WorldWideScience

Sample records for active energy-transmitting state

  1. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  2. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  3. Outsourcing in State Service Activity Outsourcing in State Service Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2012-01-01

    The article gives an analysis of the problem of outsourcing in public management of the RF. It clarifies the definition of the term of public services; proposes concepts of public service and public service product; discusses the hypothesis that outsourcing really can help improve the performance of the state structures by attracting external resources.Results: the resource and contact activities are most promising for outsourcing. However, outsourcing of government activities is associated w...

  4. Diversity of Active States in TMT Opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Sakai

    Full Text Available Opn3/TMT opsins belong to one of the opsin groups with vertebrate visual and non-visual opsins, and are widely distributed in eyes, brains and other internal organs in various vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrate Opn3/TMT opsins are further classified into four groups on the basis of their amino acid identities. However, there is limited information about molecular properties of these groups, due to the difficulty in preparing the recombinant proteins. Here, we successfully expressed recombinant proteins of TMT1 and TMT2 opsins of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes in cultured cells and characterized their molecular properties. Spectroscopic and biochemical studies demonstrated that TMT1 and TMT2 opsins functioned as blue light-sensitive Gi/Go-coupled receptors, but exhibited spectral properties and photo-convertibility of the active state different from each other. TMT1 opsin forms a visible light-absorbing active state containing all-trans-retinal, which can be photo-converted to 7-cis- and 9-cis-retinal states in addition to the original 11-cis-retinal state. In contrast, the active state of TMT2 opsin is a UV light-absorbing state having all-trans-retinal and does not photo-convert to any other state, including the original 11-cis-retinal state. Thus, TMT opsins are diversified so as to form a different type of active state, which may be responsible for their different functions.

  5. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  6. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  7. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  8. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  9. MCID/Low Disease Activity State Workshop: low disease activity state in rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, G.A.; Boers, M.; Shea, B.; Anderson, J.; Felson, D.T.; Johnson, K.; Kirwan, J.; Lassere, M.N.; Robinson, V.; Simon, L.S.; Strand, V.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Tugwell, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The MCID (minimal clinically important difference) module of OMERACT 5 developed a research agenda that led to the conclusion that a state of low disease activity for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) would need to be defined. To develop such a definition the various concepts and terminologies, the process

  10. Stated Uptake of Physical Activity Rewards Programmes Among Active and Insufficiently Active Full-Time Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Semra; Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2017-10-01

    Employers are increasingly relying on rewards programmes in an effort to promote greater levels of activity among employees; however, if enrolment in these programmes is dominated by active employees, then they are unlikely to be a good use of resources. This study uses a stated-preference survey to better understand who participates in rewards-based physical activity programmes, and to quantify stated uptake by active and insufficiently active employees. The survey was fielded to a national sample of 950 full-time employees in Singapore between 2012 and 2013. Participants were asked to choose between hypothetical rewards programmes that varied along key dimensions and whether or not they would join their preferred programme if given the opportunity. A mixed logit model was used to analyse the data and estimate predicted uptake for specific programmes. We then simulated employer payments based on predictions for the percentage of each type of employee likely to meet the activity goal. Stated uptake ranged from 31 to 67% of employees, depending on programme features. For each programme, approximately two-thirds of those likely to enrol were insufficiently active. Results showed that insufficiently active employees, who represent the majority, are attracted to rewards-based physical activity programmes, and at approximately the same rate as active employees, even when enrolment fees are required. This suggests that a programme with generous rewards and a modest enrolment fee may have strong employee support and be within the range of what employers may be willing to spend.

  11. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  12. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  13. Social Media Activism and State Censorship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Trottier, D.; Fuchs, C.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on

  14. NPP Decommissioning: the concept; state of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemytov, S.; Zimin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main principles of NPP decommissioning concept in Russia are given. The conditions with fulfillment of works on NPP unit pre-decommissioning and decommissioning including: development of the normative documentation, creation of special fund for financing NPP decommissioning activities, deriving the Gosatomnadzor license for decommissioning of shut down NPP units, development of the equipment and technologies for waste and spent fuel management are presented. The decommissioning cost and labour intensity of one WWER-440 unit are shown. The practical works, executed on shut down units at Beloyarsk NPP (Unit1 and 2) and Novo Voronezh NPP (Unit 1 and 2) are outlined

  15. Stimulating Investment Development through Transformation of State Banks Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpinska Lidiya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significance of state corporations and state financial institutions in stimulation of investments into the fixed capital of the country and considers problems of increase of efficiency of activity of these institutions in the world and Ukraine. It considers the state sector of the developing countries through the prism of activity of state financial and non-financial corporations. It analyses theories of positive and negative features of carrying out state investing through state-owned banks. It analyses the role of state financial corporations in Ukraine, in particular, in crediting and expansion of the portfolio of acquired governmental bonds and offers ways of its increase in the context of necessity of directing funds into investment development.

  16. 34 CFR 403.70 - How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Leadership Activities? 403.70 Section 403.70 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.70 How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? A State shall use funds reserved under section...

  17. Survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Uranium marketing activity was much lower in 1977 than during 1976, which was the largest procurement year to date. Results from the survey suggest that there is an adequate supply of uranium--at least through 1985--in light of apparent buyer concepts of demand. Unfilled requirements were reduced by additional procurement and slippages in requirements. U.S. buyers continue to concentrate almost exclusively on U.S. sources for procurement. Buyer and producer inventories changed only slightly during the year. The average price reported for 1977 deliveries was $19.75 per pound of U 3 O 8 , compared to the $17.20 estimate reported as of July 1, 1977. An average of $17.40 was reported for 1978. Settlements of market prices in 1977 averaged $41.50 and for 1978 averaged $43.95. Most market price contracts have a base price. These prices are much higher than average contract prics and are closer to market price settlements. Producers estimate they will be able to offer for sale substantial additional quantities of uranium, indicating that they expect to expand production considerably

  18. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  19. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  20. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  1. Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Bassett, Danielle S; Schultz, Douglas H

    2016-12-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations.

  2. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  3. Impact Of Human Activities On Ecosystem In Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the percent sample population size of people involved in selected human economic activities and the impact on ecosystem in Rivers State. The data for this study was obtained from a sample size of 1000 respondents who were purposively selected from the study area. Purposive sample was used ...

  4. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  5. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  6. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  7. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Davydova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namely, contracts, production sharing agreement, lease, joint venture. Promising areas of application of the PPP identified the transport sector, housing and utilities, energy and tourism sector. The features of cluster formations in the country and the prospects for tourism clusters.

  8. THE INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF MORDOVIAN STATE TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseyn Gardash oglu Zeynalov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at innovation management at an innovative university. Innovative processes in a modern Russian university including Mordovian State Teacher Training Institute are aimed at accomplishing the following tasks: increasing the readiness of the university staff to innovative activities, their professional mobility and involvement in innovative activities of the university and the region. The article claims it is necessary to continuously create, perfect and manage human resources involved in innovative activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-33

  9. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  10. Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ginot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.

  11. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  13. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  14. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  16. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.

  17. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  18. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  19. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  20. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  1. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  2. 75 FR 39619 - Proposed Information Collection (Quarterly Report of State Approving Agency) Activities Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... information needed to accurately reimburse State Approving Agencies (SAAs) for expenses incurred in the... reimburses SAAs for expenses incurred in the approval and supervision of education and training programs. SAAs are required to report their activities to VA quarterly and provide notices regarding which...

  3. Investigation of Pseudo-Active State in Z-Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Oprea, Octavian; Larsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new operating state of the Z-source inverter denoted the pseudo-active state. The pseudoactive state is a state that may boost the output voltage of the Zsource inverter to a level higher than expected. The influence of the pseudo-active state is investigated and an equation...

  4. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  5. State-of-the-art dry active waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.; Ingalsbe, H.; Alcorn, G.; Anderson, K.; Dahlen, D.

    1989-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) is operated by Arizona Public Service for a consortium of seven owners. The site consists of three identical single unit power plants. Each unit is a Combustion Engineering Series 80 pressurized water reactor (PWR) rated at 1270 Megawatts electric. The site is located 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, Arizona in the arid southwest desert region of the United States of America. Since the start up of Unit One in 1985, Palo Verde has aggressively pursued waste volume reduction. This includes a dry active waste (DAW) segregation program that locates and separates nonradioactive and reusable materials that have been mixed with the radioactive DAW. The DAW program is described in further detail in the paper

  6. Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.

  7. Active control of a plasmonic metamaterial for quantum state engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriri, S. A.; Tashima, T.; Zhang, X.; Asano, M.; Bechu, M.; Güney, D. Ö.; Yamamoto, T.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Wegener, M.; Tame, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the active control of a plasmonic metamaterial operating in the quantum regime. A two-dimensional metamaterial consisting of unit cells made from gold nanorods is investigated. Using an external laser, we control the temperature of the metamaterial and carry out quantum process tomography on single-photon polarization-encoded qubits sent through, characterizing the metamaterial as a variable quantum channel. The overall polarization response can be tuned by up to 33% for particular nanorod dimensions. To explain the results, we develop a theoretical model and find that the experimental results match the predicted behavior well. This work goes beyond the use of simple passive quantum plasmonic systems and shows that external control of plasmonic elements enables a flexible device that can be used for quantum state engineering.

  8. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  9. Bidirectional Modulation of Substantia Nigra Activity by Motivational State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522

  10. Troponin C Mutations Partially Stabilize the Active State of Regulated Actin and Fully Stabilize the Active State When Paired with Δ14 TnT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Tamatha; Johnson, Dylan; Pinto, Jose R; Chalovich, Joseph M

    2017-06-13

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin-associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. The extent of activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca 2+ and activating cross-bridges (i.e., S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration stabilizes the most active state (M state) of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex (regulated actin). Ca 2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin, and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I. Cardiac dysfunction is also associated with mutations of troponin C (TnC). Troponin C mutants A8V, C84Y, and D145E increase the Ca 2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity. We show that these mutants change the distribution of regulated actin states. The A8V and C84Y TnC mutants decreased the inactive B state distribution slightly at low Ca 2+ concentrations, but the D145E mutants had no effect on that state. All TnC mutants increased the level of the active M state compared to that of the wild type, at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration. Troponin complexes that contained two mutations that stabilize the active M state, A8V TnC and Δ14 TnT, appeared to be completely in the active state in the presence of only Ca 2+ . Because Ca 2+ gives full activation, in this situation, troponin must be capable of positioning tropomyosin in the active M state without the need for rigor myosin binding.

  11. Functional imaging reveals movement preparatory activity in the vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A Bekinschtein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vegetative State (VS is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect residual conscious awareness in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining the neural correlates of motor preparation in response to verbal commands. Twenty-four patients who met the diagnostic criteria for VS were recruited for this study. Eleven of these patients showing preserved auditory evoked potentials underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test for basic speech processing. Five of these patients, who showed word related activity, were included in a second fMRI study aimed at detecting functional changes in premotor cortex elicited by specific verbal instructions to move either their left or their right hand. Despite the lack of overt muscle activity, two patients out of five activated the dorsal premotor cortex contralateral to the instructed hand, consistent with movement preparation. Given that movement preparation in response to a motor command is a sign of purposeful behavior, our results are consistent with residual conscious awareness in these patients. We believe that the identification of positive results with fMRI using this simple task, may complement the clinical assessment by helping attain a more precise diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  12. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  13. Steel passive state stability in activated fly ash mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the behaviour of structural steel embedded in Portland cement (OPC mortars and NaOH- and NaOH-waterglass-activated fly ash, in the presence and absence of 2 % Cl- (CaCl2. Variations were determined in the corrosion potential (Ecorr, linear polarization resistance (Rp and corrosion current density (icorr under different environmental conditions (90 days at 95 % relative humidity (RH, 30 days at ≈ 30 % RH, 760 days at ≈ 95 % RH. In the absence of Cl-, fly ash mortars were able to passivate steel reinforcement, although the stability of the passive state in changing environmental conditions was found to depend heavily on the activating solution used. Steel corrosion in the presence of 2 % Cl- was observed to be similar to the corrosion reported for the material in OPC mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento del acero estructural embebido en morteros de cemento Pórtland (OPC y de cenizas volantes activadas con NaOH y una mezcla de NaOH y waterglass, en ausencia y en presencia de un 2% de Cl- (CaCl2. Se determino la evolución del potencial de corrosión (Ecorr, la resistencia de polarización lineal (Rp y la intensidad de corrosión (icorr, variando las condiciones ambientales (90 días al 95% de humedad relativa (HR-30 días a ≈ 30% HR- 760 días a ≈ 95% HR. En ausencia de Cl- los morteros de cenizas volantes activadas pueden pasivar los refuerzos de acero, si bien la estabilidad del estado pasivo ante cambios en las condiciones ambientales parece mostrar una fuerte dependencia de la solución activadora empleada. En presencia de un 2% de Cl- los aceros se corroen mostrando en comportamiento similar al observado en morteros en base OPC.

  14. What Should Be the Roles of Conscious States and Brain States in Theories of Mental Activity?**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E.

    2011-01-01

    Answers to the title’s question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and “free will” in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness? PMID:21694964

  15. Aeroelastic code development activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Designing wind turbines to be fatigue resistant and to have long lifetimes at minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry in the United States. To achieve this goal, we must be able to predict critical loads for a wide variety of different wind turbines operating under extreme conditions. The codes used for wind turbine dynamic analysis must be able to analyze a wide range of different wind turbine configurations as well as rapidly predict the loads due to turbulent wind inflow with a minimal set of degrees of freedom. Code development activities in the US have taken a two-pronged approach in order to satisfy both of these criteria: (1) development of a multi-purpose code which can be used to analyze a wide variety of wind turbine configurations without having to develop new equations of motion with each configuration change, and (2) development of specialized codes with minimal sets of specific degrees of freedom for analysis of two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines and calculation of machine loads due to turbulent inflow. In the first method we have adapted a commercial multi-body dynamics simulation package for wind turbine analysis. In the second approach we are developing specialized codes with limited degrees of freedom, usually specified in the modal domain. This paper will summarize progress to date in the development, validation, and application of these codes. (au) 13 refs.

  16. Sector activities and lessons learned around initial implementation of the United States national physical activity plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Satinsky, Sara B

    2014-08-01

    National plans are increasingly common but infrequently evaluated. The 2010 United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) provided strategies to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper describes (i) the initial accomplishments of the NPAP sector teams, and (ii) results from a process evaluation to determine how the sectors operated, their cross-sector collaboration, challenges encountered, and positive experiences. During 2011, a quarterly reporting system was developed to capture sector-level activities. A year-end interview derived more detailed information. Interviews with 12 sector leads were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. The 6 sectors worked on goals from the implementation plan that focused broadly on education, promotion, intervention, policy, collaboration, and evaluation. Through year-end interviews, themes were generated around operations, goal setting, and cross-sector collaboration. Challenges to the NPAP work included lack of funding and time, the need for marketing and promotion, and organizational support. Positive experiences included collaboration, efficiency of work, enhanced community dynamic, and accomplishments toward NPAP goals. These initial results on the NPAP sector teams can be used as a baseline assessment for future monitoring. The lessons learned may be useful to other practitioners developing evaluations around state- or national-level plans.

  17. DIAGNOSTICS OF META-INSTABLE STATE OF SEISMICALLY ACTIVE FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a laboratory simulation of the seismic fault reactivation by “stick-slip” process, it was shown that the system of two blocks just before an impulse offset goes through the meta-instable dynamic state, with early and late stages of meta-instability [Ma et al., 2012]. In the first stage the offset begins in slow stationary mode with slow stresses relaxation on contact between blocks. In the second stage of the “accelerated synergies” strain rate increases and, subsequently, the deformation process through a process of self-organization came to dynamic impulse offset. The experimental results were used for interpretation of the results of spectral analysis of the deformation monitoring data. The data were held within the southern part ofLakeBaikal, where Kultuk earthquake (27.08.2008, Ms=6.1. took place. Its epicenter was located in the South end zone of the main Sayan fault. Monitoring of deformations of rocks was carried out from April to November2008 in tunnel, located at30 km from the epicenter of the earthquake. The time series data was divided into month periods and then the periods were processed by the method of spectral analysis. The results showed that before the earthquake has ordered view spectrogram, whereas in other time intervals, both before and after the earthquake such orderliness in spectrograms is missing. An ordered view spectrograms for deformation monitoring data can be interpreted as a consequence of the self-organiza­tion of deformation process in the transition of seismically active fault into meta-unstable before the Kultuk earthquake.

  18. Activities of the United States Geological Survey in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1800's, when the U.S. Geological Survey first established a presence in Pennsylvania, the focus of our work has changed from general hydrologic and geologic appraisals to issue-oriented investigations; from predominantly data collection to a balanced program of data collection, interpretation, and research; and from traditional, hand-drawn mapping to digitally produced coverages with specialized themes. Yet our basic mission has not changed. It is as relevant to the resource issues of today as it was when our geologists first arrived in western Pennsylvania in 1884. Continuing in this proud heritage and tradition, the U.S. Geological Survey is moving confidently toward the next century, evolving organizationally and technologically to better meet the needs of our many constituencies. One major organizational change is the recent accession of employees from the former National Biological Service, who now form the Survey's fourth program division, the Biological Resources Division. These employees join forces with colleagues in our other three divisions: Water Resources, Geologic, and National Mapping. More than any other change in decades, the addition of this biological expertise creates new and exciting opportunities for scientific research and public service. This report provides an overview of recent activities in Pennsylvania conducted by the four program divisions and is intended to inform those interested in U.S. Geological Survey products and services. Additional information is available on our home page (at http://wwwpah2o.er.usgs.gov/). Together with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations who are our customers and partners, we at the U.S. Geological Survey look forward to providing continued scientific contributions and public service to Pennsylvania and the Nation.

  19. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  20. The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qoqiauri Lamara G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

  1. Active Gaming Among High School Students--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-08-01

    Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.

  2. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of a compressible active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that respo...

  3. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity

  4. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level..., language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with Part C of the Act to children with disabilities who are...

  5. Negative stiffness and modulated states in active nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-10-04

    We examine the dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal on a frictional substrate. When frictional damping dominates over viscous dissipation, we eliminate flow in favor of active stresses to obtain a minimal dynamical model for the nematic order parameter, with elastic constants renormalized by activity. The renormalized elastic constants can become negative at large activity, leading to the selection of spatially inhomogeneous patterns via a mechanism analogous to that responsible for modulated phases arising at an equilibrium Lifshitz point. Tuning activity and the degree of nematic order in the passive system, we obtain a linear stability phase diagram that exhibits a nonequilibrium tricritical point where ordered, modulated and disordered phases meet. Numerical solution of the nonlinear equations yields a succession of spatial structures of increasing complexity with increasing activity, including kink walls and active turbulence, as observed in experiments on microtubule bundles confined at an oil-water interface. Our work provides a minimal model for an overdamped active nematic that reproduces all the nonequilibrium structures seen in simulations of the full active nematic hydrodynamics and provides a framework for understanding some of the mechanisms for selection of the nonequilibrium patterns in the language of equilibrium critical phenomena.

  6. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    -measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk...... states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states....

  7. State-of-art and future development of activation autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babikova, Yu.F.; Gusakov, A.A.; Kazakov, S.S.; Minaev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Autoradiography as one of the long-term techniques of local analysis of chemical inhomogenities of materials finds a wide application. Autoradiographic techniques using sample activation by charged particles and nuclear decay radiation detection are most favourable from the analytical point of view. The same applies to activation by neutrons and gamma rays and the detection of nuclear reaction products. By choosing optimum conditions and modes of conducting activation autoradiographic research it is possible to determine selectively such elements as lithium, boron, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, silicon and phosphorus in most of the metal matrices

  8. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  9. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  10. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  11. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID

  12. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.

  13. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  14. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  15. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain

  16. Distributed state estimation for multi-agent based active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Along with the large-scale implementation of distributed generators, the current distribution networks have changed gradually from passive to active operation. State estimation plays a vital role to facilitate this transition. In this paper, a suitable state estimation method for the active network

  17. The Relationships of Mental States and Intellectual Processes in the Learning Activities of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander O.; Chernov, Albert V.; Yusupov, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the interaction of mental states and cognitive processes in the classroom allows us to solve the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training by activating cognitive processes and management of students' mental states. This article is concerned with the most general patterns of interaction between mental state and…

  18. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty... concerning the following information collection: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States...

  19. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  20. Models of Innovation Activity Firms and the Competitive State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasova Ekaterina, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper clarified the concept of innovation activity of firms from the perspective of the model open innovation with traditional and alternative approaches to the methods of the protection of innovation activity results outlined. With the use of institutional tools, theoretical concepts and practical study the patterns of innovative activity of firms (external, internal & cooperative strategies are analyzed and the selection criteria for models of innovation are proposed on the basis of a comparison of transaction costs and benefits specific to the closed forms and conditions for cooperation. The forms of cooperation, their pros & cons are mentioned given the results of some empirical evidence. Practical recommendations for the Russian companies to organize their innovation activities are given, as well as on the improvement of competition policy with regard to the inclusion of innovation factor in the analysis of mergers in Russia (also based on the mechanism of the use of this factor by means of merger simulation models. The paper also suggests the criteria for the evaluation of collaborative R&D projects of firms as antitrust tools aimed to use the “rule of reason” when the decisions are made.

  1. Thyroid states regulate subcellular glucose phosphorylation activity in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid hormones (THs, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions were isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0.25 μg/g, i.p. during 21 days mice and HK activity was assayed. Glucose phosphorylation was increased in the particulate fraction in soleus (312.4% ± 67.1, n = 10, gastrocnemius (369.2% ± 112.4, n = 10 and heart (142.2% ± 13.6, n = 10 muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the control group. Hexokinase activity was not affected in brain or liver. No relevant changes were observed in HK activity in the soluble fraction for all tissues investigated. Acute T3 administration (single dose of T3, 1.25 μg/g, i.p. did not modulate HK activity. Interestingly, HK mRNA levels remained unchanged and HK bound to mitochondria was increased by T3 treatment, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism. Analysis of the AKT pathway showed a 2.5-fold increase in AKT and GSK3B phosphorylation in the gastrocnemius muscle in the hyperthyroid group compared to the euthyroid group. Taken together, we show for the first time that THs modulate HK activity specifically in particulate fractions and that this action seems to be under the control of the AKT and GSK3B pathways.

  2. 1982 survey of United States uranium marketing activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This report is based on survey data from all utilities, reactor manufacturers, and uranium producers who market uranium. The survey forms are mailed in January of each year with updates in July of each year. This year 59 utilities, 5 reactor manufacturers and agents, and 57 uranium producers were surveyed. Completed survey forms were checked for errors, corrected as necessary, and processed. These data formed the basis for the development of the report. This report is intended for Congress, federal and state agencies, the nuclear industry, and the general public

  3. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  4. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  5. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  6. Measuring the impact of child protection through Activation States

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlaczek, Z; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pitchford, A; Russell, K; Brackenridge, CH

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and...

  7. National and State Estimates of the Numbers of Adults and Children with Active Epilepsy - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Matthew M; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-08-11

    Epilepsy, a brain disorder leading to recurring seizures, has garnered increased public health focus because persons with epilepsy experience pronounced and persistent health and socioeconomic disparities despite treatment advances, public awareness programs, and expanded rights for persons with disabilities (1,2). For almost all states, epilepsy prevalence estimates do not exist. CDC used national data sources including the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults (aged ≥18 years), the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), and the 2015 Current Population Survey data, describing 2014 income levels, to estimate prevalent cases of active epilepsy, overall and by state, to provide information for state public health planning. In 2015, 1.2% of the U.S. population (3.4 million persons: 3 million adults and 470,000 children) reported active epilepsy (self-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and under treatment or with recent seizures within 12 months of interview) or current epilepsy (parent-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and current epilepsy). Estimated numbers of persons with active epilepsy, after accounting for income and age differences by state, ranged from 5,900 in Wyoming to 427,700 in California. NHIS data from 2010-2015 indicate increases in the number of persons with active epilepsy, probably because of population growth. This study provides updated national and modeled state-specific numbers of active epilepsy cases. Public health practitioners, health care providers, policy makers, epilepsy researchers, and other epilepsy stakeholders, including family members and people with epilepsy, can use these findings to ensure that evidence-based programs meet the complex needs of adults and children with epilepsy and reduce the disparities resulting from it.

  8. Activities on Facebook reveal the depressive state of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkyu; Lee, Sang Won; Kwak, Jinah; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Bumseok

    2013-10-01

    As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform's features and users' depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom-related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants' responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants' response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and nondepressed individuals. Our results using Emotion

  9. Burnup credit activities being conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes burnup credit activities being conducted in the U.S. where burnup credit is either being used or being planned to be used for storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Currently approved uses of burnup credit are for wet storage of PWR fuel. For dry storage of spent PWR fuel, burnup credit is used to supplement a principle of moderator exclusion. These storage applications have been pursued by the private sector. The Department of Energy (DOE) which is an organization of the U.S. Federal government is seeking approval for burnup credit for transport and disposal applications. For transport of spent fuel, regulatory review of an actinide-only PWR burnup credit method is now being conducted. A request by DOE for regulatory review of actinide and fission product burnup credit for disposal of spent BWR and PWR fuel is scheduled to occur in 1998. (author)

  10. Dynamic activity-travel assignment in multi-state supernetworks with road and location capacity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Liao, F.; Huang, H.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A unified framework coupling activity-based modelling and dynamic traffic assignment has recently been proposed. It formulates dynamic activity-travel assignment (DATA) in multi-state supernetworks as a dynamic user equilibrium. Choices of departure time, route, mode, activity sequence, and

  11. 75 FR 56663 - Agency Information Collection (Quarterly Report of State Approving Agency Activities); Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... a currently approved collection. Abstract: VA reimburses State Approving Agencies (SAAs) for expenses incurred in the approval and supervision of education and training programs. SAAs are required to...

  12. Activity Of EURADOS In Environmental Solid State Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Duch, M. A.; Haninger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Working Group 3 (WG3) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) carries out research projects and coordinated activities to advance the scientific understanding of environmental dosimetry and especially to promote the technical development of new methods in environmental monitoring. In this field of dosimetry, the measurement of small additional doses caused by artificial radiation on top of the natural environmental radiation is a challenge. Further, WG3 stimulates the organisation of intercomparison programmes and the definition of standards and recommendations in the field of environmental radiation monitoring (ERM). WG3 has played a significant role in the harmonisation of early warning dosimetry network stations in Europe and has organised 6 EURADOS intercomparison exercises; in which 42 institutions from 19 countries have participated. Today, about 5000 stations provide real-time dose rate data to a database run by the European Commission. Within WG3 a subgroup (S1) on spectrometry system was formed in 2013. Since then, WG3 has been involved in the field of spectrometry systems used both for dosimetric and spectrometric monitoring in the environment. A remarkable result of the WG3 - S1 is that many members contributed to the new European Joint Research Project 'Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe' which started in 2014. A second subgroup WG3 - S2 on passive dosimetry in ERM was inaugurated in 2014. To gain an overview of the passive dosimetry practice in ERM, WG3 - S2 decided to collect information by means of a questionnaire which has been send to European dosimetry services. One of the results was the identification of some open questions, problems in ERM (for example terminology, protocol of routine dosimetry, uncertainty assessment) which require clarification for harmonisation of ERM using passive dosimeters. Another result was that there exists a need for intercomparisons. The first intercomparison for passive

  13. Resting-state hemodynamics are spatiotemporally coupled to synchronized and symmetric neural activity in excitatory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Portes, Jacob P.; Timerman, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear. In this study, neural activity and hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously over the bilateral cortex of awake and anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP mice using wide-field optical mapping. Neural activity was visualized via selective expression of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore GCaMP in layer 2/3 and 5 excitatory neurons. Characteristic patterns of resting-state hemodynamics were accompanied by more rapidly changing bilateral patterns of resting-state neural activity. Spatiotemporal hemodynamics could be modeled by convolving this neural activity with hemodynamic response functions derived through both deconvolution and gamma-variate fitting. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology confirmed that Thy1-GCaMP signals are well-predicted by multiunit activity. Neurovascular coupling between resting-state neural activity and hemodynamics was robust and fast in awake animals, whereas coupling in urethane-anesthetized animals was slower, and in some cases included lower-frequency (resting-state hemodynamics in the awake and anesthetized brain are coupled to underlying patterns of excitatory neural activity. The patterns of bilaterally-symmetric spontaneous neural activity revealed by wide-field Thy1-GCaMP imaging may depict the neural foundation of functional connectivity networks detected in resting-state fMRI. PMID:27974609

  14. Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state, Nigeria. ... of procuring the products, channels for marketing the products, and risks involved in procuring wildlife products sold in the market. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. From to the Liberal State into the Social and Democratic State of Law: Analysis of the Emergence of Judicial Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luna da Cunha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the relationship between the judiciary and the effectiveness of social rights and, consequently, the vaunted judicial activism. More specifically, the article will answer the following question: the role of the judiciary has changed with the development of state models? Article develop their problem by analyzing the function of the judiciary in each of these rule of law models: the Liberal, Social (in spite of that State have not been fully implemented in Brazil and the Democratic. To do so, take into account the relationship between the established powers republish, social movement for the conquest of rights and assertiveness of a new generation of rights. The "Judicial activism" is analyzed as the practical consequence of a new constitutionalism, more guided in the realization of social rights outlined in the constitutions of democratic character.

  16. Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β(2) adrenoceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Choi, Hee-Jung; Fung, Juan Jose

    2011-01-01

    to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a G protein. We generated a camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) to the human β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) that exhibits G protein-like behaviour, and obtained an agonist-bound, active-state crystal structure of the receptor-nanobody complex...

