killing the host. Interestingly, increased oxidative stress resistance and azole tolerance are phenocopied by the loss of histone chaperone complexes CAF-1 and HIR, respectively, suggesting a central role for NuB4 in the delivery of histones destined for chromatin assembly via distinct pathways. Remarkably, the oxidative stress phenotype of hat1Δ/Δ cells is a species-specific trait only found in C. albicans and members of the CTG clade. The reduced azole susceptibility appears to be conserved in a wider range of fungi. Thus, our work demonstrates how highly conserved chromatin assembly pathways can acquire new functions in pathogenic fungi during coevolution with the host.

  1. Evaluation of a novel sputum clearance technique--hydro-acoustic therapy (HAT) in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Powell, T; Smith, E

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the efficacy, safety and patients' acceptance of a novel system for sputum clearance--Hydro Acoustic Therapy (HAT) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This is a prospective crossover study where 18 patients received 6 sessions of physiotherapy over 6 separate days. These consisted of 2 sessions of either HAT, flutter valve or and sitting in the bath with sounds without vibration (placebo) for 30 minutes each. The efficacy was investigated by measuring the weight of wet and dry sputum after each session and by change in spirometry values. The preference was assessed by a questionnaire completed by patients at the end of the study about their preference of which type of physiotherapy received. The weight of both dry and wet sputum produced was similar in the 3 arms of the study. Spirometry values but not oxygen saturation were reduced after HAT and flutter therapy sessions. HAT therapy was preferred to flutter and placebo in terms of breathlessness, ease of sputum production and relaxation. Of the patients, 70% stated that they would choose HAT as their preferred physiotherapy method compared to 0% for flutter (χ(2) = 20.3, p < 0.0001). There were no procedure-related complications in any of the 3 arms of the study. HAT was found to be safe, well tolerated and favoured by the majority of CF patients. The effect of HAT, however, on sputum production was not superior to flutter or placebo.

  2. Maximizing JWST GTO Observations of HAT-P-26b with Time-Critical Spitzer Eclipse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraine, Jonathan; Stevenson, Kevin; Wakeford, Hannah; Knutson, Heather; Wallack, Nicole; Goyal, Jayesh; Sing, David; Lewis, Nikole; Valenti, Jeff; Batalha, Natasha; Bruno, Giovanni; Kilpatrick, Brian; Greene, Tom

    2017-10-01

    We propose to observe the Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b with Spitzer-IRAC at 4.5 microns (CH2) over 4 eclipses to achieve a statistically-significant eclipse depth SNR of at least 4 sigma (P-26b's time of secondary eclipse. The approved JWST GTO programs, which will spectroscopically probe the dayside atmosphere of HAT-P-26b, have scheduled several 6.5 hour spectroscopic eclipse observations; with an eclipse duration of 2.5 hours and only 4 hours of baseline, precisely knowing the time of eclipse is pivotal to the success of these observations. The long-term legacy value of our Spitzer observations will be to perform a critical role in maximizing the observational efficiency of several JWST GTO exoplanet programs by definitively confirming the time of secondary eclipse.

  3. A thermodynamic approach to the definition of the HAT cycle plant structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaretto, Andrea; Segato, Fabio [Padova Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Padova (Italy)

    2002-08-01

    An optimization procedure of the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle plant structure is presented here aimed at maximizing the total plant efficiency. The procedure is based on the design optimization of a 'basic configuration of the plant' including 'basic components' (compressor, turbine, combustion chamber, regenerator and saturator), always existing and connected in the same way in the plant structure, and the heat exchanger section which is viewed as a 'black-box' where the heat transfer between hot and cold thermal flows occurs independently of the number and interconnections of the heat exchangers. The optimal boundary conditions between the basic components and black-box are determined by means of a suboptimization procedure performed in each step of the main optimization procedure using rules of Pinch Technology and Second Law insights. Rules of pinch technology and second law insights are then used to determine the heat exchanger networks(HENs) within the black-box that fulfill the optimum design conditions at the black-box boundaries. Accordingly, 'optimal' structures of the plant are determined by the combination of basic components and 'optimal' HENs. (Author)

  4. Bayesian estimation inherent in a Mexican-hat-type neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Brain functions, such as perception, motor control and learning, and decision making, have been explained based on a Bayesian framework, i.e., to decrease the effects of noise inherent in the human nervous system or external environment, our brain integrates sensory and a priori information in a Bayesian optimal manner. However, it remains unclear how Bayesian computations are implemented in the brain. Herein, I address this issue by analyzing a Mexican-hat-type neural network, which was used as a model of the visual cortex, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex. I analytically demonstrate that the dynamics of an order parameter in the model corresponds exactly to a variational inference of a linear Gaussian state-space model, a Bayesian estimation, when the strength of recurrent synaptic connectivity is appropriately stronger than that of an external stimulus, a plausible condition in the brain. This exact correspondence can reveal the relationship between the parameters in the Bayesian estimation and those in the neural network, providing insight for understanding brain functions.

  5. Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (HAT) Prevention in an Acute Hospital; A Single Centre Cross-Sectional Study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-04-01

    Evidence based guidelines are effective in reducing incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) which is associated with morbidly, mortality and economic burden. This study aimed to identify the proportion of inpatients who had a VTE risk assessment (RA) performed and who received thromboprophylaxis (TP), in Cork University Hospital. There was no structured RA tool at the time; information was obtained from medical and drug charts to ascertain if a RA was performed. Patients were then RA by researchers and stratified as per NICE guidelines and the proportion who received TP was calculated. One thousand and nineteen inpatients were screened. Risk was documented in 24% of cases. TP was prescribed in 43.2% of inpatients. Following application of a RA tool >80% were at high risk of VTE with low risk of bleeding with TP prescription in 46.3% of inpatients. A national collaborative effort should be encouraged to develop a standardized approach for safe RA of inpatients and prescription of TP for prevention of HAT

  6. Detection of microcalcification with top-hat transform and the Gibbs random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Akshay S; Celenk, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of death in women aged 40 and above. Early detection of breast cancer has been one of the prime topics of research in biomedical engineering area. Micro-calcifications (MCs) are the indicators of early stages of breast cancer, and the detection of these MCs will, in turn, lead to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer at its earliest stages. This paper proposes a new method to detect MCs in a digital mammogram. The approach starts with the segmentation of the digital mammogram to isolate the breast region, using fuzzy C means clustering algorithm. The segmented image is then further segmented using top-hat transform to localize the region of interest. A watershed transform is used to isolate the region of interest from rest of the image. The Gibbs random fields are employed to analyze the pixels in conjunction with the devised clique patterns and detect MCs in the image. A thresholding is performed on the processed image where the MCs are detected. The proposed algorithm is highly effective in reducing the region of interest to the region which has a high probability of finding a calcification or MC. It has an overall detection rate of 94.4% and accuracy of 88.2% with a false negative detection rate of 5.6%, respectively.

  7. Finite element normal mode analysis of resistance welding jointed of dissimilar plate hat structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, N. A.; Sani, M. S. M.

    2017-10-01

    Structural joints offer connection between structural element (beam, plate, solid etc.) in order to build a whole assembled structure. The complex behaviour of connecting elements plays a valuable role in characteristics of dynamic such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. In automotive structures, the trustworthiness arrangement of the structure extremely depends on joints. In this paper, top hat structure is modelled and designed with spot welding joint using dissimilar materials which is mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304, using finite element software. Different types of connector elements such as rigid body element (RBE2), welding joint element (CWELD), and bar element (CBAR) are applied to represent real connection between two dissimilar plates. Normal mode analysis is simulated with different types of joining element in order to determine modal properties. Natural frequencies using RBE2, CBAR and CWELD are compared to equivalent rigid body method. Connection that gives the lowest percentage error among these three will be selected as the most reliable joining for resistance spot weld. From the analysis, it is shown that CWELD is better compared to others in term of weld joining among dissimilar plate materials. It is expected that joint modelling of finite element plays significant role in structural dynamics.

  8. Bayesian estimation inherent in a Mexican-hat-type neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Brain functions, such as perception, motor control and learning, and decision making, have been explained based on a Bayesian framework, i.e., to decrease the effects of noise inherent in the human nervous system or external environment, our brain integrates sensory and a priori information in a Bayesian optimal manner. However, it remains unclear how Bayesian computations are implemented in the brain. Herein, I address this issue by analyzing a Mexican-hat-type neural network, which was used as a model of the visual cortex, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex. I analytically demonstrate that the dynamics of an order parameter in the model corresponds exactly to a variational inference of a linear Gaussian state-space model, a Bayesian estimation, when the strength of recurrent synaptic connectivity is appropriately stronger than that of an external stimulus, a plausible condition in the brain. This exact correspondence can reveal the relationship between the parameters in the Bayesian estimation and those in the neural network, providing insight for understanding brain functions.

  9. HATS-36b and 24 Other Transiting/Eclipsing Systems from the HATSouth-K2 Campaign 7 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Bakos, G. Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Bento, J.; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Brahm, R.; Jordán, A.; Espinoza, N.; Rabus, M.; Tan, T. G.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Suc, V.; Csubry, Z.; Henning, Th.; Sarkis, P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the result of a campaign to monitor 25 HATSouth candidates using the Kepler space telescope during Campaign 7 of the K2 mission. We discover HATS-36b (EPIC 215969174b, K2-145b), an eccentric (e=0.105+/- 0.028) hot Jupiter with a mass of 3.216+/- 0.062 {M}{{J}} and a radius of 1.235+/- 0.043 {R}{{J}}, which transits a solar-type G0V star (V = 14.386) in a 4.1752-day period. We also refine the properties of three previously discovered HATSouth transiting planets (HATS-9b, HATS-11b, and HATS-12b) and search the K2 data for TTVs and additional transiting planets in these systems. In addition, we also report on a further three systems that remain as Jupiter-radius transiting exoplanet candidates. These candidates do not have determined masses, however pass all of our other vetting observations. Finally, we report on the 18 candidates that we are now able to classify as eclipsing binary or blended eclipsing binary systems based on a combination of the HATSouth data, the K2 data, and follow-up ground-based photometry and spectroscopy. These range in periods from 0.7 day to 16.7 days, and down to 1.5 mmag in eclipse depths. Our results show the power of combining ground-based imaging and spectroscopy with higher precision space-based photometry, and serve as an illustration as to what will be possible when combining ground-based observations with TESS data.

  10. The rectangular potential well (hat) model: application to the dielectric spectra of non-associated polar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, W. T.; Gaiduk, V. I.; Tseitlin, B. M.; Walsh, M. E.

    2000-07-01

    A theory of the wideband dielectric response of polar molecules in a hat-like rectangular well potential with perfectly elastic (reflecting) conical surface of finite depth is presented. The well represents molecular interaction in terms of the mean-field potential. Thus, escape of dipoles across the potential barrier, so they may execute complete rotations outside the cone, is also accounted for. This model is a generalisation of the cone-confined rotator and hybrid models, described previously by Gaiduk and Tseitlin [Adv. Chem. Phys. 87 (1994) 125; Mendeleev Commun. 1997, No. 2, p. 76]. In this work it is shown that the model, in which both the bottom of the potential well and its rim are flat, so that it resembles a hat, provides an adequate description of the wideband spectrum (comprising the Debye relaxation and far infra-red regions) of orientational polarisation. The applicability of the hat model has been demonstrated for strongly absorbing liquids, such as methyl chloride, for which wideband dielectric spectra due to molecular reorientation were calculated in the [0, THz] frequency region.

  11. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, contains multiple members of the hAT family of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, A C; Whyard, S; Mende, H A; Coates, C J; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    1999-11-01

    Members of the hAT transposable element family are mobile in non-host insect species and have been used as transformation vectors in some of these species. We report that the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, contains at least two types of insect hAT elements called Homer and a Homer-like element (HLE). The Homer element is 3789 bp in size and contains 12-bp imperfect inverted terminal repeats. The Homer element contains a long open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative transposase. Three different copies of this long ORF were recovered from the B. tryoni genome and, upon transcription and translation in an in vitro system, all produced transposase. The HLE is an incomplete element since no 3' inverted terminal repeat (ITR) was found. Homer and the HLE are as related to one another as either is to the other insect hAT elements such as Hermes, hobo, hermit and hopper. The structure and distribution of these two Homer elements is described.

  12. Constraints on the magnetic field strength of HAT-P-7 b and other hot giant exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T. M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of the infrared and optical light curves of hot giant exoplanets have demonstrated that the peak brightness is generally offset eastwards from the substellar point 1,2 . This observation is consistent with hydrodynamic numerical simulations producing fast, eastwards directed winds that advect the hottest point in the atmosphere eastwards of the substellar point 3,4 . However, recent continuous Kepler measurements of HAT-P-7 b show that its peak brightness offset varies considerably over time, with excursions such that the brightest point is sometimes westwards of the substellar point 5 . These variations in brightness offset require wind variability, with or without the presence of clouds. While such wind variability has not been seen in hydrodynamic simulations of hot giant exoplanet atmospheres, it has been seen in magnetohydrodynamic simulations 6 . Here I show that magnetohydrodynamic simulations of HAT-P-7 b indeed display variable winds and a corresponding variability in the position of the hottest point in the atmosphere. Assuming that the observed variability in HAT-P-7 b is due to magnetism, I constrain its minimum magnetic field strength to be 6 G. Similar observations of wind variability on hot giant exoplanets, or the lack thereof, could help constrain their magnetic field strengths. As dynamo simulations of these planets do not exist and theoretical scaling relations 7 may not apply, such observational constraints could prove immensely useful.

  13. Ideologiekritik des E-Learnings. Welchen Nutzen hat die Einführung von E-Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser-Müller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vor etwa sieben Jahren hat das damalige Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur (bm:ukk, das seit 2014 Bundesministerium für Bildung und Frauen (BMBF genannt wird, verschiedene Maßnahmen im Blick auf neuen Medien – insbesondere im Blick auf das E-Learning – gesetzt, um einen Beitrag zur Vorbereitung der Lernenden auf eine Informations- und Wissensgesellschaft zu leisten. E-Learning wurde als Erfolgsfaktor für die Zukunft gesehen und mit der Begründung, es fördere das individuelle und selbst gesteuerte Lernen, gefördert. Die zentrale Frage ist dabei: Welchen Nutzen hat die Einführung von E-Learning? In diesem Artikel wird dahingehend aufgezeigt, dass E-Learning nicht wegen pädagogischem Bedarf, sondern durch ministeriell gesetzte Maßnahmen eingeführt wurde und dadurch – wenn auch nicht bewusst und schon gar nicht als solches kommuniziert – neoliberale Strukturen durchgesetzt wurden. Die Einführung von E-Learning hat somit für deren Akzeptanz gesorgt.

  14. Fluctuations of hi-hat timing and dynamics in a virtuoso drum track of a popular music recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Otto; Virtanen, Tuomas; Zollner, Manfred; Hennig, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Long-range correlated temporal fluctuations in the beats of musical rhythms are an inevitable consequence of human action. According to recent studies, such fluctuations also lead to a favored listening experience. The scaling laws of amplitude variations in rhythms, however, are widely unknown. Here we use highly sensitive onset detection and time series analysis to study the amplitude and temporal fluctuations of Jeff Porcaro's one-handed hi-hat pattern in "I Keep Forgettin'"-one of the most renowned 16th note patterns in modern drumming. We show that fluctuations of hi-hat amplitudes and interbeat intervals (times between hits) have clear long-range correlations and short-range anticorrelations separated by a characteristic time scale. In addition, we detect subtle features in Porcaro's drumming such as small drifts in the 16th note pulse and non-trivial periodic two-bar patterns in both hi-hat amplitudes and intervals. Through this investigation we introduce a step towards statistical studies of the 20th and 21st century music recordings in the framework of complex systems. Our analysis has direct applications to the development of drum machines and to drumming pedagogy.

  15. Measure of microscopy mineral image clarity constructed using the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi

    2013-08-01

    Correctly and effectively quantifying the clarity of microscopy mineral image is important and useful to produce clear image for mineral analysis. To well quantify the clarity of mineral image, an effective measure constructed using the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator is proposed in this article. First, the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator is used to extract the effective features which represent the clarity of mineral image. Second, the multiscale clarity features corresponding to each scale are extracted. Finally, after combining the multiscale clarity features in one feature image, the mean value of the feature image is constructed as the measure of mineral image clarity. Because the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator could effectively extract the clarity features, the clarity features are directly used as the measure of image clarity. Therefore, the proposed measure is effective and reasonable. The experimental results on different types of microscopy mineral images verified the effective performance of the proposed measure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Comparative Study of WASP-67 b and HAT-P-38 b from WFC3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Filippazzo, Joseph; Hill, Matthew; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Deming, Drake; Kilpatrick, Brian; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline V.; Collins, Karen A.; Conti, Dennis M.; Garlitz, Joseph; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric temperature and planetary gravity are thought to be the main parameters affecting cloud formation in giant exoplanet atmospheres. Recent attempts to understand cloud formation have explored wide regions of the equilibrium temperature-gravity parameter space. In this study, we instead compare the case of two giant planets with nearly identical equilibrium temperature (T eq ∼ 1050 K) and gravity (g ∼ 10 m s‑1). During HST Cycle 23, we collected WFC3/G141 observations of the two planets, WASP-67 b and HAT-P-38 b. HAT-P-38 b, with mass 0.42 M J and radius 1.4 R J, exhibits a relatively clear atmosphere with a clear detection of water. We refine the orbital period of this planet with new observations, obtaining P = 4.6403294 ± 0.0000055 days. WASP-67 b, with mass 0.27 M J and radius 0.83 R J, shows a more muted water absorption feature than that of HAT-P-38 b, indicating either a higher cloud deck in the atmosphere or a more metal-rich composition. The difference in the spectra supports the hypothesis that giant exoplanet atmospheres carry traces of their formation history. Future observations in the visible and mid-infrared are needed to probe the aerosol properties and constrain the evolutionary scenario of these planets.

  17. Rationale and design of the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Gust H; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Poole, Jeanne E; Toff, William D; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren; Dorian, Paul; Yallop, Julie J; Packer, Douglas L; White, Roger D; Longstreth, Will; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Bischoff, Eric; Munkers, Crystal D; Brown, Amanda; McNulty, Steven; Ray, Linda Davidson; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Rosenberg, Yves; Salive, Marcel; Schron, Eleanor B

    2008-03-01

    Most cardiac arrests occur in the home, where emergency medical services (EMS) systems are challenged to provide timely care. Because a large proportion of sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) are due to ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, home use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) might offer an opportunity to decrease mortality in those at risk. Predicting who will have a cardiac arrest in the general population is difficult. Individuals at high risk are usually easily identified and may become candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators. It is within the population at lower risk where home AEDs may be most useful. The purpose of the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT) is to test whether providing home access to an AED can improve survival in patients at modest risk of SCA, such as those surviving an anterior myocardial infarction but in whom implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is not deemed necessary. Between January 23, 2003, and October 20, 2005, 7001 patients were enrolled, with completion of follow-up scheduled for September 30, 2007. Randomization was conducted in a 1:1 fashion between control therapy, comprising the standard lay response to SCA (calling the EMS and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and the use of an AED first, followed by calling the EMS and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The primary end point is all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include survival from SCA (witnessed and unwitnessed, in home and out of home), incremental cost-effectiveness, and quality of life measures for both the patient and the spouse/companion. The results of the trial should be available in mid 2008.

  18. Sanitation conditions of clean food good taste restaurants in Hat Yai City Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation conditions and microbiological quality of 52 “Clean Food Good Taste” restaurants in Hat Yai city municipality were examined using a standard food sanitation survey checklist based on the Department of Health and Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in samples of foods and drinking water, whereas total bacterial count (TBC was carried out in samples of foods, plates, spoons, glasses and food handlers. The methods of investigation were the Most Probable Number (MPN method for coliform bacteria, E. coli and the standard plate count method for TBC. The SI-2 field test kit was used to indicate microbiological contamination, particularly coliform bacteria. It was found that 38/52 (73.1% restaurants passed all items of food sanitation standard. The food sanitation condition with the lowest number passing was the dressing of food handlers (45/52, 86.5% followed by the area for eating, preparing and cooking (47/52, 90.4%. Microbiological quality of food samples based on both MPN of coliform bacteria and E. coli was at an acceptable level in 190/202 samples (94.1%. However, in samples of drinking water only 19/52 (36.5% passed the MPN standard for coliform bacteria and 45/52 (86.5% that for E. coli. Moreover, among the 52 restaurants, the numbers (percentages passing the standard TBC in samples of plate, spoon, glass, cooker handlers and server handlers were 32 (61.5%, 27(51.9%, 20 (38.5%, 2 (3.9% and 1 (1.9%, respectively. Comparison of microbiological quality between the SI-2 test kit and MPN coliform/TBC showed no significant differences for samples of foods, but significant differences for the rest of the samples (p<0.05, t-test.

  19. Zig Zag versus Top Hat configuration in IntraLase-enabled penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh Mashor, Raneen; Bahar, Irit; Rootman, Dan B; Kumar, Nikhil L; Singal, Neera; Slomovic, Allan R; Rootman, David S

    2014-06-01

    To compare the outcomes with IntraLase-enabled keratoplasty using (IEK) Top Hat (TH) versus Zig Zag (ZZ) configuration. Retrospective comparative series of 24 eyes that underwent TH and 10 eyes that underwent ZZ IEK. There were no significant differences in LogMar Best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (TH- IEK=0.3; ZZ-IEK=0.18, p=0.18), spherical equivalent (TH-IEK=-3.55±3.7 dioptres (D); ZZ-IEK=-2.69±4.85 D, p=0.60), manifest cylinder (TH- IEK=3.79±2.43 D; ZZ- IEK=4.61±3.29 D, p=0.45), topographic astigmatism (TH-IEK=3.67±2.34 D; ZZ-IEK=4.26±1.1 D, p=0.63), total higher-order aberrations (TH- IEK=8.26±3.53; ZZ-IEK=8.1±4.71, P=0.92), endothelial cell density change from baseline (TH- IEK= -41.55%±15.86; ZZ-IEK=-25.45%±30.66, p=0.22) or time to suture removal in months (TH- IEK=7.48±4.07; ZZ- IEK=6.93±2.71, p=0.75). There was no difference in requirements for astigmatic keratectomy (TH-IEK=54.2%±13; ZZ-IEK=50%±5, OR=1.18) or complications (TH-IEK=25%±6; ZZ-IEK=30%±3, OR=0.78). TH-IEK and ZZ-IEK have comparable visual and refractive outcomes, wound healing and endothelial cell counts at 1-year. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

    2000-09-01

    Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades. Résumé. De nombreuses villes du sud et du sud-est de l'Asie ne possèdent pas de réseaux d'égouts et les eaux usées domestiques s'écoulent souvent directement sur le sol ou dans des canaux et des cours d'eau de surface. Ces pratiques peuvent provoquer une contamination dispersée de la nappe phréatique. A Hat Yai (sud de la Thaïlande), les infiltrations d'eaux usées domestiques sont responsables d'une détérioration notable de la qualité de la nappe phréatique directement sous la ville. Pour cette raison, la majorité de l'eau potable est prélevée dans des aquifères semi-captifs plus profonds, situés entre 30 et 50 m sous la surface. Cependant, une drainance à partir de la nappe phréatique sous la ville constitue une composante significative de la recharge

  1. Identification of a high frequency transposon induced by tissue culture, nDaiZ, a member of the hAT family in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Kewei; Shen, Yi; Huang, Zejun; Li, Ming; Tang, Ding; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2009-03-01

    Recent completion of rice genome sequencing has revealed that more than 40% of its genome consists of repetitive sequences, and most of them are related to inactive transposable elements. In the present study, a transposable element, nDaiZ0, which is induced by tissue culture with high frequency, was identified by sequence analysis of an allelic line of the golden hull and internode 2 (gh2) mutant, which was integrated into the forth exon of GH2. The 528-bp nDaiZ0 has 14-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and generates an 8-bp duplication of its target sites (TSD) during its mobilization. nDaiZs are non-autonomous transposons and have no coding capacity. Bioinformatics analysis and southern blot hybridization showed that at least 16 copies of nDaiZ elements exist in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare genome and 11 copies in the indica cultivar 93-11 genome. During tissue culture, only one copy, nDaiZ9, located on chromosome 5 in the genome of Nipponbare can be activated with its transposable frequency reaching 30%. However, nDaiZ9 was not present in the 93-11 genome. The larger elements, DaiZs, were further identified by database searching using nDaiZ0 as a query because they share similar TIRs and subterminal sequences. DaiZ can also generate an 8-bp TSD. DaiZ elements contain a conserved region with a high similarity to the hAT dimerization motif, suggesting that the nDaiZ-DaiZ transposon system probably belongs to the hAT superfamily of class II transposons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is a new type of plant hAT-like transposon. Although nDaiZ is activated by tissue culture, the high transposable frequency indicates that it could become a useful gene tagging system for rice functional genomic studies. In addition, the mechanism of the high transposable ability of nDaiZ9 is discussed.