  17. High Lassa Fever activity in Northern part of Edo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to establish simple statistics of the effects of lassa fever in northern part of Edo State, Nigeria. Lassa fever activity in the northern part of Edo state, Nigeria, was confirmed in 2004 by laboratory analysis of samples sent to Bernhard–Nocht Institute (BNI) for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.

  18. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  19. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... or Containers which enter the United States Duty Free. This is a proposed extension of an information..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Holders or Containers which...

  20. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  1. A STATE AS AN ACTIVATOR OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern mechanisms and instruments of state regulation of science, technology and innovation are systematized from the point of view of market failures overcoming in these areas of the economy.

  2. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... changes with behavioral state in a regionally specific manner, and that overall activity increases during quiet sleep, and is even more enhanced in active sleep. PVH activation could be expected to stimulate pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and affect input to autonomic regulatory...

  3. Decreased electrophysiological activity represents the conscious state of emptiness in meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Schmidt, Stephanie; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Many neuroscientific theories explain consciousness with higher order information processing corresponding to an activation of specific brain areas and processes. In contrast, most forms of meditation ask for a down-regulation of certain mental processing activities while remaining fully conscious. To identify the physiological properties of conscious states with decreased mental and cognitive processing, the electrical brain activity (64 channels of EEG) of 50 participants of various meditation proficiencies was measured during distinct and idiosyncratic meditative tasks. The tasks comprised a wakeful “thoughtless emptiness (TE),” a “focused attention,” and an “open monitoring” task asking for mindful presence in the moment and in the environment without attachment to distracting thoughts. Our analysis mainly focused on 30 highly experienced meditators with at least 5 years and 1000 h of meditation experience. Spectral EEG power comparisons of the TE state with the resting state or other forms of meditation showed decreased activities in specific frequency bands. In contrast to a focused attention task the TE task showed significant central and parietal gamma decreases (p meditation practice did not present those differences significantly. Our findings indicate that a conscious state of TE reached by experienced meditators is characterized by reduced high-frequency brain processing with simultaneous reduction of the low frequencies. This suggests that such a state of meditative conscious awareness might be different from higher cognitive and mentally focused states but also from states of sleep and drowsiness. PMID:24596562

  4. Assessment of brain activities during an emotional stress state using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takuto; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Kawasaki, Aika; Kato, Makoto; Murata, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated cerebrum activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a mental stress state. Thirty-four healthy adults participated. Before the experiment, we assessed their stress states using the Stress Self-rating Scale and divided the participants into Stress and Non-stress groups. The experiment consisted of 6 trials. Each trial consisted of a 20-s block of emotional audio-visual stimuli (4-s stimulation x 5 slides) and a fixation point. These processes were performed 3 times continuously (Relaxed, Pleasant, Unpleasant stimuli) in a random order. These results showed that the Non-stress group indicated activation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the Pleasant and Unpleasant stimuli while the Stress group indicated activation of the hippocampus in Pleasant stimuli, and the amygdala and hippocampus in Unpleasant stimuli. These findings suggested that the mental stress state engages the reduction of emotional processing. Also, the responsiveness of the memory system remained during and after the emotional stress state. (author)

  5. The State Supervision (Control in the Sphere of Economic Activity: International Experience Relevant for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Larysa Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts in the process of decentralization in Ukraine to implement the best international practices of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, in the process which depends on the status of deregulation and development of entrepreneurship, have caused the topicality of the problem set. The article is aimed at analyzing the international experience of application of the State supervision (control instruments in the sphere of economic activity and determination of the directions of their use in Ukraine. The stages of reforms of the control and supervision activity both in foreign countries and in Ukraine were considered. The directions and measures on creation of effective system of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, applied in the world countries, were systematized. Both the positive and the negative aspects of use of foreign instruments of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity in Ukraine have been defined. Recommendations on formation of the national complex system of functioning of control-supervision activity have been given.

  6. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter: Scalable Low-Cost Deorbit System for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter project is to develop and demonstrate a scalable, simple, reliable, and low-cost active deorbiting system capable of controlling the downrange point of impact for the full-range of small satellites from 1 kg to 180 kg. The key enabling technology being developed is the Solid State Gas Generator (SSGG) chip, generating pure nitrogen gas from sodium azide (NaN3) micro-crystals. Coupled with a metalized nonelastic drag balloon, the complete Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) system is capable of repeated inflation/deflation cycles. The SSGG minimizes size, weight, electrical power, and cost when compared to the current state of the art.

  7. The activity state of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex in rat tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenmakers, A J; Schepens, J T; Veldhuizen, J A; Veerkamp, J H

    1984-01-01

    An assay is described to define the proportion of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex that is present in the active state in rat tissues. Activities are measured in homogenates in two ways: actual activities, present in tissues, by blocking both the kinase and phosphatase of the enzyme complex during homogenization, preincubation, and incubation with 1-14C-labelled branched-chain 2-oxo acid, and total activities by blocking only the kinase during the 5 min preincubation (neces...

  8. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  9. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND BODY EXERCISE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olaitan; Olukunmi ‘Lanre; Bakinde; Surajudeen Tosho; Ibraheem; Tajudeen Olanrewaju

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of recreational activities and body exercise among secondary school students in Kwara State. This paper explores types of exercise, benefits of physical exercise, risk of physical exercise and well as health and recreation. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised and generated to guide the study.This researcher employed a descriptive research survey method. The population consists of all secondary school students in Kwara State. T...

  10. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  11. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  12. Predicting Risk-Taking Behavior from Prefrontal Resting-State Activity and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Pedroni, Andreas; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants’ trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers’ brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior. PMID:24116176

  13. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  15. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...

  16. Activization of the Industrial Development on the Platform of Partnership: Measures of State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of partnership and interaction of economic actors play an important role in activization of an industrial development, achieving a critical mass, necessary for generation of essential positive results, due to special measures of state regulation. According to this, the factors influencing the choice of measures of state regulation of partner interactions and formation of their complex structure are defined and analysed. On the example of clusters possible roles of the state in formation and development of partner associations of the appropriate type are presented. The potential risks arising in the course of development and implementation of measures of state regulation of integration structures are shown. The sequence of steps for determination of measures of state regulation of development of partnership in the industrial sphere taking into account local specifics is offered in the paper.

  17. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.

  18. Targeting Microglial Activation States as a Therapeutic Avenue in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar R. Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis. Microglia participate in both physiological and pathological conditions. In the former, microglia restore the integrity of the central nervous system and, in the latter, they promote disease progression. Microglia acquire different activation states to modulate these cellular functions. Upon activation to the M1 phenotype, microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. In contrast, when adopting the M2 phenotype microglia secrete anti-inflammatory gene products and trophic factors that promote repair, regeneration, and restore homeostasis. Relatively little is known about the different microglial activation states in PD and a better understanding is essential for developing putative neuroprotective agents. Targeting microglial activation states by suppressing their deleterious pro-inflammatory neurotoxicity and/or simultaneously enhancing their beneficial anti-inflammatory protective functions appear as a valid therapeutic approach for PD treatment. In this review, we summarize microglial functions and, their dual neurotoxic and neuroprotective role in PD. We also review molecules that modulate microglial activation states as a therapeutic option for PD treatment.

  19. Reduction in Cortical Gamma Synchrony during Depolarized State of Slow Wave Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUNJIN eHWANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EEG gamma band oscillations have been proposed to account for the neural synchronization crucial for perceptual integration. While increased gamma power and synchronization is generally observed during cognitive tasks performed during wake, several studies have additionally reported increased gamma power during sleep or anesthesia, raising questions about the characteristics of gamma oscillation during impaired consciousness and its role in conscious processing. Phase-amplitude modulation has been observed between slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5–4 Hz and gamma oscillations during ketamine/xylazine anesthesia or sleep, showing increased gamma activity corresponding to the depolarized (ON state of SWA. Here we divided gamma activity into its ON and OFF (hyperpolarized state components based on the phase of SWA induced by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia and compared their power and synchrony with wake state levels in mice. We further investigated the state-dependent changes in both gamma power and synchrony across primary motor and primary somatosensory cortical regions and their interconnected thalamic regions throughout anesthesia and recovery. As observed previously, gamma power was as high as during wake specifically during the ON state of SWA. However, the synchrony of this gamma activity between somatosensory-motor cortical regions was significantly reduced compared to the baseline wake state. In addition, the somatosensory-motor cortical synchrony of gamma oscillations was reduced and restored in an anesthetic state-dependent manner, reflecting the changing depth of anesthesia. Our results provide evidence that during anesthesia changes in long-range information integration between cortical regions might be more critical for changes in consciousness than changes in local gamma oscillatory power.

  20. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  1. The activity state of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, A J; Schepens, J T; Veldhuizen, J A; Veerkamp, J H

    1984-05-15

    An assay is described to define the proportion of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex that is present in the active state in rat tissues. Activities are measured in homogenates in two ways: actual activities, present in tissues, by blocking both the kinase and phosphatase of the enzyme complex during homogenization, preincubation, and incubation with 1-14C-labelled branched-chain 2-oxo acid, and total activities by blocking only the kinase during the 5 min preincubation (necessary for activation). The kinase is blocked by 5 mM-ADP and absence of Mg2+ and the phosphatase by the simultaneous presence of 50 mM-NaF. About 6% of the enzyme is active in skeletal muscle of fed rats, 7% in heart, 20% in diaphragm, 47% in kidney, 60% in brain and 98% in liver. An entirely different assay, which measures activities in crude tissue extracts before and after treatment with a broad-specificity protein phosphatase, gave similar results for heart, liver and kidney. Advantages of our assay with homogenates are the presence of intact mitochondria, the simplicity, the short duration and the high sensitivity. The actual activities measured indicate that the degradation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids predominantly occurs in liver and kidney and is limited in skeletal muscle in the fed state.

  2. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Physical Activity Among Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-07-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.

  3. Multifrequency observations of the Blazar PKS 0537-441 in a moderately active state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Chiappetti, L.; Barr, P.; Bouchet, P.; Cristiani, S.; EXOSAT Observatory, Darmstadt, West Germany; European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile)

    1986-01-01

    PKS 0537-441 was observed during an active state in February 1985 at infrared, optical, UV, and X-ray frequencies. Comparison with earlier measurements indicates that the source brightened by a factor of approximately 2 in all bands. This suggests that the same spatial region may be responsible for the emission in the whole spectral range observed. 19 references

  4. Multifrequency observations of the Blazar PKS 0537-441 in a moderately active state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Chiappetti, L.; Barr, P.; Bouchet, P.; Cristiani, S.

    1986-12-01

    PKS 0537-441 was observed during an active state in February 1985 at infrared, optical, UV, and X-ray frequencies. Comparison with earlier measurements indicates that the source brightened by a factor of approximately 2 in all bands. This suggests that the same spatial region may be responsible for the emission in the whole spectral range observed. 19 references.

  5. 78 FR 5793 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [Docket No.: ED-2013-ICCD-0006] Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning Time AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), IES... Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., LBJ, Room 2E117, Washington, DC 20202-4537. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  6. Complexity Analysis of Resting-State MEG Activity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, C.; Olde Dubbelink, K.T.E.; Stam, C.J.; Abasolo, D.; Berendse, H.W.; Hornero, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze resting-state brain activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a degenerative disorder of the nervous system. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals were recorded with a 151-channel whole-head radial gradiometer MEG system in 18 early-stage

  7. Barriers to Providing Physical Education and Physical Activity in Victorian State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    An on-line questionnaire was completed by 115 physical education teachers to establish the barriers to their implementation of physical education in Victorian state secondary schools. In addition, the barriers perceived by teachers to impact on students' participation in school-based physical education and physical activity were examined. The…

  8. United States and European students’ social-networking site activities and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Shreffler, Anthony; Albert, Patricia; Tomko, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    Different cultures communicate differently. Research is beginning to examine the differences in culture related to social-networking site (SNS) use. Differences in specific SNS activities related to academic performance among United States (US; n = 446) and European (n = 394) university students

  9. Estimating repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yusuke; Hiroe, Nobuo; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive spatiotemporal patterns in spontaneous brain activities have been widely examined in non-human studies. These studies have reported that such patterns reflect past experiences embedded in neural circuits. In human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, however, spatiotemporal patterns in resting-state brain activities have not been extensively examined. This is because estimating spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state MEG/EEG data is difficult due to their unknown onsets. Here, we propose a method to estimate repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data, including MEG/EEG. Without the information of onsets, the proposed method can estimate several spatiotemporal patterns, even if they are overlapping. We verified the performance of the method by detailed simulation tests. Furthermore, we examined whether the proposed method could estimate the visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) without using stimulus onset information. The proposed method successfully detected the stimulus onsets and estimated the VEFs, implying the applicability of this method to real MEG data. The proposed method was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and MEG data. The results revealed informative spatiotemporal patterns representing consecutive brain activities that dynamically change with time. Using this method, it is possible to reveal discrete events spontaneously occurring in our brains, such as memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge Activation versus Sentence Mapping When Representing Fictional Characters' Emotional States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    1992-01-01

    In a study of knowledge activation and sentence mapping, subjects read stories that described concrete actions, and then the content of the stories was manipulated (i.e. stories were written that implied different emotional states). It is suggested that the more emotionally evoking situations one encounters the more memory traces are stored and…

  11. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Visualization of the Differential Transition State Stabilization within the Active Site Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Leszczynski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Increasing interest in the enzymatic reaction mechanisms and in the nature of catalytic effects in enzymes causes the need of appropriate visualization methods. A new interactive method to investigate catalytic effects using differential transition state stabilization approach (DTSS [1, 2] is presented. The catalytic properties of the active site of cytidine deaminase (E.C. 3.5.4.5 is visualized in the form of differential electrostatic properties. The visualization was implemented using scripting interface of VMD [3]. Cumulative Atomic Multipole Moments (CAMM [4,5,6] were utilized for efficient yet accurate evaluation of the electrostatic properties. The implementation is efficient enough for interactive presentation of catalytic effects in the active site of the enzyme due to transition state or substrate movement. This system of visualization of DTTS approach can be potentially used to validate hypotheses regarding the catalytic mechanism or to study binding properties of transition state analogues.

  13. State school nutrition and physical activity policy environments and youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben; Wall, Melanie; Haddad, Tarek; Kubik, Martha; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    With the epidemic of childhood obesity, there is national interest in state-level school policies related to nutrition and physical activity, policies adopted by states, and relationships to youth obesity. This study develops a comprehensive state-level approach to characterize the overall obesity prevention policy environment for schools and links the policy environments to youth obesity for each state. Using 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) state data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used (2008-2009) to construct domains of state-level school obesity prevention policies and practices, establish the validity and reliability of the domain scales, and examine their associations with state-level obesity prevalence among youth aged 10-17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Nearly 250 state-level obesity prevention-policy questions were identified from the SHPPS. Three broad policy topic areas containing 100 food service and nutrition (FSN) questionnaire items; 146 physical activity and education (PAE) items; and two weight assessment (WA) items were selected. Principal components analysis and content validity assessment were used to further categorize the items into six FSN, ten PAE, and one WA domain. Using a proportional scaled score to summarize the number of policies adopted by states, it was found that on average states adopted about half of the FSN (49%), 38% of the PAE, and 17% of the WA policies examined. After adjusting for state-level measures of ethnicity and income, the average proportion of FSN policies adopted by states was correlated with the prevalence of youth obesity at r =0.35 (p=0.01). However, no correlation was found between either PAE or WA policies and youth obesity (PAE policies at r =0.02 [p=0.53] and WA policies at r =0.16 [p=0.40]). States appear to be doing a better job adopting FSN policies than PA or WA policies, and adoption of policies is correlated with youth obesity. Continued

  14. The psychedelic state induced by ayahuasca modulates the activity and connectivity of the default mode network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Palhano-Fontes

    Full Text Available The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN, a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN. Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC. Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic, meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN.

  15. The psychedelic state induced by ayahuasca modulates the activity and connectivity of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C; Tofoli, Luis F; Santos, Antonio C; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2015-01-01

    The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN). Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic), meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN.

  16. State-dependent, bidirectional modulation of neural network activity by endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Richard; Garenne, André; Farrugia, Fanny; Le Masson, Gwendal; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chavis, Pascale; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2011-11-16

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) play key roles in the modulation of brain functions. Although actions of eCBs and CB1Rs are well described at the synaptic level, little is known of their modulation of neural activity at the network level. Using microelectrode arrays, we have examined the role of CB1R activation in the modulation of the electrical activity of rat and mice cortical neural networks in vitro. We find that exogenous activation of CB1Rs expressed on glutamatergic neurons decreases the spontaneous activity of cortical neural networks. Moreover, we observe that the net effect of the CB1R antagonist AM251 inversely correlates with the initial level of activity in the network: blocking CB1Rs increases network activity when basal network activity is low, whereas it depresses spontaneous activity when its initial level is high. Our results reveal a complex role of CB1Rs in shaping spontaneous network activity, and suggest that the outcome of endogenous neuromodulation on network function might be state dependent.

  17. The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juozaityte, Vaida; Pladevall-Morera, David; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety......-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans behavior. When foraging, food availability controls behavioral state switching between active (roaming) and sedentary (dwelling) states; however, when provided with high-quality food, C. elegans become sated and enter quiescence. We show......-regulated behavioral state switching. Taken together, our results identify a neuronal mechanism for controlling intestinal fat stores and organismal behavioral states in C. elegans, and establish a paradigm for the elucidation of obesity-relevant mechanisms....

  18. Structure of the Nanobody-Stabilized Active State of the Kappa Opioid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Tao; Majumdar, Susruta; Zaidi, Saheem A; Ondachi, Pauline; McCorvy, John D; Wang, Sheng; Mosier, Philip D; Uprety, Rajendra; Vardy, Eyal; Krumm, Brian E; Han, Gye Won; Lee, Ming-Yue; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Huang, Xi-Ping; Strachan, Ryan T; Tribo, Alexandra R; Pasternak, Gavril W; Carroll, F Ivy; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wacker, Daniel; Roth, Bryan L

    2018-01-11

    The κ-opioid receptor (KOP) mediates the actions of opioids with hallucinogenic, dysphoric, and analgesic activities. The design of KOP analgesics devoid of hallucinatory and dysphoric effects has been hindered by an incomplete structural and mechanistic understanding of KOP agonist actions. Here, we provide a crystal structure of human KOP in complex with the potent epoxymorphinan opioid agonist MP1104 and an active-state-stabilizing nanobody. Comparisons between inactive- and active-state opioid receptor structures reveal substantial conformational changes in the binding pocket and intracellular and extracellular regions. Extensive structural analysis and experimental validation illuminate key residues that propagate larger-scale structural rearrangements and transducer binding that, collectively, elucidate the structural determinants of KOP pharmacology, function, and biased signaling. These molecular insights promise to accelerate the structure-guided design of safer and more effective κ-opioid receptor therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Resonant-Activation for a System Only Driven by Multi-State Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2010-01-01

    We consider the escape of the particles over fluctuating potential barrier for a system only driven by a multi-state noise. It is shown that, the noise can make the particles escape over the fluctuating potential barrier in some circumstances; but in other circumstances, it can not. If the noise can make the particle escape over the fluctuating potential barrier, the mean first passage time (MFPT) can display the phenomenon of multi-resonant-activation. For this phenomenon, there are two kinds of resonant activation to appear. One is resonant activation for the MFPTs as the function of the flipping rates of the fluctuating potential barrier; the other is that for the MFPTs as the functions of the transition rates of the multi-state noise. (general)

  20. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  1. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  2. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  4. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  5. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  6. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  7. Presbycusis Disrupts Spontaneous Activity Revealed by Resting-State Functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI approach.Methods: Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. To identify changes in spontaneous neural activity associated with age-related hearing loss, we compared the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo of fMRI signals in presbycusis patients vs. controls and then determined if these changes were linked to clinical measures of presbycusis.Results: Compared with healthy controls, presbycusis patients manifested decreased spontaneous activity mainly in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL as well as increased neural activity in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG, cuneus and postcentral gyrus (PoCG. A significant negative correlation was observed between ALFF/ReHo activity in the STG and average hearing thresholds in presbycusis patients. Increased ALFF/ReHo activity in the MFG was positively correlated with impaired Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B scores, indicative of impaired cognitive function involving the frontal lobe.Conclusions: Presbycusis patients have disrupted spontaneous neural activity reflected by ALFF and ReHo measurements in several brain regions; these changes are associated with specific cognitive performance and speech/language processing. These findings mainly emphasize the crucial role of aberrant resting-state ALFF/ReHo patterns in presbycusis patients and will lead to a better understanding of the

  8. Presbycusis Disrupts Spontaneous Activity Revealed by Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Chen, Huiyou; Jiang, Liang; Bo, Fan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Salvi, Richard; Yin, Xindao; Lu, Guangming; Gu, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Purpose : Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. Methods : Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. To identify changes in spontaneous neural activity associated with age-related hearing loss, we compared the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) of fMRI signals in presbycusis patients vs. controls and then determined if these changes were linked to clinical measures of presbycusis. Results : Compared with healthy controls, presbycusis patients manifested decreased spontaneous activity mainly in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) as well as increased neural activity in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), cuneus and postcentral gyrus (PoCG). A significant negative correlation was observed between ALFF/ReHo activity in the STG and average hearing thresholds in presbycusis patients. Increased ALFF/ReHo activity in the MFG was positively correlated with impaired Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B) scores, indicative of impaired cognitive function involving the frontal lobe. Conclusions : Presbycusis patients have disrupted spontaneous neural activity reflected by ALFF and ReHo measurements in several brain regions; these changes are associated with specific cognitive performance and speech/language processing. These findings mainly emphasize the crucial role of aberrant resting-state ALFF/ReHo patterns in presbycusis patients and will lead to a better understanding of the

  9. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  10. Exploring resting-state EEG brain oscillatory activity in relation to cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Philipp M; Hansen, Sascha; Weber, Emily; Zapf, Franziska; Habich, Juliane; Muenssinger, Jana; Wolf, Sebastian; Schönenberg, Michael; Oschmann, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring parameters related to cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sparse. Previous work reported an association between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) alpha-1 activity and information processing speed. While this remains to be replicated by more available electroencephalographic (EEG) methods, also other established EEG markers, e.g. the slow-wave/fast-wave ratio (theta/beta ratio), remain to be explored in this context. Performance on standard tests addressing information processing speed and attention (Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, SDMT; Test of Attention Performance, TAP) was examined in relation to resting-state EEG alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and the theta/beta ratio in 25MS patients. Increased global alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and an increased frontal theta/beta ratio (pronounced slow-wave relative to fast-wave activity) were associated with lower SDMT processing speed. In an exploratory analysis, clinically impaired attention was associated with a significantly increased frontal theta/beta ratio whereas alpha power did not show sensitivity to clinical impairment. EEG global alpha power and the frontal theta/beta ratio were both associated with attention. The theta/beta ratio involved potential clinical sensitivity. Resting-state EEG recordings can be obtained during the routine clinical process. The examined resting-state measures may represent feasible monitoring parameters in MS. This notion should be explored in future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  12. A Semi-Continuous State-Transition Probability HMM-Based Voice Activity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Othman

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an efficient hidden Markov model-based voice activity detection (VAD algorithm with time-variant state-transition probabilities in the underlying Markov chain. The transition probabilities vary in an exponential charge/discharge scheme and are softly merged with state conditional likelihood into a final VAD decision. Working in the domain of ITU-T G.729 parameters, with no additional cost for feature extraction, the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms G.729 Annex B VAD while providing a balanced tradeoff between clipping and false detection errors. The performance compares very favorably with the adaptive multirate VAD, option 2 (AMR2.

  13. A Semi-Continuous State-Transition Probability HMM-Based Voice Activity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an efficient hidden Markov model-based voice activity detection (VAD algorithm with time-variant state-transition probabilities in the underlying Markov chain. The transition probabilities vary in an exponential charge/discharge scheme and are softly merged with state conditional likelihood into a final VAD decision. Working in the domain of ITU-T G.729 parameters, with no additional cost for feature extraction, the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms G.729 Annex B VAD while providing a balanced tradeoff between clipping and false detection errors. The performance compares very favorably with the adaptive multirate VAD, option 2 (AMR2.

  14. Weak correlations between hemodynamic signals and ongoing neural activity during the resting state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Aaron T.; Echagarruga, Christina; Zhang, Qingguang; Drew, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in hemodynamic signals in the absence of a task or overt stimulation are used to infer neural activity. We tested this coupling by simultaneously measuring neural activity and changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the somatosensory cortex of awake, head-fixed mice during periods of true rest, and during whisker stimulation and volitional whisking. Here we show that neurovascular coupling was similar across states, and large spontaneous CBV changes in the absence of sensory input were driven by volitional whisker and body movements. Hemodynamic signals during periods of rest were weakly correlated with neural activity. Spontaneous fluctuations in CBV and vessel diameter persisted when local neural spiking and glutamatergic input was blocked, and during blockade of noradrenergic receptors, suggesting a non-neuronal origin for spontaneous CBV fluctuations. Spontaneous hemodynamic signals reflect a combination of behavior, local neural activity, and putatively non-neural processes. PMID:29184204

  15. Determination of Chemical States of Mercury on Activated Carbon Using XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Uruga, Tomoya

    2007-01-01

    Although the adsorption of mercury vapor onto activated carbon is a widely used technology to prevent environmental release, the adsorption mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we determined the chemical states of mercury on two kinds of activated carbon using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption experiments of elemental mercury onto activated carbon were conducted under air and nitrogen atmospheres at temperatures of 20 and 160 deg. C. Two types of activated carbon were prepared. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were carried out on beamline BL01B1 at SPring-8. Hg-LIII edge XANES spectra suggested that chemical adsorption of elemental mercury on the activated carbon occurred in the 20-160 deg. C temperature range. According to the XANES spectra, a difference occurred in the chemical states of mercury between AC no. 1 and AC no. 2. The Hg XANES spectra on AC no. 1 were similar to those of Hg2Cl2 and HgS, and the Hg XANES spectra on AC no. 2 were similar to that of HgO, which suggested that nitric acid treatment removed sulfur from AC no. 1 and functional groups that were strong oxidizers on the surface of AC no. 2 created HgO. According to the EXAFS oscillation, a difference occurred in the chemical states of mercury on AC no. 1 between 20 and 160 deg. C. We found that impurities and oxidant functional groups on activated carbon play key roles in mercury adsorption

  16. Using photovoice to explore nigerian immigrants' eating and physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Melanie T; Fapohunda, Abimbola; Zoucha, Rick

    2015-01-01

    African immigrants are one of the fastest growing immigrant groups to the United States; there is a crucial need to learn about African immigrants' beliefs and lifestyle behaviors that may impact health. The purposes of this study were to (a) explore the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants regarding healthy eating and physical activity in the United States; (b) assess the influence of cultural beliefs of Nigerian immigrants on eating and physical activity; (c) describe the role that healthcare providers can play in helping to promote healthy eating and physical activity; and (d) evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using Photovoice to collect data on the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Qualitative visual ethnography using Photovoice. Thirteen Nigerian immigrants were recruited. Data were collected using photography and focus group discussions at a church. Photovoice methodology and Leininger's four phases of qualitative analysis were used to analyze photographs, field notes, and focus group transcripts. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: moderation is healthy, Nigerian ways of living are healthy, acquiring American ways is unhealthy, and cultural context is important to promote healthy behaviors. Photovoice was a feasible, effective methodology for collecting data on the perceptions and practices of Nigerian immigrants. Nigerian participants believed that adherence to traditional dietary and activity practices are healthy. Nurses and other healthcare providers must make concerted efforts to communicate with and educate Nigerian immigrants about healthful eating and activity behaviors within their cultural context. The number of African immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically. Photovoice is a creative method to learn about the health beliefs and behaviors of the Nigerian immigrant population. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipoppa, Mario; Gutkin, Boris S

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required WM operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and WM in recurrently coupled spiking networks with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in WM models implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. We examine how the correlations affect the ability of the network to perform the task when distractors are present. We show that in a winner-take-all version of the model, where two populations cross-inhibit, correlations make the distractor blocking robust. In a version of the mode where no cross inhibition is present, we show that appropriate modulation of correlation levels is sufficient to also block the distractor access while leaving the relevant memory trace in tact. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  18. STATE INSPECTION METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY ACTIVITY FOCUSED ON THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniey Quiala Armenteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Environmental Regulatory Activity has on the Environmental State Inspection an instrument for control and monitoring of compliance of current legal standards regarding environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. In this research, a design methodology for effective implementation of environmental regulatory activity in Cuba directed to processes is proposed; based on the life cycle assessment and the applicable environmental management standards, including new performance indicators, which form a new tool based on scientific criterions for the Center of Environmental Inspection and Control.

  19. Variational transition state theory for multidimensional activated rate processes in the presence of anisotropic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Frishman, Anatoli M.; Pollak, Eli

    1994-09-01

    Variational transition state theory (VTST) is applied to the study of the activated escape of a particle trapped in a multidimensional potential well and coupled to a heat bath. Special attention is given to the dependence of the rate constant on the friction coefficients in the case of anisotropic friction. It is demonstrated explicitly that both the traditional as well as the nontraditional scenarios for the particle escape are recovered uniformly within the framework of VTST. Effects such as saddle point avoidance and friction dependence of the activation energy are derived from VTST using optimized planar dividing surfaces.

  20. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  1. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.

  2. Modeling of low frequency dynamics of a smart system and its state feedback based active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Mohit; Parameswaran, Arun P.

    2018-01-01

    Major physical systems/structures suffer from unwanted vibrations. For efficient working of such systems, these vibrations have to be controlled. In this paper, mathematical modeling of an aluminum cantilever beam with bonded multiple piezoelectric patches which act as the disturbance generator, sensor as well as control actuator has been presented. This piezoelectric laminate cantilever beam is assumed to be vibrating in a single degree of freedom i.e. in the flexural mode only and the corresponding state space models have been derived analytically using the finite element technique. Dominant modes of flexural vibration are identified from the frequency response of the developed model of the system and finally a state feedback controller based on pole placement technique is designed to actively suppress the vibrations. Through numerous simulations as well as experimental validation, the effectiveness of the active controller in damping the vibrations at various excitation frequencies as well as frequency ranges along the flexural mode is established.

  3. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  4. Composition Related Electrical Active Defect States of InGaAs and GaAsN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Kosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses results of electrically active defect states - deep energy level analysis in InGaAs and GaAsN undoped semiconductor structures grown for solar cell applications. Main attention is focused on composition and growth condition dependent impurities and the investigation of their possible origins. For this purpose a widely utilized spectroscopy method, Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy, was utilized. The most significant responses of each sample labelled as InG2, InG3 and NG1, NG2 were discussed in detail and confirmed by simulations and literature data. The presence of a possible dual conduction type and dual state defect complex, dependent on the In/N composition, is reported. Beneficial characteristics of specific indium and nitrogen concentrations capable of eliminating or reducing certain point defects and dislocations are stated.

  5. Alkali activated materials state-of-the-art report, RILEM TC 224-AAM

    CERN Document Server

    Deventer, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.

  6. Electronic states of carbon alloy catalysts and nitrogen substituent effects on catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomoyuki; Ushiyama, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, Carbon Alloy Catalysts (CACs) are attracting attention as a candidate for non-platinum-based cathode catalysts in fuel cells. Oxygen reduction reactions at the cathode are divided into two elementary processes, electron transfer and oxygen adsorption. The electron transfer reaction is the rate-determining, and by comparison of energy levels, catalytic activity can be evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, to begin with, adsorption mechanism is obscure. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of nitrogen substitution and oxygen adsorption mechanism, by first-principle electronic structure calculations for nitrogen substituted models. To reproduce the elementary processes of oxygen adsorption, we assumed that the initial structures are formed based on the Pauling model, a CACs model and nitrogen substituted CACs models in which various points are replaced with nitrogen. When we try to focus only on the DOS peaks of oxygen, in some substituted model that has high adsorption activity, a characteristic partial occupancy state was found. We conclude that this state will affect the adsorption activity, and discuss on why partially occupied states appear with simplification by using an orbital correlation diagram.

  7. Efficiency of state financial support of export activity of small and medium businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur R. Urumov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the effectiveness and role of state financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises. Methods regression analysis abstractlogical method method of comparison. Results the need is identified to evaluate the impact of state programs of export support on the results of export operations as a mechanism for assessing the efficiency of public spending in this area. The institutions are analyzed of state support of export of small and medium businesses production in the USA and India. It is revealed that in the US the main tool of support are export credits and guarantees while in India the emphasis is on the promotion of products to the world markets. To assess the effectiveness of public expenditure on export support the data were collected and systematized on the total volume of export and the costs of its support in the United States and India. The project revealed the presence of a time lag between these indices. When building a regression model the method of least squares was applied on the basis of which three hypotheses were investigated namely those taking into account and not taking into account the presence of the time lag between variables. As a result of constructing the model it was found that in the U.S. the increase in budget spending on export support to 1mln leads to an increase in export volume to 2mln. In India the corresponding figure was 10mln. The analysis of the Russian practice of the state support of export of the small and medium businesses production showed a lack of systematic approach and poor development of the small business sector compared to the studied countries. Scientific novelty the positive relationship was revealed between the costs of exports support and export sales in the United States and India. The necessity was grounded of state the financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises in Russia as well as product promotion through sectoral

  8. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with hemifacial spasm: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tu

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in hemifacial spasm (HFS, a nervous system disorder. We used resting-state fMRI with regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis to investigate changes in spontaneous brain activity of patients with HFS and to determine the relationship of these functional changes with clinical features. Thirty patients with HFS and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with controls, HFS patients had significantly decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, left medial cingulate cortex (MCC, left lingual gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (STG and right precuneus; and increased ReHo values in left precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right brainstem, and right cerebellum. Furthermore, the mean ReHo value in brainstem showed a positive correlation with the spasm severity (r = 0.404, p = 0.027, and the mean ReHo value in MFG was inversely related with spasm severity in HFS group (r = -0.398, p = 0.028. This study reveals that HFS is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in brain regions most involved in motor control and blinking movement. The disturbances of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ReHo measurements may provide insights into the neurological pathophysiology of HFS.

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  10. Abnormal resting-state brain activities in patients with first-episode obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qihui; Yang, Lei; Song, Xueqin; Chu, Congying; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiang; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Youhui

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the brain activity of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its correlation with the disease at resting duration in patients with first-episode OCD, providing a forceful imaging basis for clinic diagnosis and pathogenesis of OCD. Twenty-six patients with first-episode OCD and 25 healthy controls (HC group; matched for age, sex, and education level) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. Statistical parametric mapping 8, data processing assistant for resting-state fMRI analysis toolkit, and resting state fMRI data analysis toolkit packages were used to process the fMRI data on Matlab 2012a platform, and the difference of regional homogeneity (ReHo) values between the OCD group and HC group was detected with independent two-sample t -test. With age as a concomitant variable, the Pearson correlation analysis was adopted to study the correlation between the disease duration and ReHo value of whole brain. Compared with HC group, the ReHo values in OCD group were decreased in brain regions, including left thalamus, right thalamus, right paracentral lobule, right postcentral gyrus, and the ReHo value was increased in the left angular gyrus region. There was a negative correlation between disease duration and ReHo value in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). OCD is a multifactorial disease generally caused by abnormal activities of many brain regions at resting state. Worse brain activity of the OFC is related to the OCD duration, which provides a new insight to the pathogenesis of OCD.

  11. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  12. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  13. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  14. Incorporating space-time constraints and activity-travel time profiles in a multi-state supernetwork approach to individual activity-travel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Activity-travel scheduling is at the core of many activity-based models that predict short-term effects of travel information systems and travel demand management. Multi-state supernetworks have been advanced to represent in an integral fashion the multi-dimensional nature of activity-travel

  15. DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Pinon, Arthur C; Emsley, Lyndon; Rossini, Aaron J

    2017-11-28

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable tool for the characterization of both pure and formulated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, NMR generally suffers from poor sensitivity that often restricts NMR experiments to nuclei with favorable properties, concentrated samples, and acquisition of one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectra. Here, we review how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be applied to routinely enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by one to two orders of magnitude for both pure and formulated APIs. Sample preparation protocols for relayed DNP experiments and experiments on directly doped APIs are detailed. Numerical spin diffusion models illustrate the dependence of relayed DNP enhancements on the relaxation properties and particle size of the solids and can be used for particle size determination when the other factors are known. We then describe the advanced solid-state NMR experiments that have been enabled by DNP and how they provide unique insight into the molecular and macroscopic structure of APIs. For example, with large sensitivity gains provided by DNP, natural isotopic abundance, 13 C- 13 C double-quantum single-quantum homonuclear correlation NMR spectra of pure APIs can be routinely acquired. DNP also enables solid-state NMR experiments with unreceptive quadrupolar nuclei such as 2 H, 14 N, and 35 Cl that are commonly found in APIs. Applications of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy for the molecular level characterization of low API load formulations such as commercial tablets and amorphous solid dispersions are described. Future perspectives for DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR experiments on APIs are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  17. Dimeric Structure of the Blue Light Sensor Protein Photozipper in the Active State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kohei; Tsukuno, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Hiroki; Hisatomi, Osamu; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-06

    The light oxygen voltage-sensing (LOV) domain plays a crucial role in blue light (BL) sensing in plants and microorganisms. LOV domains are usually associated with the effector domains and regulate the activities of effector domains in a BL-dependent manner. Photozipper (PZ) is monomeric in the dark state. BL induces reversible dimerization of PZ and subsequently increases its affinity for the target DNA sequence. In this study, we report the analyses of PZ by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR). The neutral flavin radical was formed by BL illumination in the presence of dithiothreitol in the LOV-C254S (without the bZIP domain) and PZ-C254S mutants, where the cysteine residue responsible for adduct formation was replaced with serine. The magnetic dipole interactions of 3 MHz between the neutral radicals were detected in both LOV-C254S and PZ-C254S, indicating that these mutants are dimeric in the radical state. The PELDOR simulation showed that the distance between the radical pair is close to that estimated from the dimeric crystal structure in the "light state" [Heintz, U., and Schlichting, I. (2016) eLife 5, e11860], suggesting that in the radical state, LOV domains in PZ-C254S form a dimer similar to that of LOV-C254S, which lacks the bZIP domain.

  18. Cocrystal of Ibuprofen–Nicotinamide: Solid-State Characterization and In Vivo Analgesic Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yori Yuliandra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid state of cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen-nicotinamide, determine the solubility, and evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity. The cocrystal of ibuprofen-nicotinamide was prepared by a slow evaporation method. The solid-state characterization was conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. To investigate the in vivo analgesic activity, 28 male Swiss-Webster mice were injected with acetic acid 0.5% following oral administration of intact ibuprofen, physical mixture, and its cocrystalline phase with nicotinamide (equivalent to 26 mg/kg ibuprofen. The number of writhes was counted, and pain inhibition was calculated. All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (95% confidence interval. The results revealed that a new cocrystalline phase was successfully formed. The solubility testing showed that the cocrystal formation enhanced the solubility significantly as compared with the physical mixture and intact ibuprofen. A significant increase in the analgesic activity of cocrystal ibuprofen-nicotinamide was also confirmed.

  19. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  20. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  1. Human presence diminishes the importance of climate in driving fire activity across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Pfaff, Anne Hopkins; Ferschweiler, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity. We developed statistical models relating seasonal temperature and precipitation variables to historical annual fire activity for 37 different regions across the continental United States and asked whether and how fire-climate relationships vary geographically, and why climate is more important in some regions than in others. Climatic variation played a significant role in explaining annual fire activity in some regions, but the relative importance of seasonal temperature or precipitation, in addition to the overall importance of climate, varied substantially depending on geographical context. Human presence was the primary reason that climate explained less fire activity in some regions than in others. That is, where human presence was more prominent, climate was less important. This means that humans may not only influence fire regimes but their presence can actually override, or swamp out, the effect of climate. Thus, geographical context as well as human influence should be considered alongside climate in national wildfire policy and management.

  2. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  4. Processing communications events in parallel active messaging interface by awakening thread from wait state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-10-22

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  5. Overview of ACTYS project on development of indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P.V.; Tadepalli, Sai Chaitanya; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Kanth, Priti; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous activation calculations are warranted for safer and efficient design of future fusion machines. Suitable activation codes, which yield accurate results with faster performance yet include all fusion relevant reactions are a prerequisite. To meet these, an indigenous project called ACTYS-Project is initiated and as a result, four state-of-art codes are developed so far. The goal of this project is to develop indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

  6. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  9. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11‒18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29‒63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62‒81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (P<0.05. Under the same conditions, the force of elastomeric separators was greater than elastomeric ligatures of the same company. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  10. Influence of solar activity on the state of the wheat market in medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev A.; Din, Gregory Yom

    2004-09-01

    The database of professor Rogers (1887), which includes wheat prices in England in the Middle Ages, was used to search for a possible influence of solar activity on the wheat market. Our approach was based on the following: (1) Existence of the correlation between cosmic ray flux entering the terrestrial atmosphere and cloudiness of the atmosphere. (2) Cosmic ray intensity in the solar system changes with solar activity, (3) Wheat production depends on weather conditions as a nonlinear function with threshold transitions. (4) A wheat market with a limited supply (as it was in medieval England) has a highly nonlinear sensitivity to variations in wheat production with boundary states, where small changes in wheat supply could lead to bursts of prices or to prices falling. We present a conceptual model of possible modes for sensitivity of wheat prices to weather conditions, caused by solar cycle variations, and compare expected price fluctuations with price variations recorded in medieval England. We compared statistical properties of the intervals between wheat price bursts during the years 1249-1703 with statistical properties of the intervals between the minima of solar cycles during the years 1700-2000. We show that statistical properties of these two samples are similar, both for characteristics of the distributions and for histograms of the distributions. We analyze a direct link between wheat prices and solar activity in the 17th century, for which wheat prices and solar activity data (derived from 10Be isotope) are available. We show that for all 10 time moments of the solar activity minima the observed prices were higher than prices for the corresponding time moments of maximal solar activity (100% sign correlation, on a significance level < 0.2%). We consider these results a direct evidence of the causal connection between wheat prices bursts and solar activity.

  11. Update: Influenza Activity - United States and Worldwide, May 21-September 23, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lenee; Wentworth, David E; Alabi, Noreen; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Barnes, John; Brammer, Lynnette; Burns, Erin; Davis, C Todd; Dugan, Vivien G; Fry, Alicia M; Garten, Rebecca; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Gubareva, Larisa; Kniss, Krista; Lindstrom, Stephen; Mustaquim, Desiree; Olsen, Sonja J; Roguski, Katherine; Taylor, Calli; Trock, Susan; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel

    2017-10-06

    During May 21-September 23, 2017,* the United States experienced low-level seasonal influenza virus activity; however, beginning in early September, CDC received reports of a small number of localized influenza outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) viruses. In addition to influenza A(H3N2) viruses, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were detected during May-September worldwide and in the United States. Influenza B viruses predominated in the United States from late May through late June, and influenza A viruses predominated beginning in early July. The majority of the influenza viruses collected and received from the United States and other countries during that time have been characterized genetically or antigenically as being similar to the 2017 Southern Hemisphere and 2017-18 Northern Hemisphere cell-grown vaccine reference viruses; however, a smaller proportion of the circulating A(H3N2) viruses showed similarity to the egg-grown A(H3N2) vaccine reference virus which represents the A(H3N2) viruses used for the majority of vaccine production in the United States. Also, during May 21-September 23, 2017, CDC confirmed a total of 33 influenza variant virus † infections; two were influenza A(H1N2) variant (H1N2v) viruses (Ohio) and 31 were influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses (Delaware [1], Maryland [13], North Dakota [1], Pennsylvania [1], and Ohio [15]). An additional 18 specimens from Maryland have tested presumptive positive for H3v and further analysis is being conducted at CDC.

  12. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  13. Solid state fermentation of Trichoderma viride for enhancement phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2018-05-04

    The phenolic content of methanolic and water extracts of ginger fermented by Trichoderma spp. during solid state fermentation (SSF) was detected as compared with unfermented ginger. The total phenolic content of fermented ginger increased several times. The highest phenolic content of ginger was detected after SSF by T. viride. The optimal physiological conditions for the maximum production of the phenolic content and β-glucosidase activity of fermented ginger by T. viride were detected at day 7 incubation, pH 6.0, 30°C and 30% moisture. There are consistent between the maximum production of β-glucosidase and phenolic content. The SSF of ginger by T. viride greatly enhanced the antioxidant potency of phenolic compounds by using DPPH and ABTS assays. Potent antibacterial activity was appeared by phenolic compounds of fermented ginger against all the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Stages of change in physical activity-related behavior in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the stages of change in physical activity-related behavior (EMCRAF and their association with gender and age. A total of 1108 high school students of both sexes, from Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, took part in this study. A questionnaire was used to assess EMCRAF. A higher proportion of boys were in the maintenance stage (48.1% and a higher proportion of girls were in contemplation (24.7% and pre-contemplation (6.4% stages. Gender factor male and age range 17-18 were protective factors, which increased the likelihood of physically active behavior. Girls aged 17-18 were twice as likely to be in the contemplation stage than boys. It is important to expand knowledge about EMCRAF in adolescents and their associations with gender and age because a considerable number of behaviors established during this period of life can last into adulthood.

  15. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  16. Effective equilibrium states in mixtures of active particles driven by colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, René; Brader, J. M.; Sharma, A.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo

    2018-01-01

    We consider the steady-state behavior of pairs of active particles having different persistence times and diffusivities. To this purpose we employ the active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, where the particles are driven by colored noises with exponential correlation functions whose intensities and correlation times vary from species to species. By extending Fox's theory to many components, we derive by functional calculus an approximate Fokker-Planck equation for the configurational distribution function of the system. After illustrating the predicted distribution in the solvable case of two particles interacting via a harmonic potential, we consider systems of particles repelling through inverse power-law potentials. We compare the analytic predictions to computer simulations for such soft-repulsive interactions in one dimension and show that at linear order in the persistence times the theory is satisfactory. This work provides the toolbox to qualitatively describe many-body phenomena, such as demixing and depletion, by means of effective pair potentials.

  17. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  18. Altered spontaneous activity in anisometropic amblyopia subjects: revealed by resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Lin

    Full Text Available Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, usually occurs during early childhood and results in poor or blurred vision. Recent neuroimaging studies have found cortical structural/functional abnormalities in amblyopia. However, until now, it was still not known whether the spontaneous activity of the brain changes in amblyopia subjects. In the present study, regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of the homogeneity of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals, was used for the first time to investigate changes in resting-state local spontaneous brain activity in individuals with anisometropic amblyopia. Compared with age- and gender-matched subjects with normal vision, the anisometropic amblyopia subjects showed decreased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the right precuneus, the left medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum, and increased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity was found in the bilateral conjunction area of the postcentral and precentral gyri, the left paracentral lobule, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, the conjunction area of the right insula, putamen and the right middle occipital gyrus. The observed decreases in ReHo may reflect decreased visuo-motor processing ability, and the increases in ReHo in the somatosensory cortices, the motor areas and the auditory area may indicate compensatory plasticity in amblyopia.

  19. Understanding the current state of infection preventionists through competency, role, and activity self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Marx, James F; Davis, James

    2017-06-01

    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain. Descriptive statistics and χ 2 analyses were conducted to examine differences in infection preventionist (IP) competency, roles, and activity self-assessments. The majority of IPs self-assessed their competency as Proficient compared with Novice or Expert for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. Forty percent of IPs self-rated their competency as Expert in the Preventing/Controlling the Transmission of Infectious Agents/HAIs component. IPs reported Novice competency in Employee/Occupational Health (29%); Cleaning, Sterilization, Disinfection, and Asepsis (23%); and Education and Research categories (22%). Differences in self-rated competency among IPs by discipline type (public health, nurse, and laboratory) were identified. Differences in self-rated competency were identified for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. IPs report using various resource types to gain competency. Future research is needed to identify opportunities to increase competency levels in the weakest-rated competency activities. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  1. Definition and initial validation of a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Kate; Lau, Chak Sing; Navarra, Sandra V; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Lateef, Aisha; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Wahono, C Singgih; Chen, Shun Le; Jin, Ou; Morton, Susan; Hoi, Alberta; Huq, Molla; Nikpour, Mandana; Morand, Eric F

    2016-09-01

    Treating to low disease activity is routine in rheumatoid arthritis, but no comparable goal has been defined for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to define and validate a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS). A consensus definition of LLDAS was generated using Delphi and nominal group techniques. Criterion validity was determined by measuring the ability of LLDAS attainment, in a single-centre SLE cohort, to predict non-accrual of irreversible organ damage, measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI). Consensus methodology led to the following definition of LLDAS: (1) SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2K ≤4, with no activity in major organ systems (renal, central nervous system (CNS), cardiopulmonary, vasculitis, fever) and no haemolytic anaemia or gastrointestinal activity; (2) no new lupus disease activity compared with the previous assessment; (3) a Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA)-SLEDAI physician global assessment (scale 0-3) ≤1; (4) a current prednisolone (or equivalent) dose ≤7.5 mg daily; and (5) well tolerated standard maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs and approved biological agents. Achievement of LLDAS was determined in 191 patients followed for a mean of 3.9 years. Patients who spent greater than 50% of their observed time in LLDAS had significantly reduced organ damage accrual compared with patients who spent less than 50% of their time in LLDAS (p=0.0007) and were significantly less likely to have an increase in SDI of ≥1 (relative risk 0.47, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.79, p=0.005). A definition of LLDAS has been generated, and preliminary validation demonstrates its attainment to be associated with improved outcomes in SLE. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. State observer-based sliding mode control for semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sizhong; Zhao, Yuzhuang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes an improved virtual reference model for semi-active suspension to coordinate the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. The reference model combines the virtues of sky-hook with ground-hook control logic, and the hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high-speed condition. Suspension state observer based on unscented Kalman filter is designed. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is developed to track the states of the reference model. The stability of the SMC strategy is proven by means of Lyapunov function taking into account the nonlinear damper characteristics and sprung mass variation of the vehicle. Finally, the performance of the controller is demonstrated under three typical working conditions: the random road excitation, speed bump road and sharp acceleration and braking. The simulation results indicated that, compared with the traditional passive suspension, the proposed control algorithm can offer a better coordination between vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. This approach provides a viable alternative to costlier active suspension control systems for commercial vehicles.

  3. In-Situ Phase Transition Control in the Supercooled State for Robust Active Glass Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shichao; Cao, Maoqing; Li, Chaoyu; Li, Jiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhou, Shifeng

    2017-06-21

    The construction of a dopant-activated photonic composite is of great technological importance for various applications, including smart lighting, optical amplification, laser, and optical detection. The bonding arrangement around the introduced dopants largely determines the properties, yet it remains a daunting challenge to manipulate the local state of the matrix (i.e., phase) inside the transparent composite in a controllable manner. Here we demonstrate that the relaxation of the supercooled state enables in-situ phase transition control in glass. Benefiting from the unique local atom arrangement manner, the strategy offers the possibility for simultaneously tuning the chemical environment of the incorporated dopant and engineering the dopant-host interaction. This allows us to effectively activate the dopant with high efficiency (calculated as ∼100%) and profoundly enhance the dopant-host energy-exchange interaction. Our results highlight that the in-situ phase transition control in glass may provide new opportunities for fabrication of unusual photonic materials with intense broadband emission at ∼1100 nm and development of the robust optical detection unit with high compactness and broadband photon-harvesting capability (from X-ray to ultraviolet light).

  4. Active Tension Network model reveals an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streicha, Sebastian; Shraiman, Boris

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behavior remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyze the Active Tension Network (ATN) model, which assumes that mechanical balance of cells is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension dependent active remodeling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties: i) ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times it supports external tension, like a solid; ii) its mechanical equilibrium state has extensive degeneracy associated with a discrete conformal - ''isogonal'' - deformation of cells. ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometry, which we demonstrate to hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in a fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical area of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, understanding which helps understand biological phenomena.

  5. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  6. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  7. Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Amy L; Banerjee, Shailendra N; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Wendel, Arthur M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions.

  8. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  9. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  10. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: state regulatory activity involved in need for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassikas, J.

    1977-04-01

    The individual views are presented of the panel members relating to the basic issues and framework for improvements of the Federal/state process for licensing of nuclear power plants, associated facilities, transmission lines, reprocessing of fuel and uranium enrichment. The synopsis supplements the initial synopsis of the views presented to the National Governors Conference Workshop ''State Perspectives on Energy Facility Siting'' in Atlanta, Georgia on December 15--16, 1976. Both synopses constitute the report of this panel

  11. Shallow Lunar Seismic Activity and the Current Stress State of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Weber, Renee C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    A vast, global network of more than 3200 lobate thrust fault scarps has been revealed in high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The fault scarps are very young, less than 50 Ma, based on their small scale and crisp appearance, crosscutting relations with small-diameter impact craters, and rates of infilling of associated small, shallow graben and may be actively forming today. The population of young thrust fault scarps provides a window into the recent stress state of the Moon and offers insight into the origin of global lunar stresses. The distribution of orientations of the fault scarps is non-random, inconsistent with isotropic stresses from late-stage global contraction as the sole source of stress. Modeling shows that tidal stresses contribute significantly to the current stress state of the lunar crust. Tidal stresses (orbital recession and diurnal tides) superimposed on stresses from global contraction result in non-isotropic compressional stress and may produce thrust faults consistent with lobate scarp orientations. At any particular point on the lunar surface, peak compressive stress will be reached at a certain time in the diurnal cycle. Coseismic slip events on currently active thrust faults are expected to be triggered when peak stresses are reached. Analysis of the timing of the 28 the shallow moonquakes recorded by the Apollo seismic network shows that 19 indeed occur when the Moon is closer to apogee, while only 9 shallow events occur when the Moon is closer to perigee. Here we report efforts to refine the model for the current stress state of the Moon by investigating the contribution of polar wander. Progress on relocating the epicentral locations of the shallow moonquakes using an algorithm designed for sparse networks is also reported.

  12. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  13. Brain State Is a Major Factor in Preseizure Hippocampal Network Activity and Influences Success of Seizure Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Laura A.; Liang, Liang; Armstrong, Caren; Soltész, Ivan; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Neural dynamics preceding seizures are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms of seizure generation and could be predictive. In healthy animals, hippocampal network activity is shaped by behavioral brain state and, in epilepsy, seizures selectively emerge during specific brain states. To determine the degree to which changes in network dynamics before seizure are pathological or reflect ongoing fluctuations in brain state, dorsal hippocampal neurons were recorded during spontaneous seizures in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizures emerged from all brain states, but with a greater likelihood after REM sleep, potentially due to an observed increase in baseline excitability during periods of REM compared with other brains states also characterized by sustained theta oscillations. When comparing the firing patterns of the same neurons across brain states associated with and without seizures, activity dynamics before seizures followed patterns typical of the ongoing brain state, or brain state transitions, and did not differ until the onset of the electrographic seizure. Next, we tested whether disparate activity patterns during distinct brain states would influence the effectiveness of optogenetic curtailment of hippocampal seizures in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Optogenetic curtailment was significantly more effective for seizures preceded by non-theta states compared with seizures that emerged from theta states. Our results indicate that consideration of behavioral brain state preceding a seizure is important for the appropriate interpretation of network dynamics leading up to a seizure and for designing effective seizure intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal single-unit activity is strongly shaped by behavioral brain state, yet this relationship has been largely ignored when studying activity dynamics before spontaneous seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. In light of the increased attention on using single

  14. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  15. A description of the roles, activities, and skills of clinical nurse specialists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R A

    1999-07-01

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) frequently adapt to meet the challenging and changing needs of patients, families, nurses, physicians, and institutions, thus creating an advance practice role that is problematic in definition and description. The two dilemmas associated with CNSs have been role confusion and ambiguity, and the inability to explicate CNSs' value in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to describe the roles, activities, skills, and the cost-saving and revenue-generating activities of Master's-prepared nurses who function in traditional CNS roles in the United States. A descriptive research design was employed, using Role Theory as a framework to guide the study. The tool used to measure CNS practice included a 68-item instrument. It was pretested and used in two pilot studies. Content validity was supported by three experienced CNSs who were, at the time, in a doctoral nursing program. Instrument reliability was 0.89. Surveys were mailed to all individuals who subscribed (n = 2379) to the Clinical Nurse Specialist Journal. From the convenience sample, 724 CNSs participated, providing a margin of error of +/- 4 percentage points with a 99% confidence level. Regarding the five role components, CNSs reported (listed from most frequently to least frequently) spending time in the role of expert practitioner, educator, consultant, administrator, and researcher. Most of the activities listed in each of the roles were typical of CNS practice. Of the advanced practice roles, the two with the most surprising results were the expert practitioner and administrator roles. The results indicated a trend toward performing advanced skills that have been in the past considered solely medical practice and toward increasing administrative responsibilities. A small number of CNSs were able to identify cost-saving and revenue-generating activities, including the monetary value of the activity.

  16. Yeast allosteric chorismate mutase is locked in the activated state by a single amino acid substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidheini, T.; Moesch, H.U.; Braus, G.; Evans, J.N.S.

    1990-01-01

    Chorismate mutase, a branch-point enzyme in the aromatic amino acid pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also a mutant chorismate mutase with a single amino acid substitution in the C-terminal part of the protein have been purified approximately 20-fold and 64-fold from overproducing strains, respectively. The wild-type enzyme is activated by tryptophan and subject to feedback inhibition by tyrosine, whereas the mutant enzyme does not respond to activation by tryptophan nor inhibition by tyrosine. Both enzymes are dimers consisting of two identical subunits of M r 30,000, each one capable of binding one substrate and one activator molecule. Each subunit of the wild-type enzyme also binds one inhibitor molecule, whereas the mutant enzyme lost this ability. The enzyme reaction was observed by 1 H NMR and shows a direct and irreversible conversion of chorismate to prephenate without the accumulation of any enzyme-free intermediates. The kinetic data of the wild-type chorismate mutase show positive cooperativity toward the substrate with a Hill coefficient of 1.71 and a [S] 0.5 value of 4.0 mM. In the presence of the activator tryptophan, the cooperativity is lost. The enzyme has an [S] 0.5 value of 1.2 mM in the presence of 10 μM tryptophan and an increased [S] 0.5 value of 8.6 mM in the presence of 300 μM tyrosine. In the mutant enzyme, a loss of the cooperativity was observed, and [S] 0.5 was reduced to 1.0 mM. This enzyme is therefore locked in the activated state by a single amino acid substitution

  17. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector for the measurements of volumic activity of Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAKAM, O.K.; LFERDE, M.; BERRADA, M.