  2. Upregulation of KLF4 by methylseleninic acid in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells: Modification of histone H3 acetylation through HAT/HDAC interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenfei; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Qing; Ma, Kai; Chen, Lechuang; Wang, Zaozao; He, Shun; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs at a very high frequency in certain areas of China. Supplementation with selenium-containing compounds was associated with a significantly lower cancer mortality rate in a study conducted in Linxia, China. Thus, selenium could be a potential anti-esophageal cancer agent. In this study, methylseleninic acid (MSA) could inhibit cell growth of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Upon treated with MSA, the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) was decreased and general control nonrepressed protein 5 (GCN5) was upregulated in ESCC cells. Meanwhile, a significant increase of H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac) was detected. Upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was also observed after MSA treatment. Additionally, the acetylated histone H3 located more at KLF4 promoter region after MSA treatment, shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Moreover, knockdown of GCN5 decreased the protein level of both H3K9ac and KLF4, along with less cell growth inhibition. Taken all, our results indicated that MSA could inhibit ESCC cell growth, at least in part, by MSA-HDAC/GCN5-H3K9ac-KLF4 axis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that MSA induced acetylation of histone H3 at Lys9, which might depend on the activities and the balance between HDACs and HATs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of efficiency of water supply system in Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaivisit, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of efficiency of water production system in Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, was conducted in this study. Topics covered include 1 quality and quantity of raw water, 2 water productionprocess, 3 management and maintenance of water production system, and 4 quality of finished water. Totally, 494 water samples were collected during the study. All water samples were analyzed for turbidity,pH, temperature, conductivity, TDS, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and residual chlorine. In addition to the mentioned parameters, 30 of these water samples were also analyzed for hardness, chloride, nitratenitrogen,sulfate and heavy metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, chromium, cadmium, lead and mercury. All water samples were collected during November, 2004 (rainy season and March, 2005 (summer season.It was found that the quality of the water in the Sritrang reservoir fell into Class 2 of Thailand Surface Water Quality Standard that requires ordinary water treatment processes prior to consumptions.Cadmium, lead and mercury were not detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method. There are 2 sets of water production system. The first set consists of 4 pressure filters which could reduce turbidity atvarying efficiencies: 33.83%, 18.26%, 42.76% and 65.67% depending mainly on the extent of chemical dosing control and the maintenance of the filter media. Another system employed sedimentation tank andrapid sand filter, which could remove turbidity at 89.28%. When combined finished water from both systems were analyzed, it was found that removals of manganese, copper, zinc, iron and chromium were 42.65%,30.02%, 19.54%, 56.82% and 15.12%, respectively. Residual chlorine concentration of the finished water was not more than 0.2 mg/L and no total coliforms or fecal coliforms were detected. The plant had sufficientand competent personnel to carry out their normal tasks but occasional negligence and lack of specific water testing or

  4. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  5. The attenuation surface for contrast sensitivity has the form of a witch's hat within the central visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Alex S; Meese, Tim S; Baker, Daniel H

    2012-10-25

    Over the full visual field, contrast sensitivity is fairly well described by a linear decline in log sensitivity as a function of eccentricity (expressed in grating cycles). However, many psychophysical studies of spatial visual function concentrate on the central ±4.5 deg (or so) of the visual field. As the details of the variation in sensitivity have not been well documented in this region we did so for small patches of target contrast at several spatial frequencies (0.7-4 c/deg), meridians (horizontal, vertical, and oblique), orientations (horizontal, vertical, and oblique), and eccentricities (0-18 cycles). To reduce the potential effects of stimulus uncertainty, circular markers surrounded the targets. Our analysis shows that the decline in binocular log sensitivity within the central visual field is bilinear: The initial decline is steep, whereas the later decline is shallow and much closer to the classical results. The bilinear decline was approximately symmetrical in the horizontal meridian and declined most steeply in the superior visual field. Further analyses showed our results to be scale-invariant and that this property could not be predicted from cone densities. We used the results from the cardinal meridians to radially interpolate an attenuation surface with the shape of a witch's hat that provided good predictions for the results from the oblique meridians. The witch's hat provides a convenient starting point from which to build models of contrast sensitivity, including those designed to investigate signal summation and neuronal convergence of the image contrast signal. Finally, we provide Matlab code for constructing the witch's hat.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sloan i follow-up light curves of HATS-18 (Penev+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Ciceri, S.; Brahm, R.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Jordan, A.; Csubry, Z.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Espinoza, N.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2017-02-01

    The star HATS-18 was observed by HATSouth instruments between UT 2011 April 18 and UT 2013 July 21 using the HS-2, HS-4, and HS-6 units at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site in Namibia, and Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia, respectively. A total of 5372, 3758, and 4008 images of HATS-18 were obtained with HS-2, HS-4, and HS-6, respectively. The observations were obtained through a Sloan r filter with an exposure time of 240s. We obtained follow-up light curves of HATS-18 using the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) 1m telescope network. An ingress was observed on UT 2015 July 18 with the SBIG camera and a Sloan i filter on the 1m at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). A total of 33 images were collected at a median cadence of 201s. A full transit was observed on UT 2016 January 22 with the sinistro camera and a Sloan i filter on the 1m at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A total of 61 images were collected at a median cadence of 219s. For the record, we also note that a full transit was observed on UT 2016 January 3 with the SBIG camera on the 1m at SAAO; however, due to tracking and weather problems, we were unable to extract high-precision photometry from these images, and therefore do not include these data in our analysis. The data are available in Table1. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of HATS-18 were carried out with WiFeS on the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3m telescope and with the Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) on the MPG 2.2m. A total of three spectra were obtained with WiFeS between UT 2015 February 28 and UT 2015 March 2, two at a resolution of R=Δλ/λ=7000, and one at R=3000. We obtained six R=48000 spectra with FEROS between UT 2015 June 12 and UT 2015 June 20. The data are provided in Table2. (2 data files).

  7. The Advantages of L2 Translation in The Cat in the Hat: A closer Look at Translation Directionality

    OpenAIRE

    Posey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Es un estudio que plantea un aspecto traductológico específico: la traducción a la segunda lengua de quien traduce. A partir del análisis de una traducción al español de The Cat in Ihe Hat, de Dr. Seuss, obra de literatura infantil, se señalan ciertas ventaj as metodológicas que tienen que ver con la competencia cultural, la comprensión apropiada del texto original y un acercamiento lingüístico más consciente de la lengua terminal.This study focuses on translation directionality; in particula...

  8. Meningkatkan high order thinking skills mahasiswa semester III PPKn dalam pembelajaran Psikologi Sosial melalui penerapan metode six thinking hats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Chotimah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at increasing High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS of third semester Citizenship Education (CE students in Social Psychology of Learning course through the application of Six Thinking Hats Method (STH. This research was conducted using the method of classroom action research, which were carried out by two cycles, with the subject of the study were all students of the third semester CE study program class who participated in the course of Educational Psychology. Based on the analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that through the application of Six Thinking Hats method can increase (HOTS. This was evident from the increase in test scores that have been designed to measure students' critical thinking skills, where achievement test scores in the moments before the implementation of learning using STH method only in the range of 46.0, then after the first cycle increased to 53.9 and at the end of the second cycle increased to 69.8, meaning increased 23.9 points. Furthermore, the observation also showed improvement in the students’ ways of thinking, indicated by the students began to be able to think critically after the learning process in the classroom using the STH.

  9. A SEARCH FOR WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HAT-P-26b USING LDSS-3C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Gilbert, Gregory J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of a physically diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step toward establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. It is those planets with identifiable spectroscopic features that can most effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. The newly commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan provides enhanced sensitivity and suppressed fringing in the red optical, thus advancing the search for the spectroscopic signature of water in exoplanetary atmospheres from the ground. Using data acquired by LDSS-3C and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we search for evidence of water vapor in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Our measured spectrum is best explained by the presence of water vapor, a lack of potassium, and either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ∼10 mbar. The emergence of multi-scale-height spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet’s atmospheric chemical abundances. We also update HAT-P-26b’s transit ephemeris, t{sub 0} = 2455304.65218(25) BJD{sub TDB}, and orbital period, p = 4.2345023(7) days.

  10. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Okeke Nnadi; Ngozi Justina Nwodo; Marcel Kaiser; Reto Brun; Thomas J. Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, “sleeping sickness”), we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhena africana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae). The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT). Bioactivity-guided chromatogr...

  11. A randomized phase 2 study exploring the role of bevacizumab and a chemotherapy-free approach in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: The HAT study (BOOG 2008-2003), a Dutch Breast Cancer Research Group trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Drooger (Jan); H. van Tinteren (Harm); de Groot, S.M. (Steffen M.); A.J. ten Tije (Albert Jan); H. de Graaf (Hiltje); J.E.A. Portielje (Johanneke ); A. Jäger (A.); A.H. Honkoop (Aafke H); S.C. Linn (Sabine); J.R. Kroep (Judith); F.L.G. Erdkamp (Frans ); A.P. Hamberg (Paul); Imholz, A.L.T. (Alex L. T.); van Rossum-Schornagel, Q.C. (Quirine C.); J.B. Heijns (Joan); A.E. van Leeuwen-Stok; S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To explore the role of bevacizumab and a chemotherapy-free approach, the authors evaluated the combination of bevacizumab, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel (HAT) and the regimen of trastuzumab and bevacizumab (HA) with the addition of paclitaxel after progression (HA-HAT) as

  12. Importance of energy and angular resolutions in top-hat electrostatic analysers for solar wind proton measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Salatti, M.

    2016-08-01

    We use a numerical code which reproduces the angular/energy response of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyser starting from solar wind proton velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical simulations. The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. A virtual satellite launched through the simulation box measures the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real sensor in the solar wind. Different energy-angular resolutions of the analyser are investigated in order to understand the influence of the phase-space resolution in existing and upcoming space missions, with regards to determining the key parameters of plasma dynamics.

  13. The Effect of the Six Hats Based on Program in the Development of the Pivotal Thinking of Islamic Concepts Students in Hussein University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Omar Salem

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the effect based on the strategies of the six hats in the development of the pivotal thinking on the achievement of the Al-Hussein University students Islamic concepts of the program has reached the study sample (216) students, were divided randomly into two groups: an experimental group of (108) students and consisted…

  14. En hat er vel en hat ... eller?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøilerehauge, Dorrit

    2007-01-01

    Mens vi kører i høj fart på "the information highway" - i den helt store bus midt på vejen - glemmer vi ofte noget meget vigtigt i vores glæde over, at verden tilsyneladende åbner sig for os, og vi kan kommunikere med hele verden med ét klik. Vi glemmer, at selvom trafikskilte som oftest er ens -...... - så er selve trafikken og forventningerne blandt medtrafikanterne helt forskellige fra det, vi er vant til. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  15. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XIII. The orbital obliquity of three close-in massive planets hosted by dwarf K-type stars: WASP-43, HAT-P-20 and Qatar-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Mancini, L.; Nascimbeni, V.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Biazzo, K.; Lanza, A. F.; Leto, G.; Southworth, J.; Bonomo, A. S.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Boccato, C.; Cosentino, R.; Claudi, R. U.; Gratton, R.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Smareglia, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Affer, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Andreuzzi, G.; Benatti, S.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Borsato, L.; Ciceri, S.; Damasso, M.; di Fabrizio, L.; Giacobbe, P.; Granata, V.; Harutyunyan, A.; Henning, T.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Masiero, S.; Molaro, P.; Molinaro, M.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Turner, O. D.

    2017-05-01

    presents a small but significant obliquity ( deg). By analyzing the CaII H&K chromospheric emission lines for HAT-P-20 and WASP-43, we find evidence for an enhanced level of stellar activity that is possibly induced by star-planet interactions. Based on observations collected at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the frame of the programme Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS).Also based on observations collected at the 0.82 m IAC80 Telescope, operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide.

  16. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Mexican Hat site, Mexican Hat, Utah. [Environmental effects, health hazards, and options for stabilization of tailings and fencing or decontamination of sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-31

    An engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Mexican Hat millsite in Utah is presented. Topographic maps, data on core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions are presented. Radon gas release from the 2,200,000 tons of tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. T he six alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site, returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material, and consolidating the two piles into one pile and stabilizing it with cover material. Fencing around the site or the tailings and the decontamination of mill buildings is included in all options. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $4,390,000.

  17. Real Thinking with Virtual Hats: A Role-Playing Activity for Pre-Service Teachers in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sue; Masters, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Role-plays in a virtual world hold tremendous potential for higher education because they allow synchronous, immersive participation by students located across the globe. They also have the added advantage of allowing students to adopt roles and carry out tasks that are not possible in the real world. In this article, a project that involved…

  18. hat is the Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment in Visegrad Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Dvoulety

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aims to quantify the determinants of entrepreneurship in the four countries of the Visegrad (V4 group (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia with a particular focus on the relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment. The purpose of the research was to analyze whether, during the periods of higher unemployment rate, individuals more likely engage into entrepreneurial activity. Data were collected from the national statistical offices of the Visegrad countries, World Bank, Eurostat and Heritage Foundation. The collected sample covered years 1998-2015. To achieve the main objective of the article, regression models with the dependent variable, the rate of registered businesses per economically active inhabitant, were quantified. Estimated regressions proved a positive relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment. A higher unemployment rate was associated with the increase in overall entrepreneurial activity. Estimated models further confirmed the negative influence of the administrative barriers on the overall entrepreneurial activity. Several policy and research implications are discussed in the study.

  19. Clare Soper's Hat: New Education Fellowship Correspondence between Bloomsbury and New Zealand, 1938-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Broadening horizons beyond nations, transnational histories trace global flows connecting people and places. Historians have studied the New Education Fellowship (NEF) as a global network. Focused within the nation, research on New Zealand's involvement with NEF has emphasised how its activities before the Second World War impacted on the Labour…

  20. A barcode screen for epigenetic regulators reveals a role for the NuB4/HAT-B histone acetyltransferase complex in histone turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty F Verzijlbergen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic modification of histone proteins plays a key role in regulating gene expression. However, histones themselves can also be dynamic, which potentially affects the stability of histone modifications. To determine the molecular mechanisms of histone turnover, we developed a parallel screening method for epigenetic regulators by analyzing chromatin states on DNA barcodes. Histone turnover was quantified by employing a genetic pulse-chase technique called RITE, which was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing. In this screen, the NuB4/HAT-B complex, containing the conserved type B histone acetyltransferase Hat1, was found to promote histone turnover. Unexpectedly, the three members of this complex could be functionally separated from each other as well as from the known interacting factor and histone chaperone Asf1. Thus, systematic and direct interrogation of chromatin structure on DNA barcodes can lead to the discovery of genes and pathways involved in chromatin modification and dynamics.

  1. Promoting older women's health and well-being through social leisure environments: what we have learned from the Red Hat Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Julie S; Kerstetter, Deborah L; Yarnal, Careen; Baker, Birgitta L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ways that participation in a leisure organization contributed to the health and wellbeing of middle-aged and older women. We analyzed 1,693 members' responses to a query about meaningful experiences garnered through participation in the Red Hat Society. Results suggested that older women's lives have been enriched and changed by their experiences, with the women in this study citing multiple psychosocial health benefits from their participation in the Red Hat Society. Main themes encapsulating these health benefits were creating happy moments, responding to transitions and negative events, and enhancing the self. These findings are related to research on positive psychology, social support and coping, transformative leisure processes, and social identity formation. We conclude by providing suggestions for applying these findings to leisure and health promotion programming to enhance women's health and well-being in later life.

  2. New ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras from the elliptic algebra ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$

    CERN Document Server

    Avan, J; Rossi, M; Sorba, Paul

    1997-01-01

    We construct operators t(z) in the elliptic algebra introduced by Foda et al. ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$. They close an exchange algebra when p^m=q^{c+2} for m integer. In addition they commute when p=q^{2k} for k integer non-zero, and they belong to the center of ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$ when k is odd. The Poisson structures obtained for t(z) in these classical limits are identical to the q-deformed Virasoro Poisson algebra, characterizing the exchange algebras at generic values of p, q and m as new ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras.

  3. Peak center and area estimation in gamma-ray energy spectra using a Mexican-hat wavelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan [School of Information Science & Technology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Wu, Qi-fan [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-21

    Wavelet analysis is commonly used to detect and localize peaks within a signal, such as in Gamma-ray energy spectra. This paper presents a peak area estimation method based on a new wavelet analysis. Another Mexican Hat Wavelet Signal (MHWS) named after the new MHWS is obtained with the convolution of a Gaussian signal and a MHWS. During the transform, the overlapping background on the Gaussian signal caused by Compton scattering can be subtracted because the impulse response function MHWS is a second-order smooth function, and the amplitude of the maximum within the new MHWS is the net height corresponding to the Gaussian signal height, which can be used to estimate the Gaussian peak area. Moreover, the zero-crossing points within the new MHWS contain the information of the Gaussian variance whose valve should be obtained when the Gaussian peak area is estimated. Further, the new MHWS center is also the Gaussian peak center. With that distinguishing feature, the channel address of a characteristic peak center can be accurately obtained which is very useful in the stabilization of airborne Gamma energy spectra. In particular, a method for determining the correction coefficient k is given, where the peak area is calculated inaccurately because the value of the scale factor in wavelet transform is too small. The simulation and practical applications show the feasibility of the proposed peak center and area estimation method.

  4. Der gegenwärtige Religionsunterricht hat noch Entwicklungspotential. Anstöße der empirischen Unterrichtsforschung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Englert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: What does ‚Quality‘ mean, concerning religious education in school? The article discusses, why it is so difficult to answer the quality-question. It highlights the so called ‚process quality‘ und underlines the importance of the relation between ‚cognitive activation‘ and ‚constructive adaptation‘ as the two main components of the didactic process. From that point of view today’s religious education in school has, as a recent empirical study makes clear, not yet exhausted its potential. DEUTSCH: Was ist guter Religionsunterricht? Der Artikel macht deutlich, warum es so schwierig ist, eine klare Antwort auf die Frage zu geben. Er rückt die sog. ‚Prozessqualität‘ in den Fokus und stellt das Zusammenspiel von ‚kognitiver Aktivierung‘ und ‚konstruktiver Adaption‘ als für diese wesentlich heraus. Unter diesem Gesichtspunkt hat der gegenwärtige Religionsunterricht, wie aktuelle empirische Unterrichtsforschung zeigt, durchaus noch Entwicklungspotential.

  5. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendix D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This appendix is an assessment of the present conditions of the inactive uranium mill site near Mexican Hat, Utah. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan. Plan is to characterize the conditions at the mill and tailings site so that the Remedial Action Contractor may complete final designs of the remedial action.

  6. The Influence of Mexican Hat Recurrent Connectivity on Noise Correlations and Stimulus Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Meyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Noise correlations are a common feature of neural responses and have been observed in many cortical areas across different species. These correlations can influence information processing by enhancing or diminishing the quality of the neural code, but the origin of these correlations is still a matter of controversy. In this computational study we explore the hypothesis that noise correlations are the result of local recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections. We simulated two-dimensional networks of adaptive spiking neurons with local connection patterns following Gaussian kernels. Noise correlations decay with distance between neurons but are only observed if the range of excitatory connections is smaller than the range of inhibitory connections (“Mexican hat” connectivity and if the connection strengths are sufficiently strong. These correlations arise from a moving blob-like structure of evoked activity, which is absent if inhibitory interactions have a smaller range (“inverse Mexican hat” connectivity. Spatially structured external inputs fixate these blobs to certain locations and thus effectively reduce noise correlations. We further investigated the influence of these network configurations on stimulus encoding. On the one hand, the observed correlations diminish information about a stimulus encoded by a network. On the other hand, correlated activity allows for more precise encoding of stimulus information if the decoder has only access to a limited amount of neurons.

  7. Hard Hats, Octopuses and Rubber Boots- Operational Managers in Building Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses Operation management (OM) in the production of buildings. It is initially contended that OM needs to be improved, from a theoretical and practical perspective. Departing from a criticism of present modeling and management of processes it is suggested to develop an understanding...... of the steps and interdependencies in the process. The field study shows a vast amount of interruptions in operational managers work at the building site. The site managers studied typically worked with four main activities and were interrupted some 126 times during a workday. The prime reason...... of the importance of human resources in tackling complexity, fragmentation and disturbances in the building industry. Theoretical models too often either rely on neat operational analysis models or refrain from such order by merely referring to the chaos of building processes. The paper seeks to place itself...