    1994-01-01

    Time - integrated measurements of environmental radiation activity are commonly carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors ( SSNTD ). These detectors should be calibrated of volumic activity of radon. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted to calibrate cellulose nitrate films LR - 115 type II used for measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco. Calibration measurements were made in laboratory using a calibration chamber and a radon source. The calibration chamber is a cylindric box ( 2613,6 cm sup 3)which we have manufactured of aluminium. The radon source is a natural sample rich of aluminium (17,29 + 0 ,12) Bq/g. The films are placed in detector holder with membrane and exposed inside the calibration chamber to varying concentrations of radon. Following the exposure, the films were chemically etched in sodium hydroxide (2,5 N) at 60 C for 120 minutes. The number of registered alpha particle tracks were counted with an optical microscope. In the used etching conditions, the removed mean thickness is in the order of 6 micro m. Therefore, we have normalized the track density to this value . We obtained a calibration factor of 0, 58 tracks . cm sup -2/ K Bq . h . m sup -3 . 1 tab.; 1 fig.; 2 refs. (author)

  18. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Malakhov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  19. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  20. State of technology, system and solution supporting on-line maintenance - company's activities and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Junichi; Shimizu, Shunichi; Higasa, Hisakazu

    2010-01-01

    The new inspection system based on operator's maintenance and monitoring program of nuclear power plants was introduced in Japan more than one year ago and recommended on-line maintenance (maintenance during operation) will be carried out to increase capacity factor with safe and reliable operation of the plant. In this feature article, nine experts described the state of technology, system and solution supporting on-line maintenance - company's activities and products. These were titled as 'MHI's technology supporting on-line maintenance'. 'Technology supporting on-line maintenance - Toshiba's activities to upgrade monitoring and diagnostic service and maintenance management', 'AsahiKASEI's activities of on-line maintenance', 'Importance of information sharing of on-line maintenance and its ideal method-function of impact plan of IBM Maximo Asset Management for Nuclear', 'US's on-line maintenance and information systems', 'SmartProcedures realizing safe operation of nuclear power plant - proposal of computerized procedures', 'Ultrasonic leak detection system SDT170', 'Application of infrared thermography for equipment maintenance in nuclear power plant' and 'On-line condition monitoring system - condition eye'. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Need Satisfaction Moderates the Association Between Physical Activity and Affective States in Adults Aged 50+: an Activity-Triggered Ambulatory Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Hansen, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Substantial evidence shows that physical activities of daily living are positively correlated with affective states in middle-aged and older adults. However, people's physical activity decreases when they grow older, and conditions that enhance older individuals' physical activities of daily living are not well understood. This study investigated need satisfaction (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and its moderating effect on the within-subject relation between physical activities of daily living and three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, and calmness) based on an ambulatory assessment that used activity-triggered e-diaries. The physical activities of daily living of 68 adults aged 50+ (mean age = 60.1 ± 7.1) were measured objectively for three consecutive days, and need satisfaction and affective states were assessed as a function of the amount of physical activity during the preceding 10 min before the affect measurement (in activity-triggered e-diaries). Hierarchical multilevel analyses were performed. Need satisfaction was significantly and positively correlated with the three dimensions of affective states. Further, physical activities of daily living were significantly associated with energetic arousal and calmness, but not valence. However, when physical activities of daily living were more autonomously regulated, the association of physical activities of daily living and valence became significant and positive. The findings regarding the significant moderating effects of need satisfaction are crucial for interventions aiming to improve the health-enhancing effects of physical activity in adults aged 50+. Positive feelings owing to physical activities in daily living depend on the extent that psychological needs are satisfied.

  2. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  3. The influence of state-level policy environments on the activation of the Medicaid SBIRT reimbursement codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Jesse; Bray, Jeremy; Kaiser, David; Mallonee, Erin

    2017-02-01

    To examine how institutional constraints, comprising federal actions and states' substance abuse policy environments, influence states' decisions to activate Medicaid reimbursement codes for screening and brief intervention for risky substance use in the United States. A discrete-time duration model was used to estimate the effect of institutional constraints on the likelihood of activating the Medicaid reimbursement codes. Primary constraints included federal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant funding, substance abuse priority, economic climate, political climate and interstate diffusion. Study data came from publicly available secondary data sources. Federal SBIRT grant funding did not affect significantly the likelihood of activation (P = 0.628). A $1 increase in per-capita block grant funding was associated with a 10-percentage point reduction in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.003) and a $1 increase in per-capita state substance use disorder expenditures was associated with a 2-percentage point increase in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.004). States with enacted parity laws (P = 0.016) and a Democratic-controlled state government were also more likely to activate the codes. In the United States, the determinants of state activation of Medicaid Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) reimbursement codes are complex, and include more than financial considerations. Federal block grant funding is a strong disincentive to activating the SBIRT reimbursement codes, while more direct federal SBIRT grant funding has no detectable effects. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. 77 FR 64386 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Per Diem for Nursing Home Care of Veterans in State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    .... Abstract: VA pays per diem to State homes providing nursing home and adult day health services care to... Activities (Per Diem for Nursing Home Care of Veterans in State Homes; Per Diem for Adult Day Care of... Regarding Lobbying, VA Form 10-0144. h. Statement of Assurance of Compliance with Equal Opportunity Laws, VA...

  5. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  6. Usage, biological activity, and safety of selected botanical dietary supplements consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Annécie Benatrehina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry

  7. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural markers of loss aversion in resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Antonellis, Giulia; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-02-01

    Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity. We tested the latter hypothesis by assessing in 57 healthy human subjects whether the relationship between behavioral and neural loss aversion holds at rest, i.e. when the BOLD signal is collected during 5minutes of cross-fixation in the absence of an explicit task. Within the resting-state networks highlighted by a spatial group Independent Component Analysis (gICA), we found a significant correlation between strength of activity and behavioral loss aversion in the left ventral striatum and right posterior insula/supramarginal gyrus, i.e. the very same regions displaying a pattern of neural loss aversion during explicit choices. Cross-study analyses confirmed that this correlation holds when voxels identified by gICA are used as regions of interest in task-related activity and vice versa. These results suggest that the individual degree of (neural) loss aversion represents a stable dimension of decision-making, which reflects in specific metrics of intrinsic brain activity at rest possibly modulating cortical excitability at choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Active Seat Controller with Vehicle Suspension Feedforward and Feedback States: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alfadhli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Active seat suspensions can be used to reduce the harmful vertical vibration of a vehicle’s seat by applying an external force using a closed loop controller. Many of the controllers found in the literature are difficult to implement practically, because they are based on using unavailable or difficult and costly measurements. This paper presents both simulation and experimental studies of five novel, simple, and cost-effective control strategies to be used for an active seat suspension in order to improve ride comfort at low frequencies below 20 Hz. These strategies use available and measurable feedforward (preview information states from the vehicle secondary suspension, as well as feedback states from the seat suspension, together with gains optimised to minimise the occupant vibration. The gains were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA, with a fitness function based on the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT factor. Constraints on the control force and the seat suspension stroke were also included in the optimisation algorithm. Simulation and laboratory experimental tests were carried out to assess the performance of the proposed controllers according to the ISO 2631-1 standard, in both the frequency and time domains with a range of different road profiles. The experimental tests were performed using a multi-axis simulation table (MAST and a physical active seat suspension configured as a hardware-in-loop (HIL simulation with a virtual linear quarter vehicle model (QvM. The results demonstrate that the proposed controllers substantially attenuate the vertical vibration at the driver’s seat compared with both a passive and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID active seat suspension and thus improve ride comfort together with reducing vibration-linked health risks. Moreover, experimental results show that employing both feedforward information and feedback vehicle body and seat acceleration signals in the controller

  10. Active measurement-based quantum feedback for preparing and stabilizing superpositions of two cavity photon number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube-Lauziere, Yves

    The measurement-based quantum feedback scheme developed and implemented by Haroche and collaborators to actively prepare and stabilize specific photon number states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) is a milestone achievement in the active protection of quantum states from decoherence. This feat was achieved by injecting, after each weak dispersive measurement of the cavity state via Rydberg atoms serving as cavity sensors, a low average number classical field (coherent state) to steer the cavity towards the targeted number state. This talk will present the generalization of the theory developed for targeting number states in order to prepare and stabilize desired superpositions of two cavity photon number states. Results from realistic simulations taking into account decoherence and imperfections in a CQED set-up will be presented. These demonstrate the validity of the generalized theory and points to the experimental feasibility of preparing and stabilizing such superpositions. This is a further step towards the active protection of more complex quantum states than number states. This work, cast in the context of CQED, is also almost readily applicable to circuit QED. YBL acknowledges financial support from the Institut Quantique through a Canada First Research Excellence Fund.

  11. Micromechanics of non-active clays in saturated state and DEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Arianna Gea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conceptual micromechanical model for 1-D compression behaviour of non-active clays in saturated state. An experimental investigation was carried out on kaolin clay samples saturated with fluids of different pH and dielectric permittivity. The effect of pore fluid characteristics on one-dimensional compressibility behaviour of kaolin was investigated. A three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM was implemented in order to simulate the response of saturated kaolin observed during the experiments. A complex contact model was introduced, considering both the mechanical and physico-chemical microscopic interactions between clay particles. A simple analysis with spherical particles only was performed as a preliminary step in the DEM study in the elastic regime.

  12. SAR interferometry applications on active volcanoes. State of the art and perspectives for volcano monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, G.; Coltelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Catania (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper the application of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) on volcanology is analysed. Since it is not a real novelty among the different applications of INSAR in Earth Observation activities, at the beginning of this paper it is analysed the state of the art of the researches in this field. During the discussion, the point of view of volcanologists is favoured because it is considered that the first applications were often badly aimed. Consequently, the initial INSAR performances in volcanology were overrated with respect to the real capabilities of this technique. This fact lead to discover some unexpected limitations in INSAR usage in volcano monitoring, but, at the same time, spurred on scientists to overcome these drawbacks. The results achieved recently allow to better apply SAR to volcanology; in the paper a possible operative work-plan aimed at introducing INSAR in the volcano monitoring system is presented.

  13. Validation of the activity expansion method with ultrahigh pressure shock equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, F.J.; Young, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Laser shock experiments have recently been used to measure the equation of state (EOS) of matter in the ultrahigh pressure region between condensed matter and a weakly coupled plasma. Some ultrahigh pressure data from nuclear-generated shocks are also available. Matter at these conditions has proven very difficult to treat theoretically. The many-body activity expansion method (ACTEX) has been used for some time to calculate EOS and opacity data in this region, for use in modeling inertial confinement fusion and stellar interior plasmas. In the present work, we carry out a detailed comparison with the available experimental data in order to validate the method. The agreement is good, showing that ACTEX adequately describes strongly shocked matter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Validation of the activity expansion method with ultrahigh pressure shock equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Forrest J.; Young, David A.

    1997-11-01

    Laser shock experiments have recently been used to measure the equation of state (EOS) of matter in the ultrahigh pressure region between condensed matter and a weakly coupled plasma. Some ultrahigh pressure data from nuclear-generated shocks are also available. Matter at these conditions has proven very difficult to treat theoretically. The many-body activity expansion method (ACTEX) has been used for some time to calculate EOS and opacity data in this region, for use in modeling inertial confinement fusion and stellar interior plasmas. In the present work, we carry out a detailed comparison with the available experimental data in order to validate the method. The agreement is good, showing that ACTEX adequately describes strongly shocked matter.

  15. Validation of the activity expansion method with ultrahigh pressure shock equations of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, F.J.; Young, D.A. [Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Laser shock experiments have recently been used to measure the equation of state (EOS) of matter in the ultrahigh pressure region between condensed matter and a weakly coupled plasma. Some ultrahigh pressure data from nuclear-generated shocks are also available. Matter at these conditions has proven very difficult to treat theoretically. The many-body activity expansion method (ACTEX) has been used for some time to calculate EOS and opacity data in this region, for use in modeling inertial confinement fusion and stellar interior plasmas. In the present work, we carry out a detailed comparison with the available experimental data in order to validate the method. The agreement is good, showing that ACTEX adequately describes strongly shocked matter. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  17. Stability and activation gaps of the parafermionic Hall states in the second Landau level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing the effective conformal field theory for the parafermionic Hall states, corresponding to filling fractions ν k =2+k/(kM+2), k=2,3,..., M odd, we show that the even k plateaux are expected to be more stable than their odd k neighbors. The reason is that the parafermion chiral algebra can be locally extended for k even. This reconciles the theoretical implication, that the bigger the k the less stable the fluid, with the experimental fact that, for M=1, the k=2 and k=4 plateaux are already observed at electron temperature T e ≅8 mK, while the Hall resistance for k=3 is not precisely quantized at that temperature in the sample of Pan et al. Using a heuristic gap ansatz we estimate the activation energy gap for ν 3 =13/5 to be approximately 0.015 K, which implies that the quantization of the Hall conductance could be observed for temperature below 1 mK in the same sample. We also find an appealing exact relation between the fractional electric charge and fractional statistics of the quasiholes. Finally, we argue that besides the Moore-Read phase for the ν 2 =5/2 state there is another relevant phase, in which the fundamental quasiholes obey abelian statistics and carry half-integer electric charge

  18. Solid-State Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Polyterthiophene Derivatives/TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxangul Jamal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3,4-propylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene/TiO2 and poly(3,4-(2,2-dimethylenepropylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene/TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple solid-state method. Additionally, the poly(3,4-propylenedioxy thiophene/TiO2 and poly(3,4-2,2-dimethylenepropylenedioxythiophene/TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized in a similar manner for comparison. The structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were examined through the degradation processes of a methylene blue (MB solution under UV light and sunlight irradiation. The results of FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that the composites were successfully synthesized by solid-state method and the poly(3,4-propylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene/TiO2 and poly(3,4-(2,2-dimethylenepropylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene/TiO2 nanocomposite had a higher oxidation degree and conjugation length than others. The results also indicated that the TiO2 had no effect on the crystallinity of composites, but was well embedded in the polymer matrix. Additionally, the highest degradation efficiency of 90.5% occurred in the case of the poly(3,4-propylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene/TiO2 nanocomposite.

  19. The CD8+ memory T-cell state of readiness is actively maintained and reversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef; Conze, Dietrich B.; Giardino Torchia, Maria Letizia; Munitic, Ivana; Yagita, Hideo; Sowell, Ryan T.; Marzo, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond rapidly and robustly upon repeated antigen exposure is known as immunologic memory, and it is thought that acquisition of memory T-cell function is an irreversible differentiation event. In this study, we report that many phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific CD8 memory T cells are lost when they are deprived of contact with dendritic cells. Under these circumstances, memory T cells reverted from G1 to the G0 cell-cycle state and responded to stimulation like naive T cells, as assessed by proliferation, dependence upon costimulation, and interferon-γ production, without losing cell surface markers associated with memory. The memory state was maintained by signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, CD27 and 4-1BB. Foxo1, a transcription factor involved in T-cell quiescence, was reduced in memory cells, and stimulation of naive CD8 cells via CD27 caused Foxo1 to be phosphorylated and emigrate from the nucleus in a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase–dependent manner. Consistent with these results, maintenance of G1 in vivo was compromised in antigen-specific memory T cells in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected CD27-deficient mice. Therefore, sustaining the functional phenotype of T memory cells requires active signaling and maintenance. PMID:19617575

  20. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs.

  1. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  2. Objectively Measured School Day Physical Activity Among Elementary Students in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kulmala, Janne Santeri; Jaakkola, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Fish, Joseph Cole; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-04-01

    Schools are in a unique position to ensure that all students meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations. This study aimed to examine 1st to 3rd grade elementary students' accelerometer measured school day PA in the United States (U.S.) and Finland. The sample consisted of 200 students (107 girls, 93 boys; ages 6 to 8) and their school day PA was monitored with hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers across a 5-day school week and the thresholds 100 and 2296 count per minute were used to separate sedentary time, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). On an average school day, students were engaged in MVPA for 20.0 min in the U.S. and 24.1 min in Finland. Students' school-day MVPA was 9 to 16 minutes higher during physical education (PE) days compared with non-PE days (U.S: 25.8 vs. 16.6 min/day; Finland: 36.3 vs. 20.1 min/day). Girls had less MVPA and more sedentary time compared with boys in both samples. This study highlights both the role of PE and other school day physical activities in meeting PA guidelines. Policy measures are needed to change the structure of the school day and enhance PA to ensure that students meet the PA recommendations.

  3. Education and training activities at North Carolina State University's PULSTAR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Research reactor utilization has been an integral part of the North Carolina State University's (NCSU's) nuclear engineering program since its inception. The undergraduate curriculum has a strong teaching laboratory component. Graduate classes use the reactor for selected demonstrations, experiments, and projects. The reactor is also used for commercial power reactor operator training programs, neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and sample and tracer activation for industrial short courses and services as part of the university's land grant mission. The PULSTAR reactor is a 1-MW pool-type reactor that uses 4% enriched UO 2 pellet fuel in Zircaloy II cladding. Standard irradiation facilities include wet exposure ports, a graphite thermal column, and a pneumatic transfer system. In the near term, general facility upgrades include the installation of signal isolation and computer data acquisition and display functions to improve the teaching and research interface with the reactor. In the longer term, the authors foresee studies of new core designs and the development of beam experiment design tools. These would be used to study modifications that may be desired at the end of the current core life and to undertake the development of new research instruments

  4. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  5. Will Global Warming Cause a Rise in Sea Level? A Simple Activity about the States of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, a possible problem related to global warming is clarified by the principle of states of water. The activity consists of an experiment that includes three scientific principles: Archimedes' Principle, the Law of Conservation of Matter, and the fluidity of liquids. The experiment helps students raise questions and open new horizons…

  6. Decreased integration and information capacity in stroke measured by whole brain models of resting state activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mohit H; Hacker, Carl D; Siegel, Josh S; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Deco, Gustavo; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks. First, we measured functional connectivity between different brain areas with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects (n = 26), and subjects who had suffered a cortical stroke (n = 36). We then used a whole-brain network model that coupled average excitatory activities of local regions via anatomical connectivity. Model parameters were optimized in each healthy or stroke participant to maximize correlation between model and empirical functional connectivity, so that the model's effective connectivity was a veridical representation of healthy or lesioned brain networks. Subsequently, we calculated two model-based measures: 'integration', a graph theoretical measure obtained from functional connectivity, which measures the connectedness of brain networks, and 'information capacity', an information theoretical measure that cannot be obtained empirically, representative of the segregative ability of brain networks to encode distinct stimuli. We found that both measures were decreased in stroke patients, as compared to healthy controls, particularly at the level of resting-state networks. Furthermore, we found that these measures, especially information capacity, correlate with measures of behavioural impairment and the segregation of resting-state networks empirically measured. This study shows that focal lesions affect the brain's ability to

  7. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of neural adaptation on dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2017-12-01

    How neural adaptation affects neural information processing (i.e. the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities) is a central question in computational neuroscience. In my previous works, I analytically clarified the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring-type neural network model that is widely used to model the visual cortex, motor cortex, and several other brain regions. The neural dynamics and the equilibrium state in the neural network model corresponded to a Bayesian computation and statistically optimal multiple information integration, respectively, under a biologically inspired condition. These results were revealed in an analytically tractable manner; however, adaptation effects were not considered. Here, I analytically reveal how the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network are influenced by spike-frequency adaptation (SFA). SFA is an adaptation that causes gradual inhibition of neural activity when a sustained stimulus is applied, and the strength of this inhibition depends on neural activities. I reveal that SFA plays three roles: (1) SFA amplifies the influence of external input in neural dynamics; (2) SFA allows the history of the external input to affect neural dynamics; and (3) the equilibrium state corresponds to the statistically optimal multiple information integration independent of the existence of SFA. In addition, the equilibrium state in a ring neural network model corresponds to the statistically optimal integration of multiple information sources under biologically inspired conditions, independent of the existence of SFA.

  9. Characterization of Peripheral Activity States and Cortical Local Field Potentials of Mice in an Elevated Plus Maze Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Toya; Nakayama, Ryota; Sasaki, Takuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    Elevated plus maze (EPM) tests have been used to assess animal anxiety levels. Little information is known regarding how physiological activity patterns of the brain-body system are altered during EPM tests. Herein, we monitored cortical local field potentials (LFPs), electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyograms (EMGs), and respiratory signals in individual mice that were repeatedly exposed to EPM tests. On average, mouse heart rates were higher in open arms. In closed arms, the mice occasionally showed decreased heart and respiratory rates lasting for several seconds or minutes, characterized as low-peripheral activity states of peripheral signals. The low-activity states were observed only when the animals were in closed arms, and the frequencies of the states increased as the testing days proceeded. During the low-activity states, the delta and theta powers of cortical LFPs were significantly increased and decreased, respectively. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations crucially depend on whether an animal exhibits low-activity states in peripheral organs rather than the EPM arm in which the animal is located. These results suggest that combining behavioral tests with physiological makers enables a more accurate evaluation of rodent mental states.

  10. Characterization of Peripheral Activity States and Cortical Local Field Potentials of Mice in an Elevated Plus Maze Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toya Okonogi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plus maze (EPM tests have been used to assess animal anxiety levels. Little information is known regarding how physiological activity patterns of the brain-body system are altered during EPM tests. Herein, we monitored cortical local field potentials (LFPs, electrocardiograms (ECGs, electromyograms (EMGs, and respiratory signals in individual mice that were repeatedly exposed to EPM tests. On average, mouse heart rates were higher in open arms. In closed arms, the mice occasionally showed decreased heart and respiratory rates lasting for several seconds or minutes, characterized as low-peripheral activity states of peripheral signals. The low-activity states were observed only when the animals were in closed arms, and the frequencies of the states increased as the testing days proceeded. During the low-activity states, the delta and theta powers of cortical LFPs were significantly increased and decreased, respectively. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations crucially depend on whether an animal exhibits low-activity states in peripheral organs rather than the EPM arm in which the animal is located. These results suggest that combining behavioral tests with physiological makers enables a more accurate evaluation of rodent mental states.

  11. Orally active growth hormone secretagogues: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Camanni, F

    1998-04-01

    Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) are synthetic, non-natural peptidyl and nonpeptidyl molecules with potent stimulatory effect on somatotrope secretion. They have no structural homology with growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and act via a specific receptor, which has now been cloned and is present at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a still unknown natural GHS-like ligand. Several data favour the hypothesis that GHS could counteract somatostatinergic activity at both the pituitary and hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that they act via an unknown hypothalamic factor remains open. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is the first hexapeptide studied extensively in humans. More recently, peptidyl superanalogues GHRP-1, GHRP-2 and hexarelin, and nonpeptidyl mimetics, such as the spiroindoline derivative MK-677, have been synthesized and their effects have been studied in humans. The GH-releasing activity of GHS is marked, dose related and reproducible after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHS is partially desensitized but prolonged, intermittent oral administration increases insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. The GH-releasing effect of GHS undergoes age-related variations; it increases from birth to puberty, remains similar in adulthood and decreases with ageing. The effect of GHS on GH release is synergistic with that of GHRH, while it is only partially refractory to inhibitory influences, which nearly abolish the effect of GHRH. GHS maintain their GH-releasing activity in some somatotrope hypersecretory states such as acromegaly, anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism and critical illness. The GH response to GHS has been reported clear although reduced in GH deficiency, obesity and hypothyroidism, while it is strongly reduced in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing

  12. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  14. Investigating Solids, Liquids, and Gases with TOYS: States of Matter and Changes of State. Activities for Middle School Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Jerry; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Mickey; Woodward, Linda

    The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical…

  15. Interaction and activity coordination of territorial customs bodies of the State fiscal service of Ukraine with local state administrations and local self-government bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Павлович Федотов

    2016-06-01

    Based on the results of the study the author notes that the interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices and local state administrations with local self-government bodies is an inherent quality, link and component of the Ukrainian SFS Customs offices functioning organization, which aims to improve the state customs service implementation standards by the Ukrainian SFS customs houses and to ensure the said implementation efficiency. However, in the course of interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs with local state administrations and local self-government bodies each of the mentioned organizations specializes in solving their specific tasks in accordance with their subject expertise, and forms a clear organizational system. The complementarity of such kind helps to improve the state customs affairs conductance quality and is realized through the coordination of performance of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices, local state administrations and local self-government bodies as the interaction subjects through normative, informational and analytical provision for the interaction and concretization of the activities of each subject within the planned activities.

  16. Phase transitions and steady-state microstructures in a two-temperature lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2000-01-01

    The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....

  17. The relation of trait and state mindfulness with satisfaction and physical activity: A cross-sectional study in 305 Dutch participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; Lacroix, Joyca Pw; van Ee, Raymond; Vinkers, Charlotte Dw; De Ridder, Denise Td

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has shown that satisfaction mediates the relationship of state mindfulness (i.e. during physical activity) with physical activity. This study aimed to replicate this finding and to explore the role of trait mindfulness with a cross-sectional design. In all, 305 participants completed measures on trait and state mindfulness, satisfaction with physical activity, and physical activity. Mediation analyses were used. Satisfaction mediated the effect of state mindfulness on physical activity. Trait mindfulness related to physical activity via an indirect path, namely through two consecutive mediators, first state mindfulness and then satisfaction. Our results suggest that to enhance satisfaction, both state and trait mindfulness should be considered.

  18. Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C

    2015-01-01

    Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.

  19. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  20. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eGergelyfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental fatigue (MF is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement.Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, skin conductance responses, questionnaires and performance in a working memory task in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 minutes. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  1. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.

    2018-02-01

    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  2. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  3. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  4. The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina F. Trivers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC, at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems.

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Special nuclear material; Source material; By-product material; Agreement state programmes); 4. Nuclear installations (Initial licensing; Operation and inspection, including nuclear safety; Operating licence renewal; Decommissioning; Emergency response); 5. Radiological protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 6. Radioactive waste management (High-level waste; Low-level waste; Disposal at sea; Uranium mill tailings; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - FUSRAP); 7. Non-proliferation and exports (Exports of source material, special nuclear material, production or utilisation facilities and sensitive nuclear technology; Exports of components; Exports of by-product material; Exports and imports of radiation sources; Conduct resulting in the termination of exports or economic assistance; Subsequent arrangements; Technology exports; Information and restricted data); 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC; Department of Energy - DOE; Department of Labor - DOL; Department of Transportation - DOT; Environmental Protection Agency - EPA); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: A. Cabinet-level departments (Department of

  6. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  8. Caffeine inhibition of GLUT1 is dependent on the activation state of the transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Busscher, Brianna M; Wodarek, Jeremy A; Rosette, Kylee A; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Looyenga, Brendan D; Louters, Larry L

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine has been shown to be a robust uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose uptake in erythrocytes. It preferentially binds to the nucleotide-binding site on GLUT1 in its tetrameric form and mimics the inhibitory action of ATP. Here we demonstrate that caffeine is also a dose-dependent, uncompetitive inhibitor of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in L929 fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on 2DG uptake in these cells was reversible with a rapid onset and was additive to the competitive inhibitory effects of glucose itself, confirming that caffeine does not interfere with glucose binding. We also report for the first time that caffeine inhibition was additive to inhibition by curcumin, suggesting distinct binding sites for curcumin and caffeine. In contrast, caffeine inhibition was not additive to that of cytochalasin B, consistent with previous data that reported that these two inhibitors have overlapping binding sites. More importantly, we show that the magnitude of maximal caffeine inhibition in L929 cells is much lower than in erythrocytes (35% compared to 90%). Two epithelial cell lines, HCLE and HK2, have both higher concentrations of GLUT1 and increased basal 2DG uptake (3-4 fold) compared to L929 cells, and subsequently display greater maximal inhibition by caffeine (66-70%). Interestingly, activation of 2DG uptake (3-fold) in L929 cells by glucose deprivation shifted the responsiveness of these cells to caffeine inhibition (35%-70%) without a change in total GLUT1 concentration. These data indicate that the inhibition of caffeine is dependent on the activity state of GLUT1, not merely on the concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated amygdala activity to sad facial expressions: a state marker of bipolar but not unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge R C; Versace, Amelia; Hassel, Stefanie; Kupfer, David J; Phillips, Mary L

    2010-03-01

    Difficulties in emotion processing and poor social function are common to bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) depression, resulting in many BD depressed individuals being misdiagnosed with MDD. The amygdala is a key region implicated in processing emotionally salient stimuli, including emotional facial expressions. It is unclear, however, whether abnormal amygdala activity during positive and negative emotion processing represents a persistent marker of BD regardless of illness phase or a state marker of depression common or specific to BD and MDD depression. Sixty adults were recruited: 15 depressed with BD type 1 (BDd), 15 depressed with recurrent MDD, 15 with BD in remission (BDr), diagnosed with DSM-IV and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Research Version criteria; and 15 healthy control subjects (HC). Groups were age- and gender ratio-matched; patient groups were matched for age of illness onset and illness duration; depressed groups were matched for depression severity. The BDd were taking more psychotropic medication than other patient groups. All individuals participated in three separate 3T neuroimaging event-related experiments, where they viewed mild and intense emotional and neutral faces of fear, happiness, or sadness from a standardized series. The BDd-relative to HC, BDr, and MDD-showed elevated left amygdala activity to mild and neutral facial expressions in the sad (p sad and neutral faces might be a depression-specific marker in BD but not MDD, suggesting different pathophysiologic processes for BD versus MDD depression. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  11. Results of activities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety in state supervision of nuclear safety of nuclear facilities and radiation protection in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    2004-01-01

    The report summarises results of activities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB) in the supervision of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the Czech Republic. The first part of the report evaluates nuclear safety of nuclear installations and contains information concerning the results of supervision of radiation protection in 2003 in the Czech Republic. The second part of the report describes new responsibilities of the SUJB in the domain of nuclear, chemical, bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons ban. (author)

  12. Combined Antimicrobial Activity of Photodynamic Inactivation and Antimicrobials–State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wozniak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI is a promising tool for the eradication of life-threatening pathogens with different profiles of resistance. This study presents the state-of-the-art published studies that have been dedicated to analyzing the bactericidal effects of combining aPDI and routinely applied antibiotics in in vitro (using biofilm and planktonic cultures and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, the current paper reviews the methodology used to obtain the published data that describes the synergy between these antimicrobial approaches. The authors are convinced that even though the combined efficacy of aPDI and antimicrobials could be investigated with the wide range of methods, the use of a unified experimental methodology that is in agreement with antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST is required to investigate possible synergistic cooperation between aPDI and antimicrobials. Conclusions concerning the possible synergistic activity between the two treatments can be drawn only when appropriate assays are employed. It must be noticed that some of the described papers were just aimed at determination if combined treatments exert enhanced antibacterial outcome, without following the standard methodology to evaluate the synergistic effect, but in most of them (18 out of 27 authors indicated the existence of synergy between described antibacterial approaches. In general, the increase in bacterial inactivation was observed when both therapies were used in combination.

  13. A customizable stochastic state point process filter (SSPPF) for neural spiking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yao; Li, Will X Y; Min, Biao; Han, Yan; Cheung, Ray C C

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic State Point Process Filter (SSPPF) is effective for adaptive signal processing. In particular, it has been successfully applied to neural signal coding/decoding in recent years. Recent work has proven its efficiency in non-parametric coefficients tracking in modeling of mammal nervous system. However, existing SSPPF has only been realized in commercial software platforms which limit their computational capability. In this paper, the first hardware architecture of SSPPF has been designed and successfully implemented on field-programmable gate array (FPGA), proving a more efficient means for coefficient tracking in a well-established generalized Laguerre-Volterra model for mammalian hippocampal spiking activity research. By exploring the intrinsic parallelism of the FPGA, the proposed architecture is able to process matrices or vectors with random size, and is efficiently scalable. Experimental result shows its superior performance comparing to the software implementation, while maintaining the numerical precision. This architecture can also be potentially utilized in the future hippocampal cognitive neural prosthesis design.

  14. Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockaby, B.G.; Stanturf, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains and, in most cases, timber harvesting alone has little long-term effect on hydroperiod. However, there may be some instances where logging roads, built in association with harvest sites , can alter hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation productivity is altered positively or negatively. There is no documentation that harvesting followed by natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on floodplain sites, as long as Best Management Practices are followed. Harvested floodplains may increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites (i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels similar to that observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development vegetation species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly following harvests, although species composition may be different. 40 refs, 3 figs

  15. Steady-state kinetics of proguanil and its active metabolite, cycloguanil, in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstein, M D; Veenendaal, J R; Scott, H V; Rieckmann, K H

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of proguanil and its active metabolite, cycloguanil, were determined at steady-state in 6 healthy male volunteers after daily administration of 2 Paludrine tablets (200 mg proguanil hydrochloride). A maximum plasma proguanil concentration of 130.3 +/- 16.0 ng/ml (mean +/- SD) was reached at 3.8 +/- 1.3 h while a maximum cycloguanil concentration of 52.0 +/- 15.2 ng/ml was obtained at 5.3 +/- 1.0 h after dosing. The elimination half-lives of proguanil and cycloguanil were 14.5 +/- 3.0 h and 11.7 +/- 3.1 h, respectively. The plasma clearance of proguanil was 1.43 +/- 0.33 l/h/kg and the apparent volume of distribution was 30.7 +/- 12.3 l/kg. Renal clearance of proguanil (0.33 +/- 0.19 l/h/kg) was about 23% of the plasma clearance and 35.6 +/- 9.6% of the oral dose was recovered as proguanil and cycloguanil.

  16. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  17. Effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Li-Jeng; Chou, Hong-Chun; Weng, Jun-Cheng; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls. In contrast, significantly lower horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of the SHR high-taurine group than in those of the SHR control group. Additionally, significantly lower functional connectivity (FC) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF) in the bilateral hippocampus in rats of WKY high-taurine and SHR high-taurine groups was detected. Notably, the mALFF in rats of the SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups was significantly lower than in those of the SHR control group. These findings suggest that the administration of a high-dose taurine probably improves hyperactive behavior in SHR rats by ameliorating the inflammatory cytokines and modulating brain functional signals in SHR rats.

  18. Deviant Citizenship: DREAMer Activism in the United States and Transnational Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Weber-Shirk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.

  19. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  20. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  1. JET steady state ITB operation with active control of the pressure profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisanti, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J. [and others

    2002-07-01

    Stationary operations have been achieved at JET in ITBs scenarios, with the discharge time limited only by plant constraints. Full current drive was obtained, all over the high performance phase, with the current density profile frozen by using Lower Hybrid current drive. For the first time a feed-back control on the total pressure and on the electron temperature profile was implemented by using respectively the Neutral Beams and the Ion Cyclotron waves. Although impurity accumulation could be a problem in steady state ITBs, these experiments bring some elements to answer to it. Tokamak operation in enhanced confinement regimes, characterized by edge and/or Internal Transport Barriers (respectively known as H-mode and ITB), is attractive as it represents an important step towards the approach of ignition conditions. Moreover, the necessity of steady state operation in a Tokamak reactor, has led to the concept of the Advanced Tokamak, in which the current density profile is no longer tied to the plasma conductivity and is non inductively driven. Since the bootstrap current is a consequence of the pressure gradient, one of the primary goal of the Advanced Tokamak studies is to maximize the bootstrap fraction, with a proper alignment, both in H mode and in ITB regimes. However, for several reasons, it is difficult to envisage an operational situation in which the bootstrap fraction is close to 100%: for instance, there are few chances of pressure or/and current profile control to optimize the MHD stability. So far, various experiments have been performed with improved confinement regimes lasting up to tens of the confinement time and up to some current relaxation times. In some experiments a large non inductive plasma current (< 75%) was obtained with about 50% from bootstrap and 25% from Neutral Beam Injection (NBI); however, no full current drive operation was achieved and, moreover, with the available heating systems, no active feedback control of the current

  2. Using Active Video Games for Physical Activity Promotion: A Systematic Review of the Current State of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Crouse, Julia C.; Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates interventions using active video games (AVGs) to increase physical activity and summarizes laboratory studies quantifying intensity of AVG play among children and adults. Databases (Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science) and forward citation and reference list searches were used to…

  3. Reversible control of kinesin activity and microtubule gliding speeds by switching the doping states of a conducting polymer support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Brett D [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Velea, Luminita M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitaker, Craig M [US Naval Academy, Department of Chemistry, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Gaber, Bruce P [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli [US Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6930, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    We describe a method for reversibly controlling the ATPase activity of streptavidin-linked kinesin by changing the doping states of a conducting polymer support. When the polymer (poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT)) was electrochemically switched from its dedoped (semiconducting) state to its doped (conducting) state, the ATPase activity of the adsorbed kinesin complex decreased by 35% with a concomitant decrease in the gliding speeds of kinesin-driven microtubules. When the polymer was switched back to its original dedoped state, nearly identical increases were observed in the kinesin ATPase activity and microtubule speeds. Use of a fluorescent ATP substrate analogue showed that the total amount of kinesin adsorbed on the poly(CH{sub 2}OH-EDOT) surface remained constant as the doping state of the polymer was switched. The microtubules exhibited nearly identical speed differences on the doped and dedoped surfaces for both chemical and electrochemical doping methods. Michaelis-Menten modelling suggests that the doped surface acts as an 'uncompetitive inhibitor' of kinesin. This work represents an investigation into the phenomenon of an electrically switchable surface exerting a moderating effect on the activity of an adsorbed protein that does not contain a bound, electroactive metal ion.

  4. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  5. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  6. Transient Activation of Apomixis in Sexual Neotriploids May Retain Genomically Altered States and Enhance Polyploid Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hojsgaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced and rare (unreduced gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered. This near-sterile neotriploid must produce (even eupolyploids through secondary fusion events to restore genome steadiness, meiotic balance, and fertility required for the demographic establishment of a nascent lineage. Natural conditions locate several difficulties to polyploid establishment, including the production of highly unbalanced and rarely unreduced (euploid gametes, frequency-dependent disadvantages (minority cytotype exclusion, severe fitness loss, and ecological competition with diploid parents. Persistence and adaptation of neopolyploids depend upon genetic and phenotypic novelty coupled to joint selective forces that preserve shock-induced genomic changes (subgenome homeolog partitioning and drive meiotic (reproductive stabilization and ecological diversification. Thus, polyploid establishment through the triploid bridge is a feasible but not ubiquitous process that requires a number of low-probability events and singular circumstances. Yet, frequencies of polyploids suggest that polyploid establishment is a pervasive process. To explain this disparity, and supported in experimental evidence, I propose that situations like hybridization and ploidy-state transitions associated to genomic shock and substantial developmental alterations can transiently activate apomixis as a mechanism to halt genomic instability and cancel factors

  7. Interfacial binding of cutinase rather than its catalytic activity determines the steady state interfacial tension during oil drop lipid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipsen, J A; van Schaick, M A; Dijkman, R; van der Hijden, H T; Verheij, H M; Egmond, M R

    1999-02-01

    Hydrolysis of triglycerides by cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi causes in oil drop tensiometer experiments a decrease of the interfacial tension. A series of cutinase variants with amino acid substitutions at its molecular surface yielded different values of the steady state interfacial tension. This tension value poorly correlated with the specific activity as such nor with the total activity (defined as the specific activity multiplied by the amount of enzyme bound) of the cutinase variants. Moreover, it appeared that at activity levels above 15% of that of wild type cutinase the contribution of hydrolysis to the decrease of the tension is saturating. A clear positive correlation was found between the interfacial tension plateau value and the interfacial binding of cutinase, as determined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). These results indicate that the interfacial steady state level is not determined by the rate of hydrolysis, but mainly by the interfacial binding of cutinase.

  8. Influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on lipid peroxide oxidation state and antioxidant activity of blood in rats after irradiation in different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchevs'ka, M.Yi.; Popov, V.V.; Abramova, L.P.; Kuz'myinova, Yi.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on the state of lipid peroxide oxidation according to diene conjugate and malonic dialdehyde amount and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase and glutationperoxidase) in the blood of the rats exposed to single total irradiation in different doses (4 and 6 Gy) was studied. Definite changes of peroxide process intensity and reduction of the enzymes activity were shown to be observed in the blood of experimental animals even at long terms after the radiation exposure. Under the background of radiation exposure, administration of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion produced protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activity which promoted normalization of peroxidation processes within the post-radiation period

  9. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-state model of light induced activation and thermal bleaching of photochromic glasses: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Jose A.; Perciante, Cesar D.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of photochromic glasses during activation and bleaching is investigated. A two-state phenomenological model describing light-induced activation (darkening) and thermal bleaching is presented. The proposed model is based on first-order kinetics. We demonstrate that the time behavior in the activation process (acting simultaneously with the thermal fading) can be characterized by two relaxation times that depend on the intensity of the activating light. These characteristic times are lower than the decay times of the pure thermal bleaching process. We study the temporal evolution of the glass optical density and its dependence on the activating intensity. We also present a series of activation and bleaching experiments that validate the proposed model. Our approach may be used to gain more insight into the transmittance behavior of photosensitive glasses, which could be potentially relevant in a broad range of applications, e.g., real-time holography and reconfigurable optical memories

  11. Two discrete components of the 20 Hz steady-state response are distinguished through the modulation of activation level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (SSR) to 20 Hz stimulation in two conditions varying in the level of activation. Methods: Click stimuli (20 Hz) were applied while subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book......-negative multi-way factorization (NMWF). Results: The NMWF decomposition of amplitude and phase precision measures resulted in the observation of two distinct components: a component at the frequency of stimulation – 20 Hz SSR and a component emerging at 40 Hz – 20 Hz SSR-related 40 Hz activity. Modulation...... by the activation level was observed only for 20 Hz SSR-related 40 Hz activity as increased amplitude and phase precision during low activation level. No such effects were observed for 20 Hz SSR. Conclusion: The discrete components of the 20 Hz SSR are distinguished through modulation of activation level, 20 Hz SSR...

  12. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ismaylova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN. A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  13. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pomares, Florence B; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN). A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years) regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  14. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  15. Effects of clofibric acid on the activity and activity state of the hepatic branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Jaskiewicz, J; Harris, R A

    1992-01-01

    Feeding clofibric acid to rats caused little or no change in total activity of the liver branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex (BCODC). No change in mass of liver BCODC was detected by immunoblot analysis in response to dietary clofibric acid. No changes in abundance of mRNAs for the BCODC E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 subunits were detected by Northern-blot analysis. Likewise, dietary clofibric acid had no effect on the activity state of liver BCODC (percentage of enzyme in the dephosphorylated, active, form) of rats fed on a chow diet. However, dietary clofibric acid greatly increased the activity state of liver BCODC of rats fed on a diet deficient in protein. No stable change in liver BCODC kinase activity was found in response to clofibric acid in either chow-fed or low-protein-fed rats. Clofibric acid had a biphasic effect on flux through BCODC in hepatocytes prepared from low-protein-fed rats. Stimulation of BCODC flux at low concentrations was due to clofibric acid inhibition of BCODC kinase, which in turn allowed activation of BCODC by BCODC phosphatase. Inhibition of BCODC flux at high concentrations was due to direct inhibition of BCODC by clofibric acid. The results suggest that the effects of clofibric acid in vivo on branched-chain amino acid metabolism can be explained by the inhibitory effects of this drug on BCODC kinase. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1637295

  16. Modeling duration choice in space–time multi-state supernetworks for individual activity-travel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-state supernetworks have been advanced recently for modeling individual activity-travel scheduling decisions. The main advantage is that multi-dimensional choice facets are modeled simultaneously within an integral framework, supporting systematic assessments of a large spectrum of policies

  17. Differential effects of midazolam and zolpidem on sleep-wake states and epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoortere, H.; Francon, D.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic drugs are known to possess antiepileptic activity. Therefore, the effects of the benzodiazepine hypnotic midazolam (10 mg/kg) and the novel imidazopyridine hypnotic zolpidem (10 mg/kg) on sleep-wake states and on the number of spike-wave discharges were evaluated in WAG/Rij rats. Rats of

  18. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  19. 20 CFR 655.530 - Special provisions regarding the performance of longshore activities at locations in the State of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in... preponderance of the evidence which may be submitted by any interested party, that an attestation is required...

  20. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.27... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.27 Section 122.27 Protection of Environment...

  1. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo; Olajoju Jokotola Awoyomi; Eniola Fabusoro; Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overal...

  2. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption.

  3. Electron nature of chemically active state of spiropyran with nitro group. Dependence of efficiency of radiation colouring of spiropyrans on their structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmanskij, A.S.; Zubkov, A.V.; Dyumaev, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    Using the theory of solvatochromy it is shown that chemically active state of spiropyran with nitro group is its highly polar electron-excitated state. On the basis of the image on the electron nature of chemically active state of spiropyran the dependence of the values of radiation yield of the coloured forms of spiropyrans upon their structure is explained

  4. Bioconversion and enzymatic activities of neurospora sitophila grown under solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaosadati, S. A.; Vikineswary, S.; Looi, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    N.Sitophila was grown under controlled conditions of solid state and submerged fermentation on Sago Hampas. The optimum conditions of protein enrichment previously established for sugar beet pulp was used for this study. Under this condition the protein content of Sago Hampas under solid state increased from 1.4 to 14.45% (W/W) whereas for Sago Hampas and Sago starch, the protein content under submerged condition increased from 1.4% (W/W) and 0.7% (W/W) to 18.56% (W/W) and 43/16% (W/W) based on dry weight of product respectively. The cellulase, a-amylase and glucoamylase activities of N.Sitophila under solid state condition on Sago Hampas were, 9.0, 0.6 and 11.8 U/g of wet fermented solid respectively. the enzymatic activities were also measured under submerged fermentation using both Sago Hampas and Sago starch as substrate

  5. 76 FR 13200 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-0062; State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... part 201 provides the mitigation planning requirements for State, local and Indian Tribal governments... concerning State, Local and Tribal mitigation plan requirements to support administration of hazard.... Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or material, all submissions will be posted, without...

  6. THE INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINE: STATE AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Miroshnychenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analytical results of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises. The enterprise innovation activity level, the level of innovations implementation into the Ukrainian industry has been researched. The dynamics of new innovation products and new technological products put into service, share of the innovation product sold in industrial output has been analysed. The level of the use of different types of innovation by industrial enterprises (marketing, organizational, process and product innovation has been determined. The main sources of finance for innovation activities have been considered. The dividing of innovation activity costs in industrial sector has been considered. The main problems of innovative development of the Ukrainian industry have been determined. The activity of industrial enterprises in Ukraine is characterized by a low level of innovation activity, an insufficient volume of realized innovative products, a low financing of innovation activity. The suggestions, which shall promote the effectiveness of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises, have been put forward.

  7. Modelling of the influence of the vacancy source and sink activity and the stress state on diffusion in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion in solids is a well-known phenomenon that has many consequences in technology and material science. Modelling of diffusion-controlled processes requires both a reliable theory of diffusion and reliable kinetic coefficients, as well as other thermodynamic data. Often the classical Darken theory, valid for stress-free systems with ideal vacancy source and sink activity, is generalized to multicomponent systems with ideal vacancy source and sink activity. Nazarov and Gurov presented a theory for stress-free systems with no vacancy source and sink activity. Recently we published a general theory of diffusion that accounted for the role of non-ideal vacancy source and sink activity, as well as the stress state. Since diffusion theories are tested and diffusion coefficients measured usually on diffusion couples, this paper presents evolution equations based on that general theory for a diffusion couple. In the limit, the equations of the Darken theory and the Nazarov and Gurov theory are valid for ideal vacancy source and sink activity and no vacancy source and sink activity, respectively. Simulations for binary and ternary diffusion couples demonstrate the influence of the vacancy source and sink activity and the stress state on evolution of site fraction profiles of components and vacancies, and on the Kirkendall effect.

  8. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-05

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Baseline brain activity changes in patients with clinically isolated syndrome revealed by resting-state functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Yu, Chunshui [Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Ye, Jing [Dept. of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Dept. of Medicine, Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dong, Huiqing [Dept. of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Li, Kuncheng [Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China)], E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn

    2012-11-15

    Background A clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous task-related functional MRI studies demonstrate functional reorganization in patients with CIS. Purpose To assess baseline brain activity changes in patients with CIS by using the technique of regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI. Material and Methods Resting-state fMRIs data acquired from 37 patients with CIS and 37 age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate ALFF differences. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration, and T2 lesion volume (T2LV) were further explored. Results Patients with CIS had significantly decreased ALFF in the right anterior cingulate cortex, right caudate, right lingual gyrus, and right cuneus (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons using Monte Carlo simulation) compared to normal controls, while no significantly increased ALFF were observed in CIS. No significant correlation was found between the EDSS, disease duration, T2LV, and ALFF in regions with significant group differences. Conclusion In patients with CIS, resting-state fMRI demonstrates decreased activity in several brain regions. These results are in contrast to patients with established MS, in whom ALFF demonstrates several regions of increased activity. It is possible that this shift from decreased activity in CIS to increased activity in MS could reflect the dynamics of cortical reorganization.

  10. Results From the United States of America's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Denstel, Kara D; Beals, Kim; Bolling, Christopher; Wright, Carly; Crouter, Scott E; McKenzie, Thomas L; Pate, Russell R; Saelens, Brian E; Staiano, Amanda E; Stanish, Heidi I; Sisson, Susan B

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth. The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric. Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators. Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

  11. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  12. Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

  13. Comparison of continuously acquired resting state and extracted analogues from active tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganger, Sebastian; Hahn, Andreas; Küblböck, Martin; Kranz, Georg S; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Seiger, René; Sladky, Ronald; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-10-01

    Functional connectivity analysis of brain networks has become an important tool for investigation of human brain function. Although functional connectivity computations are usually based on resting-state data, the application to task-specific fMRI has received growing attention. Three major methods for extraction of resting-state data from task-related signal have been proposed (1) usage of unmanipulated task data for functional connectivity; (2) regression against task effects, subsequently using the residuals; and (3) concatenation of baseline blocks located in-between task blocks. Despite widespread application in current research, consensus on which method best resembles resting-state seems to be missing. We, therefore, evaluated these techniques in a sample of 26 healthy controls measured at 7 Tesla. In addition to continuous resting-state, two different task paradigms were assessed (emotion discrimination and right finger-tapping) and five well-described networks were analyzed (default mode, thalamus, cuneus, sensorimotor, and auditory). Investigating the similarity to continuous resting-state (Dice, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), R(2) ) showed that regression against task effects yields functional connectivity networks most alike to resting-state. However, all methods exhibited significant differences when compared to continuous resting-state and similarity metrics were lower than test-retest of two resting-state scans. Omitting global signal regression did not change these findings. Visually, the networks are highly similar, but through further investigation marked differences can be found. Therefore, our data does not support referring to resting-state when extracting signals from task designs, although functional connectivity computed from task-specific data may indeed yield interesting information. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Development of induced sinkholes in carbonate terranes in the Eastern United States has resulted in costly damage and water pollution. Previously, detailed investigations of sinkholes were limited to Alabama and Missouri, with the most comprehensive being in Alabama. An investigation of the remainder of the area was made in 1981 to regionalize previous findings. More than 850 sites of sinkhole development have been identified in 19 States. It is estimated that more than 6,500 sinkholes or related features have formed at these sites. Most have occurred since 1950. Based on information available, States most impacted are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

  15. State-level income inequality and meeting physical activity guidelines; differential associations among US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Fuller, Daniel; Lee, Eun Young; Horino, Masako; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-23

    Previous work has identified a relationship between income inequality and risk for obesity and heart attack. We investigated the relationship between state-level income inequality and physical activity among US adults. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cross-sectional data from a population based and representative sample of n = 428 828 US adults. Multilevel models were used to determine the association between state-level income inequality and participation in physical activity and strengthening exercises in the previous month. In comparison to males, females were significantly more likely to report being physically inactive (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11), and less likely to meet aerobic activity requirements (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.93), meet strengthening activities (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.74), and meet overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.94). Cross-level Gini × sex interactions indicated that income inequality was associated with increased odds for participating in no physical activity (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.12), decreased odds in participating in strengthening physical activity (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89, 0.96), aerobic activity (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99), and in meeting overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95) among women only. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms in which income inequality leads to physical activity behavior among US women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Effects of clofibric acid on the activity and activity state of the hepatic branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y; Jaskiewicz, J; Harris, R A

    1992-01-01

    Feeding clofibric acid to rats caused little or no change in total activity of the liver branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex (BCODC). No change in mass of liver BCODC was detected by immunoblot analysis in response to dietary clofibric acid. No changes in abundance of mRNAs for the BCODC E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 subunits were detected by Northern-blot analysis. Likewise, dietary clofibric acid had no effect on the activity state of liver BCODC (percentage of enzyme in the dephosph...

  17. [Changes in functional state during occupational activities in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied functional state before and after the working shift in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction, analyzed changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, stabilographic and psychophysiologic values.

  18. Vital signs: disability and physical activity--United States, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Alissa C; Sloan, Michelle L; Lullo, Carolyn; Visser, Susanna N; Fox, Michael H; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Brown, David R; Dorn, Joan M

    2014-05-09

    Adults with disabilities are less active and have higher rates of chronic disease than the general population. Given the health benefits of physical activity, understanding physical activity, its relationship with chronic disease, and health professional recommendations for physical activity among young to middle-age adults with disabilities could help increase the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Data from the 2009-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the prevalence of, and association between, aerobic physical activity (inactive, insufficiently active, or active) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer) among adults aged 18-64 years by disability status and type (hearing, vision, cognitive, and mobility). The prevalence of, and association between, receiving a health professional recommendation for physical activity and level of aerobic physical activity was assessed using 2010 data. Overall, 11.6% of U.S. adults aged 18-64 years reported a disability, with estimates for disability type ranging from 1.7% (vision) to 5.8% (mobility). Compared with adults without disabilities, inactivity was more prevalent among adults with any disability (47.1% versus 26.1%) and for adults with each type of disability. Inactive adults with disabilities were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases than those who were physically active. Approximately 44% of adults with disabilities received a recommendation from a health professional for physical activity in the past 12 months. Almost half of adults with disabilities are physically inactive and are more likely to have a chronic disease. Among adults with disabilities who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, the majority (56%) did not receive a recommendation for physical activity. These data highlight the need for increased physical activity among persons with disabilities, which might require support across societal sectors, including

  19. Vital Signs: Disability and Physical Activity — United States, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dianna D.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Alissa C.; Sloan, Michelle L.; Lullo, Carolyn; Visser, Susanna N.; Fox, Michael H.; Armour, Brian S.; Campbell, Vincent A.; Brown, David R.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults with disabilities are less active and have higher rates of chronic disease than the general population. Given the health benefits of physical activity, understanding physical activity, its relationship with chronic disease, and health professional recommendations for physical activity among young to middle-age adults with disabilities could help increase the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Methods Data from the 2009–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the prevalence of, and association between, aerobic physical activity (inactive, insufficiently active, or active) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer) among adults aged 18–64 years by disability status and type (hearing, vision, cognitive, and mobility). The prevalence of, and association between, receiving a health professional recommendation for physical activity and level of aerobic physical activity was assessed using 2010 data. Results Overall, 11.6% of U.S. adults aged 18–64 years reported a disability, with estimates for disability type ranging from 1.7% (vision) to 5.8% (mobility). Compared with adults without disabilities, inactivity was more prevalent among adults with any disability (47.1% versus 26.1%) and for adults with each type of disability. Inactive adults with disabilities were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases than those who were physically active. Approximately 44% of adults with disabilities received a recommendation from a health professional for physical activity in the past 12 months. Conclusions Almost half of adults with disabilities are physically inactive and are more likely to have a chronic disease. Among adults with disabilities who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, the majority (56%) did not receive a recommendation for physical activity. Implications for Public Health These data highlight the need for increased physical activity among persons with

  20. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-02-25

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules.

  1. Dental establishment business activity in New York State counties at start of the millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry

    2006-01-01

    Bureau of the Census reports for 2002 were used to develop business data for "average" dental establishments in each of the counties in New York State. On average, between 1997 and 2002, when compared to national information, the number of New York State dental establishments increased at a slower rate, had a smaller resident population per establishment, reported lower gross receipts, had fewer employees and paid lower salaries to employees.

  2. Graphene/activated carbon supercapacitors with sulfonated-polyetheretherketone as solid-state electrolyte and multifunctional binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Chiu, K.-F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, C.-L.; Hsieh, C. Y.; Tsai, C. B.; Chu, B. T. T.

    2014-11-01

    Sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) has been synthesised by sulphonation process and used as the solid-state electrolyte, binder and surfactant for supercapacitors. Reduced graphene dispersed by SPEEK is used as a high-efficiency conducting additive in solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that SPEEK can improve the stability of the reduced graphene dispersion significantly, and therefore, the solid-state supercapacitors show a large decrease in IR drop and charge-transfer resistance (Rct), resulting in a higher rate capability. The solid-state supercapacitors with the activated carbon/reduced graphene/SPEEK/electrode can be operated from 1 to 8 A/g and exhibit capacity retention of 93%. The noteworthy is more than twice higher value for capacity retention by comparison with the solid-state supercapacitors using activated carbon/reduced graphene/PVDF electrode (capacity retention is 36%). The cell of reduced graphene with SPEEK can be cycled over 5000 times at 5 A/g with no capacitance fading.

  3. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts task-evoked and resting-state activities of the amygdala in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufang; Zou, Qihong; Li, Jun; Li, Jin; Wang, Deyi; Yan, Chaogan; Dong, Qi; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the amygdala of carriers of the short allele (s) of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR) have a larger response to negative emotional stimuli and higher spontaneous activity during the resting state than non-carriers. However, recent studies have suggested that the effects of 5-HTTLPR may be specific to different ethnic groups. Few studies have been conducted to address this issue. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted on thirty-eight healthy Han Chinese subjects (l/l group, n = 19; s/s group, n = 19) during the resting state and during an emotional processing task. Compared with the s/s group, the l/l group showed significantly increased regional homogeneity or local synchronization in the right amygdala during the resting state (|t|>2.028, pemotional processing task. 5-HTTLPR can alter the spontaneous activity of the amygdala in Han Chinese. However, the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala both in task state and resting state in Asian population was no similar with Caucasians. They suggest that the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala may be modulated by ethnic differences.

  4. State-Funded Activism: Lessons from Civil Society Organizations in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Visser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civil society organizations (CSOs in Ireland receive significant state funding and institutional support according to the logic that they are important contributors to democratic governance, with the effect that the CSO sector has expanded and become more embedded in formal decision-making processes over the past several decades. At the same time, dependency on government funding exposes CSOs to three important challenges: to stay true to activist mandates in the face of pressure from state funders to focus on service provision; to maintain accountability to constituents while also satisfying the vertically oriented accountability requirements of the state; and to nurture collaboration among CSOs in a context of competition for state funding. University-based activists, who are also reliant on (increasingly scarce government funding, face similar challenges, and therefore should pay more attention to debates regarding state funding in the CSO sphere. By working together to overcome common challenges associated with state funding, activists in both spheres can more effectively contribute to progressive social change.

  5. Comparison of Physical Activity Among New United States Army Recruits and High School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Darakjy, Salima; Morrison, Stephanie; Piskator, Gene; Jones, Bruce H

    2006-01-01

    ... 1.9 days/wk of activity, respectively, while high school men and women reported 3.8 plus or minus 2.2 and 2.9 plus or minus 2.2 days/wk of activity, respectively (p=0.02 for men, p<0.01 for women). The data suggests that new recruits tend to report more frequent physical activity than high school students.