  8. Transmission spectroscopy of HAT-P-32b with the LBT: confirmation of clouds/hazes in the planetary atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonn, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Spectroscopic observations of a transit event of an extrasolar planet offer the opportunity to study the composition of the planetary atmosphere. This can be done with comparably little telescope time using a low-resolution multi-object spectrograph at a large aperture telescope. We observed a transit of the inflated hot Jupiter HAT-P-32b with the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph at the Large Binocular Telescope to characterize its atmosphere from 3300 to 10 000 Å. Methods: A time series of target and reference star spectra was binned in two broad-band wavelength channels, from which differential transit light curves were constructed. These broad-band light curves were used to confirm previous transit parameter determinations. To derive the planetary transmission spectrum with a resolution of R ~ 60, we created a chromatic set of 62 narrow-band light curves. The spectrum was corrected for the third light of a nearby M star. Additionally, we undertook a photometric monitoring campaign of the host star to correct for the influence of starspots. Results: The transmission spectrum of HAT-P-32b shows no pressure-broadened absorption features from Na and K, which is interpreted by the presence of clouds or hazes in the planetary atmosphere. This result is in agreement with previous studies on the same planet. The presence of TiO in gas phase could be ruled out. We find a 2.8σ indication of increased absorption in the line core of potassium (K I 7699 Å). No narrow absorption features of Na and Hα were detected. Furthermore, tentative indications were found for a slope of increasing opacity toward blue wavelengths from the near-IR to the near-UV with an amplitude of two scale heights. If confirmed by follow-up observations, it can be explained by aerosols either causing Mie scattering or causing Rayleigh scattering with an aerosol - gas scale height ratio below unity. The host star was found to be photometrically stable within the measurement precision. Based on

  9. Quality of life effects of automatic external defibrillators in the home: results from the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel B; Anstrom, Kevin J; McNulty, Steven E; Flaker, Greg C; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren M; Toff, William D; Dorian, Paul; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Schron, Eleanor B; Poole, Jeanne E; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H

    2010-04-01

    Public access automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) can save lives, but most deaths from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest occur at home. The Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT) found no survival advantage for adding a home AED to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for 7,001 patients with a prior anterior wall myocardial infarction. Quality of life (QOL) outcomes for both the patient and spouse/companion were secondary end points. A subset of 1,007 study patients and their spouse/companions was randomly selected for ascertainment of QOL by structured interview at baseline and 12 and 24 months after enrollment. The primary QOL measures were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form psychological well-being (reflecting anxiety and depression) and vitality (reflecting energy and fatigue) subscales. For patients and spouse/companions, the psychological well-being and vitality scales did not differ significantly between those randomly assigned an AED plus CPR training and controls who received CPR training only. None of the other QOL measures collected showed a clinically and statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Patients in the AED group were more likely to report being extremely or quite a bit reassured by their treatment assignment. Spouse/companions in the AED group reported being less often nervous about the possibility of using AED/CPR treatment than those in the CPR group. Adding access to a home AED to CPR training did not affect QOL either for patients with a prior anterior myocardial infarction or their spouse/companion but did provide more reassurance to the patients without increasing anxiety for spouse/companions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films by square top-hat ultraviolet laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chiang, Donyau; Chung, Chien-Kai; Andrew Yeh, Jer-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a square top-hat beam shaper in an ultraviolet (UV) laser processing system for electrode patterning and investigates the interaction between square laser beams and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited on glass substrates. The various patterning parameters to ablate the FTO films used in this experiment are included laser fluences, pulse repetition frequencies, and feeding rates of a motorized platform. The laser pulse repetition frequency and the feeding rate of the motorized platform were used to calculate the overlapping rate of laser spot and to determine the patterning quality. The line width and depth, edge quality, three-dimensional topography, and electrical conductivity properties of the patterned FTO films were measured and analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope and a four-point probe instrument. Experimental results indicated that the ablated line width and depth increased with increasing laser fluence. After electrode patterning with laser fluence of 2.07 J/cm2 and 80% overlapping rate, no damages were observed in the patterned lines on the glass substrate. Moreover, the patterned line paths were narrow, smooth, clear, and flat in response to uniform laser energy distribution interacted in FTO films. The measured values of sheet resistance ranged from 109.7±3.8 Ω/□ to 139.3±4.9 Ω/□ at 2.07 J/cm2 to 9.37 J/cm2 laser fluences, respectively. The proposed process can reduce the fabrication steps and improve the removal efficiency of transparent conductive oxide materials and no waste etching chemical solution is produced.

  11. Classification of Ultra-High Resolution Orthophotos Combined with DSM Using a Dual Morphological Top Hat Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New aerial sensors and platforms (e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are capable of providing ultra-high resolution remote sensing data (less than a 30-cm ground sampling distance (GSD. This type of data is an important source for interpreting sub-building level objects; however, it has not yet been explored. The large-scale differences of urban objects, the high spectral variability and the large perspective effect bring difficulties to the design of descriptive features. Therefore, features representing the spatial information of the objects are essential for dealing with the spectral ambiguity. In this paper, we proposed a dual morphology top-hat profile (DMTHP using both morphology reconstruction and erosion with different granularities. Due to the high dimensional feature space, we have proposed an adaptive scale selection procedure to reduce the feature dimension according to the training samples. The DMTHP is extracted from both images and Digital Surface Models (DSM to obtain complimentary information. The random forest classifier is used to classify the features hierarchically. Quantitative experimental results on aerial images with 9-cm and UAV images with 5-cm GSD are performed. Under our experiments, improvements of 10% and 2% in overall accuracy are obtained in comparison with the well-known differential morphological profile (DMP feature, and superior performance is observed over other tested features. Large format data with 20,000 × 20,000 pixels are used to perform a qualitative experiment using the proposed method, which shows its promising potential. The experiments also demonstrate that the DSM information has greatly enhanced the classification accuracy. In the best case in our experiment, it gives rise to a classification accuracy from 63.93% (spectral information only to 94.48% (the proposed method.

  12. Wave-turbulence description of interacting particles: Klein-Gordon model with a Mexican-hat potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2015-07-01

    In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit.

  13. The Census Taker's Hat

    OpenAIRE

    Susskind, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    If the observable universe really is a hologram, then of what sort? Is it rich enough to keep track of an eternally inflating multiverse? What physical and mathematical principles underlie it? Is the hologram a lower dimensional quantum field theory, and if so, how many dimensions are explicit, and how many "emerge?" Does the Holographic description provide clues for defining a probability measure on the Landscape? The purpose of this lecture is first, to briefly review a proposal for a holog...

  14. The Census Taker's Hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugués, Rubén

    Magnetic monopoles have rivaled black holes as the most beautiful and elusive entities in the world of theoretical physics since they were first considered in the early twentieth century. They naturally arise in electromagnetism and have immediate implications on the underlying symmetries, both dynamical and internal, at both the classical and quantum level. In this article we will recap some facts about magnetic monopoles in electromagnetism, in particular notions regarding their contribution to the angular momentum of a system and how these concepts are related to the quantization condition for the product of the charges of a fundamental electric pole and magnetic pole. We then proceed to consider magnetic poles in general relativity and briefly address similar considerations in this theory.

  15. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh

    2012-06-01

    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  16. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Medio y Pleistoceno Superior en el Valle del Jarama: yacimientos de Valdocarros y HAT (Madrid, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the micromammals from the sites of Valdocarros and HAT, located in the lithostratigraphic unit of Arganda II and IV respectively, within the Arganda Complex Terrace, in the Jarama Valley (Madrid, Spain. The micromammal associations of these sites consist of the following taxa: in Valdocarros: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura aff. russula; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Castor fiber, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus brecciensis; and Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; and in HAT: Soricomorpha: Soricidae indet.; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus sp., Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus cf. cabrerae; and Lagomorpha: cf. Oryctolagus sp. The micromammal assemblage of the Valdocarros site can be placed in the advanced Middle Pleistocene, but not in its end, because of the faunal association and the evolved state of Microtus brecciensis. However, in HAT, the presence of Microtus cf. cabrerae suggests that this site belongs to the Late Pleistocene. Both micromammal assemblages indicate a temperate climate and a well developed vegetation cover, consisting of some forest and also open areas, with shrub-like vegetation and also meadow and riverside vegetation.

    Se realiza el estudio de los micromamíferos del yacimiento de Valdocarros, que se localiza en la uni dad de Arganda II de la Terraza Compleja de Arganda, en el valle del Jarama (Madrid, y del yacimiento de HAT, que está en la unidad de Arganda IV. Las asociaciones de micromamíferos determinadas en este trabajo en dichos yacimientos son las siguientes: en Valdocarros: erinaceomorfos: Erinaceus europaeus; soricomorfos: Crocidura aff. russula; roedores: Eliomys quercinus, Castor fiber, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus y Microtus brecciensis; y lagomorfos:

  17. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of the Dense, Modestly-irradiated, Giant Exoplanet HAT-P-20b Using Pixel-level Decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather; Kammer, Joshua; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Ingalls, James; Carey, Sean; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Todorov, Kamen; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fraine, Jonathan; Langton, Jonathan; Morley, Caroline; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-06-01

    HAT-P-20b is a giant metal-rich exoplanet orbiting a metal-rich star. We analyze two secondary eclipses of the planet in each of the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands of Warm Spitzer. We have developed a simple, powerful, and radically different method to correct the intra-pixel effect for Warm Spitzer data, which we call pixel-level decorrelation (PLD). PLD corrects the intra-pixel effect very effectively, but without explicitly using—or even measuring—the fluctuations in the apparent position of the stellar image. We illustrate and validate PLD using synthetic and real data and comparing the results to previous analyses. PLD can significantly reduce or eliminate red noise in Spitzer secondary eclipse photometry, even for eclipses that have proven to be intractable using other methods. Our successful PLD analysis of four HAT-P-20b eclipses shows a best-fit blackbody temperature of 1134 ± 29 K, indicating inefficient longitudinal transfer of heat, but lacking evidence for strong molecular absorption. We find sufficient evidence for variability in the 4.5 μm band that the eclipses should be monitored at that wavelength by Spitzer, and this planet should be a high priority for James Webb Space Telescope spectroscopy. All four eclipses occur about 35 minutes after orbital phase 0.5, indicating a slightly eccentric orbit. A joint fit of the eclipse and transit times with extant RV data yields ecos ω =0.01352-0.00057+0.00054 and establishes the small eccentricity of the orbit to high statistical confidence. HAT-P-20b is another excellent candidate for orbital evolution via Kozai migration or other three-body mechanisms.

  18. Industrial mJ-class all-fiber front end with spatially coherent top-hat beam output used as seeder for high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Perrin, A.; Calvet, Pierre; Gouriou, Pierre; Scol, Florent; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Lecren, E.; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2015-05-01

    In large scale laser facility dedicated to laser-matter interaction including inertial confinement fusion, such as LMJ or NIF, high-energy main amplifier is injected by a laser source in which the beam parameters must be controlled. For many years, the CEA has developed nano-joule pulses all-fiber front end sources, based on the telecommunications fiber optics technologies. Thanks to these technologies, we have been able to precisely control temporal shaping and phase-modulated pulse. Nowadays, fiber lasers are able to deliver very high power beams and high energy pulses for industrial needs (laser marking, welding,…). Therefore, we have currently developed new nanosecond pulses fibered amplifiers able to increase output pulse energy up to the mJ level. These amplifiers are based on flexible fibers and not on rod type. This allows us to achieve a compact source. Nevertheless the intensity profile of theses fibers usually has a Gaussian shape. To be compatible with main amplifier section injection, the Gaussian intensity profile must then be transformed into `top-hat' profile. To reach the goal, we have recently developed an elegant and efficient solution based on a single-mode fiber which directly delivers a spatially coherent `top-hat' beam. In the conference, we will present this mJ-class top-hat all-fiber laser system, the results and the industrial prototype which can be used as a front-end of high-power lasers or as a seeder for other types of lasers.

  19. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity.

  20. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takeya; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Doiguchi, Masamichi; Imamura, Yuko; Higashi, Miki; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity.

  1. HAT-P-49b: a 1.7 M {sub J} planet transiting a bright 1.5 M {sub ☉} F-star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Béky, B.; Falco, E.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. C.; Esquerdo, G. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; Penev, K.; De Val-Borro, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kovács, G. [Konkoly Observatory, Budapest 1121 (Hungary); Boisse, I. [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Lázár, J.; Papp, I., E-mail: abieryla@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: gbakos@astro.princeton.edu [Hungarian Astronomical Association (HAA), Budapest 1461 (Hungary); and others

    2014-04-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting extrasolar planet HAT-P-49b. The planet transits the bright (V = 10.3) slightly evolved F-star HD 340099 with a mass of 1.54 M {sub ☉} and a radius of 1.83 R {sub ☉}. HAT-P-49b is orbiting one of the 25 brightest stars to host a transiting planet which makes this a favorable candidate for detailed follow-up. This system is an especially strong target for Rossiter-McLaughlin follow-up due to the host star's fast rotation, 16 km s{sup –1}. The planetary companion has a period of 2.6915 days, mass of 1.73 M {sub J}, and radius of 1.41 R {sub J}. The planetary characteristics are consistent with that of a classical hot Jupiter but we note that this is the fourth most massive star to host a transiting planet with both M{sub p} and R{sub p} well determined.

  2. KEPLER'S OPTICAL SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF HAT-P-7b AND PROBABLE DETECTION OF PLANET-INDUCED STELLAR GRAVITY DARKENING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Brett M.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mandell, Avi M. [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We present observations spanning 355 orbital phases of HAT-P-7 observed by Kepler from 2009 May to 2011 March (Q1-9). We find a shallower secondary eclipse depth than initially announced, consistent with a low optical albedo and detection of nearly exclusively thermal emission, without a reflected light component. We find an approximately 10 ppm perturbation to the average transit light curve near phase -0.02 that we attribute to a temperature decrease on the surface of the star, phased to the orbit of the planet. This cooler spot is consistent with planet-induced gravity darkening, slightly lagging the sub-planet position due to the finite response time of the stellar atmosphere. The brightness temperature of HAT-P-7b in the Kepler bandpass is T{sub B} = 2733 {+-} 21 K and the amplitude of the deviation in stellar surface temperature due to gravity darkening is approximately -0.18 K. The detection of the spot is not statistically unequivocal due its small amplitude, though additional Kepler observations should be able to verify the astrophysical nature of the anomaly.

  3. An unusual case of occupational asthma in a part time magician. He has got an allergy surprise from his top hat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Billeri, L; Foglia, M; Sapio, C; De Giglio, M A R; D'Amato, G

    2014-09-01

    In this report we describe a case of respiratory allergy induced by an unusual occupational exposure to rabbit. The patient worked as a part-time magician in theatres and private parties and the most popular performance of his show was to pull out a white rabbit from a top hat. Unfortunately, a few minutes after the extraction of rabbit from top hat, the patient experienced the onset of upper and lower airway symptoms, and in some occasions he was forced to stop the show and to use short acting β₂agonists and intramuscular steroids. The results of SPT and evaluation of serological specific IgE (ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE) revealed allergic sensitization to rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) dander as well as to Parietaria and dust mites. ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE excluded allergic sensitization to other cross-reacting animal allergens. Rabbit constitutes a reliable risk factor for allergic sensitization in individuals working as professional / part-time magicians or as animators in some recreational settings (resorts, parties, charity shows, etc).

  4. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  5. Avaliação da qualidade de vida de mulheres com HIV/AIDS através do HAT-QoL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar qualidade de vida entre mulheres portadoras de HIV/AIDS, aplicou-se o HIV/AIDS ­ Quality of Life test (HAT-QoL, instrumento específico para indivíduos infectados pelo HIV. Compõe-se de 42 questões e divide-se em nove domínios com questões sobre diversos aspectos de vida dos portadores. A escala foi submetida à tradução reversa e pré-teste. Sua forma definitiva foi aplicada entre 73 mulheres com HIV/AIDS. Os resultados, após análise estatística, indicaram que os domínios mais comprometidos foram: "Preocupações financeiras", "Preocupação com sigilo sobre a infecção", "Atividades sexuais" e "Preocupações com a saúde". Esses resultados foram atribuídos ao fato das mulheres apresentarem, além da infecção, uma situação sócio-econômica precária que, provavelmente, também interferiu negativamente em sua qualidade de vida. Concluímos que a escala HAT-QoL foi adequada para a população de mulheres portadoras de HIV deste estudo, apesar de ser originária de uma cultura diferente da brasileira, já que sua aplicação produziu resultados semelhantes aos da literatura internacional.

  6. Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin therapy. Results of the global HAT study in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Costa Gil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D. HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective. The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective, 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective. Hypoglycaemia affected quality of life (on a scale of 0-10 for fear of hypoglycaemia: 60% in T1D and 37.6% in T2D scored 5 to 10, daily life, occupational or academic performance (2.1% with T1D and 3.2% with T2D did not attend to their work after hypoglycaemia, and induced an increased use of health resources (T1D: 66.1% increased glucose monitoring, 60.5% food intake, 51% consultations, 3.5% hospital admissions; 60.5% reduced insulin and 20.9% exercises; T2D increased 46.2% glucose monitoring, 43.8% consultations, 38.6% food intake, 24.1% reduced and 13.9% skipped the insulin dose and 14.3% suspended exercises. Greater numbers of episodes were recorded in the prospective period. An instrument to assess hypoglycaemia in clinical practice and strategies to reduce their risk are required. It is also important to ask about the episodes and reinforce the education of patients and close relatives on hypoglycaemia prevention and treatment

  7. [Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin therapy. Results of the global HAT study in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gil, José E; Linari, María A; Pugnaloni, Natalia; Zambon, Fabio G; Pérez Manghi, Federico; Rezzónico, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective). The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective), 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective). Hypoglycaemia affected quality of life (on a scale of 0-10 for fear of hypoglycaemia: 60% in T1D and 37.6% in T2D scored 5 to 10), daily life, occupational or academic performance (2.1% with T1D and 3.2% with T2D did not attend to their work after hypoglycaemia), and induced an increased use of health resources (T1D: 66.1% increased glucose monitoring, 60.5% food intake, 51% consultations, 3.5% hospital admissions; 60.5% reduced insulin and 20.9% exercises; T2D increased 46.2% glucose monitoring, 43.8% consultations, 38.6% food intake, 24.1% reduced and 13.9% skipped the insulin dose and 14.3% suspended exercises). Greater numbers of episodes were recorded in the prospective period. An instrument to assess hypoglycaemia in clinical practice and strategies to reduce their risk are required. It is also important to ask about the episodes and reinforce the education of patients and close relatives on hypoglycaemia prevention and treatment.

  8. The Parameterization of Top-Hat Particle Sensors with Microchannel-Plate-Based Detection Systems and its Application to the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Gliese, Ulrik; Dorelli, John C.; Avanov, Levon A.; Barrie, Alexander C.; Chornay, Dennis J.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Matthew P.; Pollock, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    The most common instrument for low energy plasmas consists of a top-hat electrostatic analyzer geometry coupled with a microchannel-plate (MCP)-based detection system. While the electrostatic optics for such sensors are readily simulated and parameterized during the laboratory calibration process, the detection system is often less well characterized. Furthermore, due to finite resources, for large sensor suites such as the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, calibration data are increasingly sparse. Measurements must be interpolated and extrapolated to understand instrument behavior for untestable operating modes and yet sensor inter-calibration is critical to mission success. To characterize instruments from a minimal set of parameters we have developed the first comprehensive mathematical description of both sensor electrostatic optics and particle detection systems. We include effects of MCP efficiency, gain, scattering, capacitive crosstalk, and charge cloud spreading at the detector output. Our parameterization enables the interpolation and extrapolation of instrument response to all relevant particle energies, detector high voltage settings, and polar angles from a small set of calibration data. We apply this model to the 32 sensor heads in the Dual Electron Sensor (DES) and 32 sensor heads in the Dual Ion Sensor (DIS) instruments on the 4 MMS observatories and use least squares fitting of calibration data to extract all key instrument parameters. Parameters that will evolve in flight, namely MCP gain, will be determined daily through application of this model to specifically tailored in-flight calibration activities, providing a robust characterization of sensor suite performance throughout mission lifetime. Beyond FPI, our model provides a valuable framework for the simulation and evaluation of future detection system designs and can be used to maximize instrument understanding with minimal calibration

  9. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  10. In vitro antioxidant capacity of tea of Echinodorus grandiforus, “leather hat,” in Wistar rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAELA F. LUNARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the factors responsible for hepatic diseases, which sometimes require new ways of treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the tea of Echinodorus grandiforus (“leather hat” plant in rat liver. Different preparations of tea were evaluated for phenolic composition, antioxidant activity by DPPH assay and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by copper sulfate. The antioxidant activity was assessed in liver tissue treated with sodium azide in the presence or absence of tea by assays for lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The results show that different preparations of tea are important sources of polyphenols and contain theobromine, catechin and vitexin. Furthermore, the results indicate that this tea exhibits an antioxidant activity by its ability to scavenge DPPH radical. Different preparations of tea prevented damage to lipids and proteins induced by sodium azide, as well as assisting in restoring CAT and SOD activities. Thus, it can be seen that E. grandiforus tea had antioxidant activity in serum and liver being able to prevent oxidative damages generated by sodium azide.

  11. High-resolution, Two-Dimensional Geophysical Investigation of several small faults at the northern end of the Hat Creek graben, Shasta, Californi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaci, O.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Page, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Several faults were identified as Quaternary in age near the Pit River at the northern end of the Hat Creek graben based on their geomorphic expression. Preliminary paleoseismic trenching confirmed that Fault 3432 had displacements in the late Quaternary indicating that it is with long recurrence, but the style of faulting and its role within the greater geologic context remains unresolved. Detailed site-specific geophysical investigations were performed in order to help characterize the Fault 3432 and plan future paleoseismic investigations. Seven two-dimensional seismic reflection lines were acquired using a distributed networked recording configuration. Standard seismic reflection processing and surface wave processing using IMASW were performed to resolve shallow stratigraphy within Camp Shasta Basin and Burney Mountain Hillside Basin locations. Using this data combined with geomorphology facilitated our mapping and interpretation of fault zone architecture within the study area. In both Camp Shasta and Burney Mountain locations, seismic reflection data helped locate discrete fault strands extending near surface. In addition, our interpretation of seismic profiles show that near-vertical steep faults merge at depth indicating negative flower structure. This fault structure suggests that the dominant style of faulting in the study area is strike slip with a normal component.

  12. hatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân)’ın Türkçe Bir Tercümesi
    A Turkish Translation of Râhatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân)

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Müjgân

    2012-01-01

    Islamic literatures include many texts on the justice and counsels of Sassanian ruler Nûşîrevân. One of these is a work of Persian Literature which recounts the counsels written on his crown and figures with the titles of “Râhatü’l-insân” or “Pend-nâme-i Enûşîrvân” in some sources. Rıza Kulı Han Hidayet states that the text belongs to Bedâyi‛-i Belhî; however the identity of the author is disputed. It is also argued that the “Şerîf-i Şair,” whose name appears in the introduction to the text e...

  13. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm2). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm2, pscanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  14. A new hat for librarians: providing REDCap support to establish the library as a central data hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Kevin; LaPolla, Fred Willie Zametkin

    2018-01-01

    REDCap, an electronic data capture tool, supports good research data management, but many researchers lack familiarity with the tool. While a REDCap administrator provided technical support and a clinical data management support unit provided study design support, a service gap existed. Librarians with REDCap expertise sought to increase and improve usage through outreach, workshops, and consultations. In collaboration with a REDCap administrator and the director of the clinical data management support unit, the role of the library was established in providing REDCap training and consultations. REDCap trainings were offered to the medical center during the library's quarterly data series, which served as a springboard for offering tailored REDCap support to researchers and research groups. Providing REDCap support has proved to be an effective way to associate the library with data-related activities in an academic medical center and identify new opportunities for offering data services in the library. By offering REDCap services, the library established strong partnerships with the Information Technology Department, Clinical Data Support Department, and Compliance Office by filling in training gaps, while simultaneously referring users back to these departments when additional expertise was required. These new partnerships continue to grow and serve to position the library as a central data hub in the institution.