  6. Movement-related and steady-state electromyographic activity of human elbow flexors in slow transition movements between two equilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal'nov, A N; Cherkassky, V L; Kostyukov, A I

    1997-08-01

    The electromyograms were recorded in healthy human subjects by surface electrodes from the mm. biceps brachii (caput longum et. brevis), brachioradialis, and triceps brachii (caput longum) during slow transition movements in elbow joint against a weak extending torque. The test movements (flexion transitions between two steady-states) were fulfilled under visual control through combining on a monitor screen a signal from a joint angle sensor with a corresponding command generated by a computer. Movement velocities ranged between 5 and 80 degrees/s, subjects were asked to move forearm without activation of elbow extensors. Surface electromyograms were full-wave rectified, filtered and averaged within sets of 10 identical tests. Amplitudes of dynamic and steady-state components of the electromyograms were determined in dependence on a final value of joint angle, slow and fast movements were compared. An exponential-like increase of dynamic component was observed in electromyograms recorded from m. biceps brachii, the component had been increased with movement velocity and with load increment. In many experiments a statistically significant decrease of static component could be noticed within middle range of joint angles (40-60 degrees) followed by a well expressed increment for larger movements. This pattern of the static component in electromyograms could vary in different experiments even in the same subjects. A steady discharge in m. brachioradialis at ramp phase has usually been recorded only under a notable load. Variable and quite often unpredictable character of the static components of the electromyograms recorded from elbow flexors in the transition movements makes it difficult to use the equilibrium point hypothesis to describe the central processes of movement. It has been assumed that during active muscle shortening the dynamic components in arriving efferent activity should play a predominant role. A simple scheme could be proposed for transition to a

  7. Implications of the dependence of neuronal activity on neural network states for the design of brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePanzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brains. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  8. Talking active citizenship: framing welfare state reform in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, I.; Tonkens, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews how activation policies frame citizens as individual welfare agents. The analysis focuses on the framing of feeling rules employed by governments that encourage active citizenship, in this instance in the Netherlands and England. In England, encouraging voluntarism is central to

  9. Carrier state in human acatalasemia: the genetic control of enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Edwin T; Hamilton, H B; Takahara, Shigeo; Kobara, Thomas Y; Ogura, Yoshio; Doi, Katsusaburo

    1959-03-01

    In 1949 Takahara and Miyamoto reported four siblings with progressive gangrenous gingivitis in whom catalase activity was not demonstrable in the peripheral blood. In this and subsequent communications, the authors described and elaborated upon the syndrome and coined the term, acatlasemia, since the level of catalase activity in the tissues other than blood could not be ascertained. 11 references.

  10. Organization of the nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells at different states of their activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2010-06-01

    Internal organization of a nucleolus changes along with rRNA transcriptional activity. These changes mainly concern qualitative and quantitative alternations of three main nucleolar components: fibrillar centres (FC), dense fibrillar component (DFC) and granular component (GC). In the present work quantitative measurements of the number and sizes of FCs and DFCs in nucleoli of root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at (1) chilling conditions that reduce transcriptional activity of soybean nucleoli (temp. of 10 degrees C) and at (2) conditions that increase this activity (recovery at optimal temp. of 25 degrees C after previous chilling), even more than (3) the control, have been carried out. Morphometric measurements showed that the highest number of FCs and DFCs was in the most active nucleoli, while the smallest number - in those with the lowest activity. The average size of an individual FC was similar in all nucleoli regardless of their transcriptional activity, that of the individual DFC varied, being bigger in the nucleoli of the chilled plants and smallest in those of the recovered plants. The numbers of FCs and DFCs seem to be indicators of transcriptional activity of plant nucleoli - the higher number of FCs and DFCs the more active nucleoli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organized and Unstructured Activity Participation among Adolescents Involved with Child Protective Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonyoung; Lu, Ting; Christ, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many adolescents are referred to Child Protective Services for possible maltreatment every year, but not much is known about their organized and unstructured activity participation. Objective: The purposes of this study are to provide a description of organized and unstructured activity participation for adolescents who were possible…

  12. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravel, Nicolas; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V.; Dumoulin, Serge O.; Renken, Remco; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective

  13. Issues in consultation for treatments with distressed activated abuser/protector self-states in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefetz, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    The identified "problem self-state" in a dissociative disorder consultation is like the identified patient in a family therapy; the one who is identified may have an assigned role to be blamed which serves the function of deflecting the activities of painful self-states in other family members. In consultation, the "family" includes the therapist in addition to the patient. When the state identified as a problem self-state is an abuser/protector self-state, complications often involve the profound nature of transference-countertransference enactments between patient and therapist, the delusion of separateness, chronic and acute threats of suicide, negative therapeutic reactions, and the evocation of intense negativity. They also involve affect phobia in both patient and therapist, and the emergence of intense shame in the clinical dyad amongst additional potential burdens in these complicated treatments. The task of the consultant is to protect both patient and therapist from an untoward outcome while relieving the painful burdens entailed by the treatment. The typical core dynamic of the abuser/protector state is as a repository for shame/humiliation welded to anger/rage. This dynamic, and others, must be understood in order to resolve these impasses and create useful movement toward growth in both patient and therapist.

  14. Assessing the mean strength and variations of the time-to-time fluctuations of resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Zang, Yu-Feng; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Ze

    2017-04-01

    The time-to-time fluctuations (TTFs) of resting-state brain activity as captured by resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) have been repeatedly shown to be informative of functional brain structures and disease-related alterations. TTFs can be characterized by the mean and the range of successive difference. The former can be measured with the mean squared successive difference (MSSD), which is mathematically similar to standard deviation; the latter can be calculated by the variability of the successive difference (VSD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the resting state-MSSD and VSD of rsfMRI regarding their test-retest stability, sensitivity to brain state change, as well as their biological meanings. We hypothesized that MSSD and VSD are reliable in resting brain; both measures are sensitive to brain state changes such as eyes-open compared to eyes-closed condition; both are predictive of age. These hypotheses were tested with three rsfMRI datasets and proven true, suggesting both MSSD and VSD as reliable and useful tools for resting-state studies.

  15. Solid state synthesis of stoichiometric LiCoO2 from mechanically activated Co-Li2CO3 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Bruni, Giovanna; Marini, Amedeo

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometric lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) has been synthesized by solid state reaction of mixtures of the system Co-0.5Li 2 CO 3 after mechanical activation by high energy milling. The differences in the reaction mechanism and in product stoichiometry with respect to what happens when starting from the non activated (physical) system have been brought into evidence by TG analysis. Furthermore it has been shown that stoichiometric LiCoO 2 is obtained by a 200 h annealing of the activated mixture at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. Finally, it has been revealed that longer activation times (150 h) result in Co oxidation to Co 3 O 4 that, in turn, hampers the formation of stoichiometric LiCoO 2

  16. Foraging Activity in Plebeia remota, a Stingless Bees Species, Is Influenced by the Reproductive State of a Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nunes-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of the Brazilian stingless bee Plebeia remota show a reproductive diapause in autumn and winter. Therefore, they present two distinct reproductive states, during which colony needs are putatively different. Consequently, foraging should be adapted to the different needs. We recorded the foraging activity of two colonies for 30 days in both phases. Indeed, it presented different patterns during the two phases. In the reproductive diapause, the resource predominantly collected by the foragers was nectar. The majority of the bees were nectar foragers, and the peak of collecting activity occurred around noon. Instead, in the reproductive phase, the predominantly collected resource was pollen, and the peak of activity occurred around 10:00 am. Although the majority of the foragers were not specialized in this phase, there were a larger number of pollen foragers compared to the phase of reproductive diapause. The temperature and relative humidity also influenced the foraging activity.

  17. Changes in the cellular energy state affect the activity of the bacterial phosphotransferase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohwer, J.M.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Shinohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different cellular free-energy states on the uptake of methyl alfa-D-glucopyranoside, an analoque of glucose, by Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system was investigated. The intracellular ATP/ADP ratio was varied by changing the expression...... of the atp operon, which codes for the H+-ATPase, or by adding an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation or an inhibitor of respiration. Corresponding initial phosphotransferase uptake rates were determined using an improved uptake assay that works with growing cells in steady state. The results show...... that the initial uptake rate was decreased under conditions of lowered intracellular ATP/ADP ratios, irrespective of which method was used to change the cellular energy state.. When either the expression of the atp operon was changed or 2,4-dinitrophenol was added to wild-type cells, the relationship between...

  18. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior insula (AI maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural

  19. Development and localisation of casemix applications for inpatient hospital activity in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, M M

    1999-01-01

    The successful infiltration of casemix techniques across geographical, systemic and cultural boundaries provides an interesting and timely example of the translation of research evidence into health policy development. This paper explores the specifics of this policy development by reviewing the application of casemix techniques within the acute hospital systems of European Union member states. The fact that experimentation with or application of casemix measures can be reported for the majority of European Union member states would suggest that the deployment of these measures can be expected to continue to expand within these health systems into the new millennium.

  20. High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaoyue; Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Tung-Lin; Mishra, Arabinda; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2017-05-16

    Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

  1. Activation energies as the validity criterion of a model for complex reactions that can be in oscillatory states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anić S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of any complex reaction system is a difficult task. If the system under examination can be in various oscillatory dynamic states, the apparent activation energies corresponding to different pathways may be of crucial importance for this purpose. In that case the activation energies can be determined by means of the main characteristics of an oscillatory process such as pre-oscillatory period, duration of the oscillatory period, the period from the beginning of the process to the end of the last oscillation, number of oscillations and others. All is illustrated on the Bray-Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction.

  2. Measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, a new method of measuring volumic activity of radon has been developed. This method is based on using solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 type II. It has been applied to measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms in different regions of Morocco. These measurements, carried out for the first time in the country, allowed to estimate the dose equivalents of radon received by the population of the studied regions. 59 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs. (F.M.)

  3. THE LONGEST TIMESCALE X-RAY VARIABILITY REVEALS EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE HIGH ACCRETION STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youhong

    2011-01-01

    The All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has continuously monitored a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with similar sampling rates for 14 years, from 1996 January to 2009 December. Utilizing the archival ASM data of 27 AGNs, we calculate the normalized excess variances of the 300-day binned X-ray light curves on the longest timescale (between 300 days and 14 years) explored so far. The observed variance appears to be independent of AGN black-hole mass and bolometric luminosity. According to the scaling relation of black-hole mass (and bolometric luminosity) from galactic black hole X-ray binaries (GBHs) to AGNs, the break timescales that correspond to the break frequencies detected in the power spectral density (PSD) of our AGNs are larger than the binsize (300 days) of the ASM light curves. As a result, the singly broken power-law (soft-state) PSD predicts the variance to be independent of mass and luminosity. Nevertheless, the doubly broken power-law (hard-state) PSD predicts, with the widely accepted ratio of the two break frequencies, that the variance increases with increasing mass and decreases with increasing luminosity. Therefore, the independence of the observed variance on mass and luminosity suggests that AGNs should have soft-state PSDs. Taking into account the scaling of the break timescale with mass and luminosity synchronously, the observed variances are also more consistent with the soft-state than the hard-state PSD predictions. With the averaged variance of AGNs and the soft-state PSD assumption, we obtain a universal PSD amplitude of 0.030 ± 0.022. By analogy with the GBH PSDs in the high/soft state, the longest timescale variability supports the standpoint that AGNs are scaled-up GBHs in the high accretion state, as already implied by the direct PSD analysis.

  4. Temperature and pH optima of enzyme activities produced by cellulolytic thermophilic fungi in batch and solid-state cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grajek, W

    1986-01-01

    The temperature and pH optima of cellulolytic activities produced by thermophilic fungi in liquid and solid-state cultures were established. Some differences in optimal conditions for enzyme activities, which depended on culture methods, were confirmed. 10 references.

  5. The impact of OAB on physical activity in the United States: results from OAB-POLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karin S; Sexton, Chris C; Clemens, J Quentin; Thompson, Christine L; Chen, Chieh-I; Bavendam, Tamara; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    To provide data on physical activity among those with and without overactive bladder (OAB) in a large, ethnically diverse U.S. sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via the Internet among 10,000 men and women aged 18-70 (2000 African Americans, 2000 Hispanics, and 6000 whites) using the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) tool and questions from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). OAB cases and those with no/minimal symptoms (NMS) were compared on federal guidelines of indices of physical activity: 2008 guidelines and 2010 Healthy People. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate differences between OAB and NMS. Logistic regressions examined the impact of OAB on physical activity. Response rate, 57%; 818 men and 1505 women with OAB, and 1857 men and 1615 women with NMS. Respondents with other LUTS were excluded from this analysis (2302 men and 1904 women). Those with OAB were significantly less likely to report moderate and vigorous physical activities in their leisure time and to satisfy recommended physical activity levels compared to those with NMS. Symptoms of OAB (men and women: urgency and urinary frequency; women: urinary urge incontinence) were associated with limitations in physical activity in the logistic regressions. This study benchmarks physical activity levels among people with OAB. Men and women with OAB were significantly less likely to achieve recommended physical activity levels than people with NMS. More research is needed to further evaluate how OAB affects physical activity and health status and to determine causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. When States Strike Back: Failures of Mediatized Activism in Azerbaijan and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkin Mehrabov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical investigation of the failures of oppositional online movements in the year 2011 in Azerbaijan and Turkey. Through the analysis of a set of specific cases, namely the complete dispersion of social media based opposition in Azerbaijan and arrests of Anonymous led hacktivists in Turkey, the article aims to contribute to debates on online activism in the face of growing mediatized surveillance. The article also reflects on the future of social media based activism and hacktivism, and provides a unified approach, which incorporates both types of mediatized activism in a complementary manner, by taking into consideration shortcomings and promises of both.

  7. Regular physical activity has differential association with reduced obesity among diverse youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, Chris; Wallander, Jan L; Elliott, Marc N; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether daily or almost daily lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity, among 4824 African American, Hispanic, and White youth assessed in fifth and seventh grades. Regular lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity only among Hispanic and White males and only in seventh grade, and not among youth in fifth grade, females, or African American males or females. Findings from this study suggest that the reduced obesity risk generally attributed to physical activity may not be consistent across racial/ethnic and gender groups of early adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Goals, tasks and aspects of activity of Ukrainian State Scientific and Technical Center on Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovbasenko, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of SSTC NRS activities is scientific, technical, analytical and expert support to the Nuclear Regulatory Department as a State Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Authority.The main tasks are: 1. Development and improvement of normative and legal framework in the field of nuclear power use in Ukraine; 2. Expert support in making regulatory decisions; 3. Research and development work on improvement engineering and operational safety of nuclear power facilities in Ukraine. The organizational structure of SSTC NRS is also given

  9. Modulation of macrophage activation state protects tissue from necrosis during critical limb ischemia in thrombospondin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bréchot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages, key regulators of healing/regeneration processes, strongly infiltrate ischemic tissues from patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI. However pro-inflammatory markers correlate with disease progression and risk of amputation, suggesting that modulating macrophage activation state might be beneficial. We previously reported that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is highly expressed in ischemic tissues during CLI in humans. TSP-1 is a matricellular protein that displays well-known angiostatic properties in cancer, and regulates inflammation in vivo and macrophages properties in vitro. We therefore sought to investigate its function in a mouse model of CLI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a genetic model of tsp-1(-/- mice subjected to femoral artery excision, we report that tsp-1(-/- mice were clinically and histologically protected from necrosis compared to controls. Tissue protection was associated with increased postischemic angiogenesis and muscle regeneration. We next showed that macrophages present in ischemic tissues exhibited distinct phenotypes in tsp-1(-/- and wt mice. A strong reduction of necrotic myofibers phagocytosis was observed in tsp-1(-/- mice. We next demonstrated that phagocytosis of muscle cell debris is a potent pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages in vitro. Consistently with these findings, macrophages that infiltrated ischemic tissues exhibited a reduced postischemic pro-inflammatory activation state in tsp-1(-/- mice, characterized by a reduced Ly-6C expression and a less pro-inflammatory cytokine expression profile. Finally, we showed that monocyte depletion reversed clinical and histological protection from necrosis observed in tsp-1(-/- mice, thereby demonstrating that macrophages mediated tissue protection in these mice. CONCLUSION: This study defines targeting postischemic macrophage activation state as a new potential therapeutic approach to protect tissues from necrosis and promote tissue

  10. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. C.; Chin, C. S.; Toh, W. D.; Chiew, J.; Jia, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC) estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF) gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated t...

  11. Forest Inventory and Analysis in the United States: Remote sensing and geospatial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Gretchen Moisen; Mark Finco

    2007-01-01

    Our Nation's forests provide a wealth of ecological, social, and economic resources. These forest lands cover over 300 million hectares of the United States, or about one third of the total land area. Accurate and timely information about them is essential to their wise management and use. The mission of the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA...

  12. 40 CFR 745.325 - Lead-based paint activities: State and Tribal program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate infrastructure or government capacity to effectively carry out a State or Tribal program. (b... documents the results of the inspection. (v) Records are retained by the certified inspector or the firm. (2... elimination of all identified hazards. (vi) The certified risk assessor or the firm retains the appropriate...

  13. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... investment portfolio does not include operational management of real property, or industrial or commercial... upon the order and for the account and risk of, a person, provided such services for U.S. persons are... States; (v) Act as investment or financial adviser by providing portfolio investment advice and portfolio...

  14. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  15. Circulating YKL-40 in myelofibrosis a potential novel biomarker of disease activity and the inflammatory state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Jensen, Morten Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), encompassing essential thrombocythaemia (ET), polycythaemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (PMF), are featured by a chronic inflammatory state which is pronounced in myelofibrosis The value of YKL-40 as a biomarker of disease burden has been demonstrated i...

  16. 76 FR 44904 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; State Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... collection of information, submit or view public comments, access the index listing of the contents of the... builds on an expenditure and resource needs data collection effort conducted by EPA in collaboration with... state water quality programs that implement the CWA, thus ensuring the long-term sustainability...

  17. 12 CFR 362.11 - Activities of insured State savings associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... money market preferred stock. (A) An insured state savings association's investment of up to 15 percent of the association's tier one capital in adjustable rate preferred stock or money market (auction... significant risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund. Such instruments shall be included in the 15 percent of tier...

  18. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the State of New Jersey. One of th...

  20. A Flurry of Activity: Educator Effectiveness Policies in SREB States Continue to Improve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douez, Danielle, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Recruit, train, reward, retain. These actions sound like the core competencies of a human resources manager or the buzzwords for economic development initiatives aiming to attract Fortune 500 companies. The same principles apply to finding, preparing and retaining effective educators. All 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states have…

  1. Millimeterwave spectroscopy of active laser plasmas; the excited vibrational states of HCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lucia, F.C.; Helminger, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter microwave techniques have been used for the spectroscopic study of an HCN laser plasma. Forty-seven rotational transitions in 12 excited vibrational states have been observed. Numerous rotational, vibrational, and perturbation parameters have been calculated from these data. A discussion of experimental techniques is included

  2. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  3. State Transition and Flaring Activity of IGR J17464-3213/H1743-322 with INTEGRAL SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joinet, A.; Jourdain, E.; Malzac, J.; Roques, J. P.; Schönfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.; Capitanio, F.

    2005-08-01

    IGR J17464-3213, already known as the HEAO 1 transient source H1743-322, has been detected during a state transition by INTEGRAL SPI. We describe the spectral evolution and flaring activity of IGR J17464-3213/H1743-322 from 2003 March 21 to 2003 April 22. During the first part, the source followed a continuous spectral softening, with the peak of the spectral energy distribution shifting from 100 keV down to ~a few keV. However, the thermal disk and the hard X-ray components had a similar intensity, indicating that the source was in an intermediate state throughout our observations and evolving toward the soft state. In the second part of our observations, the RXTE ASM and INTEGRAL SPI light curves showed a strong flaring activity. Two flare events lasting about 1 day each have been detected with SPI and are probably due to instabilities in the accretion disk associated with the state transition. During these flares, the low (1.5-12 keV) and high (20-200 keV) energy fluxes monitored with the RXTE ASM and INTEGRAL SPI are correlated, and the spectral shape (above 20 keV) remains unchanged while the luminosity increases by a factor greater than 2.

  4. EEG SPECTRA, BEHAVIORAL STATES AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS EXPOSED TO ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders: insomnia and ?excessive dreaming'. However neuronal mechanisms of these effects have not been analyzed. OP inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity leading to a hyperativity of the brain cholin...

  5. Comparison of Physical Activity Among New United States Army Recruits and High School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Darakjy, Salima; Morrison, Stephanie; Piskator, Gene; Jones, Bruce H

    2006-01-01

    .... Both groups were asked "On how many of the past 7 days did you exercise or participate in physical activity for at least 20 minutes that made you sweat and breathe hard, such as basketball, soccer...

  6. Individual differences in approach motivation, resting-state frontal cortical activity and attentional scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Kostermans, E.; Tops, M.; de Cremer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that individual differences in approach motivation modulate attentional scope. In turn, approach and inhibition have been related to different neural systems that are associated with asymmetries in relative frontal activity (RFA). Here, we investigated whether such

  7. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-qun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3 and Taixi (KI3 using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19, inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18 and cuneus (Brodmann area 18, but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11, inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44 and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  8. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Qun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chen, Jun-Qi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Jia-Rong; Ouyang, Huai-Liang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Taixi (KI3) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19), inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18) and cuneus (Brodmann area 18), but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11), inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44) and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Acupuncture Treatment on Resting-State Brain Activity in Migraine Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Active Acupoints and Inactive Acupoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Fuwen; Dong, Xilin; Peng, Yulin; Qin, Wei; Wu, Fumei; Li, Ying; Yuan, Kai; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Tang, Zili; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been commonly used for preventing migraine attacks and relieving pain during a migraine, although there is limited knowledge on the physiological mechanism behind this method. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences in brain activities evoked by active acupoints and inactive acupoints and to investigate the possible correlation between clinical variables and brain responses. Methods and Results A randomized controlled trial and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were conducted. A total of eighty migraineurs without aura were enrolled to receive either active acupoint acupuncture or inactive acupoint acupuncture treatment for 8 weeks, and twenty patients in each group were randomly selected for the fMRI scan at the end of baseline and at the end of treatment. The neuroimaging data indicated that long-term active acupoint therapy elicited a more extensive and remarkable cerebral response compared with acupuncture at inactive acupoints. Most of the regions were involved in the pain matrix, lateral pain system, medial pain system, default mode network, and cognitive components of pain processing. Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly related to the increased average Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the anterior cingulate cortex in the two groups. Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with increased average ReHo values in the insula which could be detected in the active acupoint group. Conclusions Long-term active acupoint therapy and inactive acupoint therapy have different brain activities. We postulate that acupuncture at the active acupoint might have the potential effect of regulating some disease-affected key regions and the pain circuitry for migraine, and promote establishing psychophysical pain homeostasis. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003635 PMID:24915066

  10. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  11. Faithful state transfer between two-level systems via an actively cooled finite-temperature cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider state transfer between two qubits—effective two-level systems represented by Rydberg atoms—via a common mode of a microwave cavity at finite temperature. We find that when both qubits have the same coupling strength to the cavity field, at large enough detuning from the cavity mode frequency, quantum interference between the transition paths makes the swap of the excitation between the qubits largely insensitive to the number of thermal photons in the cavity. When, however, the coupling strengths are different, the photon-number-dependent differential Stark shift of the transition frequencies precludes efficient transfer. Nevertheless, using an auxiliary cooling system to continuously extract the cavity photons, we can still achieve a high-fidelity state transfer between the qubits.

  12. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, S.; Priest, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganization of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We inves...

  13. The Archival materials of amateur archaeologists active in Lithuania - in the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The Documentations Department of the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw has in its keeping papers of Michał Eustachy Brensztejn, Maria Butrymówna, Wandalin Szukiewicz, Julian Talko-Hryncewicz and Antoni Zaborski. Of these the largest category are letters received by Erazm Majewski (1858-1922) in the period 1897-1910 which are now a part of Majewski's legacy. They document exchange and cooperation of their authors with Majewski in the field of archaeology and ethnography. Erazm Majewski was...

  14. A Model for Effective Organization and Communication of Homeland Security Activity at the State Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    whether managing the functional segments of a major corporation, i.e. sourcing, product development, inbound/ outbound logistics , or after-market services...homeland security concerns. While none specifically addresses the mechanics or logistics of the reorganization of state governments, it does assert...and around casino and hotels . Respond to all threats and hazards. Admit lawful bettors and visitors. Promote legal gaming.41 Department of

  15. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1976-01-01

    This review paper briefly discusses the reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3% 235 U- 238 U and the 233 U- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors and fusion reactors. This paper also discusses cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept. (author)

  16. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1975-01-01

    Reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling are discussed briefly. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3 percent 235 U-- 238 U and the 233 U-- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors, and fusion reactors. Cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept are also discussed

  17. The Role of Cultural Memory in Contemporary Migrant Activism: Staging Gender in a Transforming Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Alund, Aleksandra; Schierup, Carl Urlik

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scientific and media debates about cultural conflict and gender relations have consolidated stereotypical categorisations of female migrants as passive victims of traditional cultural values. This risks veiling agency against ethnic, gender and other kinds of discrimination inherent in contemporary transformation of Swedish welfare state. In the light of a critical review of the current debate on gender and culture, the authors discuss an alternative understanding of past m...

  18. The Role of the Family in Immigrants' Labor-Market Activity: Evidence from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Joan Y. Moriarty; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    We use Census of Population microdata for 1980 and 1990 to examine the labor supply and wages of immigrant husbands and wives in the United States in a family context. Earlier research by Baker and Benjamin (1997) posits a family investment model in which, upon arrival, immigrant husbands invest in their human capital while immigrant wives work to provide the family with liquidity during this period. Consistent with this model, they find for Canada that immigrant wives work longer hours upon ...

  19. Associations between active shooter incidents and gun ownership and storage among families with young children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2017-07-01

    The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state. Approximately one-fifth of young children lived in households with one or more guns; of these children, only two-thirds lived in homes that stored all guns in locked cabinets. Results suggest that the experience of a recent active shooter incident was associated with an increased likelihood of storing all guns locked, with the magnitude dependent on the temporal and geographic proximity of the incident. The severity of the incident, defined as the number of fatalities, predicted an increase in storing guns locked. Findings suggest that public shootings change behaviors related to firearm storage among families with young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is MGNREG Scheme complementary to fishing activities? A study on some selected states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjib Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fish output is taken as a proxy variable for empirical assessment of indirect benefits in terms of enhanced quantity of freshwater fish (output cultivation. It is not unlikely to assess empirically the productivity of subsidized public scheme when rural development or rural asset generations are underlined in the said scheme, MGNREG Act, 2005. Rainwater harvesting is a major component part of the scheme since about 49.5 per cent of the total fund is already utilized on water conservation and obviously it has an impact on the cultivation of freshwater fish output. Time series data on annual expenditure on MGNREG and corresponding freshwater fish output at the state level are taken during the period 2006-07 to 2013-14 for 16 major Indian states. Fixed effect model and random effect models are being applied and the Hausman specification test suggests that fixed effect model is more appropriate than random effect model. Significant differences among the intercepts of the selected states are revealed as per F test. The results of fixed effect panel regression establish that fish output is enhanced by 0.000257 thousand tones or 0.26 tones if MGNREG expenditure rises by one crore or 10 million rupees.

  1. Metrics to quantify the importance of mixing state for CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ching

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that models are more prone to errors in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations when the aerosol populations are externally mixed. In this work we investigate this assumption by using the mixing state index (χ proposed by Riemer and West (2013 to quantify the degree of external and internal mixing of aerosol populations. We combine this metric with particle-resolved model simulations to quantify error in CCN predictions when mixing state information is neglected, exploring a range of scenarios that cover different conditions of aerosol aging. We show that mixing state information does indeed become unimportant for more internally mixed populations, more precisely for populations with χ larger than 75 %. For more externally mixed populations (χ below 20 % the relationship of χ and the error in CCN predictions is not unique and ranges from lower than −40 % to about 150 %, depending on the underlying aerosol population and the environmental supersaturation. We explain the reasons for this behavior with detailed process analyses.

  2. The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; McCarley, R W

    1977-12-01

    Recent research in the neurobiology of dreaming sleep provides new evidence for possible structural and functional substrates of formal aspects of the dream process. The data suggest that dreaming sleep is physiologically determined and shaped by a brain stem neuronal mechanism that can be modeled physiologically and mathematically. Formal features of the generator processes with strong implications for dream theory include periodicity and automaticity of forebrain activation, suggesting a preprogrammed neural basis for dream mentation in sleep; intense and sporadic activation of brain stem sensorimotor circuits including reticular, oculomotor, and vestibular neurons, possibly determining spatiotemporal aspects of dream imagery; and shifts in transmitter ratios, possibly accounting for dream amnesia. The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.

  3. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial 14 C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. 14 C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of Δ 14 C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout 14 C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11 S , 49 deg 58 O ). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its 14 C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the Δ 14 C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO 2 mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  4. Soluble and immobilized graphene oxide activates complement system differently dependent on surface oxidation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Peter Popp; Petersen, Søren Vermehren; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2016-01-01

    on two related elements of innate immunity: the complement system and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in human blood. In solution, there was a decrease in GO-mediated complement activation with decreasing surface oxygen content (and altered oxygen functionality), whereas with immobilized GO complement...... response were reversed and increased with decreasing oxygen content. GO solutions, at concentrations below complement activating threshold, did not induce IL-6 release from human blood leukocytes, and further dampened lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 release in the whole blood. The latter effect became more...... profound with GO's having higher oxygen content. This protective role of GO solutions, however, disappeared at higher concentrations above complement-activating threshold. We discuss these results in relation to GO surface structure and properties, and implications for local administration and development...

  5. Geography of community health information organization activity in the United States: Implications for the effectiveness of health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    The United States has invested nearly a billion dollars in creating community health information organizations (HIOs) to foster health information exchange. Community HIOs provide exchange services to health care organizations within a distinct geographic area. While geography is a key organizing principle for community HIOs, it is unclear if geography is an effective method for organization or what challenges are created by a geography-based approach to health information exchange. This study describes the extent of reported community HIO coverage in the United States and explores the practical and policy implications of overlaps and gaps in HIO service areas. Furthermore, because self-reported service areas may not accurately reflect the true extent of HIOs activities, this study maps the actual markets for health services included in each HIO. An inventory of operational community HIOs that included self-reported geographic markets and participating organizations was face-validated using a crowd-sourcing approach. Aggregation of the participating hospitals' individual health care markets provided the total geographic market served by each community HIO. Mapping and overlay analyses using geographic information system methods described the extent of community HIO activity in the United States. Evidence suggests that community HIOs may be inefficiently distributed. Parts of the United States have multiple, overlapping HIOs, while others do not have any providing health information exchange services. In markets served by multiple community HIOs, 45% of hospitals were participants of only one HIO. The current geography of community HIO activity does not provide comprehensive patient information to providers, nor community-wide information for public health agencies. The discord between the self-reported and market geography of community HIOs raises concerns about the potential effectiveness of health information exchange, illustrates the limitations of geography as

  6. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Liang Peipeng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); International WIC institute, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024 (China); Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  7. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  8. ABERRANT RESTING-STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases using keywords for PTSD, functional neuroimaging, and resting-state. In total, 23 studies matched our eligibility criteria. For the meta-analysis, we included 14 whole-brain resting-state studies, reporting data on 663 participants (298 PTSD patients and 365 controls). We used the activation likelihood estimation approach to identify concurrence of whole-brain hypo- and hyperactivations in PTSD patients during rest. Seed-based studies could not be included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Therefore, a separate qualitative systematic review was conducted on nine seed-based functional connectivity studies. The meta-analysis showed consistent hyperactivity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampus/amygdala, but hypoactivity in the (posterior) insula, cerebellar pyramis and middle frontal gyrus in PTSD patients, compared to healthy controls. Partly concordant with these findings, the systematic review on seed-based functional connectivity studies showed enhanced salience network (SN) connectivity, but decreased default mode network (DMN) connectivity in PTSD. Combined, these altered resting-state connectivity and activity patterns could represent neurobiological correlates of increased salience processing and hypervigilance (SN), at the cost of awareness of internal thoughts and autobiographical memory (DMN) in PTSD. However, several discrepancies between findings of the meta-analysis and systematic review were observed, stressing the need for future studies on resting-state abnormalities in PTSD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-performance all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on two-step activated carbon cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Zhan, Xiaobin; Long, Hu; Xi, Shuang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zirong

    2014-12-01

    A simple and effective strategy is proposed to activate carbon cloth for the fabrication of flexible and high-performance supercapacitors. Firstly, the carbon cloth surface is exfoliated as nanotextures through wet chemical treatment, then an annealing process is applied at H2/N2 atmosphere to reduce the surface oxygen functional groups which are mainly introduced from the first step. The activated carbon cloth electrode shows excellent wettablity, large surface area and delivers remarkable electrochemical performance. A maximum areal capacitance of 485.64 mF cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 is achieved for the activated carbon cloth electrode, which is considerably larger than the resported results for carbon cloth. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor, which is fabricated based on the activated carbon cloth electrodes, shows high areal capacitance, superior cycling stability as well as stable electrochemical performance even under constant bending or twisting conditions. An areal capacitance of 161.28 mF cm-2 is achieved at the current density of 12.5 mA cm-2, and 104% of its initial capacitance is retained after 30,000 charging/discharging cycles. This study would also provide an effective way to boost devices' electrochemical performance by accommodating other active materials on the activated carbon cloth.

  10. Determination of the provenance of obsidian samples collected in the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan-Torres, M.G.; Aguirre-Martinez, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Obsidian samples from San Miguel Ixtapan Mexico State, Mexico were analyzed by means of neutron activation. Statistical treatments such as bivariate, cluster and principal-components analyses were applied to the data set. Obsidians were identified as coming from three important sources: Sierra of Pachuca in the state of Hidalgo, Zinap uaro and Zin aro-Varal in the state of Michoacan. (author)

  11. Sports Management Faculty External Grant-Writing Activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVinney, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to fill a void in information, provide relevant, current data for faculty members related to external grant-writing activities related to the academic field of sport management and serve as a tool that may aid in the advancement of external grant-writing efforts within the field of sport management. All data is specific to…

  12. Solvated States of Poly-L-alanine alpha-Helix Explored by Raman Optical Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, S.; Furukawa, T.; Bouř, Petr; Ozaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 20 (2014), s. 3655-3662 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular property tensors * nuclear magnetic resonance * activity spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2014

  13. Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Sara; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  15. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of economic costs and benef...

  16. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the 'cautiousness' of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the 'precaution faults' having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a 'precaution fault'. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  17. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  18. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part D. 36Cl measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Men, Ping; Marchetti, Alfredo A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Roberts, James A.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    A large number of measurements were performed in the United States of 36 Cl in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results of these measurements are presented in this section and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. (J.P.N.)

  19. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)

  20. Amplitude characteristics of a solid-state ring laser with active mode locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, E.M.; Klochan, E.L.; Lariontsev, E.G.

    1986-09-01

    A system of equations is obtained for the parameters of ultrashort light pulses (USLP) in a solid-state ring laser (SSRL) with periodic loss modulation. Allowance is made for the coupling between counterpropagating USLP due to backscattering in the modulator. The regime of counter-propagating wave frequency capture (CPWFC) is studied. It is shown that the coupling of counterpropagating waves due to backscattering at the modulator ends leads to the suppression of one of the counterpropagating waves during an increase in the detuning of the modulation frequency relative to its optimal value. The influence of rotation on the amplitude characteristics of an SSRL in the CPWFC regime is studied. 9 references.

  1. Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan: policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.

  2. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  3. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  4. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  5. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  6. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  7. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.A.; Hopkins, M.E.

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  8. EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL ACTIVITIES AT THE OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY NEES TSUNAMI RESEARCH FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Yim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A diverse series of research projects have taken place or are underway at the NEES Tsunami Research Facility at Oregon State University. Projects range from the simulation of the processes and effects of tsunamis generated by sub-aerial and submarine landslides (NEESR, Georgia Tech., model comparisons of tsunami wave effects on bottom profiles and scouring (NEESR, Princeton University, model comparisons of wave induced motions on rigid and free bodies (Shared-Use, Cornell, numerical model simulations and testing of breaking waves and inundation over topography (NEESR, TAMU, structural testing and development of standards for tsunami engineering and design (NEESR, University of Hawaii, and wave loads on coastal bridge structures (non-NEES, to upgrading the two-dimensional wave generator of the Large Wave Flume. A NEESR payload project (Colorado State University was undertaken that seeks to improve the understanding of the stresses from wave loading and run-up on residential structures. Advanced computational tools for coupling fluid-structure interaction including turbulence, contact and impact are being developed to assist with the design of experiments and complement parametric studies. These projects will contribute towards understanding the physical processes that occur during earthquake generated tsunamis including structural stress, debris flow and scour, inundation and overland flow, and landslide generated tsunamis. Analytical and numerical model development and comparisons with the experimental results give engineers additional predictive tools to assist in the development of robust structures as well as identification of hazard zones and formulation of hazard plans.

  9. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Austin G; Murthy, Bhamidipati

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations of self-reported limitations in physical activity and exercise frequency with sociodemographic and clinical variables in 2,264 patients from Wave 2 of the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study. Overall, 56% of patients exercised less than once a week, 75% reported severe limitations in vigorous activities, whereas 42% had severe limitations in moderate physical activities. Fewer limitations in moderate or vigorous activities correlated positively with male gender (odds-ratio [OR] = 1.61), black race OR =1.49), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 2.39), serum albumin (OR = 1.69 per 1 g/L higher), positive affect (OR = 2.33), peritoneal dialysis (OR = 1.90), and negatively with age (OR = 0.67), heart failure (OR = 0.75), peripheral vascular disease (OR = 0.69), malnutrition (OR = 0.67), and depression (OR = 0.39). Patients reporting fewer limitations in moderate or vigorous activities (OR = 1.35 and 1.28, respectively), or frequent visits with a dietitian (2 to 3 times per week vs. less) (OR = 1.21) in the pre-ESRD period exercised more frequently. Limitations in physical activity are common among new ESRD patients and these, in part, are related to pre-existing cardiovascular disease, malnutrition, and mental health.

  10. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  11. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high‐affinity mineralocorticoid (MR and low‐affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  12. Denmark a Nordic Welfare State - Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2012-01-01

    concludes, based on a detailed case-analysis of Denmark, that profound changes has taken place over the last 10-15 years implying that the active labour market policy has strengthened its focus on work-first. Access to benefits has moved in a less citizen based direction, and the principles of universality......Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and integration...

  13. DNA Topoisomerases Maintain Promoters in a State Competent for Transcriptional Activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Madsen; Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Rødgaard, Morten Terpager

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down......-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence......-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation...

  14. Analytical estimation of current state of forestry activity at enterprises of Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Lysychko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of analytical procedures concerning the main activity indices of forestry enterprises allowed to make a number of conclusions. The article determines the reasons for increasing the indices of profitability. There is also some discrepancy in dynamics and amounts of shifts at separate enterprises that is caused by the peculiarity of the market structure, which consists of a relatively small amount of enterprises interdependent at the market. Since the end of 2016 enterprises have been functioning under the same conditions, which do not depend upon the sizes and scopes of activity of each enterprise and this situation is positive as a whole because it stimulates the competition at the local segment of the market.

  15. Determination of alpha activity produced by Indian tea samples using solid state nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.; Srivastava, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    India has first place in the world in the production, consumption and export of tea. The average production of tea in India is about 780 million kg annually. Indian population uses tea as a favourite beverage specially with the breakfast. Tea leaves are perennial plants and they have extension root system spread over deeper layers in the soil. Soil contains uranium as trace element. Hence, uranium is transferred to the leaves as a result of uptake from the soil over the years. Since many of the decay products of uranium are alpha emitters hence tea is a source of alpha radioactivity and can cause damaging effects. Therefore, data on alpha activity of tea samples will be useful in estimating these harmful effects at least qualitatively. In the present study the alpha activity produced by thirteen samples of tea available in the local market was measured

  16. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente L; Carlsen, Monica H; Phillips, Katherine M; Bøhn, Siv K; Holte, Kari; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-07-01

    Supplements containing ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or beta-carotene do not protect against oxidative stress-related diseases in most randomized intervention trials. We suggest that other redox-active phytochemicals may be more effective and that a combination of different redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants or reductants) may be needed for proper protection against oxidative damage. We aimed to generate a ranked food table with values for total content of redox-active compounds to test this alternative antioxidant hypothesis. An assay that measures the total concentration of redox-active compounds above a certain cutoff reduction potential was used to analyze 1113 food samples obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Large variations in the content of antioxidants were observed in different foods and food categories. The food groups spices and herbs, nuts and seeds, berries, and fruit and vegetables all contained foods with very high antioxidant contents. Most food categories also contained products almost devoid of antioxidants. Of the 50 food products highest in antioxidant concentrations, 13 were spices, 8 were in the fruit and vegetables category, 5 were berries, 5 were chocolate-based, 5 were breakfast cereals, and 4 were nuts or seeds. On the basis of typical serving sizes, blackberries, walnuts, strawberries, artichokes, cranberries, brewed coffee, raspberries, pecans, blueberries, ground cloves, grape juice, and unsweetened baking chocolate were at the top of the ranked list. This ranked antioxidant food table provides a useful tool for investigations into the possible health benefit of dietary antioxidants.

  17. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  18. GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps-Yonas, Hannah; Semik, Vikki; Hastings, Karen Taraszka

    2012-01-01

    MHC class II-restricted Ag processing requires protein degradation in the endocytic pathway for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates Ag processing by reducing protein disulfide bonds in this compartment. Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) contains disulfide bonds and mediates essential steps in MHC class II-restricted processing, including proteolysis of large polypeptides and cleavage of the invariant chain. We so...

  19. The state and trends of fishing activity development in the North-West of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the dynamics and problems of development of the aqueous bioresources of the Atlantic and Arctic Seas by the enterprises of the Northern basin have been considered. Quantitative and structural changes in the structure of fishing fleet have been shown; the influence of these changes on effectiveness of fishing activity and completeness of the resource base development has been analyzed

  20. Building Applications, Opportunities and Challenges of Active Shading Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Al Dakheel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption and in some cases generate energy. They may be categorized into three classes: smart glazing, kinetic shading and integrated renewable energy shading. This paper reviews the current status of the different types in terms of design principle and working mechanism of the systems, performance, control strategies and building applications. Challenges, limitations and future opportunities of the systems are then discussed. The review highlights that despite its high initial cost, the electrochromic (EC glazing is the most applied smart glazing due to the extensive use of glass in buildings under all climatic conditions. In terms of external shadings, the rotating shading type is the predominantly used one in buildings due to its low initial cost. Algae façades and folding shading systems are still emerging types, with high initial and maintenance costs and requiring specialist installers. The algae façade systems and PV integrated shading systems are a promising solution due to their dual benefits of providing shading and generating electricity. Active shading systems were found to save 12 to 50% of the building cooling electricity consumption.

  1. Particle acceleration in solar active regions being in the state of self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    We review the recent observational results on flare initiation and particle acceleration in solar active regions. Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons and protons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field’s strength and configuration with test particle simulations. We work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations, based on a self-organized criticality models (SOC). A relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle’s guiding center within these configurations. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission and compare our results with the current observations.

  2. Modeling The Economic And Health Impact Of Increasing Children's Physical Activity In The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Adam, Atif; Zenkov, Eli; Hertenstein, Daniel; Ferguson, Marie C; Wang, Peggy I; Wong, Michelle S; Wedlock, Patrick; Nyathi, Sindiso; Gittelsohn, Joel; Falah-Fini, Saeideh; Bartsch, Sarah M; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-05-01

    Increasing physical activity among children is a potentially important public health intervention. Quantifying the economic and health effects of the intervention would help decision makers understand its impact and priority. Using a computational simulation model that we developed to represent all US children ages 8-11 years, we estimated that maintaining the current physical activity levels (only 31.9 percent of children get twenty-five minutes of high-calorie-burning physical activity three times a week) would result each year in a net present value of $1.1 trillion in direct medical costs and $1.7 trillion in lost productivity over the course of their lifetimes. If 50 percent of children would exercise, the number of obese and overweight youth would decrease by 4.18 percent, averting $8.1 billion in direct medical costs and $13.8 billion in lost productivity. Increasing the proportion of children who exercised to 75 percent would avert $16.6 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  4. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  5. Comparative Solid-State Stability of Perindopril Active Substance vs. Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained after studying the thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of perindopril erbumine as a pure active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as a solid pharmaceutical formulation containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Since no data were found in the literature regarding the spectroscopic description, thermal behavior, or decomposition kinetics of perindopril, our goal was the evaluation of the compatibility of this antihypertensive agent with the excipients in the tablet under ambient conditions and to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of perindopril erbumine. ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (thermogravimetric mass curve (TG—thermogravimetry, derivative thermogravimetric mass curve (DTG, and heat flow (HF and model-free kinetics were chosen as investigational tools. Since thermal behavior is a simplistic approach in evaluating the thermal stability of pharmaceuticals, in-depth kinetic studies were carried out by classical kinetic methods (Kissinger and ASTM E698 and later with the isoconversional methods of Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. It was shown that the main thermal degradation step of perindopril erbumine is characterized by activation energy between 59 and 69 kJ/mol (depending on the method used, while for the tablet, the values were around 170 kJ/mol. The used excipients (anhydrous colloidal silica, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and magnesium stearate should be used in newly-developed generic solid pharmaceutical formulations, since they contribute to an increased thermal stability of perindopril erbumine.

  6. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  7. Resting-state fMRI activity predicts unsupervised learning and memory in an immersive virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wah Wong

    Full Text Available In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment.

  8. Dissociative part-dependent resting-state activity in dissociative identity disorder: a controlled FMRI perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R; Reinders, Antje A T S; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J P; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part" (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part" (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI was used to test the hypotheses that ANP and EP in DID have different perfusion patterns in response to rest instructions, and that perfusion is different in actors who were instructed to simulate ANP and EP. In a follow-up study, regional cerebral blood flow of DID patients was compared with the activation pattern of healthy non-simulating controls. Compared to EP, ANP showed elevated perfusion in bilateral thalamus. Compared to ANP, EP had increased perfusion in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and motor-related areas. Perfusion patterns for simulated ANP and EP were different. Fitting their reported role-play strategies, the actors activated brain structures involved in visual mental imagery and empathizing feelings. The follow-up study demonstrated elevated perfusion in the left temporal lobe in DID patients, whereas non-simulating healthy controls had increased activity in areas which mediate the mental construction of past and future episodic events. DID involves dissociative part-dependent resting-state differences. Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination. The findings are consistent with TSDP and inconsistent with the idea

  9. Dissociative part-dependent resting-state activity in dissociative identity disorder: a controlled FMRI perfusion study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda R Schlumpf

    Full Text Available In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP, studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part" (EP and the "Apparently Normal Part" (ANP, have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors.Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI was used to test the hypotheses that ANP and EP in DID have different perfusion patterns in response to rest instructions, and that perfusion is different in actors who were instructed to simulate ANP and EP. In a follow-up study, regional cerebral blood flow of DID patients was compared with the activation pattern of healthy non-simulating controls.Compared to EP, ANP showed elevated perfusion in bilateral thalamus. Compared to ANP, EP had increased perfusion in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and motor-related areas. Perfusion patterns for simulated ANP and EP were different. Fitting their reported role-play strategies, the actors activated brain structures involved in visual mental imagery and empathizing feelings. The follow-up study demonstrated elevated perfusion in the left temporal lobe in DID patients, whereas non-simulating healthy controls had increased activity in areas which mediate the mental construction of past and future episodic events.DID involves dissociative part-dependent resting-state differences. Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination. The findings are consistent with TSDP and inconsistent

  10. The decisive effect of interface states on the photocatalytic activity of the silver(I) oxide/titanium dioxide heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanqiang; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2017-04-15

    A one-step hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize the Ag 2 O/TiO 2 nanoheterojunction. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under UV and visible light. The MB degradation results showed that the Ag 2 O/TiO 2 nanoheterojunction enhances the photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation rather than visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to detect the electronic structure at the interface of Ag 2 O and TiO 2 . The XPS results confirmed that the electronic band structure of the nanoheterojunction was determined by the interface states between the Ag 2 O and TiO 2 interface. Thus, the photocatalytic enhancement mechanism can be ascribed to the creation of an additional potential barrier in the conduction band between Ag 2 O and TiO 2 , which facilitates the transport of holes from TiO 2 to Ag 2 O but inhibits the flow of electrons in the reverse direction unless sufficient potential energy is provided to overcome the additional barrier. Our results have provided a new insight on the role of interface states between the p-n nanojunction in the photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-frequency hippocampal-cortical activity drives brain-wide resting-state functional MRI connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Russell W; Leong, Alex T L; Ho, Leon C; Gao, Patrick P; Wong, Eddie C; Dong, Celia M; Wang, Xunda; He, Jufang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Lim, Lee Wei; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-15

    The hippocampus, including the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG), and cortex engage in bidirectional communication. We propose that low-frequency activity in hippocampal-cortical pathways contributes to brain-wide resting-state connectivity to integrate sensory information. Using optogenetic stimulation and brain-wide fMRI and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we determined the large-scale effects of spatiotemporal-specific downstream propagation of hippocampal activity. Low-frequency (1 Hz), but not high-frequency (40 Hz), stimulation of dDG excitatory neurons evoked robust cortical and subcortical brain-wide fMRI responses. More importantly, it enhanced interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity in various cortices and hippocampus. Subsequent local field potential recordings revealed an increase in slow oscillations in dorsal hippocampus and visual cortex, interhemispheric visual cortical connectivity, and hippocampal-cortical connectivity. Meanwhile, pharmacological inactivation of dDG neurons decreased interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity. Functionally, visually evoked fMRI responses in visual regions also increased during and after low-frequency dDG stimulation. Together, our results indicate that low-frequency activity robustly propagates in the dorsal hippocampal-cortical pathway, drives interhemispheric cortical rsfMRI connectivity, and mediates visual processing.

  12. The mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Tucker, T.T.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates, based on an empirical model and computer program, have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose in 1970 to adults from the above practices is estimated to be 103 mrad; 77 percent, 20 percent, and 3 percent from radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations respectively. Examinations of the upper and lower abdomen contribute approximately 39 percent each to the total mean active bone marrow dose for adults; those of the pelvis 4 percent; the thorax 12 percent; and head and neck examinations (including dental) contribute about 6 percent. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15-34 year old age group Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose. Thereafter Upper G I Series and Barium Enemas are the highest contributors. Comparisons are made with results of the 1964 U.S. X-ray survey and similar surveys from other nations

  13. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  14. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  15. The non-biphenyl-tetrazole angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist eprosartan is a unique and robust inverse agonist of the active state of the AT1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2018-03-23

    Conditions such as hypertension and renal allograft rejection are accompanied by chronic, agonist-independent, signalling by angiotensin II AT 1 receptors. The current treatment paradigm for these diseases entails the preferred use of inverse agonist AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs). However, variability in the inverse agonist activities of common biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors often leads to treatment failure. Therefore, characterization of robust inverse agonist ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors is necessary. To identify the robust inverse agonist for active state of AT 1 receptors and its molecular mechanism, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, competition binding assay, inositol phosphate production assay and molecular modelling for both ground-state wild-type AT 1 receptors and active-state N111G mutant AT 1 receptors. Although candesartan and telmisartan exhibited weaker inverse agonist activity for N111G- compared with WT-AT 1 receptors, only eprosartan exhibited robust inverse agonist activity for both N111G- and WT- AT 1 receptors. Specific ligand-receptor contacts for candesartan and telmisartan are altered in the active-state N111G- AT 1 receptors compared with the ground-state WT-AT 1 receptors, suggesting an explanation of their attenuated inverse agonist activity for the active state of AT 1 receptors. In contrast, interactions between eprosartan and N111G-AT 1 receptors were not significantly altered, and the inverse agonist activity of eprosartan was robust. Eprosartan may be a better therapeutic option than other ARBs. Comparative studies investigating eprosartan and other ARBs for the treatment of diseases caused by chronic, agonist-independent, AT 1 receptor activation are warranted. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Active faults paragenesis and the state of crustal stresses in the Late Cenozoic in Central Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sankov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy tectonic saddle region in Central Mongolia are studied by space images interpretation, relief analysis, structural methods and tectonic stress reconstruction. The study results show that faults activation during the Late Cenozoic stage was selective, and a cluster pattern of active faults is typical for the study region. Morphological and genetic types and the kinematics of faults in the Hangay-Hentiy saddle region are related the direction of the ancient inherited structural heterogeneities. Latitudinal and WNW trending faults are left lateral strike-slips with reverse or thrust component (Dzhargalantgol and North Burd faults. NW trending faults are reverse faults or thrusts with left lateral horizontal component. NNW trending faults have right lateral horizontal component. The horizontal component of the displacements, as a rule, exceeds the vertical one. Brittle deformations in fault zones do not conform with the Pliocene and, for the most part, Pleistocene topography. With some caution it may be concluded that the last phase of revitalization of strike slip and reverse movements along the faults commenced in the Late Pleistocene. NE trending disjunctives are normal faults distributed mainly within the Hangay uplift. Their features are more early activation within the Late Cenozoic and the lack of relation to large linear structures of the previous tectonic stages. According to the stress tensor reconstructions of the last phase of deformation in zones of active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy saddle using data on tectonic fractures and fault displacements, it is revealed that conditions of compression and strike-slip with NNE direction of the axis of maximum compression were dominant. Stress tensors of extensional type with NNW direction of minimum compression are reconstructed for the Orkhon graben. It is concluded that the activation of faults in Central Mongolia in the Pleistocene-Holocene, as well as

  17. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  18. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  19. Metabolic rate and thyroid activity of hens in relation to the state of feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, M

    1981-01-01

    Heat production, rectal temperature and thyroid activity were determined in NH X Lg hens that were 40 and 80% defeathered. Within individual groups there was a significant increase in heat production only in hens that were 80% defeathered. In comparison with the control group, defeathered chickens had higher metabolic rates during each examined period. During the third week of the experiment there was a temporary drop in the rectal temperature of the experimental birds. After nine weeks chicken with the greatest degree of defeathering had the highest thyroid weight and the highest levels of thyroxin in the blood plasma.

  20. Globally aligned states and hydrodynamic traffic jams in confined suspensions of active asymmetric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David

    2014-02-01

    Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that two-dimensional dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, persistent counterrotating vortices, density shocks and rarefaction waves. We also explain these phenomena using a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear traffic flow model, both derived from a mean-field kinetic theory.

  1. Solid-state radiation detectors for active personal dosimetry and radiations source tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Corneliu; Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Lita, Ioan; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design of the readout electronics using PIN diode radiation detector of 5 mm thickness for nuclear safety and active personal dosimetry. Our effort consisted in designing and fabricating the electronics to reflect the needs of gamma radiations dosimetry and hybrids PIN diode arrays for charged particle detectors. We report results obtained during testing and characterizing the new devices in gamma fields, operating at room temperature. There were determined the energy spectrum resolution, radiation hardness and readout rate. Also, data recording methods and parallel acquisition problems from a transducer matrix are presented. (authors)

  2. State of the art of Monte Carlo technics for reliable activated waste evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culioli, Matthieu; Chapoutier, Nicolas; Barbier, Samuel; Janski, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the calculation scheme used for many studies to assess the activities inventory of French shutdown reactors (including Pressurized Water Reactor, Heavy Water Reactor, Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Natural Uranium Gas Cooled or UNGG). This calculation scheme is based on Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP) and involves advanced technique for source modeling, geometry modeling (with Computer-Aided Design integration), acceleration methods and depletion calculations coupling on 3D meshes. All these techniques offer efficient and reliable evaluations on large scale model with a high level of details reducing the risks of underestimation or conservatisms. (authors)

  3. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Atopic Disease in United States Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    To determine if eczema, asthma, and hay fever are associated with vigorous physical activity, television/video game usage, and sports participation and if sleep disturbance modifies such associations. Data were analyzed from 2 cross-sectional studies including 133 107 children age 6-17 years enrolled in the 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariate survey logistic regression models were created to calculate the odds of atopic disease and atopic disease severity on vigorous physical activity, television/video game use, and sports participation. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic factors, lifetime history of asthma was associated with decreased odds of ≥1 days of vigorous physical activity (aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and decreased odds of sports participation (0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99). Atopic disease accompanied by sleep disturbance had significantly higher odds of screen time and lower odds of sports participation compared with children with either atopic disease or sleep disturbance alone. Severe eczema (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19-0.78), asthma (aOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.14-0.61), and hay fever (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97) were all associated with decreased odds of ≥1 days of vigorous physical activity. Moderate (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99) and severe eczema (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.73), severe asthma (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.89), and hay fever (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.61) were associated with decreased odds of sports participation in the past year. Children with severe atopic disease, accompanied by sleep disturbance, have higher risk of sedentary behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Reversibility of the leukocyte activation state studied in a model of endogenous pyrogen formation by granulocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1980-08-01

    The pyrogen-releasing capacity of rabbit exudate granulocytes can be temporarily suppressed during incubation in the whole plasma and then recovered during cell transfer into 0.15 M NaCl or stimulation with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, pyrogenal. The inhibitors of protein synthesis added to the granulocytes when they are being transferred from plasma to 0.15 M NaCl do not suppress the pyrogen release. The inhibitory action of the whole plasma on the pyrogen release is due to the presence in it of potassium and calcium ions. The inhibitory factors of plasma reversibly suppress the pyrogen release but do not eliminate the leukocyte activation.

  5. Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Human Activity on a Tropical Continental Shelf, RN State, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Barros Pereira, T. R.; Lira, H. F.; Tabosa, W. F.; Eichler, P.; Stattegger, K.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Gomes, M. P.; Nogueira, M. L. D. S.; Pierri, G. C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The northeastern Brazilian, tropical coast-shelf system along the Atlantic Ocean is a sediment-starved zone, because of low relief, small drainage basins, and a semiarid climate. This work presents the major results of a study of environmental changes, particularly those related to Holocene sea-level rise, affecting the coast and shallow waters of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) State, NE Brazil. The methods included bottom-sediment characterization, bioindicator tracking, and integrated shallow-water geophysical investigation. This coastline is marked by active sea cliffs carved into tablelands alternating with reef- or dune-barrier sections, beach rocks and lagoons, whereas the shelf is a narrow, very shallow, and highly energetic system. Overall, the area is under the natural influence of tides (with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime) and the anthropogenic influence of salt exploration, oil industry, shrimp farms, tourism, and wind-farms. Sedimentation during the Holocene has been controlled mainly by sea-level variation, longshore currents, and the advance and westward propagation of active dunes along the coast. As in other areas around the world, growing numbers of permanent and seasonal residents choose to live at or near the ocean. Coastal erosion is a cause for concern along many Brazilian beaches, and several erosion hot spots are already recognized in RN State. Curves of Holocene relative sea-level variation were established for RN State, but the absence of long-term oceanographic observations in the last centuries or that of detailed altimetry maps hinders the evaluation of different risk scenarios at the local level. Nevertheless, impacts of the current sea-level rise and human activity can be observed along the RN coastal-shelf system. Particular aspects of the study, such as oil-spill monitoring, coastal-water sewage contamination, and coastal erosion, will be highlighted.