  15. Levels of cholesterol in small LDL particles predict atherosclerosis progression and incident CHD in the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Marcovina, Santica M; Brown, B Greg; Krauss, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    Test whether angiographically-documented changes in percent stenosis and clinical endpoints (coronary-related deaths, myocardial infarctions, stroke, revascularization for worsening ischemia) in the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS) were attributable to specific LDL-subclasses. Gradient gel electrophoresis of on-study LDL-subclass cholesterol concentrations were measured in 32 placebo, 33 simvastatin-niacin, 38 antioxidant, and 39 simvastatin-niacin & antioxidant treated participants. The prespecified primary end point was the mean change per patient from the initial arteriogram to the final arteriogram in the percent stenosis caused by the most severe lesion in each of the nine proximal coronary segments. The change in the percent stenosis of the most severe proximal lesions increased in association with higher concentrations of the small LDL subfractions LDL-IIIb (24.2-24.6 nm) and LDL-IVa (23.3-24.1 nm) before (both P = 0.002) and after (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03 respectively) adjustment for treatment group and on-study HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. The associations appeared specific to lesions with <30% baseline stenosis. When adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI and cigarette use, the odds for primary clinical endpoints (death from coronary causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization for worsening ischemia) were significantly greater in subjects with higher on-study LDL-IIIb levels both before (P = 0.01) and after (P = 0.03) adjustment for treatment group and the standard lipid values. Plasma LDL-IIIb cholesterol concentrations were related to changes in coronary artery stenosis and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL-cholesterol. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000553.

  16. Levels of cholesterol in small LDL particles predict atherosclerosis progression and incident CHD in the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available Test whether angiographically-documented changes in percent stenosis and clinical endpoints (coronary-related deaths, myocardial infarctions, stroke, revascularization for worsening ischemia in the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS were attributable to specific LDL-subclasses.Gradient gel electrophoresis of on-study LDL-subclass cholesterol concentrations were measured in 32 placebo, 33 simvastatin-niacin, 38 antioxidant, and 39 simvastatin-niacin & antioxidant treated participants. The prespecified primary end point was the mean change per patient from the initial arteriogram to the final arteriogram in the percent stenosis caused by the most severe lesion in each of the nine proximal coronary segments.The change in the percent stenosis of the most severe proximal lesions increased in association with higher concentrations of the small LDL subfractions LDL-IIIb (24.2-24.6 nm and LDL-IVa (23.3-24.1 nm before (both P = 0.002 and after (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03 respectively adjustment for treatment group and on-study HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. The associations appeared specific to lesions with <30% baseline stenosis. When adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI and cigarette use, the odds for primary clinical endpoints (death from coronary causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization for worsening ischemia were significantly greater in subjects with higher on-study LDL-IIIb levels both before (P = 0.01 and after (P = 0.03 adjustment for treatment group and the standard lipid values.Plasma LDL-IIIb cholesterol concentrations were related to changes in coronary artery stenosis and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL-cholesterol.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000553.

  17. Antitrypanosomal structure-activity-relationship study of synthetic cynaropicrin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Toyonobu; Sato, Makiko; Hara, Shihori; Yoshimoto, Yukiko; Kondo, Ryosuke; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Hamburger, Matthias; Adams, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Cynaropicrin is a guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone with a 5-7-5 tricyclic skeleton, four exo-olefins, and two hydroxyl groups. Recently, it was found that the compound is a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness). In this Letter, chemical derivatization of cynaropicrin and the structure-activity-relationship (SAR) study against T. brucei is described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  19. Wearing more than one hat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Ibsen, Flemming

    This article investigates the use of collective industrial conflict in the public sector by analysing the Danish teacher lockout in 2013. The social partners in the public sector in Denmark (and the other Scandinavian countries) engage in negotiations and reach agreements regarding wages...... bargaining round and the teacher lockout in 2013. The article shows how the use of collective industrial conflicts in the public sector has a number of built-in systemic flaws, as the public employers are at one and the same time the budgetary authority and legislators. This is not a new finding, however...... and working conditions in accordance with a private model. This also applies to the use of the so-called weapons of conflict – strikes/blockades and lockouts/boycotts – in connection with labour disputes if the involved parties are unable to reach agreement through negotiations or mediation...

  20. Welches Geschlecht hat die Avantgarde?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lehnert

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch betrachtet das Theater der französischen und amerikanischen ‚Avantgarde‘ der Moderne und Postmoderne unter dem Aspekt des Geschlechts: Welcher Verfahren bedient sich avantgardistische Kunst, ist avantgardistische Kunst in geschlechtlicher Hinsicht restriktiv, oder ermöglicht sie die subversive feministische oder auch lesbisch-schwule Ausformung spezifischer Formen?

  1. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, AndreAna N., E-mail: andreana.pena@gmail.com [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M. [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  2. hatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân’ın Türkçe Bir Tercümesi A Turkish Translation of Râhatü’l-İnsân (Pend-Nâme-i Enûşîrvân

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgân ÇAKIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic literatures include many texts on the justice and counsels of Sassanian ruler Nûşîrevân. One of these is a work of Persian Literature which recounts the counsels written on his crown and figures with the titles of “Râhatü’l-insân” or “Pend-nâme-i Enûşîrvân” in some sources. Rıza Kulı Han Hidayet states that the text belongs to Bedâyi‛-i Belhî; however the identity of the author is disputed. It is also argued that the “Şerîf-i Şair,” whose name appears in the introduction to the text edited by Charles Schefer in his work entitled Chrestomathie Persane, is Ebû Şerîf Muhalledi-yi Gurgânî. Râhatü’l-insân has manuscripts in Turkish libraries. This article treats this work and its Turkish prose translation located at Süleymaniye Library, Fatih Section No. 5385 under the title “Pend-i Nûşîrevân-ı Âdil.” In this translation, the counsels written on the seventeen slices (küngüre of Nûşîrevân’s crown are given and it is told that this ruler had his crown put up somewhere appropriate every year for the soldiers to read his counsels. The purposes of Nûşîrevân’s counsels are proving a moral education to the public, directing his relations with his people as well as organizing the relations between them. Some of the counsels written on Nûşîrevân’s crown are as follows: “Respect the old and the weak, observe the rights of your parents, consult scholars before you do your business, have a command of your speech, do not betray trust, think before you speak.” The article will also treat some of the differences between the Persian manuscripts of the work and its Turkish translation. The transcription of the Turkish translation will be given. İslâmî edebiyatlarda Sasani hükümdarı Nûşîrevân’ın adaleti ve nasihatlarıyla ilgili birçok metin yazılmıştır. Bu metinlerden biri Fars Edebiyatı’nda onun tacının üzerinde yazılı olan nasihatları anlatan ve baz

  3. QSAR modeling for anti-human African trypanosomiasis activity of substituted 2-Phenylimidazopyridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Vijay H.; El-Sayed, Nahed N. E.; Mahajan, Devidas T.; Mercader, Andrew G.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Shibi, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, sixty substituted 2-Phenylimidazopyridines previously reported with potent anti-human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) activity were selected to build genetic algorithm (GA) based QSAR models to determine the structural features that have significant correlation with the activity. Multiple QSAR models were built using easily interpretable descriptors that are directly associated with the presence or the absence of a structural scaffold, or a specific atom. All the QSAR models have been thoroughly validated according to the OECD principles. All the QSAR models are statistically very robust (R2 = 0.80-0.87) with high external predictive ability (CCCex = 0.81-0.92). The QSAR analysis reveals that the HAT activity has good correlation with the presence of five membered rings in the molecule.

  4. Close sequence identity between ribosomal DNA episomes of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba histolytica are now recognized as two distinct species – the former being nonpathogenic to humans. We had earlier studied the organization of ribosomal RNA genes in E. histolytica. Here we report the analysis of ribosomal RNA genes in E. dispar. The rRNA genes of E. dispar, like their ...

  5. Sözden Yazıya, Yinelemeden Hatırlamaya, Ritüelden Estetiğe Devam Eden Anlatı / Narrative Continuing from Oral to Text, Repetition to Memory, Ritual to Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emir İlhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines how a narrative transform from oral to text, repetition to memory and ritual to aesthetics. The study consists of three sections. In the first section; the questions about “what is the protected one?” and “what is the changed one?” in narration while a narration transforms to text will be discussed. In the second section, it is investigated that how "repetition" transformed to "remembering" in terms of memory, or in other words, how "symbolic" connotative recall transferred to "imaginary" thinkable remembering as the basic notion of oral culture. In the last section, the transition between symbolic and imaginary shown as they are actually the foundation of an evolution from aesthetic narrative to ritualistic words. Consequently, on contrary to the modern thoughts and thinkers which/who claim that the tension caused by the differentiation of ages is a “break”, the main purpose of this study is to show that it is not a “break” but “continuation”. The age difference of narration which occurs as a result of the difference between the word and writing/literacy; which is opposed to modernize the ideas and thinkers which handle this difference as a "break" may be seen as a "continuing". Öz Bu çalışmada, bir anlatının sözden yazıya, tekrardan hatırlamaya, ritüelden estetiğe nasıl bir dönüşüm geçirdiği ortaya konulmaktadır. Çalışmada, bir anlatının sözden yazıya geçerken tekrardan hatırlamaya doğru nasıl bir form değişikliğine uğradığı; bunun sonucu olarak da sözün yinelemeye dayalı ritüelistik formunun, yazıyla birlikte hatırlamayla oluşan bir estetik forma dönüştüğü ortaya konulacaktır. Çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, sözden yazıya geçişte, “anlatıda korunan şey nedir?” ve “anlatıyla birlikte değişen şey nedir?”, sorusu irdelenecektir. Sözden yazıya, anlatıda devam eden form ve özün izlekleri ortaya

  6. The Influence of Peripheral Substituent Modification on P(V), Mn(III), and Mn(V)(O) Corrolazines: X-ray Crystallography, Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Properties, and HAT and OAT Reactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Evan E; Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P

    2016-09-06

    The influence of remote peripheral substitution on the physicochemical properties and reactivity of phosphorus and manganese corrolazine (Cz) complexes was examined. The substitution of p-MeO for p-t-Bu groups on the eight phenyl substituents of the β-carbon atoms of the Cz ring led to changes in UV-vis transitions and redox potentials for each of the complexes. The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity of the Mn(V)(O) complexes was also influenced by p-MeO substitution. The OAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) (MeOP8Cz = octakis(p-methoxyphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) with triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates led to second-order rate constants from 10.2(5) to 3.1(2) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These rates of OAT are slower than those seen for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)). A Hammett study involving para-substituted PAr3 substrates reveals a Hammett ρ-value for Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) that is more negative than that observed for Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), consistent with a less electrophilic Mn center. The HAT reactivity of Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) with C-H substrates was examined and revealed second-order rate constants from 6.8(5) × 10(-5) to 1.70(2) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). The rate constants varied with the C-H bond strength of the substrate. Slightly faster HAT rates with C-H substrates were observed with Mn(V)(O)(MeOP8Cz) compared to Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz), indicating that the basicity of the putative [Mn(IV)(O)](-) intermediate likely compensates for the more negative redox potential in the driving force for HAT. In addition, the complete, large-scale synthesis of the para-phenyl-substituted porphyrazines RP8PzH2 (R = p-tert-butylphenyl (TB), p-methoxyphenyl (MeO), and p-isopropylphenyl) and corrolazines RP8CzH3 (TBP8CzH3 and MeOP8CzH3) is presented. The crystal structures of the monoprotonated, metal-free corrolazine [(TBP8CzH3)(H)](+)[BArF](-), P(V)(OMe)2(MeOP8Cz), and Mn(III)(MeOP8Cz)(MeOH) are presented. This work

  7. Hatékony leadership magatartások szlovák szervezeti környezetben (Effective leadership behaviors in Slovak organizational environment – Introduction to the Slovak implict leadership theories –Results of the GLOBE research)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    Az itt bemutatott kutatás célja az volt, hogy azonosítsa és feltárja a szlovák vállalati környezetben követett és kívánatosnak tartott leadership dimenziókat és bemutassa azokat az implicit leadership elmélet alapján meghatározott magatartásokat, amelyek a sikeres leadershipet támogató magatartásokként jelennek meg (az implicit leadership elmélet szerint az egyének magatartásokhoz kapcsolódó hiedelmeik, meggyőződéseik és értékítéleteik alapján határozzák meg, kit tekintenek vezető...

  8. Growth Factor-Activated Stem Cell Circuits and Stromal Signals Cooperatively Accelerate Non-Integrated iPSC Reprogramming of Human Myeloid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Ann; Talbot, C. Conover; Verma, Karan; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Kaplan, Ian M.; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2012-01-01

    Nonviral conversion of skin or blood cells into clinically useful human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) occurs in only rare fractions (∼0.001%–0.5%) of donor cells transfected with non-integrating reprogramming factors. Pluripotency induction of developmentally immature stem-progenitors is generally more efficient than differentiated somatic cell targets. However, the nature of augmented progenitor reprogramming remains obscure, and its potential has not been fully explored for improving the extremely slow pace of non-integrated reprogramming. Here, we report highly optimized four-factor reprogramming of lineage-committed cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors with bulk efficiencies of ∼50% in purified episome-expressing cells. Lineage-committed CD33+CD45+CD34− myeloid cells and not primitive hematopoietic stem-progenitors were the main targets of a rapid and nearly complete non-integrated reprogramming. The efficient conversion of mature myeloid populations into NANOG+TRA-1-81+ hiPSC was mediated by synergies between hematopoietic growth factor (GF), stromal activation signals, and episomal Yamanaka factor expression. Using a modular bioinformatics approach, we demonstrated that efficient myeloid reprogramming correlated not to increased proliferation or endogenous Core factor expressions, but to poised expression of GF-activated transcriptional circuits that commonly regulate plasticity in both hematopoietic progenitors and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Factor-driven conversion of myeloid progenitors to a high-fidelity pluripotent state was further accelerated by soluble and contact-dependent stromal signals that included an implied and unexpected role for Toll receptor-NFκB signaling. These data provide a paradigm for understanding the augmented reprogramming capacity of somatic progenitors, and reveal that efficient induced pluripotency in other cell types may also require extrinsic activation of a molecular framework that commonly regulates self

  9. Histone deacetylase activity and reactive oxygen species content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and development of acute osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Jadko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC in regulation of ROS content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and under development of acute osmotic stress was studied by using inhibition assay with application of trichostatin A (TSA. It was found that in the tissue culture grown under normal conditions a decrease in HDAC activity by means of TSA led to increase of the ROS content. Similar but more pronounced alterations occurred under stress. At the same time an increase in histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity was also observed. The possible mechanisms of HDAC and HAT participation in regulation of ROS content by changes in expression of genes that are responsible for ROS production and antioxidant activity are discussed.

  10. SCYX-7158, an orally-active benzoxaborole for the treatment of stage 2 human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Jacobs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting hundreds of thousands of individuals. An urgent need exists for the discovery and development of new, safe, and effective drugs to treat HAT, as existing therapies suffer from poor safety profiles, difficult treatment regimens, limited effectiveness, and a high cost of goods. We have discovered and optimized a novel class of small-molecule boron-containing compounds, benzoxaboroles, to identify SCYX-7158 as an effective, safe and orally active treatment for HAT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A drug discovery project employing integrated biological screening, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetic characterization identified SCYX-7158 as an optimized analog, as it is active in vitro against relevant strains of Trypanosoma brucei, including T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense, is efficacious in both stage 1 and stage 2 murine HAT models and has physicochemical and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology (ADMET properties consistent with the compound being orally available, metabolically stable and CNS permeable. In a murine stage 2 study, SCYX-7158 is effective orally at doses as low as 12.5 mg/kg (QD×7 days. In vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of SCYX-7158 demonstrates that the compound is highly bioavailable in rodents and non-human primates, has low intravenous plasma clearance and has a 24-h elimination half-life and a volume of distribution that indicate good tissue distribution. Most importantly, in rodents brain exposure of SCYX-7158 is high, with C(max >10 µg/mL and AUC(0-24 hr >100 µg*h/mL following a 25 mg/kg oral dose. Furthermore, SCYX-7158 readily distributes into cerebrospinal fluid to achieve therapeutically relevant concentrations in this compartment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The biological and pharmacokinetic properties of SCYX-7158 suggest that this compound will be

  11. Disposition, Metabolism and Histone Deacetylase and Acetyltransferase Inhibition Activity of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Other Curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia T. Novaes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of these curcuminoids and to determine disposition of THC in rats after oral administration. We developed a UHPLC–MS/MS assay for THC in rat serum and urine. THC shows multiple redistribution phases with corresponding increases in urinary excretion rate. In-vitro antioxidant activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity were examined using commercial assay kits. Anticancer activity was determined in Sup-T1 lymphoma cells. Our results indicate THC was poorly absorbed after oral administration and primarily excreted via non-renal routes. All curcuminoids exhibited multiple pharmacological effects in vitro, including potent antioxidant activity as well as inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and lipoxygenase activity without affecting the release of TNF-α. Unlike curcumin and calebin-A, THC did not inhibit HDAC1 and PCAF and displayed a weaker growth inhibition activity against Sup-T1 cells. We show evidence for the first time that curcumin and calebin-A inhibit HAT and PCAF, possibly through a Michael-addition mechanism.

  12. Effects of niacin on glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression, and clinical events in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels (Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), and Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Binh An P; Muñoz, Luis; Shadzi, Pey; Isquith, Daniel; Triller, Michael; Brown, B Greg; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    2013-02-01

    Although the effect of niacin on the glucose levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus has been investigated, niacin's effects on the glucose levels and atherosclerosis in subjects with normal glucose levels have not been well established. We examined the effect of niacin on the glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression using quantitative coronary angiography, and clinical events in 407 subjects who had a baseline glucose level <100 mg/dl and were enrolled in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), or Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study testing active niacin therapy. Although the fasting glucose levels increased significantly within 3 years in both subjects treated with niacin (from 85.6 ± 9.5 to 95.5 ± 19.7 mg/dl, p <0.001) and without niacin (from 85.2 ± 9.6 to 90 ± 17.9 mg/dl, p = 0.009), those treated with niacin had a significantly larger increase in glucose levels than those not taking niacin (9.88 vs 4.05 mg/dl, p = 0.002). Overall, 29% of subjects developed impaired fasting glucose within 3 years. Incident impaired fasting glucose was significantly more likely to be observed in subjects treated with niacin than in those who were not. However, the frequency of new-onset diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (5.6% vs 4.8%, p = 0.5). Niacin-treated subjects compared to untreated subjects had significantly less change in mean coronary stenosis (0.1 ± 0.3% vs 2 ± 12%, p <0.0001) and less major cardiovascular events (8% vs 21%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the use of niacin for 3 years in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels was associated with an increase in blood glucose levels and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose, but not diabetes mellitus, and was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of coronary stenosis progression and major cardiovascular events. Copyright

  13. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC50 = 3.2–5.2 μg/mL, TEAC (2.8–4.0 mmol Trolox®/g, and FRAP (9.8–13.7 mmol Fe2+/g tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6–58.2% of gallic acid equivalents. The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC50 = 36.9–228.3 μg/mL depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products.

  14. Profiling of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of dry extracts from the selected Sorbus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika A; Presler, Anna; Michel, Piotr

    2012-03-12

    The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and Trolox. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC(50) = 3.2-5.2 μg/mL), TEAC (2.8-4.0 mmol Trolox/g), and FRAP (9.8-13.7 mmol Fe2+/g) tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6-58.2% of gallic acid equivalents). The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC(50) = 36.9-228.3 μg/mL) depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products.

  15. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  16. New anti-trypanosomal active tetracyclic iridoid isolated from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuko; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Adegle, Richard; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyereme; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo; Ohta, Nobuo; Boakye, Daniel A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The MYST Domain Acetyltransferase Chameau Functions in Epigenetic Mechanisms of Transcriptional Repression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grienenberger, Aurélie; Miotto, Benoit; Sagnier, Thierry; Cavalli, Giacomo; Schramke, Vera; Geli, Vincent; Mariol, Marie-Christine; Berenger, Hélene; Graba, Yacine; Pradel, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    .... While modification by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) is usually linked to transcriptional activation, we provide here evidence for HAT function in several types of epigenetic repression. Chameau (Chm...

  18. Histone Acetyltransferase Activity of MOF Is Required forMLL-AF9Leukemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Daria G; Xu, Haiming; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hoshii, Takayuki; Eisold, Meghan E; Delaney, Christopher; Cusan, Monica; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Huang, Chun-Hao; Lujambio, Amaia; Zheng, YuJun George; Zuber, Johannes; Pandita, Tej K; Lowe, Scott W; Armstrong, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    Chromatin-based mechanisms offer therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are of great current interest. In this study, we conducted an RNAi-based screen to identify druggable chromatin regulator-based targets in leukemias marked by oncogenic rearrangements of the MLL gene. In this manner, we discovered the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) MOF to be important for leukemia cell growth. Conditional deletion of Mof in a mouse model of MLL-AF9 -driven leukemogenesis reduced tumor burden and prolonged host survival. RNA sequencing showed an expected downregulation of genes within DNA damage repair pathways that are controlled by MOF, as correlated with a significant increase in yH2AX nuclear foci in Mof -deficient MLL-AF9 tumor cells. In parallel, Mof loss also impaired global H4K16 acetylation in the tumor cell genome. Rescue experiments with catalytically inactive mutants of MOF showed that its enzymatic activity was required to maintain cancer pathogenicity. In support of the role of MOF in sustaining H4K16 acetylation, a small-molecule inhibitor of the HAT component MYST blocked the growth of both murine and human MLL-AF9 leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, Mof inactivation suppressed leukemia development in an NUP98-HOXA9 -driven AML model. Taken together, our results establish that the HAT activity of MOF is required to sustain MLL-AF9 leukemia and may be important for multiple AML subtypes. Blocking this activity is sufficient to stimulate DNA damage, offering a rationale to pursue MOF inhibitors as a targeted approach to treat MLL -rearranged leukemias. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1753-62. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Computer Security: White hats for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    CERN is under attack. Permanently. Even right now. In particular, the CERN web environment, with its thousands of websites and millions of webpages, is a popular target for evil-doers as well as for security researchers.   Usually, their attacks are unsuccessful and fade away over time. Sometimes, however, they are successful and manage to break into a CERN website or web server… It is imperative that we learn about our weaknesses before others do – and fix them! Hackers with bad intentions are usually named “black hats” as they misuse their power to cause destruction or downtime via any weakness they can find. “Grey hats” are more moderate and might just have some fun with the weaknesses they find, for example by putting naked teddy bears or a personal message (such as “I hacked U”) on the compromised website. Last but not least, “white hats” report their findings directly to us and suggest that...

  20. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  1. Getting started with Red Hat Enterprise virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who is interested in implementing and managing open source virtualization infrastructures, this is the book for you. A basic knowledge of virtualization and basic Linux command line experience is needed.

  2. Habitat Testbed (HaT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Goals of the DSH Testbed include:Function as a habitat systems integrator and technology pull across many domainsDevelop and integrate software-based models of...

  3. Wer hat Recht? Who Has Legal Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swantje Lichtenstein

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Zusammenhang zwischen sexueller Differenz und deren juristischen Folgen wird in der Wiener Studie näher beleuchtet. Auch wenn die Zeiten der offenen Diskriminierung vorüber zu sein scheinen, die Ungleichheit vor dem Recht bleibt bestehen. Noch immer liegen die Verdienste von Frauen deutlich unter denen von Männern, immer noch wird – auch gesetzlich – der Bereich des Privaten als genuin weiblicher verstanden, die Öffentlichkeit dagegen ist männlich. Hier setzen die Fragen zur gerechten Machtverteilung an, die der Band behandelt. Die Interdependenz von gesellschaftlicher Veränderung und rechtlichem Wandel wird von Elisabeth Holzleithner anhand verschiedener Diskurse vorgeführt.The connection between sexual difference and its juridicial consequences is examined more closely in this Viennese study. Even when the times of open discrimination seem to have subsided, inequality in the legal sphere still remains. Women’s incomes are still distinctly below those of men. The private sphere is still understood—also legally—as being genuinely feminine, whereas the public sphere is considered masculine. The questions considered in the volume regarding the just distribution of power stem from these issues. The interdependence of societal change and legal transformation is presented by Elisabeth Holzleithner on the basis of various discourses.

  4. Hats off to CERN's Master of Apprenticeships!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Roland Gay of the HR Department (at right) recently received a special diploma from the Geneva Industrial Union (UIG). Presented by Carlo Lamprecht, Head of the Department of Economy, Employment and External Affairs of the State of Geneva, the diploma was awarded in recognition of the 199 CERN apprentices Roland has guided through the Certificat Fédéral de Capacité (CFC), an end-of-apprenticeship certificate awarded by the Cantonal authorities. Roland will be retiring in December 2004 after 37 years of service, 32 of which he spent in the role of apprenticeship supervisor.

  5. 'n Kritiese beskouing van HAT3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waarop die letter en gees van die VoonL70ord vergestalt word. Aspekte wat ondersoek word, is deskriptiwiteit en preskriptiwiteit, gebruikersgerigtheid, ideo logie, lemmakeuse asook die gemoti- veerde en sistematiese verantwoording van leksikografiese en tipografiese konvensies. Daar word tot die slotsom gekom dat die ...

  6. Hats off to the particle suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    A couple of weeks into the LHC’s first high energy physics run, and we’ve already got an impressive story to tell. Long fills for physics are becoming routine, luminosity scans have increased the collision rate. The operators are becoming adept at squeezing the beams ever smaller, and higher intensity studies are progressing well. With the experiments, it’s the same story.   Following the plots that the spokespersons were able to show on 30 March after just one hour of running, the experiments have already made significant inroads into re-measuring all the Standard Model parameters necessary to ensure that they fully understand their detectors before any new discoveries can be announced. It’s impressive stuff, and the attention is rightly on the LHC and its experiments. But we shouldn’t lose sight of the fact that all this relies on the seamless operation of many other systems. Starting from a deceptively simple bottle of hydrogen, an LHC proton ...

  7. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Michel; Olszewska, Monika A.; Anna Presler

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extractio...

  8. Structure-Thermodynamics-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Selected Natural Phenolic Acids and Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

  9. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  10. Az adóráták és a korrupció hatása az adóbevételekre. Az OECD-országok összehasonlítása, 2000-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Lackó, Mária

    2009-01-01

    A tanulmány az adóráták (különös tekintettel a munkát sújtó adórátákra) és a korrupció szintjének (mint extraadónak) az együttes hatását vizsgálja az adóbevételek GDP-hez viszonyított arányára 27 OECD-ország 2000-2004. évi adatai alapján. Az adóéknek a korrupció szintjével kombinált interakciója és a megfelelő adóbevételek közötti grafikus ábrázolásban egy Laffer-görbe típusú kapcsolat látható. A cikk megmutatja, hogy ez az összefüggés több egymástól elkülöníthető hatás eredője: az egyik az a...

  11. The effect of leverage and/or influential on structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolboacă, Sorana D; Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2013-05-01

    In the spirit of reporting valid and reliable Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, the aim of our research was to assess how the leverage (analysis with Hat matrix, h(i)) and the influential (analysis with Cook's distance, D(i)) of QSAR models may reflect the models reliability and their characteristics. The datasets included in this research were collected from previously published papers. Seven datasets which accomplished the imposed inclusion criteria were analyzed. Three models were obtained for each dataset (full-model, h(i)-model and D(i)-model) and several statistical validation criteria were applied to the models. In 5 out of 7 sets the correlation coefficient increased when compounds with either h(i) or D(i) higher than the threshold were removed. Withdrawn compounds varied from 2 to 4 for h(i)-models and from 1 to 13 for D(i)-models. Validation statistics showed that D(i)-models possess systematically better agreement than both full-models and h(i)-models. Removal of influential compounds from training set significantly improves the model and is recommended to be conducted in the process of quantitative structure-activity relationships developing. Cook's distance approach should be combined with hat matrix analysis in order to identify the compounds candidates for removal.

  12. Adding tsetse control to medical activities contributes to decreasing transmission of sleeping sickness in the Mandoul focus (Chad).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Mahamat Hissene; Peka, Mallaye; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Rock, Kat S; Toko, Mahamat Abdelrahim; Darnas, Justin; Brahim, Guihini Mollo; Alkatib, Ali Bachar; Yoni, Wilfrid; Tirados, Inaki; Courtin, Fabrice; Brand, Samuel P C; Nersy, Cyrus; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Torr, Steve J; Lehane, Mike J; Solano, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Gambian sleeping sickness or HAT (human African trypanosomiasis) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted by riverine species of tsetse. A global programme aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 and stop transmission by 2030. In the South of Chad, the Mandoul area is a persistent focus of Gambian sleeping sickness where around 100 HAT cases were still diagnosed and treated annually until 2013. Pre-2014, control of HAT relied solely on case detection and treatment, which lead to a gradual decrease in the number of cases of HAT due to annual screening of the population. Because of the persistence of transmission and detection of new cases, we assessed whether the addition of vector control to case detection and treatment could further reduce transmission and consequently, reduce annual incidence of HAT in Mandoul. In particular, we investigated the impact of deploying 'tiny targets' which attract and kill tsetse. Before tsetse control commenced, a census of the human population was conducted and their settlements mapped. A pre-intervention survey of tsetse distribution and abundance was implemented in November 2013 and 2600 targets were deployed in the riverine habitats of tsetse in early 2014, 2015 and 2016. Impact on tsetse and on the incidence of sleeping sickness was assessed through nine tsetse monitoring surveys and four medical surveys of the human population in 2014 and 2015. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the relative impact of tsetse control on incidence compared to active and passive screening. The census indicated that a population of 38674 inhabitants lived in the vicinity of the Mandoul focus. Within this focus in November 2013, the vector is Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and the mean catch of tsetse from traps was 0.7 flies/trap/day (range, 0-26). The catch of tsetse from 44 sentinel biconical traps declined after target deployment with only five tsetse being caught in nine

  13. Adding tsetse control to medical activities contributes to decreasing transmission of sleeping sickness in the Mandoul focus (Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamat Hissene Mahamat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness or HAT (human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted by riverine species of tsetse. A global programme aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 and stop transmission by 2030. In the South of Chad, the Mandoul area is a persistent focus of Gambian sleeping sickness where around 100 HAT cases were still diagnosed and treated annually until 2013. Pre-2014, control of HAT relied solely on case detection and treatment, which lead to a gradual decrease in the number of cases of HAT due to annual screening of the population.Because of the persistence of transmission and detection of new cases, we assessed whether the addition of vector control to case detection and treatment could further reduce transmission and consequently, reduce annual incidence of HAT in Mandoul. In particular, we investigated the impact of deploying 'tiny targets' which attract and kill tsetse. Before tsetse control commenced, a census of the human population was conducted and their settlements mapped. A pre-intervention survey of tsetse distribution and abundance was implemented in November 2013 and 2600 targets were deployed in the riverine habitats of tsetse in early 2014, 2015 and 2016. Impact on tsetse and on the incidence of sleeping sickness was assessed through nine tsetse monitoring surveys and four medical surveys of the human population in 2014 and 2015. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the relative impact of tsetse control on incidence compared to active and passive screening.The census indicated that a population of 38674 inhabitants lived in the vicinity of the Mandoul focus. Within this focus in November 2013, the vector is Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and the mean catch of tsetse from traps was 0.7 flies/trap/day (range, 0-26. The catch of tsetse from 44 sentinel biconical traps declined after target deployment with only five tsetse being

  14. Heterocyclic Schiff bases as non toxic antioxidants: Solvent effect, structure activity relationship and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanty, Angamaly Antony; Mohanan, Puzhavoorparambil Velayudhan

    2017-11-07

    Phenolic heterocyclic imine based Schiff bases from Thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde were synthesized and characterized as novel antioxidants. The solvent effects of these Schiff bases were determined and compared with standard antioxidants, BHA employing DPPH assay and ABTS assay. Fixed reaction time and Steady state measurement were used for study. IC50 and EC50 were calculated. Structure-activity relationship revealed that the electron donating group in the phenolic ring increases the activity where as the electron withdrawing moiety decreases the activity. The Schiff base derivatives showed antioxidant property by two different pathways namely SPLET and HAT mechanisms in DPPH assay. While in ABTS method, the reaction between ABTS radical and Schiff bases involves electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET-PT) mechanism. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that all these compounds are non toxic in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    .... lactis are derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2-micron plasmid and remain stable in an episomal... information is considered: the host's natural habitat and growth requirements; its physiologic properties... shuttle plasmid containing selectable markers for growth in both organisms. The pGBN1-derived plasmids...

  16. Semisynthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of some cholesterol-based hydrazone derivatives as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Shao, Yonghua; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Huan, Qu; Yu, Xiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2013-09-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, four series of novel cholesterol-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, and their insecticidal activity was tested against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1mg/mL. All the derivatives showed the better insecticidal activity than their precursor cholesterol. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model demonstrated that six descriptors such as RDF085v, Mor06u, Mor11u, Dv, HATS0v and H-046, are likely to influence the insecticidal activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are the Mor06u and RDF085v. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sonodelivery Facilitates Sustained Luciferase Expression from an Episomal Vector in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Figueiredo Neto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a desirable goal, not only for treating muscle diseases, but also for immunization, treatment of metabolic disorders, and/or delivering gene expression that can treat systemic conditions, such as bone metastatic cancer, for example. Although naked DNA uptake into skeletal muscle is possible, it is largely inefficient in the absence of additional chemical or physical delivery methods. We describe a system for delivery of non-viral or plasmid DNA to skeletal muscle using ultrasound-assisted sonoporation of a nanoplex combining plasmid DNA and a branched polymer based on poly(cyclooctene-graft-oligopeptide. The materials and methods described herein promise to advance the field of sonodelivery and of gene delivery to muscle for therapeutic applications since a simple system is presented that enables long-term gene expression in vivo with the promise of a minimal inflammatory gene expression profile.

  18. Development of a Safeguard System Using an Episomal Mammalian Artificial Chromosome for Gene and Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumi Uno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a safeguard system to remove tumorigenic cells would allow safer clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of patients with an intractable disease including genetic disorders. Such safeguard systems should not disrupt the host genome and should have long-term stability. Here, we attempted to develop a tumor-suppressing mammalian artificial chromosome containing a safeguard system that uses the immune rejection system against allogeneic tissue from the host. For proof-of-concept of the safeguard system, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells expressing the introduced H2-K(d major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I-allogenic haplotype were transplanted into recipient C57BL/6J mice expressing MHC H2-K(b. Subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 cells into C57BL/6J mice resulted in high tumorigenicity. The volume of tumors derived from B16F10 cells expressing allogenic MHC H2-K(d was decreased significantly (P < 0.01. Suppression of MHC H2-K(d-expressing tumors in C57BL/6J mice was enhanced by immunization with MHC H2-K(d-expressing splenocytes (P < 0.01. These results suggest that the safeguard system is capable of suppressing tumor formation by the transplanted cells.

  19. A clinicopathological study of episomal papillomavirus infection of the human placenta and pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Tania L; Hung, Natalie Gly; Clow, William M; Royds, Janice A; Devenish, Celia J; Hung, Noelyn A

    2015-10-01

    Viral infections are known to adversely affect pregnancy, but scant attention has been given to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We aimed to determine the molecular and histopathological features of placental HPV infection, in association with pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction, pre-maturity, pre-eclampsia, and diabetes. Three hundred and thirty-nine placentae were selected based on the presence or absence of pregnancy complications. Five independent methods were used to identify HPV in the placenta, namely, immunohistochemistry for L1 viral capsid, in situ hybridization to high-risk HPV DNA, PCR, western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy. Pregnancy complications and uterine cervical smear screening results were correlated with placental HPV histopathology. In this study, which was deliberately biased towards complications, HPV was found in the decidua of 75% of placentae (253/339) and was statistically associated with histological acute chorioamnionitis (Ppregnancy compared with (9.4% 8/85) of women with HPV-negative placentae (P=0.0001). Our findings support further investigations to determine if vaccination of women and men will improve pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Identification of MYST3 as a novel epigenetic activator of ERα frequently amplified in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Liang, Y; Cao, X; Wang, X; Gao, H; Lin, S-Y; Schiff, R; Wang, X-S; Li, K

    2017-05-18

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a master driver of a vast majority of breast cancers. Breast cancer cells often develop resistance to endocrine therapy via restoration of the ERα activity through survival pathways. Thus identifying the epigenetic activator of ERα that can be targeted to block ERα gene expression is a critical topic of endocrine therapy. Here, integrative genomic analysis identified MYST3 as a potential oncogene target that is frequently amplified in breast cancer. MYST3 is involved in histone acetylation via its histone acetyltransferase domain (HAT) and, as a result, activates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. We found that MYST3 was amplified in 11% and/or overexpressed in 15% of breast tumors, and overexpression of MYST3 correlated with worse clinical outcome in estrogen receptor+ (ER+) breast cancers. Interestingly, MYST3 depletion drastically inhibited proliferation in MYST3-high, ER+ breast cancer cells, but not in benign breast epithelial cells or in MYST3-low breast cancer cells. Importantly, we discovered that knocking down MYST3 resulted in profound reduction of ERα expression, while ectopic expression of MYST3 had the reversed effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYST3 binds to the proximal promoter region of ERα gene, and inactivating mutations in its HAT domain abolished its ability to regulate ERα, suggesting MYST3 functioning as a histone acetyltransferase that activates ERα promoter. Furthermore, MYST3 inhibition with inducible MYST3 shRNAs potently attenuated breast tumor growth in mice. Together, this study identifies the first histone acetyltransferase that activates ERα expression which may be potentially targeted to block ERα at transcriptional level.

  1. Dichotomous Hydrogen Atom Transfer vs. Proton Coupled Electron Transfer During Activation of X-H Bonds (X = C, N, O) by Nonheme Iron-Oxo Complexes of Variable Basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Dandamudi; Lacy, David C.; Borovik, A. S.; Shaik, Sason

    2013-01-01

    We describe herein the hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT)/ proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactivity for FeIV-oxo and FeIII-oxo complexes (1–4) that activate C-H, N-H, and O-H bonds in 9,10 dihydroanthracene (S1), dimethylformamide (S2), 1,2 diphenylhydrazine (S3), p-methoxyphenol (S4), and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (S5). In 1–3, the iron is pentacoordinated by tris[N'-tert-butylureaylato)-N-ethylene]aminato ([H3buea]3−) or its derivatives. These complexes are basic, in the order 3 >> 1 > 2. Oxidant 4, [FeIVN4Py(O)]2+ (N4Py: N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-bis(2-pyridyl) methylamine), is the least basic oxidant. The DFT results match experimental trends and exhibit a mechanistic spectrum ranging from concerted HAT and PCET reactions to concerted-asynchronous proton transfer (PT) / electron transfer (ET) mechanisms, all the way to PT. The singly occupied orbital along the O---H---X (X= C, N, O) moiety in the TS shows clearly that in the PCET cases, the electron is transferred separately from the proton. The Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle does not account for the observed reactivity pattern, as evidenced by the scatter in the plot of calculated barrier vs. reactions driving forces. However, a plot of the deformation energy in the TS vs. the respective barrier provides a clear signature of the HAT/PCET dichotomy. Thus, in all C-H bond activations, the barrier derives from the deformation energy required to create the TS, whereas in N-H/O-H bond activations, the deformation energy is much larger than the corresponding barrier, indicating the presence of stabilizing interaction between the TS fragments. A valence bond model is used to link the observed results with the basicity/acidity of the reactants. PMID:24124906

  2. "Erlösung ist, wenn man schulfrei hat!". Erste Ergebnisse einer qualitativ-empirischen Studie zur Erfassung und didaktischen Bearbeitung von Erlösungsvorstellungen 10- bis 14-jähriger SchülerInnen der Sekundarstufe I in Österreich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weiß

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: The teaching of redemption of mankind through God in Jesus Christ is fundamental to the Christian religion. This article expands on this central topic and presents the first results of a research carried out in schools as part of a current qualitative study about what ideas of redemption ten- to fourteen-year-old students have. The aim of this basic empirical research is to generate views and perspectives on ‚redemption‘ in children and adolescents. A further objective is to develop and integrate didactic tasks for Religious Education as a subject, in order to work on the topic of ‚redemption‘. By doing so, theological reflection should be applied and an alignment within the spheres of life of young people should be provided in lessons at School. DEUTSCH: Die Rede von der Erlösung des Menschen durch Gott in Jesus Christus ist für die christliche Religion fundamental. Der Beitrag widmet sich diesem zentralen Thema und präsentiert die ersten Forschungsergebnisse, die im Rahmen einer aktuellen qualitativen Studie zu Erlösungsvorstellungen von 10- bis 14-jährigen SchülerInnen in Schulen erhoben wurde. Diese grundlagenorientierte empirische Forschungsarbeit hat zum Ziel, kindliche / jugendliche Denk- und Sichtweisen zu ‚Erlösung’ zu generieren und didaktische Aufgaben im Religionsunterricht zu entwickeln und zu implementieren, um das Thema ‚Erlösung’ lebensweltlich orientiert und theologisch reflektiert im schulischen Unterricht bearbeiten zu können.

  3. A válság hatása a HR-re és a tudásmenedzsmentre – négy kelet-európai ország szervezeteinek empirikus vizsgálata alapján

    OpenAIRE

    Fodor, Péter; Kiss, Tibor; Poór, József

    2010-01-01

    A 2008 októberében kirobbant világválság eltérő helyzetben érte a gazdaságokat Bulgáriában, Magyarországon, Romániában és Szlovákiában. Az országok kormányai igen hasonló intézkedéseket hoztak a negatív hatások kiküszöbölésének érdekében. Nagyon fontos, hogy tudjuk, a vállalatok, a különböző szervezetek hogyan reagáltak a válságra. A tanulmány arra keresi a választ, hogy a vizsgált négy országban működő cégek milyen intézkedéseket kívánnak tenni a jelenlegi pénzügyi és gazdasági váls...

  4. Navigation of autonomous mobile robot using different activation functions of wavelet neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Pratap Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous mobile robot is a robot which can move and act autonomously without the help of human assistance. Navigation problem of mobile robot in unknown environment is an interesting research area. This is a problem of deducing a path for the robot from its initial position to a given goal position without collision with the obstacles. Different methods such as fuzzy logic, neural networks etc. are used to find collision free path for mobile robot. This paper examines behavior of path planning of mobile robot using three activation functions of wavelet neural network i.e. Mexican Hat, Gaussian and Morlet wavelet functions by MATLAB. The simulation result shows that WNN has faster learning speed with respect to traditional artificial neural network.

  5. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable. PMID:12842617

  6. Exoplanet Transits of Stellar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira; Reiners, Ansgar; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a program to obtain high spectral- and temporal-resolution observations of the neutral helium triplet line at 1083.0 nm in transiting exoplanet systems. The principal objective of our program is to gain insight on the properties of active regions, analogous to solar plages, on late-type dwarfs by essentially using exoplanet transits as high spatial resolution probes of the stellar surface within the transit chord. The 1083 nm helium line is a particularly appropriate diagnostic of magnetized areas since it is weak in the quiet photosphere of solar-type stars but appears strongly in absorption in active regions. Therefore, during an exoplanet transit over the stellar surface, variations in its absorption equivalent width can arise that are functions of the intrinsic strength of the feature in the active region and the known relative size of the exoplanet. We utilized the Galileo Telescope and the GIANO-B near-IR echelle spectrograph to obtain 1083 nm spectra during transits in bright, well-known systems that include HD 189733, HD 209458, and HD 147506 (HAT-P-2). We also obtained simultaneous auxiliary data on the same telescope with the HARPS-N UV-Visible echelle spectrograph. We will present preliminary results from our analysis of the observed variability of the strength of the He I 1083 nm line during transits.Acknowledgements: Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The NSO is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  7. A szélsőséges időjárási jelenségek hatásai (Effects of the Extreme Weather Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Molnár

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economist Sir Nicholas Stern warned that the global warming could cause major blow to the world economy than the two world wars and the crisis in the 1930s. But where are we in this process now and what can be expected in the near future and what opportunities we are to curb the negative effects and to slow down the global warming. The world’s population is more than 7 billion people now and we will live more than 9 billion on the planet in 2050 according to the conservative estimation because daily the number of inhabitants increases by approximitaly a quarter of a million people (National Rural Strategy, 2020. The water and ecosystem resources are diminishing due to overuse and the values of ecological footprint are very high especially in the developed countries. The increase of extreme weather events and its effects associated with the global warming have also growing impact on agricultural production. This phenomenon is important because to solve the famine and the water shortage will be much bigger problem due to climate change than today. The VAHAVA reports (change-impact-response draw also attention to the issue which is also important for experts of climate change: Is it clearly climate change and if so than what the role of the human activity in it is? It seems clear that the assumption is almost poetic as the earth sends clear messages: the concentration of greenhouse gases increased suddenly in the atmosphere (carbon-dioxide, methan, nitrous oxide, etc, the average temperature continues to rise (increasing number of hot records, the sea temperature is also rising, the area of glaciers is shrinking dramatically and prolonged drought and flood waters in some places appear. The habitats of plans and animals, routes of bird migration change. The negative effects of extreme weather events thus represent a broad problem area. The effects can be devide into several groups. Some of them have impact already relatively short-term (for

  8. Increased HIV-1 activity in anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with unaffected anal mucosa in men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollakis, Georgios; Richel, Olivier; Vis, Joost D.; Prins, Jan M.; Paxton, William A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 3 patients with focal intra-anal tissue high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). All had increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in lesions compared with that in healthy mucosa. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 episomal DNA were indicative of ongoing viral

  9. Outcome of repeated prostatic biopsy during active surveillance: implications for focal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barayan, Ghassan A; Aprikian, Armen G; Hanley, James; Kassouf, Wassim; Brimo, Fadi; Bégin, Louis R; Tanguay, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is commonly recommended for men with localized low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of our study was to assess the probability that patients with PCa would develop unfavorable disease features (UDF) while under AS for the purpose of evaluating whether immediate hemiablation therapy (HAT) could bring clinical benefit to selected patients. In our cohort of AS patients, 157 were diagnosed with unilateral PCa. Using five different definitions of UDF, patients' data were used to simulate the theoretical outcome whether these patients were managed by immediate unilateral HAT or remained on AS. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 67 years (range 47-81). The median follow-up was 5.4 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-8]. Baseline characteristics included a median PSA value of 5.5 ng/ml (IQR 4.5-7), median number of biopsy taken of 10 (IQR 6-10), and maximum cancer percentage on any core of 10 (IQR 5-20). Of the 157 patients, 144 (92 %) had a Gleason score (GS) of ≤6. Using the whole range of definition for UDF, 10-47 % of patients developed UDF while under AS. Using baseline GS, maximum percentage of cancer on any core, and PSA density, we found significant trends for higher development of UDF for patients under AS. The majority of our patients did not develop UDF while under AS. Our study, thus, suggests that careful patient selection for focal therapy should be performed to avoid subjecting patients to unnecessary treatment.

  10. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Charles Okeke; Nwodo, Ngozi Justina; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2017-07-06

    In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, "sleeping sickness"), we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhenaafricana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae). The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT). Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid-rich fractions resulted in the isolation of 17 steroid alkaloids, one nitrogen-free steroid and one alkaloid-like non-steroid. Impressive activities (IC50 in µM) against Tbr were recorded for 3β-holaphyllamine (0.40 ± 0.28), 3α-holaphyllamine (0.37 ± 0.16), 3β-dihydroholaphyllamine (0.67 ± 0.03), N-methylholaphyllamine (0.08 ± 0.01), conessimine (0.17 ± 0.08), conessine (0.42 ± 0.09), isoconessimine (0.17 ± 0.11) and holarrhesine (0.12 ± 0.08) with selectivity indices ranging from 13 to 302. Based on comparison of the structures of this congeneric series of steroid alkaloids and their activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs) could be established. It was found that a basic amino group at position C-3 of the pregnane or pregn-5-ene steroid nucleus is required for a significant anti-trypanosomal activity. The mono-methylated amino group at C-3 represents an optimum for activity. ∆(5,6) unsaturation slightly increased the activity while hydrolysis of C-12β ester derivatives led to a loss of activity. An additional amino group at C-20 engaged in a pyrrolidine ring closed towards C-18 significantly increased the selectivity index of the compounds. Our findings provide useful empirical data for further development of steroid alkaloids as a novel class of anti-trypanosomal compounds which represent a promising starting point towards new drugs to combat human African trypanosomiasis.

  11. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okeke Nnadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, “sleeping sickness”, we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhena africana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae. The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid-rich fractions resulted in the isolation of 17 steroid alkaloids, one nitrogen-free steroid and one alkaloid-like non-steroid. Impressive activities (IC50 in µM against Tbr were recorded for 3β-holaphyllamine (0.40 ± 0.28, 3α-holaphyllamine (0.37 ± 0.16, 3β-dihydroholaphyllamine (0.67 ± 0.03, N-methylholaphyllamine (0.08 ± 0.01, conessimine (0.17 ± 0.08, conessine (0.42 ± 0.09, isoconessimine (0.17 ± 0.11 and holarrhesine (0.12 ± 0.08 with selectivity indices ranging from 13 to 302. Based on comparison of the structures of this congeneric series of steroid alkaloids and their activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs could be established. It was found that a basic amino group at position C-3 of the pregnane or pregn-5-ene steroid nucleus is required for a significant anti-trypanosomal activity. The mono-methylated amino group at C-3 represents an optimum for activity. ∆5,6 unsaturation slightly increased the activity while hydrolysis of C-12β ester derivatives led to a loss of activity. An additional amino group at C-20 engaged in a pyrrolidine ring closed towards C-18 significantly increased the selectivity index of the compounds. Our findings provide useful empirical data for further development of steroid alkaloids as a novel class of anti-trypanosomal compounds which represent a promising starting point towards new drugs to combat human African trypanosomiasis.

  12. Circadian rhythm transcription factor CLOCK regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor by acetylating its hinge region lysine cluster: potential physiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nancy; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, end products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, influence functions of virtually all organs and tissues through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Circulating levels of glucocorticoids fluctuate naturally in a circadian fashion and regulate the transcriptional activity of GR in target tissues. The basic helix-loop-helix protein CLOCK, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and its heterodimer partner BMAL1 are self-oscillating transcription factors that generate circadian rhythms in both the central nervous system and periphery. We found that CLOCK/BMAL1 repressed GR-induced transcriptional activity in a HAT-activity- dependent fashion. In serum-shock-synchronized cells, transactivational activity of GR, accessed by mRNA expression of an endogenous-responsive gene, fluctuated spontaneously in a circadian fashion in reverse phase with CLOCK/BMAL1 mRNA expression. CLOCK and GR interacted with each other physically, and CLOCK suppressed binding of GR to its DNA recognition sequences by acetylating multiple lysine residues located in its hinge region. These findings indicate that CLOCK/BMAL1 functions as a reverse-phase negative regulator of glucocorticoid action in target tissues, possibly by antagonizing biological actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating glucocorticoids. Further, these results suggest that a peripheral target tissue circadian rhythm indirectly influences the functions of every organ and tissue inside the body through modulation of the ubiquitous and diverse actions of glucocorticoids.—Nader, N., Chrousos, G. P., Kino, T. Circadian rhythm transcription factor CLOCK regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor by acetylating its hinge region lysine cluster: potential physiological implications. PMID:19141540

  13. The White-hat Bot: A Novel Botnet Defense Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    this threat was summed up by President Barack Obama when he said, “So cyberspace is real. And so are the risks that come with it. It’s the great...networks of ‘ zombie ’ or ‘bot’ PCs, infected by malware which enables them to be marshaled by cybercriminals – primarily to distribute enormous volumes...anti-virus and anti-spyware technologies have come a long way in recent times. Typically, anti-virus programs detect the signatures of known malware

  14. Computer Security: Join the CERN WhiteHat Challenge!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Over the past couple of months, several CERN users have reported vulnerabilities they have found in computing services and servers running at CERN. All were relevant, many were interesting and a few even surprising. Spotting weaknesses and areas for improvement before malicious people can exploit them is paramount. It helps protect the operation of our accelerators and experiments as well as the reputation of the Organization. Therefore, we would like to express our gratitude to those people for having reported these weaknesses! Great job and well done!   Seizing the opportunity, we would like to reopen the hunt for bugs, vulnerabilities and insecure configurations of CERN applications, websites and devices. You might recall we ran a similar initiative (“Hide & Seek”) in 2012 where we asked you to sift through CERN’s webpages and send us those that hold sensitive and confidential information. Quite a number of juicy documents were found and subsequently remov...

  15. Census taking in the hat: FRW/CFT duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard

    2009-10-01

    In this paper a holographic description of eternal inflation is developed. We focus on the description of an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe that results from a tunneling event in which a false vacuum with positive vacuum energy decays to a supersymmetric vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The observations of a “census taker” in the final vacuum can be organized into a holographic dual conformal field theory that lives on the asymptotic boundary of space. We refer to this bulk-boundary correspondence as FRW/CFT duality. The dual conformal field theory (CFT) is a Euclidean two-dimensional theory that includes a Liouville 2D gravity sector describing geometric fluctuations of the boundary. The renormalization-group flow of the theory is richer than in the AdS/CFT correspondence, and generates two space-time dimensions—one spacelike and one timelike. We discuss a number of phenomena such as bubble collisions, and the Garriga, Guth Vilenkin “persistence of memory,” from the dual viewpoint.

  16. School Library Ethics--A Battle of Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on issues concerning school library ethics. In the U.S., American Library Association (ALA) has established a code of ethics for this profession. However, the school library is not the only one affected by the ethical code of the ALA. Since teachers have their own codes of ethics, librarians have now assumed yet another mantle…

  17. Pants and Hats: Dress Codes and Expressive Conduct as Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    1999-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the U.S. Supreme Court, in the "Tinker" case, upheld three students' right to wear black armbands protesting the Vietnam War to school. Recent cases involving sagging pants and an African headwrap (dress code violations) did not meet allowable "free-speech" requirements. (MLH)

  18. Validation of buoyancy driven spectral tensor model using HATS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, A.; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a homogeneous spectral tensor model for wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, driven by mean vertical shear and mean temperature gradient. Results from the model, including one-dimensional velocity and temperature spectra and the associated co-spectra, are shown in this paper. Th...... is described via five parameters: the dissipation rate (ε), length scale of energy-containing eddies (L), a turbulence anisotropy parameter (Γ), gradient Richardson number (Ri) representing the atmospheric stability and the rate of destruction of temperature variance (ηθ)....

  19. All Hats and Moustaches: Commemorating and Performing 1916 in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feargal Whelan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will survey the means employed by various bodies within Ireland to commemorate the 1916 Easter Rising and argue that the various competing events combined to expose paradoxes of attitudes and behaviours at the heart of Irish society, and also interrogated the very methods of traditional commemoration which might be useful when a country revisits histories which are contentious and conflicted. An exhaustive survey is not intended rather it will focus more precisely on the street spectacle of the various parades and participatory events, and on two site-specific theatrical performances which formed part of the official programme. It will also assess the role played by the Abbey Theatre as a crucial central space in both 1916 and 2016, and demonstrate its role in various events.

  20. Windows, RedHat och IPv6 : ett test!

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Ulrick; Holmström, Rickard; Jarbe, Mats

    2002-01-01

    With the huge amount of computers connected to the Internet the IP-addresses are starting to run out. The Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF, have decided that it is about time to exchange the old 32 bits Internet protocol, Ipv4, to a more modern 128 bits protocol called Ipv6. This thesis explores the possibility to install Ipv6 in different operating systems. By testing various operating systems and by set up criteria compare them to each other we give the reader a picture of how the inst...

  1. SERVİS SİSTEMLERİNDE HAT DENGELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi GÖKÇEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede; özellikle mal üreten sistemlerde bilinen Montaj Hattı Dengeleme (MHD metodlarının hizmet üreten sistemlere uygulanabilirliği incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda müşterilere tedavi hizmeti üreten bir Fizik Tedavi ve Rehabilitasyon Kliniğinde uygulama çalışması yapılmıştır. Hastalara sunulan standart hizmetlerin her biri bir ürün çeşidi olarak düşünülmüş ve problem karışık modelli MHD problemi olarak çözülmüştür. Neticede, sadece üretim sistemlerine uygulandığını düşündüğümüz bu metotların servis sistemlerine de uygulayabileceği görülmüştür. Dolayısıyla, benzer çalışmaların, Hastaneler, Vergi Daireleri, Ehliyet-Ruhsat ve Pasaport Büroları, Fast Food Restoranları, vb. sınırsız alanlarda da yapılması mümkündür.

  2. Veils, Caps and Hats: The Language of Headgear between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'autrice tratta l'uso del copricapo nel Medievo e all'inizio dell'Età moderna, con continui riferimenti ai testi di San Paolo e alle prediche quattrocentesche dei frati minori dell'osservanza francescana. Viene altresì considerato l'impiego della mantellina, del velo e del piumaggio, tipiche della moda del tempo, in relazione alle ...

  3. Engineering, management, and ethics - two hats or three?

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Hans; Maring, Matthias

    1998-01-01

    En nuestra actual era de empresas y decisiones corporativas e institucionales, la noción de responsabilidad individual es de gran significado y de particular importancia para la tecnología. No obstante, los problemas de la responsabilidad colectiva y corporativa se tornan, y se tornarán cada vez, más actuales y decisivos. Los códigos éticos de la inteniería deberían, pues, desarrollarse, mejorarse y hacerse efectivos operativamente en el futuro. Por eso, las reglas esbozadas aquí sobre priori...

  4. Firewall using Red Hat Linux 8.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Pallab

    2006-10-01

    Due to the excessive amount of security threats, the need of a firewall is felt. Again, this firewall also acts as a proxy server to talk to the Internet. Any internal network can be masqueraded against the external world through this firewall. In case of different TCP/IP services like smtp, snmp, udp, tcp, http, and https, it can be restricted userwise. This firewall uses the Squid.conf configuration file as well as PAM (Password Authentication Module), the html files and other configuration files of the Linux operating system. The web browser used is Mozilla. Some CGI/PERL scripts are used. Different Intranet services are also provided userwise and mentioned in the squid.conf file. The major finding in this paper is the simplified way to create a security firewall.

  5. Effects of combination lipid therapy on coronary stenosis progression and clinical cardiovascular events in coronary disease patients with metabolic syndrome: a combined analysis of the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), the HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), and the Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Krasuski, Richard A; Baer, Jefferson; Whitney, Edwin J; Neradilek, Blazej; Chait, Alan; Marcovina, Santica; Albers, John J; Brown, B Greg

    2009-12-01

    We examined the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronary stenosis progression and major cardiovascular (CV) events and investigated the mitigating effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering and LDL cholesterol lowering plus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increasing. This analysis combined individual patient data from 445 subjects who participated in 3 double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (FATS, HATS, and AFREGS) comparing intensive lipid therapy to placebos on coronary stenosis progression by quantitative coronary angiography and on major CV events. The primary end points were change in mean proximal coronary diameter stenosis (Delta%S(prox)) over 3 years and the frequency of the predefined composite of coronary artery disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization due to worsening ischemia. Patients with MS had 50% more rapid coronary stenosis progression and 64% increased CV event frequency compared to those without. More rapid coronary stenosis progression was significantly and independently associated with a 3.5-fold increased event risk (p <0.001). Combination lipid therapy significantly decreased stenosis progression by 83% (Delta%S(prox) 0.5 vs 2.9, p <0.001) in patients with MS and induced a small net regression in those without (Delta%S(prox) -0.3 vs 2.0, p <0.001). Combination therapy decreased the event rate by 54% (13% vs 28%, p = 0.03) in those with MS and by 82% (3% vs 17%, p = 0.002) without. On average, each 10% decrease in LDL cholesterol or 10% increase in HDL cholesterol was significantly associated with a 0.3 Delta%S(prox) decrease. Each 10% decrease in LDL cholesterol or 10% increase in HDL cholesterol was associated with 11% (p = 0.02) or 22% (p <0.001) event risk decrease. In conclusion, patients with MS have significantly more rapid coronary stenosis progression and a higher frequency of CV events. Greater stenosis progression rate is associated with a higher

  6. Towards active SEO 2.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boutet, Charles-Victor; Quoniam, Luc

    2012-01-01

    ... as " black hat SEO " without necessarily being harmful or malevolent in any way. In recent years, a terminology has emerged that attributes a color to referencers based on their practices; such as black, gray or white. Throughout this article we explore new SEO practices that take advantage of Web 2.0 structuralism and illustrate this study with con...

  7. Black Hats and White Hats: The Effect of Organizational Culture and Institutional Identity on the Twenty-third Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    years be- tween Vietnam and the AFSOF/CSAR merger in 1983, Air Force special operators were divided in three distinct cliques —Talon, Spectre, and...crew members in ARRS helicopters (in SEA) were promoted ahead of their AFSOF peers . 138. Guilmartin, speech to ACSC. 139. Ibid. HERITAGE AND CULTURE OF...divested the AFSOF mission with a bruised ego but with minimal effect on its operations and man- ning strength. Although Headquarters MAC accepted the

  8. Black Hats and White Hats: The Effect of Organizational Culture and Institutional Identity on the Twenty-third Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koskinas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    .... Although brief, the Twenty-third Air Force's experience provides sufficient data for a thorough analysis of the effect of organizational culture and institutional agendas on the evolution of a nascent organization...

  9. Biospeleological activities in Central Europe – a status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Weber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalogues of cave fauna from Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Germany (Swabian Alb, Franconian Alb, Westfalia, Hesse, Harz, Rhenish Palatinate and Saarland, and Luxembourg are available. Several activities deal with public relations, education, and training: the cave animal of the year, a camp for young cavers, the day nature, and the biospeleological workgroup. The German Barcoding of Life is a project which aims to obtain CO1 barcodes from every species in Germany with a sub-project on cave fauna. Special projects deal with Bythiospeum, niphargids, diplurans, sphaerocerids, and the biodiversity and ecology of cave invertebrates in the Central European Uplands. Zusammenfassung Es gibt Höhlenfaunenkataloge von Belgien, der Schweiz, Österreich, Deutschland (Schwäbische Alb, Fränkische Alb, Westfalen, Hessen, Harz und Rheinland-Pfalz/Saarland und Luxemburg. Verschiedene Aktivitäten befassen sich mit Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Schulungen; Das Höhlentier des Jahres, ein Trainingslager für junge Höhlenforscher, der Tag der Natur und eine biospeläologische Arbeitsgruppe. Das Projekt „German Barcoding of Life“ versucht CO1-Barcodes aller deutschen Arten zu erstellen. Es hat ein Unterprojekt zur Höhlenfauna. Tiergruppenspezifische Projekte behandeln Bythiospeum, Niphargen, Dipluren, Sphaeroceriden und Biodiversität und Ökologie von Höhlenevertebraten der zentraleuropäischen Mittelgebirge.

  10. Antioxidant activity, NMR, X-ray, ECD and UV/vis spectra of (+)-terrein: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabolsy, Zuhra Bashir Khalifa Al; Anouar, El Hassane; Zakaria, Nur Shahidatul Shida; Zulkeflee, Manar; Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul; Zin, Maisarah Mohd; Ahmad, Rohaya; Sultan, Sadia; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F.

    2014-02-01

    Fungal metabolite terrein isolated from Aspergillus terreus is endowed with diverse biological and antioxidant activities. To determine the stereochemistry of the isolated terrein, we combined spectroscopic methods (CD and NMR spectra) and theoretical calculations (DFT and TD-DFT methods). Stereochemistry effects on the antioxidant activity of isolated terrein were evaluated by calculating bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs), ionization potentials (IPs) and spin density delocalization of terrein and isoterrein stereoisomers with B3P86/6-31+G (d, p) method in gas and polarizable continuum model. The results showed a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations which confirmed the (+)-terrein stereochemistry of isolated metabolite. Theoretical calculations showed that the antioxidant activity is relatively influenced by isomeric geometry of the terrein (a variation of 2 kcal/mol between BDEs of terrein and isoterrein isomers), while chirality has no influence on the antioxidant activity [0.2 kcal/mol difference between BDEs of (+)- and (-)-terrein]. The low antioxidant activity of (+)-terrein with respect to trolox and ascorbic acid was explained by the positive free Gibbs energy of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism and high BDE values of the 2-OH active site.

  11. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... try getting active more often. What kinds of activity should I do? To get all the health ... Health Benefits What are the benefits of physical activity? Physical activity increases your chances of living longer. ...

  12. Regulation of Nitrate Transport in Citrus Rootstocks Depending on Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO3−. The Vmax for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks. Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO3− uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO3− and down-regulated by the N status and by NO3− itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status. The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO3− net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks. PMID:19516998

  13. Characteristics of Relocated Quiet Zones Using Virtual Microphone Algorithm in an Active Headrest System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study displays theoretical and experimental investigation on the characteristics of the relocated zone of quiet by a virtual microphone (VM based filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm which can be embedded in a real-time digital controller for an active headrest system. The attenuation changes at the relocated zones of quiet by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone are mainly examined. An active headrest system was implemented for the control experiment at a chair and consists of two (left and right secondary loudspeakers, two error microphones, two observer microphones at ear positions in a HATS, and other electronics including a dSPACE 1401 controller. The VM based FxLMS algorithm achieved an attenuation of about 22 dB in the control experiment against a narrowband primary noise by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone. The important factors for the algorithm are discussed as well.

  14. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Kofi D; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Suzuki-Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. Copyright © 2016 Kwofie et al.

  15. QSAR of antitrypanosomal activities of polyphenols and their analogues using multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastija, Vesna; Masand, Vijay H

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a thriving quantitative structure-activity relationship for antitrypanosomal activities (against Trypanosma brucei rhodesiense) of polyphenols that belong to different structural groups, multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were employed. The analysis was performed on two different-sized training sets (59% and 78% molecules in the training set), resulting in relatively successful MLR and ANN models for the data set containing the smaller training set. The best MLR model obtained using the five descriptors (R3m(+), GAP, DISPv, HATS2m, JGI2) was able to account only for 74% of the variance of antitrypanosomal activities of the training set and achieved a high internal, but low external prediction. Nonlinearities of the best ANN model compared with the linear model improved the coefficient of determination to 98.6%, and showed a better external predictive ability. The obtained models displayed relevance of the distance between oxygen atoms in molecules of polyphenols, as well as stability of molecules, measured by the difference between the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (GAP) for their activity.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meanwhile yeasts were grown in YPD medium. Bacterial cultures were incubated for 24 h at 37. °C except fish pathogenic bacteria were incubated at 25 °C. Yeasts were incubated for 48 hat 30 °C. Determination of antimicrobial effect. The disc diffusion method was employed to determine the in vitro antimicrobial action of.

  17. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  18. Nuclear myosin 1c facilitates the chromatin modifications required to activate rRNA gene transcription and cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishe Sarshad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actin and nuclear myosin 1c (NM1 cooperate in RNA polymerase I (pol I transcription. NM1 is also part of a multiprotein assembly, B-WICH, which is involved in transcription. This assembly contains the chromatin remodeling complex WICH with its subunits WSTF and SNF2h. We report here that NM1 binds SNF2h with enhanced affinity upon impairment of the actin-binding function. ChIP analysis revealed that NM1, SNF2h, and actin gene occupancies are cell cycle-dependent and require intact motor function. At the onset of cell division, when transcription is temporarily blocked, B-WICH is disassembled due to WSTF phosphorylation, to be reassembled on the active gene at exit from mitosis. NM1 gene knockdown and motor function inhibition, or stable expression of NM1 mutants that do not interact with actin or chromatin, overall repressed rRNA synthesis by stalling pol I at the gene promoter, led to chromatin alterations by changing the state of H3K9 acetylation at gene promoter, and delayed cell cycle progression. These results suggest a unique structural role for NM1 in which the interaction with SNF2h stabilizes B-WICH at the gene promoter and facilitates recruitment of the HAT PCAF. This leads to a permissive chromatin structure required for transcription activation.

  19. Multistability of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2015-11-01

    The problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points is addressed for a class of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. By virtue of the fixed point theorem, nonsmooth analysis theory and other analytical tools, some sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that such n-dimensional memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks can have 5(n) equilibrium points, among which 3(n) equilibrium points are locally exponentially stable. It is shown that greater storage capacity can be achieved by neural networks with the non-monotonic activation functions introduced herein than the ones with Mexican-hat-type activation function. In addition, unlike most existing multistability results of neural networks with monotonic activation functions, those obtained 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points are located both in saturated regions and unsaturated regions. The theoretical findings are verified by an illustrative example with computer simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protease activated receptor signaling is required for African trypanosome traversal of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Grab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain. In the current study, we examined the possible role of a class of protease stimulated HBMEC G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs known as protease activated receptors (PARs that might be implicated in calcium signaling by African trypanosomes.Using RNA interference (RNAi we found that in vitro PAR-2 gene (F2RL1 expression in HBMEC monolayers could be reduced by over 95%. We also found that the ability of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to cross F2RL1-silenced HBMEC monolayers was reduced (39%-49% and that HBMECs silenced for F2RL1 maintained control levels of barrier function in the presence of the parasite. Consistent with the role of PAR-2, we found that HBMEC barrier function was also maintained after blockade of Galpha(q with Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT. PAR-2 signaling has been shown in other systems to have neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective roles and our data implicate a role for proteases (i.e. brucipain and PAR-2 in African trypanosome/HBMEC interactions. Using gene-profiling methods to interrogate candidate HBMEC pathways specifically triggered by brucipain, several pathways that potentially link some pathophysiologic processes associated with CNS HAT were identified.Together, the data support a role, in part, for GPCRs as molecular targets for parasite proteases that lead to the activation of Galpha(q-mediated calcium signaling. The consequence of these events is predicted to be increased permeability of the BBB to parasite transmigration and the initiation of neuroinflammation, events precursory to CNS disease.

  1. Context and Auditory Fear are Differentially Regulated by HDAC3 Activity in the Lateral and Basal Subnuclei of the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapis, Janine L; Alaghband, Yasaman; López, Alberto J; White, André O; Campbell, Rianne R; Dang, Richard T; Rhee, Diane; Tran, Ashley V; Carl, Allison E; Matheos, Dina P; Wood, Marcelo A

    2017-05-01

    Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, has a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala. We found that fear conditioning drove expression of the immediate early genes cFos and Nr4a2 in the hippocampus, which coincided with reduced HDAC3 occupancy at these promoters. Using a dominant-negative, deacetylase-dead point mutant virus (AAV-HDAC3(Y298H)-v5), we found that selectively blocking HDAC3 deacetylase activity in either the dorsal hippocampus or basal nucleus of the amygdala enhanced context fear without affecting tone fear. Blocking HDAC3 activity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala, on the other hand, enhanced tone, but not context fear memory. These results show for the first time that the enzymatic activity of HDAC3 functions to negatively regulate fear memory formation. Further, HDAC3 activity regulates different aspects of fear memory in the basal and lateral subregions of the amygdala. Thus, the deacetylase activity of HDAC3 is a powerful negative regulator of fear memory formation in multiple subregions of the fear circuit.

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Astronomy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  4. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  5. ACTIVITY STUDIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-HYDROXY-4-METHOXYBENZALDEHYDE: LARVICIDAL STRUCTURE-. ACTIVITY STUDIES. Geoffrey M. Mahangal, Teresa O. Akengal, Wilber Lwandez, Isaiah 0. ... 2Behavioural and Chemical Ecology Department, International Centre for Insect Physiology and .... Y = mean death count, X = initial larvae population'.

  6. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping......Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...

  7. Widespread colocalization of the Drosophila histone acetyltransferase homolog MYST5 with DREF and insulator proteins at active genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heseding, Christiane; Saumweber, Harald; Rathke, Christina; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E

    2017-02-01

    MYST family histone acetyltransferases play important roles in gene regulation. Here, we have characterized the Drosophila MYST histone acetyltransferase (HAT) encoded by cg1894, whose closest homolog is Drosophila MOF, and which we have termed MYST5. We found it localized to a large number of interbands as well as to the telomeres of polytene chromosomes, and it showed strong colocalization with the interband protein Z4/Putzig and RNA polymerase II. Accordingly, genome-wide location analysis by ChIP-seq showed co-occurrence of MYST5 with the Z4-interacting partner Chriz/Chromator. Interestingly, MYST5 bound to the promoter of actively transcribed genes, and about half of MYST5 sites colocalized with the transcription factor DNA replication-related element-binding factor (DREF), indicating a role for MYST5 in gene expression. Moreover, we observed substantial overlap of MYST5 binding with that of the insulator proteins CP190, dCTCF, and BEAF-32, which mediate the organization of the genome into functionally distinct topological domains. Altogether, our data suggest a broad role for MYST5 both in gene-specific transcriptional regulation and in the organization of the genome into chromatin domains, with the two roles possibly being functionally interconnected.

  8. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Hijacks RNA Polymerase II To Create a Viral Transcriptional Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher Phillip; Lyu, Yuanzhi; Chuang, Frank; Nakano, Kazushi; Izumiya, Chie; Jin, Di; Campbell, Mel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable preinitiation complexes. We have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescence labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells. At the single-cell level, we found that not all episomes were uniformly transcribed following reactivation stimuli. However, those episomes that were being transcribed would spontaneously aggregate to form transcriptional “factories,” which recruited a significant fraction of cellular RNA polymerase II. Focal assembly of “viral transcriptional factories” decreased the pool of cellular RNA polymerase II available for cellular gene transcription, which consequently impaired cellular gene expression globally, with the exception of selected ones. The viral transcriptional factories localized with replicating viral genomic DNAs. The observed colocalization of viral transcriptional factories with replicating viral genomic DNA suggests that KSHV assembles an “all-in-one” factory for both gene transcription and DNA replication. We propose that the assembly of RNA polymerase II around viral episomes in the nucleus may be a previously unexplored aspect of KSHV gene regulation by confiscation of a limited supply of RNA polymerase II in infected cells. IMPORTANCE B cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) harbor multiple copies of the KSHV genome in the form of episomes. Three-dimensional imaging of viral gene expression in the nucleus allows us to study interactions and changes in the

  9. Relationship between lunasin's sequence and its inhibitory activity of histones H3 and H4 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; de Lumen, Ben O

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs) involved in histones acetylation has been associated with cancer. Inhibitors of these enzymes are becoming potential targets for new therapies. This study reports by Western-Blot analysis, that peptide lunasin is mainly an in vitro inhibitor of histone H4 acetylation by P300/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF), with IC₅₀ values dependent on the lysine position sensitive to be acetylated (0.83 μM (H4-Lys 8), 1.27 μM (H4-Lys 12) and 0.40 μM (H4-Lys 5, 8, 12, 16)). Lunasin is also capable of inhibiting H3 acetylation (IC₅₀ of 5.91 μM (H3-Lys 9) and 7.81 μM (H3-Lys 9, 14)). Studies on structure-activity relationship establish that lunasin's sequence are essential for inhibiting H4 acetylation whereas poly-D sequence is the main active sequence responsible for H3 acetylation inhibition. Lunasin also inhibits H3 and H4 acetylation and cell proliferation (IC₅₀ of 181 μM) in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, this peptide decreases expression of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases-4 and -6, implicated in cell cycle pathways. Results from this study demonstrates lunasin's role as modulator of histone acetylation and protein expression that might contribute on its chemopreventive properties against breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Intangible activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ‘Informal helping’ is often associated with other types of prosocial behaviour such as formal voluntary work. Therefore, one could jump to the conclusion that it would be the same factors driving both types of activities. This article demonstrates that this is not the case. The study relies...

  11. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not exercised or been active in a long time, start slowly to prevent injuries. Taking a brisk 10-minute walk twice a week is a good start. Try joining a dance, yoga, or karate class if it appeals to you. You could also ...

  12. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Engel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat®, romidepsin (Istodax® and belinostat (Beleodaq®, are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10–200 nM, while only romidepsin was active at sub-μM concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM. The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4.

  13. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  14. Analgesic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  15. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...... europæiske lande, hvor husene konstrueres, fremstilles og testes. Kvalitative og kvantitative målinger vil blive designet til at vurdere husene i forhold til energi, indeklima og miljø....

  16. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social ... Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample ...

  19. The histone acetyltransferase domains of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor are not necessary for cooperativity with the class II transactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, J A; Zika, E; Ting, J P

    2001-10-19

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a transcriptional co-activator regulating the constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and related genes. Promoter remodeling occurs following CIITA induction, suggesting the involvement of chromatin remodeling factors. Transcription of numerous genes requires the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities of CREB-binding protein (CBP), p300, and/or p300/CBP-associated factor (pCAF). These co-activators cooperate with CIITA and are hypothesized to promote class II major histocompatibility complex transcription through their HAT activity. To directly test this, we used HAT-defective CBP and pCAF. We demonstrate that cooperation between CIITA and CBP is independent of CBP HAT activity. Further, although pCAF enhances CIITA-mediated transcription, pCAF HAT domain dependence appears contingent upon the concentration of available CIITA. When HAT-defective CBP and pCAF are both present, cooperativity with CIITA is maintained. Consistent with a recent report, we show that nuclear localization of CIITA is enhanced by lysine 144, an in vitro target of pCAF-mediated HAT. Yet we find that neither mutation of lysine 144 nor deletion of residues 132-209 affects transcriptional cooperation with CBP or pCAF. Thus, acetylation of this residue may not be the primary mechanism for pCAF/CBP cooperation with CIITA. In conclusion, the HAT activities of the co-activators are not necessary for cooperation with CIITA.

  20. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  1. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf

    2015-01-01

    and structural changes in the physical environment. METHOD: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design using a mixed method approach including: 1) an exploratory study aimed at providing input for the developing process; 2) an evaluation of the effect of the interventions using a combination...... as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation...... to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements...

  2. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  3. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Donà

    Full Text Available To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation. HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%, in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5% mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples, MCPyV (5 samples and TTV (4 samples were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  4. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    . An obvious problem for any impact assessment are the deficiencies in knowledge about processes taking place in space in general. The outcome of proposed space activities therefore cannot necessarily be assessed in detail. In any case, outer space is a global common, and any adverse environmental effects of space utilization are therefore likely to be highly severe, irreversible and wide in scope. On the other hand, the tragedy of the commons problem render many nationally adopted strategies for combating adverse environmental consequences ineffective. Additionally, some principles applied on earth have not been as warmly welcomed among the space faring nations and other entities involved. For instance, it is still an issue under debate whether space has any intrinsic value or is merely a resource for human utilization. There is presently no permanent human settlement in space, and the environs thereby remain somew hat remote for the everyday lives of the vast majority of humankind. Space industry is, furthermore, highly commercialised and militarised area of international activity. Relevance of the precautionary principle and sustainable development, for instance, seem to rest therefore on a bit shakier ground while applied in outer space. Space faring nations and other entities seldom are very keen on distributing detailed information about their planned activities either. Also the fact that any activity taking place in outer space may be regarded ultra-hazardous, although during their normal operation the environmental harms usually are minor, renders for instance the due diligence principle, and the transboundary impact assessment duty it entails, somewhat less applicable. Nevertheless, sustainable development and precautionary principle are important issues for all space activities, too, and such goals would obviously necessitate better environmental protection. Additionally, democracy would seem to require the possibility of enhanced public participation, or at

  6. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  7. DAVIC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils: evidence for humoral and cell-mediated responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Farhath

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The immunomodulatory effect of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils were evaluated by studying humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Materials and Method: The essential oils were evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in in vivo studies, using rats as the animal model. The essential oils were tested for hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC as the antigen while sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC served as the control in all the tests. Result: Orally administrated essential oils showed a significant increase of test parameters, viz., haemagglutinating antibody titre (HAT and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response. In rats immunized with sheep RBC, essential oils enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the foot pad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized rats with doses of 50-800 mg/ml. Haemagglutination titre of geraniol showed the highest increase of 139.3±6.38 and with 5.9±0.7 DTH, respectively. For geranial acetate, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase of 87.5±5.9 and highest increase in DTH with 5.9±0.8, respectively. Using gingerol, the haemagglutination titre showed a moderate increase with 88.2±6.306 and DTH 3.5±0.5, respectively and for eugenol, the haemaggulation titre showed a moderate increase with 112.06±6.169 and DTH 4.4±0.6, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The essential oils were found to have a significant immunostimulant activity on both the specific and non-specific immune mechanisms.

  9. NK-, NKT- and CD8-Derived IFNγ Drives Myeloid Cell Activation and Erythrophagocytosis, Resulting in Trypanosomosis-Associated Acute Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cnops

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT/Sleeping Sickness and Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT/Nagana. A common hallmark of African trypanosome infections is inflammation. In murine trypanosomosis, the onset of inflammation occurs rapidly after infection and is manifested by an influx of myeloid cells in both liver and spleen, accompanied by a burst of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. Within 48 hours after reaching peak parasitemia, acute anemia develops and the percentage of red blood cells drops by 50%. Using a newly developed in vivo erythrophagocytosis assay, we recently demonstrated that activated cells of the myeloid phagocytic system display enhanced erythrophagocytosis causing acute anemia. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism and immune pathway behind this phenomenon in a murine model for trypanosomosis. Results indicate that IFNγ plays a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of erythrophagocytic myeloid cells, as mice lacking the IFNγ receptor were partially protected against trypanosomosis-associated inflammation and acute anemia. NK and NKT cells were the earliest source of IFNγ during T. b. brucei infection. Later in infection, CD8+ and to a lesser extent CD4+ T cells become the main IFNγ producers. Cell depletion and transfer experiments indicated that during infection the absence of NK, NKT and CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, resulted in a reduced anemic phenotype similar to trypanosome infected IFNγR-/- mice. Collectively, this study shows that NK, NKT and CD8+ T cell-derived IFNγ is a critical mediator in trypanosomosis-associated pathology, driving enhanced erythrophagocytosis by myeloid phagocytic cells and the induction of acute inflammation-associated anemia.

  10. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  11. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Strategic partnership is a logical approach to face some of the public health problems. However, its application is somewhat more complex. In this paper our experience with three networks (Agita São Paulo, Physical Activity Network of Americas, and Agita Mundo Network) was described. In the case of Agita São Paulo even the name was a consequence of a partnership with a marketing company, and is an idiomatic expression that means much more than just to move your body. It also means to move psychologically and socially, with the concept of "active citizenship". Among the important features of that intervention, we highlighted: (a) national and international intellectual partnership; (b) strong institutional partnerships, including government in one hand, and non-governmental and private sector in the other hand, in a so called: "two-hats approach"; (c) minimal formalization/maximal flexibility; (d) a signed letter of agreement: an active symbol of institutional commitment; (e) use the "mobile management" adaptation of the ecological model, in which attention was given to intrapersonal, social, and physical environmental factors, in a dynamic way; (f) attention to inter-sectoral as well as to intra-sectoral partners, in which creates incentives for participation of more than one representative from each sector; (g) the inclusion principle, that was not restricted to the institution, but affected the program actions, materials, and particularly the messages; (h) a high level of legitimacy of the coordination institution in the leadership; (i) special attention to improve environment supports for physical activity, such as: strategic partnerships established with the Metro System, that serves over 1 million persons/day; the Truck Drivers Radio Station; the State Secretariat of Environment, that built a walking path around its main building; the city of São Caetano do Sul, with the healthy sidewalk program; the city of Santana do Parnaiba building a walking path

  12. Coumarin enhances nitrate uptake in maize roots throughout a modulation of plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, Antonio; Araniti, Fabrizio; Mauceri, Antonio; Princi, Maria Polsia; Sorgonà, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco; Varanini, Zeno; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2017-11-27

    1.Coumarin is one of the simplest plant secondary metabolite widely distributed in plant kingdom affecting root form and function, including anatomy, morphology and nutrient uptake. Although, some plant responses to coumarin have been described, comprehensive knowledge of the physiological and molecular mechanisms is lacking. 2.Maize seedlings exposed to different coumarin concentrations, alone or in combination with 200 μM nitrate (NO3- ), were analyzed, through a physiological and molecular approach, to elucidate action of coumarin on net NO3- uptake rate (NNUR). In detail, the time course of NNUR, plasma membrane (PM) H+ -ATPase activity, the proton pumping, and related gene expressions (ZmNPF6.3, ZmNRT2.1, ZmNAR2.1, ZmHA3 and ZmHA4) were evaluated. 3.Coumarin alone did not affect nitrate uptake, the PM H+ -ATPase activity as well as the transcript levels of ZmNRT2.1 and ZmHA3. By contrast, coumarin alone increased ZmNPF6.3, ZmNAR2.1 and ZmHA4 expression, as observed in response to abiotic stress. When coumarin and NO3- were concurrently added to the nutrient solution, a significant increase in the NNUR, PM H+ -ATPase activity together with ZmNAR2.1:ZmNRT2.1 and ZmHA4 expressions were observed, suggesting that coumarin affected the inducible component of high affinity transport system (iHATS), and this effect appeared to be mediated by nitrate. Moreover, the results with vanadate, an inhibitor of the PM H+ -ATPase, suggested that this enzyme could be a main target of coumarin. 4.Surprisingly, coumarin did not affect the PM H+ -ATPase activity by direct contact with plasma membrane vesicle isolated from maize roots, indicating its possible elicitor role in the gene transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The rabbit in the hat: dubious argumentation and the persuasive effects of prescription drug advertising (DTCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinelli, Sara; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    There is an ongoing global debate over the potential benefits and risks of allowing direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines (DTCA). The core of this debate concerns the identification of DTCA either as a beneficial procedure to be promoted or as a damaging procedure to be abolished. Economic data on DTCA suggest that this form of advertising has an impact on consumers. Based on this premise, we explore the use of argumentation theory to inquire into the reasons for this success. In particular, by combining perspectives from argumentation theory and marketing research this paper aims to test the hypothesis of whether DTCA presents information framed in potentially misleading, but persuasive, argumentative structures. We highlight and discuss the results of two studies designed to assess whether readers perceive DTCA as argumentative and, if so, which explicit and implicit elements provide groundings for the inference that consumers draw from the ads. The analysis highlights the presence in DTCA of dubious arguments (fallacies and distracting claims) that may go unnoticed. Also, it illustrates the nature of readers' wrong assumptions that arise independently from the contents of the ads. These factors seem to influence the level of the self-perceived persuasiveness of DTCA.

  14. Who has priority during the regulation?; Wer hat Vorrang beim Abregeln?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2013-04-15

    The remote control of wind power plants by direct marketers raises questions - not only on the technology, but also on the hierarchy of actors. From the technical perspective, the current practice of feed-in is not particularly well developed. So far, the regulation of wind turbines via radio ripple control is carried out in stages to 60, 30 and 0 %. The traditional ripple control technology does not send a message back to the sender if the wind turbine has received the signal and reacts to it. Smart meter and digital control technology can provide assistance in this case. Consequences for the plant safety result from this regulation: The performance of a wind turbine shall be reduced only with a gradient of ten percent of the initial output per minute. If the data transfer is interrupted, the reduction of the power will be closed automatically after 30 minutes.

  15. HAT: Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays with application to promoter-GeneChip data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Taskesen (Erdogan); R. Beekman (Renée); J. de Ridder (Jeroen); B.J. Wouters (Bas); J. Peeters (Justine); I.P. Touw (Ivo); M.J.T. Reinders (Marcel); H.R. Delwel (Ruud)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased), the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define

  16. HAT : Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays with application to promoter-GeneChip data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taskesen, E.; Beekman, R.; De Ridder, J.; Wouters, B.J.; Peeters, J.K.; Touw, I.P.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Delwel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased), the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define

  17. Effects of mixtures of cassaca peel and Albizia lebbeck hat on feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of mixtures of cassava peel and Albizia lebbeck hay on feed intake, digestibility and voluntary water intake were evaluated in a digestibility study involving 25 West African Dwarf grower goats (4.95±0.23kg). There were five diets comprising unsupplemented cassava peel, 27, 55 and 82 % replacements with ...

  18. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  19. Changing headgear: Harworth puts a new hat on an old shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Replacing an old shaft headgear is a complex operation that needs to be accomplished with the minimum of downtime. August 1996 will see the headgear of No. 2 shaft at Harworth Colliery in the United Kingdom replaced in just a few hours. Total downtime to complete installation and refurbishment will be three weeks. The secret of success lies in the many months of planning ahead of the operation.

  20. Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schartel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of additive and reactive flame retardants containing phosphorus are increasingly successful as halogen-free alternatives for various polymeric materials and applications. Phosphorus can act in the condensed phase by enhancing charring, yielding intumescence, or through inorganic glass formation; and in the gas phase through flame inhibition. Occurrence and efficiency depend, not only on the flame retardant itself, but also on its interaction with pyrolysing polymeric material and additives. Flame retardancy is sensitive to modification of the flame retardant, the use of synergists/adjuvants, and changes to the polymeric material. A detailed understanding facilitates the launch of tailored and targeted development.

  1. Beyond Hat in Hand: Science Advocacy Is Foundational for Policy Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Taylor, Nathaniel; Levitt, Pat

    2017-05-17

    Beyond those to whom neuroscientists typically communicate exciting discoveries-that is, those who can provide more funding for researchers-there are important audiences that are positioned to use neuroscience findings to affect policy and improve societal outcomes. Showing the utility of research that policymakers, service providers, and the public can use to make decisions will enhance views of the value of scientific research. The ingredients of successful communications between neuroscientists and other stakeholders are different from those that characterize effective communications between scientists. Here, we discuss our experiences in the communication of the science of early childhood and brain development and our recommendations to help neuroscientists better communicate the benefits of their research to those who make practice and policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decommissioning. Success with preparation; Mit kompetenten Mitarbeitern gelingt der Rueckbau. Erfolg hat, wer darauf vorbereitet ist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Joerg [ENBW Kernkraft GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Schulz, Rolf [Rolf Schulz HR Consultants AG, Baden-Baden (Germany); Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-02-15

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant poses a significant challenge for the operating company. The business model is turned upside down and a working culture developed for power operation has to be adapted while necessary know- how for the upcoming tasks has to be built up. The trauma for the employees induced by the final plant shut-down has to be considered and respected. The change of working culture in the enterprise has to be managed and the organization has to be prepared for the future. Here the methods of Change-Management offer a systematic and effective approach. Confidence in the employee's competencies is one of the key success factors for the change into the future.

  3. Corked Hats and "Coronation Street": British and New Zealand Children's Imaginative Geographies of the Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Sarah L.; Valentine, Gill

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ways British and New Zealand children imagined each other's environments and cultures. Illustrates the sources and importance of stereotypical understandings of landscape, people, and patterns of daily life in other nations, and the ways these may be contested through Internet contact. (JPB)

  4. Shear dominated failure in the 'hat' specimen from the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this memo is to present a brief report of the progress achieved during FY2016 on the investigation of ductile failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge specimen. It is a follow-up to the results of an experimental investigation presented in [1]. The experi- mental investigation was conducted with both the original steel A286 material used in the fracture challenge as well as with Al 7075-T651. The new results include further microscopy work for the steel A286 specimens, failure criterion veri cation for both materials and the implementation of a nite element model containing `material imperfections' to simulate the limit load in the response of the steel A286 specimens. Funding used to conduct the work presented here was provided by the ASC V&V program on validation of shear failure (Benjamin Reedlunn, PI) and from Sandia's LDRD program. This memo assumes that the reader is familiar with the material in [1].

  5. Shear dominated failure in the 'hat' specimen from the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this memo is to present a brief report of the progress achieved during FY2016 on the investigation of ductile failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge specimen. The experimental investigation was conducted with both the original steel A286 material used in the fracture challenge as well as with Al 7075-T651. The new results include further microscopy work for the steel A286 specimens, failure criterion verification for both materials and the implementation of a finite element model containing `material imperfections' to simulate the limit load in the response of the steel A286 specimens. Funding used to conduct the work presented here was provided by the ASC V&V program on validation of shear failure (Benjamin Reedlunn, PI) and from Sandia's LDRD program.

  6. White Hat Search Engine Optimization (SEO: Structured Web Data for Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Scott

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “White hat” search engine optimization refers to the practice of publishing web pages that are useful to humans, while enabling search engines and web applications to better understand the structure and content of your website. This article teaches you to add structured data to your website so that search engines can more easily connect patrons to your library locations, hours, and contact information. A web page for a branch of the Greater Sudbury Public Library retrieved in January 2015 is used as the basis for examples that progressively enhance the page with structured data. Finally, some of the advantages structured data enables beyond search engine optimization are explored

  7. Deciphering the Fluorine Code-The Many Hats Fluorine Wears in a Protein Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allison Ann; Völler, Jan-Stefan; Budisa, Nediljko; Koksch, Beate

    2017-09-19

    Deciphering the fluorine code is how we describe not only the focus of this Account, but also the systematic approach to studying the impact of fluorine's incorporation on the properties of peptides and proteins used by our groups and others. The introduction of fluorine has been shown to impart favorable, but seldom predictable, properties to peptides and proteins, but up until about two decades ago the outcomes of fluorine modification of peptides and proteins were largely left to chance. Driven by the motivation to extend the application of the unique properties of the element fluorine from medicinal and agro chemistry to peptide and protein engineering we have established extensive research programs that enable the systematic investigation of effects that accompany the introduction of fluorine into this class of biopolymers. The introduction of fluorine into amino acids offers a universe of options for modifications with regard to number and position of fluorine substituents in the amino acid side chain. Moreover, it is important to emphasize that the consequences of incorporating the C-F bond into a biopolymer can be attributed to two distinct yet related phenomena: (i) the fluorine substituent can directly engage in intermolecular interactions with its environment and/or (ii) the other functional groups present in the molecule can be influenced by the electron withdrawing nature of this element (intramolecular) and in turn interact differently with their immediate environment (intermolecular). Based on our studies, we have shown that a change in number and/or position of as subtle as one single fluorine substituent has the power to considerably modify key properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity, polarity, and secondary structure propensity. These properties are crucial factors in peptide and protein engineering, and thus, fluorinated amino acids can be applied to fine-tune properties such as protein folding, proteolytic stability, and protein-protein interactions provided we understand and become able to predict the outcome of a fluorine substitution in this context. With this Account, we attempt to analyze information we gained from our recent projects on how the nature of the fluorine atom and C-F bond influence four key properties of peptides and proteins: peptide folding, protein-protein interactions, ribosomal translation, and protease stability. These results impressively show why the introduction of fluorine creates a new class of amino acids with a repertoire of functionalities that is unique to the world of proteins and in some cases orthogonal to the set of canonical and natural amino acids. Our concluding statements aim to offer a few conserved design principles that have emerged from systematic studies over the last two decades; in this way, we hope to advance the field of peptide and protein engineering based on the judicious introduction of fluorinated building blocks.

  8. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  9. Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Barkakati, Naba

    2004-01-01

    This essential reference organizes material into a set of nine stand-alone, task-oriented minibooks that enable readers to understand all aspects of the Fedora OS, the latest release of the most popular Linux distributionEach minibook covers a different aspect of Fedora, such as getting users started with Fedora, the various workstations and applications, OpenOffice.org, networking, system administration, security, running Internet servers on a Fedora system, and programmingMore experienced readers can use this desktop reference to look up how to perform specific tasks, such as hooking up to t

  10. Gay Parents Do Exist: Letting the Rabbit out of the Hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasnoff, Debra

    2005-01-01

    The truth is that today, millions of children have a parent, uncle, aunt, cousin, sibling or grandparent who is gay. Thousands of dedicated teachers, school administrators and coaches are gays or lesbians. What kind of message is being sent to youth when people say that their loved ones and trusted mentors are not safe for children to meet on TV?…

  11. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  12. "Jeder Mensch hat einen Name": Legal and Ethical Dimensions of Human Experiments under National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper considers whether it is right to identify by name victims of experiments abused either for psychiatric research, or for other types of experimentation in psychiatric hospitals and institutions. Similar questions arise as to whether it is possible to identify any of the persons for whom brains and other body parts were held for medical research and teaching.

  13. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohatt Gerald V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03 had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. Methods Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58 or never had a drinking problem (n = 43. This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs and non-problem drinkers (NPs. Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. Results Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a individual, family, and community characteristics; (b trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more socially embedded terms better understood as communal mastery. One style of mastery is more associated with individualistic orientations, the other with more collectivistic. Future research is needed regarding the generalizeability of this group difference. Conclusions Results suggest that preventative interventions should focus on intervening simultaneously at the community, family, and individual levels to build resilience and protective factors at each level. Of particular importance is the building of reflexivity along with other cognitive processes that allow the individual to think through problems and to reach a life decision to not abuse alcohol.

  14. CALLIGRAPHY OF STACKED FRUIT IN ART OF CALLIGRAPHY / HAT SANATINDA MEYVE ISTIFLI HATLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Zübeyde Cihan ÖZSAYINER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Calligraphy with stacked fruit in the art ofcalligraphy In Turkish culture fruit has created afundamental element used lovingly in architecture,calligraphy, miniatures, woodwork, metalwork, porcelain art, carpets, towels, edging, printed cloth, embroidery,folk art and gravestones. As a result of studies, it hasbeen shown that fruit has the symbolic meanings ofimmortality, the existence that is the core of something, ajewel and truth. It is seen that the symbolisms of fruit byitself changes according to societies. The apple becamethe fruit of the tree in paradise and the “golden apple” isthe symbol of immortality. The grape symbolizes autumn,the pomegranate bountifulness, reproduction, maternityand birth. As a result of my research in the art ofcalligraphy it has been proven that there are manuscriptsreflecting religious and mystic subjects have beenstacked neatly in the forms of pears, apples andpomegranate. In the Turkish Foundation CalligraphicArts Museum, the only such one in Turkey and in theworld there are three examples of calligraphy neatlystacked in pear form. It seems that the stacked fruit inthe form of pears, apples and pomegranates and writtenin various techniques were lovingly used by calligrapherswho had great creative power, sought change in theTurkish art of calligraphy and worked in religious andmystic circles.

  15. Adaptation of Foreign Students to the Foreign Culture Learning Environment Using the Six Thinking Hats Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavovna, Vershinina Tatiana; Leopoldovna, Kocheva Olga

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary life is characterized by various ways and forms of communication, sometimes but not always successful and leading to conflict situations. When a man occurs in the environment, alien to him, he meets misunderstanding and is overwhelmed with incomprehensible emotions as if he were covered with an avalanche. He has to solve problems…

  16. Adoption of open source software in business models: a Red Hat and IBM case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munga, N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available and defence to healthcare and life sciences, to media and entertainment. The lists of both offerings and clients are extensive. After 10 years of exposure and experience, open source has had a significant impact on the way that IBM carries out its business... more effectively [17]. IBM's first open source spin out came from a pre-production Research and Development project beginning in early 1996. Two IBM researchers developed a prototype Java compiler that was more efficient than Sun's industry standard...

  17. "Ein Jegliches hat seine Zeit“. Altern und die Ethik des Lebensverlaufs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweda Mark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Zeichen steigender Lebenserwartung, individualisierter Lebensentwürfe und wachsender medizinischer Eingriffsmöglichkeiten ist die Ethik herausgefordert, sich ausdrücklich und systematisch mit der Bedeutung der zeitlichen Erstreckung, Verlaufsstruktur und Einteilung unseres Lebens auseinanderzusetzen. Einen ersten Ansatzpunkt dazu bietet die im entwicklungspsychologischen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Bereich ausgebildete Lebensverlaufsperspektive. Am Beispiel des Alterns wird zunächst das Desiderat einer angemessenen ethischen Auseinandersetzung mit den normativen Aspekten menschlicher Zeitlichkeit aufgezeigt. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden die theoretischen Grundzüge der Lebensverlaufsperspektive umrissen und in ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit für die ethische Theoriebildung erörtert. Das Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf drei Konzepten: Altersnormen als normative Standards altersgemäßen Verhaltens, Phasenideale als evaluative Maßstäbe der Lebensabschnittsgestaltung sowie Ablaufpläne als diachrone Schemata lebensgeschichtlicher Vorgänge. Abschließend werden Anwendungsmöglichkeiten und Grenzen einer solchen Lebensverlaufsperspektive in der Ethik erörtert.

  18. The Cohen and Kuttel Stories: Is the Place Where I Hang my Hat Still ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article queries whether the concept of “ordinary resident”, with its connotation of permanence, should be updated to reflect the modern reality of transience and mobility. The conclusion reached is that the existing definition of “resident” may be in need of updating to accommodate global trends and to bring the South ...

  19. "Die Nato hat einen grossen Fehler begangen" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Ansgar Graw

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti president räägib sõjalistest kokkupõrgetest Gruusias, vajadusest uue rahvusvahelise julgeolekustruktuuri järele, ootustest rahvusvahelise üldsuse suhtes, Balti riikide julgeolekust ning kritiseerib NATO otsust mitte anda Gruusiale NATO liikmelisuse tegevuskava

  20. College Hats or Lecture Trousers? Stage Fright and Performance Anxiety in University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the experience of "stage fright" in teachers in higher education, drawing on the dramaturgical perspective from sociology. Interviews were conducted with 10 "novice" and "expert" lecturers, alongside focus groups with undergraduate students, to compare their perceptions and expectations. The students defined a good lecturer…

  1. "Good Guys Don't Wear Hats": Children's Talk about the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Joseph

    This book details an ethnographic study focused on how children think and talk about media representations of violence, gender, race, colonialism, and social class. Participating in the study were 162 elementary school students in Hawaii. Groups of 6- to 12-year-olds viewed clips from 2 television commercials and 2 movies and were later…

  2. What hat are you wearing? On the multiple roles of fishery scientists in the ICES community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankel, D.J.; Stange, K.; Nielsen, K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Trends towards a more participatory agenda in policy-relevant science imply that the roles and work tasks of scientists become more multifaceted. In Europe, the increased use of multiannual plans creates a need for fishery scientists to contribute with their expertise in a wide variety of

  3. Am I Wearing the Right Hat? Navigating Professional Relationships between Parent-Teachers and Their Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Eliana; Friedman, Ilana Dvorin; Harkema, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing organizational role theory and cognitive role theory as a theoretical framework, this phenomenological study examined the experience of parent-teachers and colleague-teachers in small educational settings and their perceptions of these dynamic relationships and potential areas of conflict. Findings highlighted perceived strengths, yet…

  4. Efficient mine detection using wavelet PCA and morphological top hat filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nizam U.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    An efficient unsupervised technique is proposed for land mine detection from highly cluttered inhomogeneous environment. The proposed technique uses multispectral data for which feature extraction is necessary to classify large volume of data. We applied wavelet based principal component analysis to reduce the dimension of the data as well as to reveal information about target from background clutter. To increase the discrimination between target and clutter a linear transformation of the feature extracted bands is performed. Thereafter, morphological algorithm is used to extract the maximum information about the target. The proposed technique shows excellent detection performance while enhancing the processing speed. Test results using various multispectral data sets show excellent performance and verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  5. ZB MED: Welchen Stellenwert hat die bibliothekarische Infrastruktur für die Wissenschaft?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brintzinger, Klaus-Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the expected effects of the recommendation of the senate of the Leibniz Association to the Joint Science Conference to stop the co-funding of ZB MED – Leibniz Information Centre for Life Sciences by federal and state authorities. Until the founding of the Leibniz Association servicing as a specialized library for medicine had been ZB MED’s main task, while evaluation was done under scientific perspectives. The now suspected close-down of this indispensable national information agency would do great harm and damage to medical literature und information supply throughout Germany. For this reason the Association of German Librarians took initiatives for ZB MED’s persistence.

  6. Integrating Theory A and Six Thinking Hats Technique for Improved Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    Various models are used in developing strategies to improve people’s performance in organizations. Such for example, are theory X, theory Y, and theory A. All these in common are based on presumptions about the human behaviour at work. Theory X and Y are opposing each other in predicting human nature. Theory A (Theory of Accountability) focuses on innate human potential, inherent urge for creativity, self-expression, and contribution to the organization as motivators. This is a winning st...

  7. QCD radiation in the production of high s-hat final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skands, Peter; /Fermilab; Plehn, Tilman; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Rainwater, David; /Rochester U.

    2005-11-01

    In the production of very heavy final states--high Mandelstam {cflx s}--extra QCD radiation can play a significant role. By comparing several different parton shower approximations to results obtained with fixed-order perturbation theory, they quantify the degree to which these approaches agree (or disagree), focusing on initial state radiation above p{perpendicular} = 50 GeV, for top pair production at the Tevatron and at the LHC, and for SUSY pair production at the LHC. Special attention is paid to ambiguities associated with the choice of the maximum value of the ordering variable in parton shower models.

  8. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohatt, Gerald; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-01-01

    .... The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety...

  9. Score a Facilities Hat Trick: Strategic Goals for Successful Hiring, Training, and Team Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Granted, it might be a bit of a stretch to find comparable attributes between an ice hockey team and facilities management organizations. However, if you are open-minded to the possibility and begin to analyze each of these entities, you will find there are some distinct similarities. Ice hockey is a fast-paced and ever-changing game, much like a…

  10. The Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Red Deer and Medicine Hat, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of asthma among school-aged children in two Alberta communities, to understand host and indoor environmental factors associated with asthma, and to compare these factors between the two communities.

  11. Hat sich das Gehirn beim Haushunde, im Vergleich mit Wildhundarten, vergrössert, oder verkleinert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Eug.

    1922-01-01

    In dem inhaltreichen Buche „Der Mensch. Sein Ursprung und seine Entwicklung” von W. LECHE ¹) finden sich die sehr merkwürdigen Abbildungen zweier „Skeletten von nahezu derselben Grösse, das eine von einem zahmen Hund, das andere von einer wilden Hundeart”, nach der Meinung des Autors „schlagende

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  14. Types of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics Types of physical activity Types of physical activity Not sure what kinds of physical activity you should do? Well, you need three main types of activity . They are aerobic (sometimes called "cardio"), muscle-strengthening , ...

  15. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  16. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  17. Being stressed and active!? An analysis of different aspects of the relationship between physical activity, individual perceived stress, and individual health

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Die sportwissenschaftliche Forschung zeigt deutlich, dass Sport und körperliche Aktivität positive Effekte für die Gesundheit haben, im Gegensatz dazu aber erlebter Stress negative Folgen hat. Es stellt sich die Frage, welche Rollen und Effekte Sport im Stress-Gesundheit Kontext spielen kann. In drei Studien wurde der Moderatoreffekt von Sport auf den Zusammenhang zwischen Stress und Beschwerden sowie der Effekt von erlebtem Stress auf die Sportaktivität selbst untersucht.

  18. H3 lysine 4 is acetylated at active gene promoters and is regulated by H3 lysine 4 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Guillemette

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to being methylated, H3K4 is also acetylated in budding yeast. Genetic studies reveal that the histone acetyltransferases (HATs Gcn5 and Rtt109 contribute to H3K4 acetylation in vivo. Whilst removal of H3K4ac from euchromatin mainly requires the histone deacetylase (HDAC Hst1, Sir2 is needed for H3K4 deacetylation in heterochomatin. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we show that H3K4ac is enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes and located just upstream of H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3, a pattern that has been conserved in human cells. We find that the Set1-containing complex (COMPASS, which promotes H3K4me2 and -me3, also serves to limit the abundance of H3K4ac at gene promoters. In addition, we identify a group of genes that have high levels of H3K4ac in their promoters and are inadequately expressed in H3-K4R, but not in set1Δ mutant strains, suggesting that H3K4ac plays a positive role in transcription. Our results reveal a novel regulatory feature of promoter-proximal chromatin, involving mutually exclusive histone modifications of the same histone residue (H3K4ac and H3K4me.

  19. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  20. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  1. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2009-11-06

    Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black) from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori) were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Two major themes about clothing were: 1) children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2) clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical activity in child-care settings, particularly if the clothing of a

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Listen Watch ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  4. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  5. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  7. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  8. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  14. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  15. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample ...

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition activates transgene expression from integration-defective lentiviral vectors in dividing and non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelascini, Laetitia P L; Janssen, Josephine M; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2013-01-01

    Integration-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) are being increasingly deployed in both basic and preclinical gene transfer settings. Often, however, the IDLV transgene expression profile is muted when compared to that of their integration-proficient counterparts. We hypothesized that the episomal nature of IDLVs turns them into preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylation. Therefore, vectors carrying an array of cis-acting elements and transcriptional unit components were assembled with the aid of packaging constructs encoding either the wild-type or the class I mutant D116N integrase moieties. The transduction levels and transgene-product yields provided by each vector class were assessed in the presence and absence of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin A. To investigate the role of the target cell replication status, we performed experiments in growth-arrested human mesenchymal stem cells and in post-mitotic syncytial myotubes. We found that IDLVs are acutely affected by HDACs regardless of their genetic makeup or target cell replication rate. Interestingly, the magnitude of IDLV transgene expression rescue due to HDAC inhibition varied in a vector backbone- and cell type-dependent manner. Finally, investigation of histone modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) revealed a paucity of euchromatin marks distributed along IDLV genomes when compared to those measured on isogenic integration-competent vector templates. These findings support the view that IDLVs constitute preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving histone deacetylation, which contributes to dampening their full transcriptional potential. Our data provide leads on how to most optimally titrate and deploy these promising episomal gene delivery vehicles.

  19. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  20. Diabetes - keeping active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to add more activity to your day. Introduction There are many benefits to being active. Staying ... of activities and locations. When the weather is cold or wet, stay active by ... and equipment. Start slowly. A common mistake is to try and do too much ...

  1. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  2. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  3. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  4. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  9. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ... Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  15. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... of physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  18. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  19. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of ... 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

  2. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute ... ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL ...

  7. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  8. Comparing Active Vision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  9. Computers + Student Activities Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masie, Elliott; Stein, Michele

    Designed to provide schools with the tools to start utilizing computers for student activity programs without additional expenditures, this handbook provides beginning computer users with suggestions and ideas for using computers in such activities as drama clubs, yearbooks, newspapers, activity calendars, accounting programs, room utilization,…

  10. Comparing active vision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  11. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  12. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  13. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  14. Filamentous bacteriophage: biology, phage display and nanotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakonjac, Jasna; Bennett, Nicholas J; Spagnuolo, Julian; Gagic, Dragana; Russel, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous bacteriophage, long and thin filaments that are secreted from the host cells without killing them, have been an antithesis to the standard view of head-and-tail bacterial killing machines. Episomally replicating filamentous phage Ff of Escherichia coli provide the majority of information about the principles and mechanisms of filamentous phage infection, episomal replication and assembly. Chromosomally- integrated "temperate" filamentous phage have complex replication and integration, which are currently under active investigation. The latter are directly or indirectly implicated in diseases caused by bacterial pathogens Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria meningitidis. In the first half of the review, both the Ff and temperate phage are described and compared. A large section of the review is devoted to an overview of phage display technology and its applications in nanotechnology.

  15. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  16. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupel, Peter [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Multhoff, Gabriele [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Experimental Immune Biology, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungen des bioenergetischen Status ergaben, dass Tumorhypoxie neben vielen anderen bedeutsamen biologischen Effekten zu einem starken

  17. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  19. Participatory Activities in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik; Sørensen, Vicki

    Through a series of participatory activities within a product development project, we analyse how these activities influence the design process and how new meaning is created through the interaction of crossing intentions (Larsen, 2010). By focusing on a specific theme in the project we reflect...... on how participatory activities are a key part in establishing important interactions between participants resulting in new design approaches. At other times participatory activities become a part of blurring these new approaches when performing new participatory activities towards developing new...... iterations of the concept in focus. We conclude that participatory activities can play a key part in the uptake of user knowledge but that a participatory innovation approach of establishing collaboration between crossing intentions can as well be considered provocative and as such, result in resistance...

  20. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  1. Close but Distinct Regions of Human Herpesvirus 8 Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen 1 Are Responsible for Nuclear Targeting and Binding to Human Mitotic Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolot, Tristan; Tramier, Marc; Coppey, Maité; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Marechal, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 is associated with all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, AIDS-associated body cavity-based lymphomas, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Herpesvirus 8, like other gammaherpesviruses, can establish a latent infection in which viral genomes are stably maintained as multiple episomes. The latent nuclear antigen (LANA or LNAI) may play an essential role in the stable maintenance of latent episomes, notably by interacting concomitantly with the viral genomes and the metaphase chromosomes, thus ensuring an efficient transmission of the neoduplicated episomes to the daughter cells. To identify the regions responsible for its nuclear and subnuclear localization in interphase and mitotic cells, LNAI and various truncated forms were fused to a variant of green fluorescent protein. This enabled their localization and chromosome binding activity to be studied by low-light-level fluorescence microscopy in living HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that nuclear localization of LNAI is due to a unique signal, which maps between amino acids 24 and 30. Interestingly, this nuclear localization signal closely resembles those identified in EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus papio. A region encompassing amino acids 5 to 22 was further proved to mediate the specific interaction of LNA1 with chromatin during interphase and the chromosomes during mitosis. The presence of putative phosphorylation sites in the chromosome binding sites of LNA1 and EBNA1 suggests that their activity may be regulated by specific cellular kinases. PMID:11264383

  2. Solar Activity and TECHNOSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-05-01

    A review of solar activity factors impacting on the near-Earth space and technosphere are given. Solar activity in the form of enhanced fluxes of hard electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation, solar wind streams and mass ejections is considered as a principal source of space weather creating the dangerous for the astronauts, satellites, International Space Station and for the ground technical systems. The examples of effects of solar activity on the space and ground technosphere are given.

  3. Confinement for Active Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kammuller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for the security of distributed active objects. Active objects com-municate asynchronously implementing method calls via futures. We base the formal framework on a security model that uses a semi-lattice to enable multi-lateral security crucial for distributed architectures. We further provide a security type system for the programming model ASPfun of functional active objects. Type safety and a confinement property are presented. ASPfun thus reali...

  4. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  5. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  6. Physical activity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, Fabien; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Carnac, Gilles; Mercier, Jacques; Rami, Jacques; Rivière, Daniel; Rolland, Yves

    2011-08-01

    Physical activity can be a valuable countermeasure to sarcopenia in its treatment and prevention. In considering physical training strategies for sarcopenic subjects, it is critical to consider personal and environmental obstacles to access opportunities for physical activity for any patient with chronic disease. This article presents an overview of current knowledge of the effects of physical training on muscle function and the physical activity recommended for sarcopenic patients. So that this countermeasure strategy can be applied in practice, the authors propose a standardized protocol for prescribing physical activity in chronic diseases such as sarcopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  10. High amplitude theta wave bursts: a novel electroencephalographic feature of rem sleep and cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Martire, Viviana Carmen; Bastianini, Stefano; Berteotti, Chiara; Silvani, Alessandro; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    High amplitude theta wave bursts (HATs) were originally described during REMS and cataplexy in ORX-deficient mice as a novel neurophysiological correlate of narcolepsy (Bastianini et al., 2012). This finding was replicated the following year by Vassalli et al. in both ORX-deficient narcoleptic mice and narcoleptic children during cataplexy episodes (Vassalli et al., 2013). The relationship between HATs and narcolepsy-cataplexy in mice and patients indicates that the lack of ORX peptides is responsible for this abnormal EEG activity, the physiological meaning of which is still unknown. This review aimed to explore different phasic EEG events previously described in the published literature in order to find analogies and differences with HATs observed in narcoleptic mice and patients. We found similarities in terms of morphology, frequency and duration between HATs and several physiological (mu and wicket rhythms, sleep spindles, saw-tooth waves) or pathological (SWDs, HVSs, bursts of polyphasic complexes EEG complexes reported in a mouse model of CJD, and BSEs) EEG events. However, each of these events also shows significant differences from HATs, and thus cannot be equaled to them. The available evidence thus suggests that HATs are a novel neurophysiological phenomenon. Further investigations on HATs are required in order to investigate their physiological meaning, to individuate their brain structure(s) of origin, and to clarify the neural circuits involved in their manifestation.

  11. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  12. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Tracking Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to ...

  14. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  15. Active Students in Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  16. Coordinating Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  17. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years...

  18. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  19. Tendinopathy and Doppler activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2006-01-01

    Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT).......Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT)....

  20. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...