  6. Plans for the development of infrastructure and tourism activities in landscape parks under the State Forests’ administration

    OpenAIRE

    Referowska-Chodak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present plans (up to 2030) for the development of infrastructure and tourism activities in the Polish landscape parks located in the area of the State Forests’ administration. At the end of 2013, a survey was conducted the results of which were verified and their analysis completed in 2014. The questionnaire was sent to the directorates of all 122 parks. 70.5% of the directorates replied to the open question inquiring about their plans and demands for tourist ac...

  7. Calibration of A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Facility: Experience at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norlida Yussup

    2011-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility at Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA reactor has been built in year 2008 and been operated since then. PGNAA is a technique used to determine the presence and quantity of trace elements such as boron, hydrogen and carbon which are more difficult to detect with other neutron analysis method. A calibration is essential to ensure the system works as required and the output is valid and reliable. The calibration was carried out by using Standard Reference Material (SRM). Besides, background data was also acquired for comparisons and analysis. The results are analyzed and discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. KfK Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The INFP is primarily occupied with basic research work in the field of solid state physics and materials science, with preference being given to subjects and problems of interest from the point of view of potential applications. This is particularly true for research work devoted to the high-temperature superconductors, which currently are the area of main effort of the Institute, but also for work performed in the fields of interface and microstructure research. In 1991, about 80% of the activities were superconductivity research. (orig./MM) [de

  9. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  10. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  11. Activity Of The Moderate And Radical Islamic Organizations In The European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines various aspects of Islamic organizations functioning in modern European countries. In the world the dangerous situation due to the spread of radical Islamic views, this is directly related to safety arose. Author researches some aspects of Islamic organizations in Europe functioning and their division into "moderate" and "radical". Author notes that the concept of "moderate Islam" is actively used in the western countries. In the article it is emphasized that supporters of such division believe that it is the "moderate Islamists" may help deal with the terrorist threat. Author gives definition of "religious extremism" and analyzes activities of Islamic organizations in Germany and France, as well as other European countries at the present stage of their development. In the process of study author pays enough attention to the notion of "spreading radicalism within the law", analyze existing legal acts. In the article problems of financing extremist organizations is pointed out and the need to create a set of joint measures to counter extremism and terrorism by Russian Federation and European countries, further improvement of law-enforcement is identified.

  12. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  13. Development of a high-throughput liquid state assay for lipase activity using natural substrates and rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottig, Ximena; Meddeb-Mouelhi, Fatma; Beauregard, Marc

    2016-03-01

    A fluorescence-based assay for the determination of lipase activity using rhodamine B as an indicator, and natural substrates such as olive oil, is described. It is based on the use of a rhodamine B-natural substrate emulsion in liquid state, which is advantageous over agar plate assays. This high-throughput method is simple and rapid and can be automated, making it suitable for screening and metagenomics application. Reaction conditions such as pH and temperature can be varied and controlled. Using triolein or olive oil as a natural substrate allows monitoring of lipase activity in reaction conditions that are closer to those used in industrial settings. The described method is sensitive over a wide range of product concentrations and offers good reproducibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN PRACTICAL ACTIVITY OF THE LIBRARY OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF UKRAINE «UKRANIAN MEDICIAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Боровик

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The global computer network Internet replaces the classical library model. The destiny of libraries depends largely on the production of carefully crafted and long-term survival strategies and the creation of a detailed crisis plan of the library in the new environment. To prove their importance to society, libraries must use the full range of modern communication marketing technologies. The main goal, which is implemented by means of marketing communications is the formation of a prestigious library image. The present day library has various tools of marketing communications: print, outdoor and online advertising, public relations, public events. The article describes the practical implementation of marketing communication activities in the library of the Higher State Educational Establishment «UkrainianMedicalStomatologicalAcademy». Namely: wall painting, migrating literature cart, book exhibitions, posters and banners, social and cultural activities and main communication channel website of the library of the Academy – the library blog.

  15. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  16. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  17. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  18. A strategy for obtaining both resting and psychologically activated state metabolic data from a single PET study using [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.; Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Apicella, A.; Gilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    When psychological activation is studied with PET using the deoxyglucose method, a stable and specific psychological state for at least 30 minutes is required before commencing the scan. At this time, if the subject reverts to the testing state, a progressive degradation of the activated pattern occurs. However, a strategy could be used to obtain corrected activation state data and resting state data in a single study using a tracer such as FDG. The amount of tracer FDG and FDG-6P in the tissue at the time of study completion, t, will be the sum of the remaining quantity (R) of tracer accumulated in the tissue at the time T, when activation ceases, and the uptake during the subsequent period t-T when resting state glucose transport kinetics apply

  19. Value addition activities and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enegu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.

  20. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  1. Resting state fMRI entropy probes complexity of brain activity in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokunbi, Moses O; Fung, Wilson; Sawlani, Vijay; Choppin, Sabine; Linden, David E J; Thome, Johannes

    2013-12-30

    In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), quantitative neuroimaging techniques have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including the frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and occipital cortex. Nonlinear signal processing techniques such as sample entropy have been used to probe the regularity of brain magnetoencephalography signals in patients with ADHD. In the present study, we extend this technique to analyse the complex output patterns of the 4 dimensional resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in adult patients with ADHD. After adjusting for the effect of age, we found whole brain entropy differences (P=0.002) between groups and negative correlation (r=-0.45) between symptom scores and mean whole brain entropy values, indicating lower complexity in patients. In the regional analysis, patients showed reduced entropy in frontal and occipital regions bilaterally and a significant negative correlation between the symptom scores and the entropy maps at a family-wise error corrected cluster level of Pentropy is a useful tool in revealing abnormalities in the brain dynamics of patients with psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  3. How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lina; Degerald, Michael; Brandt, Martin; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Pilesjö, Petter

    2017-05-01

    Socio-economic shocks, technogenic catastrophes, and armed conflicts often have drastic impacts on local and regional food security through disruption of agricultural production and food trade, reduced investments, and deterioration of land and infrastructure. Recently, more research has focused on the effects of armed conflict on land systems, but still little is known about the processes and outcomes of such events. Here we use the case of Syria and Iraq and the seizure of land by the Islamic State (IS) since 2014 as an example of armed conflict, where we investigate the effects on agricultural land use. We apply a reproducible approach using 250 m satellite-based time-series data to quantify the areas under cultivation from 2000 to 2015. Despite a common belief about widespread land abandonment in areas under conflict, results point to multiple trajectories regarding cropland cultivation in the IS seized area: (1) expansion of cropland to formerly un-cultivated areas, (2) cropland abandonment, and (3) decrease of high-intensity cropland. Our study highlights the need to understand these diverse conflict-related and context-dependent changes to the land system.

  4. Regional homogeneity of the resting-state brain activity correlates with individual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiqiong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-01-25

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has confirmed that the strengths of the long distance functional connectivity between different brain areas are correlated with individual differences in intelligence. However, the association between the local connectivity within a specific brain region and intelligence during rest remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between local connectivity and intelligence. Fifty-nine right-handed healthy adults participated in the study. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess the strength of local connectivity. The associations between ReHo and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores were studied in a voxel-wise manner using partial correlation analysis controlling for age and sex. We found that the FSIQ scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values of the bilateral inferior parietal lobules, middle frontal, parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri, the right thalamus, superior frontal and fusiform gyri, and the left superior parietal lobule. The main findings are consistent with the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, supporting the view that general intelligence involves multiple brain regions throughout the brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2014-07-01

    The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure

  6. Screening of phospholipase A activity and its production by new actinomycete strains cultivated by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sutto-Ortiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbial phospholipases A (PLAs can be found in actinomycetes which have been poorly explored as producers of this activity. To investigate microbial PLA production, efficient methods are necessary such as high-throughput screening (HTS assays for direct search of PLAs in microbial cultures and cultivation conditions to promote this activity. About 200 strains isolated with selected media for actinomycetes and mostly belonging to Streptomyces (73% and Micromonospora (10% genus were first screened on agar-plates containing the fluorophore rhodamine 6G and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC to detect strains producing phospholipase activity. Then, a colorimetric HTS assay for general PLA activity detection (cHTS-PLA using enriched PC (≈60% as substrate and cresol red as indicator was developed and applied; this cHTS-PLA assay was validated with known PLAs. For the first time, actinomycete strains were cultivated by solid-state fermentation (SSF using PC as inductor and sugar-cane bagasse as support to produce high PLA activity (from 207 to 2,591 mU/g of support. Phospholipase activity of the enzymatic extracts from SSF was determined using the implemented cHTS-PLA assay and the PC hydrolysis products obtained, were analyzed by TLC showing the presence of lyso-PC. Three actinomycete strains of the Streptomyces genus that stood out for high accumulation of lyso-PC, were selected and analyzed with the specific substrate 1,2-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (EEPC in order to confirm the presence of PLA activity in their enzymatic extracts. Overall, the results obtained pave the way toward the HTS of PLA activity in crude microbial enzymatic extracts at a larger scale. The cHTS-PLA assay developed here can be also proposed as a routine assay for PLA activity determination during enzyme purification,directed evolution or mutagenesis approaches. In addition, the production of PLA activity by actinomycetes using SSF allow find and

  7. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li; Su-Fang, Li; Hai-Ying, Han; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  8. Application of active magnetic bearings in flexible rotordynamic systems - A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Srinivas, R.; Tiwari, R.; Kannababu, Ch.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a critical review of literature on applications of Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) systems in flexible rotordynamic systems have been presented. AMBs find various applications in rotating machinery; however, this paper mainly focuses on works in vibration suppression and associated with the condition monitoring using AMBs. It briefly introduces reader to the AMB working principle, provides details of various hardware components of a typical rotor-AMB test rig, and presents a background of traditional methods of vibration suppression in flexible rotors and the condition monitoring. It then moves on to summarize the basic features of AMB integrated flexible rotor test rigs available in literature with necessary instrumentation and its main objectives. A couple of lookup tables provide summary of important information of test rigs in papers within the scope of this article. Finally, future directions in AMB research within the paper's scope have been suggested.

  9. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  10. The state and prospects for vital activities in the radiocontaminated areas of Zhytomyr Polissya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskijj, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the after-effects of the radioactive contamination of Zhytomyr province. In 1986, Ukrainian government decided to divide the area into 4 zones: the restricted access zone, the zone of obligatory resettlement, the zone of the guaranteed voluntary resettlement and the zone of the strict radiological control. The paper also analyses the ecological and socio-economic situation in the region 20 years after the Tchernobyl disaster. Not all citizens agreed to be displaced and many of them come back. Nowadays, about 4.5 thousand people live in the province. The long-term trends in the development of the economy and improvement of vital activities conditions in Zhytomyr Polissya have been determined

  11. Measurement of low-level beta activity of samples in liquid state using plastic scintillator vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezranowski, E.; Panczyk, E.; Radwan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic scintillation vials having walls from a plastic scintillator and the bottom from perspex were used. Wall thickness was 0.8 to 3 mm. The solution radioactivity was measured by a scintillation beta spectrometer. The total measurement errors were found for the following radionuclides: 14 C +-3.7%; 204 Tl +-3%; 32 P +-2.8%; 137 Cs +-2%, and 72 Ga +-5%. Detection efficiency was found to decrease rapidly with the solution layer thickness. For a solution thickness of 0.2 mm the highest detection efficiency was observed with the 4% measurement error. Linear dependence was found of detection efficiency on beta energy. For a solution layer thickness of 0.2 mm the minimum measurable activities were determined to be 30.3 pCi for 14 C and 2.12 pCi for 32 P. The use of the above vials permits quick and simple measurement without sample chemical preparation. (J.P.)

  12. Studies on Possible Activation of Microbial Inulinase Production Using Gamma Radiation Under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Attar, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    optimization of different parameters affecting productivity of inulinase/invertase enzyme by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied. Optimized media used was Wheat bran: Jerusalem artichoke (4:1) 66% moisture content acidified mineral solution (ph 4.9). spore suspension 1.8 x 10 7 spores/ml irradiated with 1.00 kGy of gamma radiation. distilled water ph 6 (extracting solvent), corn steep liquor 0.6%, Corn oil, SDS and CaCl 2 with incubation temperature 35°C for 72 hr. Immobilization of a partially purified inulinase enzyme from a local gamma irradiated strain of Penicillium chrysogenum on cheap immobilization supports was carried out. Highest inulinase immobilized activity was maintained on Ca- alginate beads. The immobilized enzyme showed a marked enhancement with temperature, ph optima, and thermostability, thus suggesting a promising industrial production of fructose syrup using the immobilized enzyme.

  13. Needle Type Solid State Detectors for In-Vivo Measurement of Tracer Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wolgast, W [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). Inst. of Physiology and Medical Biophysics

    1970-07-15

    A set of miniature detector probes for in-vivo-measurement of beta and gamma tracer activity is described. The probes use a lithium-compensated p-i-n silicon detector as sensing element. The standard 'needle probe' contains a cylindrical detector 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long, enclosed in a stainless steel tube 1.1 mm in outer diameter and with walls 0. 05 mm thick. For particular applications several modified types have been developed: probes with larger sensing elements, probes with extra thin walls for low-energy beta detection, probes with two or three sensing elements in the same needle and probes containing a movable sensing element. This report describes the construction and the properties of the different needle probes.

  14. Needle Type Solid State Detectors for In-Vivo Measurement of Tracer Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, A.; Wolgast, W.

    1970-07-01

    A set of miniature detector probes for in-vivo-measurement of beta and gamma tracer activity is described. The probes use a lithium-compensated p-i-n silicon detector as sensing element. The standard 'needle probe' contains a cylindrical detector 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long, enclosed in a stainless steel tube 1.1 mm in outer diameter and with walls 0. 05 mm thick. For particular applications several modified types have been developed: probes with larger sensing elements, probes with extra thin walls for low-energy beta detection, probes with two or three sensing elements in the same needle and probes containing a movable sensing element. This report describes the construction and the properties of the different needle probes

  15. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  16. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Henze, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    This review paper focuses on modelling of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). White-box modelling is widely applied in this field, with learning, design and process optimisation as the main applications. The introduction of the ASM model family by the IWA task group was of great importance......, providing researchers and practitioners with a standardised. set of basis models. This paper introduces the nowadays most frequently used white-box models for description of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal activated sludge processes. These models are mainly applicable to municipal wastewater...... systems, but can be adapted easily to specific situations such as the presence of industrial wastewater. Some of the main model assumptions are highlighted, and their implications for practical model application are discussed. A step-wise procedure leads from the model purpose definition to a calibrated...

  17. Review of dismantling activities in Europe and worldwide: Current state and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis adopts deliberately the point of view of 'dismantling companies' and aims to draw up a coherent overview of the presentations made per country or major contractors. Aside from the programs, or intentions, that may have been published, its goal is to take stock of the actions undertaken in the last few years and the significant changes that have been observed. In view of the diversity of the 'business models', depending on whether research institutes, major electrical power companies or industrial companies in charge of fuel-related activities are involved, the objective of this presentation is also to assess the solutions retained on both a technical and industrial level for the entire 'de-construction sector'. In conclusion, this presentation seeks to highlight the major challenges that open dismantling industry will have to meet. (author)

  18. Current State of Commercial Wearable Technology in Physical Activity Monitoring 2015-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Jennifer A; Navalta, James W; Fountaine, Charles J; Reece, Joel D

    2018-01-01

    Wearable physical activity trackers are a popular and useful method to collect biometric information at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize recent findings of wearable devices for biometric information related to steps, heart rate, and caloric expenditure for several devices that hold a large portion of the market share. Searches were conducted in both PubMed and SPORTdiscus. Filters included: humans, within the last 5 years, English, full-text, and adult 19+ years. Manuscripts were retained if they included an exercise component of 5-min or greater and had 20 or more participants. A total of 10 articles were retained for this review. Overall, wearable devices tend to underestimate energy expenditure compared to criterion laboratory measures, however at higher intensities of activity energy expenditure is underestimated. All wrist and forearm devices had a tendency to underestimate heart rate, and this error was generally greater at higher exercise intensities and those that included greater arm movement. Heart rate measurement was also typically better at rest and while exercising on a cycle ergometer compared to exercise on a treadmill or elliptical machine. Step count was underestimated at slower walking speeds and in free-living conditions, but improved accuracy at faster speeds. The majority of the studies reviewed in the present manuscript employed different methods to assess validity and reliability of wearable technology, making it difficult to compare devices. Standardized protocols would provide guidance for researchers to evaluate research-grade devices as well as commercial devices used by the lay public.

  19. Ligand induced change of β2 adrenergic receptor from active to inactive conformation and its implication for the closed/open state of the water channel: insight from molecular dynamics simulation, free energy calculation and Markov state model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qifeng; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yonghua; Shi, Danfeng; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-08-14

    The reported crystal structures of β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) reveal that the open and closed states of the water channel are correlated with the inactive and active conformations of β2AR. However, more details about the process by which the water channel states are affected by the active to inactive conformational change of β2AR remain illusive. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the dynamical inactive and active conformational change of β2AR induced by inverse agonist ICI 118,551. Markov state model analysis and free energy calculation are employed to explore the open and close states of the water channel. The simulation results show that inverse agonist ICI 118,551 can induce water channel opening during the conformational transition of β2AR. Markov state model (MSM) analysis proves that the energy contour can be divided into seven states. States S1, S2 and S5, which represent the active conformation of β2AR, show that the water channel is in the closed state, while states S4 and S6, which correspond to the intermediate state conformation of β2AR, indicate the water channel opens gradually. State S7, which represents the inactive structure of β2AR, corresponds to the full open state of the water channel. The opening mechanism of the water channel is involved in the ligand-induced conformational change of β2AR. These results can provide useful information for understanding the opening mechanism of the water channel and will be useful for the rational design of potent inverse agonists of β2AR.

  20. Nutritional State-Dependent Ghrelin Activation of Vasopressin Neurons via Retrograde Trans-Neuronal–Glial Stimulation of Excitatory GABA Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C.; Di, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal–glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal–glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal–glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis. PMID:24790191

  1. Marital status, labour force activity and mortality: A study of the United States and 6 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, Karen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Kovács, Katalin; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-01-01

    Aims Labour force activity and marriage share some of the pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the United States and six European countries. Methods We used data from the US National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index, and national mortality registry data for Austria, England/Wales, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Spain (Basque country) during 1999-2007 for men and women aged 30-59 at baseline. Poisson regression was used to estimate both additive (the relative excess risk due to interaction) and multiplicative interactions between marriage and labour force activity on mortality. Results Labour force inactivity was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for unmarried than married individuals. Likewise, being unmarried was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for inactive than for active individuals. To illustrate, among US women out of the labour force, being unmarried was associated with a 3.98 (95%CI:3.28-4.82) times higher risk of dying than being married, whereas the relative risk was 2.49 (95%CI:2.10-2.94) for women active in the labour market. Although this interaction between marriage and labour force activity was only significant for women on a multiplicative scale, there was a significant additive interaction for both men and women. The pattern was similar across all countries. Conclusions Marriage attenuates the increased mortality risk associated with labour force inactivity, while labour force activity attenuates the mortality risk associated with being unmarried. Our study emphasizes the importance of public health and social policies that improve the health and well-being of men and women who are both unmarried and inactive. PMID:25868643

  2. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  3. The IAEA Activities on Supporting Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals and Capacity Building in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Haji-Saeid, M.; Zaknun, J.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA activities on supporting development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are focused on identified radionuclides that can be produced in large quantities and making use of carrier molecules which can be synthesized locally or procured from commercial sources or already available in MS from other related programs. The main emphasis is on 90 Y and 177 Lu based products, which cover the hard beta energy and soft beta energy range respectively, and also since both these radionuclides can be produced in large quantities with very high specific activity and high radionuclidic purity. The services to MS are provided through implementing Coordinated Research Projects (CRP), Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, technical meetings and regional training courses in addition to documenting practically useful technical information related to these products though IAEA publications. The CRP is a group activity in which nearly 15 participants from as many countries come together to work towards an identified objective. Two of the completed CRPs in this area are: (i) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals (2002-2005) that focussed on the development of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' techniques for evaluating new generation therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; and (ii) Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides (2004-2007) that addressed technologies for 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 188 W/ 188 Re generators and which can be easily adapted by MS. The participants in the CRP on 'Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals' used the somatostatin analogue, DOTATATE as the lead molecule for developing radiopharmaceuticals and testing the efficacy by in vitro biological assays and animal biodistribution studies. A significant outcome of the CRP was that 177 Lu-DOTATATE therapy is now practised in several of the CRP participating countries including Brazil, India, Italy, and Poland. The major outcome of the CRP on 'Development of generator

  4. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  5. State of Art in space weather observational activities and data management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona

    One of the primary scientific and technical goals of space weather is to produce data in order to investigate the Sun impact on the Earth and its environment. Studies based on data mining philosophy yield increase the knowledge of space weather physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in space weather monitoring and forecasting. Exchanging tailored individually and/or jointly data between different entities, storing of the databases and making data accessible for the users is the most important task undertaken by investigators. National activities spread over Europe is currently consolidated pursuant to the terms of effectiveness and individual contributions embedded in joint integrated efforts. The role of COST 724 Action in animation of such a movement is essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of the European availability in the Internet near-real time and historical collections of the European ground based and satellite observations, operational indices and parameters. A detailed description of data delivered is included. The structure of the content is supplied according to the following selection: (1) observations, raw and/or corrected, updated data, (2) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (3) products, as the results of models and theory including (a) maps, forecasts and alerts, (b) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (4) platforms to deliver data. Characterization of the networking of stations, observatories and space related monitoring systems of data collections is integrated part of the paper. According to these provisions operational systems developed for these purposes is presented and analysed. It concerns measurements, observations and parameters from the theory and models referred to local, regional collections, European and worldwide networks. Techniques used by these organizations to generate the digital content are identified. As the reference pan

  6. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  7. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  8. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could

  9. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  10. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  11. Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination.

  12. Enhanced catalytic hydrogenation activity of Ni/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite prepared by a solid-state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhao; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-01-01

    A simple solid-state method has been applied to synthesize Ni/reduced graphene oxide (Ni/rGO) nanocomposite under ambient condition. Ni nanoparticles with size of 10-30 nm supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets are obtained through one-pot solid-state co-reduction among nickel chloride, graphene oxide, and sodium borohydride. The Ni/rGO nanohybrid shows enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of p-nitrophenol (PNP) into p-aminophenol compared with Ni nanoparticles. The results of kinetic research display that the pseudo-first-order rate constant for hydrogenation reaction of PNP with Ni/rGO nanocomposite is 7.66 × 10-3 s-1, which is higher than that of Ni nanoparticles (4.48 × 10-3 s-1). It also presents superior turnover frequency (TOF, 5.36 h-1) and lower activation energy ( E a, 29.65 kJ mol-1) in the hydrogenation of PNP with Ni/rGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, composite catalyst can be magnetically separated and reused for five cycles. The large surface area and high electron transfer property of rGO support are beneficial for good catalytic performance of Ni/rGO nanocomposite. Our study demonstrates a simple approach to fabricate metal-rGO heterogeneous nanostructures with advanced functions.

  13. Worksite Food and Physical Activity Environments and Wellness Supports Reported by Employed Adults in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Watson, Kathleen B; Kimmons, Joel; Pan, Liping; Khan, Laura Kettel; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Park, Sohyun

    2018-01-01

    To examine the workplace food and physical activity (PA) environments and wellness culture reported by employed United States adults, overall and by employer size. Cross-sectional study using web-based survey on wellness policies and environmental supports for healthy eating and PA. Worksites in the United States. A total of 2101 adults employed outside the home. Survey items were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Worksite Health ScoreCard and Checklist of Health Promotion Environments and included the availability and promotion of healthy food items, nutrition education, promotion of breast-feeding, availability of PA amenities and programs, facility discounts, time for PA, stairwell signage, health promotion programs, and health risk assessments. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of worksite environmental and facility supports by employer size (<100 or ≥100 employees). Chi-square tests were used to examine the differences by employer size. Among employed respondents with workplace food or drink vending machines, approximately 35% indicated the availability of healthy items. Regarding PA, 30.9% of respondents reported that their employer provided opportunities to be physically active and 17.6% reported worksite exercise facilities. Wellness programs were reported by 53.2% working for large employers, compared to 18.1% for smaller employers. Employee reports suggested that workplace supports for healthy eating, PA, and wellness were limited and were less common among smaller employers.

  14. Activities and the discourse of the state agencies and institutions in Serbia in dealing with interethnic conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a part of the research “Fostering victim-oriented dialogue in a multiethnic society”, which was conducted by the Victimology Society of Serbia in the course of 2012 and the beginning of 2013 within the project “Developing alternative understandings of security and justice through restorative justice approaches in intercultural settings within democratic societies” - ALTERNATIVE. The result of research into the activities of the state agencies and institutions in Serbia in dealing with multi-ethnic conflicts during the 1990s onwards will be presented. The analysis should identify the discourse of the state in relation to multiethnic conflicts in order to observe any changes or developments in the past two decades. In addition, the focus is on identifying the place and role of restorative justice in how the state responds to these conflicts in order to assess the potential of such an approach in Serbia and consider possible pathways towards its broader use. [Ovaj rad nastao je kao rezultat rada na projektu koji je dobio finansijsku podršku EU u okviru Sedmog okvirnog programa Evropske komisije za istraživanja i tehnološki razvoj (FP7-SEC-2011-1, ugovor broj 285368

  15. Pacific Gateway: State Surveillance and Interdiction of Criminal Activity on Vancouver’s Waterfront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Madsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unionised work environments within large seaports attract transnational organised crime, and this presents a challenge for law enforcement agencies. If media stories are true, a motorcycle club called the Hells Angels has established a presence on Vancouver area waterfronts since coming to the province of British Columbia. Associations between longshore union locals, club members, and known contacts are implied and presented as evidence of participation in criminality. This paper revisits the perception that criminal activity is endemic in the Port of Vancouver because of a lack of policing, adequate resources, and indifference from port authorities, employer bodies, as well as union leadership. In an era of heightened concerns about public safety and national security, federal and provincial governments understand the importance of seaports, especially in Vancouver and up the Fraser River. These port facilities are important to international trade that flows through them as part of Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor initiatives. Therefore, targeted investments, close coordination amongst government departments and agencies, and engagement with waterfront stakeholders promote secure places hard for organised criminals to operate freely.

  16. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  17. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  18. The IAEA Activities on Supporting Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals and Capacity Building in Member States

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    Pillai, M R.A.; Haji-Saeid, M; Zaknun, J; Ramamoorthy, N [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The IAEA activities on supporting development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are focused on identified radionuclides that can be produced in large quantities and making use of carrier molecules which can be synthesized locally or procured from commercial sources or already available in MS from other related programs. The main emphasis is on {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu based products, which cover the hard beta energy and soft beta energy range respectively, and also since both these radionuclides can be produced in large quantities with very high specific activity and high radionuclidic purity. The services to MS are provided through implementing Coordinated Research Projects (CRP), Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, technical meetings and regional training courses in addition to documenting practically useful technical information related to these products though IAEA publications. The CRP is a group activity in which nearly 15 participants from as many countries come together to work towards an identified objective. Two of the completed CRPs in this area are: (i) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals (2002-2005) that focussed on the development of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' techniques for evaluating new generation therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; and (ii) Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides (2004-2007) that addressed technologies for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators and which can be easily adapted by MS. The participants in the CRP on 'Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals' used the somatostatin analogue, DOTATATE as the lead molecule for developing radiopharmaceuticals and testing the efficacy by in vitro biological assays and animal biodistribution studies. A significant outcome of the CRP was that {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE therapy is now practised in several of the CRP participating countries including Brazil, India, Italy, and Poland. The major outcome of the CRP

  19. Effects of DISC1 Polymorphisms on Resting-State Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in the Early-Stage of Schizophrenia

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    Ningzhi Gou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized abnormalities in the synchrony of spontaneous neuronal activity, measured with regional homogeneity (ReHo, has been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ and their unaffected siblings. To date, little is known about the genetic influences affecting the spontaneous neuronal activity in SCZ. DISC1, a strong susceptible gene for SCZ, has been implicated in neuronal excitability and synaptic function possibly associated with regional spontaneous neuronal activity. This study aimed to examine the effects of DISC1 variations on the regional spontaneous neuronal activity in SCZ.Methods: Resting-state fMRI data were obtained from 28 SCZ patients and 21 healthy controls (HC for ReHo analysis. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of DISC1 gene were genotyped using the PCR and direct sequencing.Results: Significant diagnosis × genotype interactions were noted for three SNPs (rs821616, rs821617, and rs2738880. For rs821617, the interactions were localized to the precuneus, basal ganglia and pre-/post-central regions. Significant interactive effects were identified at the temporal and post-central gyri for rs821616 (Ser704Cys and the inferior temporal gyrus for rs2738880. Furthermore, post-hoc analysis revealed that the DISC1 variations on these SNPs exerted different influences on ReHo between SCZ patients and HC.Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first study to unpick the influence of DISC1 variations on spontaneous neuronal activity in SCZ; Given the emerging evidence that ReHo is a stable inheritable phenotype for schizophrenia, our findings suggest the DISC1 variations are possibly an inheritable source for the altered ReHo in this disorder.

  20. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

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    Lv Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n=42 and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n=42 to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients.