WorldWideScience

Sample records for active compounds emitted

  1. Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, C A; Augusto, F; Christensen, T E; Smith, B P; Caramão, E B; Pawliszy, J

    2001-10-01

    A procedure to monitor BVOC emitted by living plants using SPME technique is presented. For this purpose, a glass sampling chamber was designed. This device was employed for the characterization of biogenic volatile compounds emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. After extraction with SPME fibers coated with PDMS/ DVB, it was possible to identify or detect 33 compounds emitted by this plant. A semiquantitative approach was applied to monitor the behavior of the emitted BVOC during 9 days. Circadian profiles of the variation in the concentration of isoprene were plotted. Using diffusion-based SPME quantitation, a recently introduced analytical approach, with extraction times as short as 15 s, it was possible to quantify subparts-per-billion amounts of isoprene emitted by this plant. PMID:11605854

  2. Use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry for the comparison of identified and unidentified odor active compounds emitted from building products containing linseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P. A.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Larsen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (TD-GC-O/MS). The oils were applied to ...

  3. Sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Chi Nyon

    The objective of the study was to quantify the concentration and emission levels of sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations. Five types of pig-housing rooms were studied: gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and fattening rooms. The concentration range of sulfuric odorous compounds in these pig-housing rooms were 30-200 ppb for hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), 2.5-20 ppb for methyl mercaptan (CH 3SH), 1.5-12 ppb for dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH 3SCH 3) and 0.5-7 ppb for dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH 3S 2CH 3), respectively. The emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS were estimated by multiplying the average concentration (mg m -3) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate (m 3 h -1) and expressed either per area (mg m -2 h -1) or animal unit (AU; liveweight of the pig, 500 kg) (mg pig -1 h -1). As a result, the emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS in the pig-housing rooms were 14-64, 0.8-7.3, 0.4-3.4 and 0.2-1.9 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, based on pig's activity space and 310-723, 18-80, 9-39 and 5-22 mg AU -1 h -1, respectively, based on pig's liveweight, which indicates that their emission rates were similar, whether based upon the pig's activity space or liveweight. In conclusion, the concentrations and emission rates of H 2S were highest in the fattening room followed by the growing, nursery, farrowing and gestation rooms whereas those of CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS concentrations were largest in the growing room followed by the nursery, gestation and farrowing rooms.

  4. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality. PMID:21381398

  5. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  6. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, A.M. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Santos, A.G. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Natural Principles and Toxicology, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 01, Araraquara (Brazil); Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Arbex, M.A. [UNIFESP — Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 720, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Cavalheiro, A.J.; Silva, D.H.S.; Bolzani, V.S. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Organic Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  7. Study of compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of polyester fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of three commercial polyester fabrics for indoor outfit and decorations (upholstery, curtains were studied. The experiments were carried out in a flow tubular furnace at 600°C in an air atmosphere. During decomposition process the complex mixtures of volatile and solid compounds were emitted. The main volatile products were carbon oxides, benzene, acetaldehyde, vinyl benzoate and acetophe-none. The emitted solid compounds consisted mainly of aromatic carboxylic acids and its derivatives, among which the greatest part took terephthalic acid, monovinyl terephthalate and benzoic acid. The small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also emitted. The emission profiles of the tested polyester fabrics were similar. The presence of toxic compounds indicates the possibility of serious hazard for people during fire.

  8. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  9. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravel, Deborah R; Connick, William J; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W

    2002-06-19

    Volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotium rolfsii were identified by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectometry. Both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methylenebornane and 2-methylisoborneol. In addition, S. minor emitted mesityl oxide, gamma-butyrolactone, cis- and trans-linalool oxide, linalool, and trans-nerolidol. S. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methyl-2-bornene, 1-methylcamphene, and a diterpene with a molecular weight of 272. Sclerotium rolfsii did not emit any of these compounds but did emit delta-cadinene and cis-calamenene. Chemicals emitted by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum were tested to determine if they could stimulate germination of conidia of Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, a mycoparasite on sclerotia of Sclerotinia spp. Chemicals were tested at 1 part per billion to 100 parts per million, both in direct contact with conidia and near, but not in, physical contact. None of the chemicals alone nor a combination of all chemicals induced germination of conidia of S. sclerotivorum. PMID:12059156

  11. Highly efficient multilayer organic pure-blue-light emitting diodes with substituted carbazoles compounds in the emitting layer

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, A; Chenais, S; Castex, M C; Siove, A; Ades, D; Geffroy, B; Denis, C; Maisse, P; Fischer, Alexis; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Castex, Marie-Claude; Siove, Alain; Ades, Dominique; Geffroy, Bernard; Denis, Christine; Maisse, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Bright blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on 1,4,5,8,N-pentamethylcarbazole (PMC) and on dimer of N-ethylcarbazole (N,N'-diethyl-3,3'-bicarbazyl) (DEC) as emitting layers or as dopants in a 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi) matrix are described. Pure blue-light with the C.I.E. coordinates x = 0.153 y = 0.100, electroluminescence efficiency \\eta_{EL} of 0.4 cd/A, external quantum efficiency \\eta_{ext.} of 0.6% and luminance L of 236 cd/m2 (at 60 mA/cm2) were obtained with PMC as an emitter and the 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline (BCP) as a hole-blocking material in five-layer emitting devices. The highest efficiencies \\eta_{EL.} of 4.7 cd/A, and \\eta_{ext} = 3.3% were obtained with a four-layer structure and a DPVBi DEC-doped active layer (CIE coordinates x = 0.158, y=0.169, \\lambda_{peak} = 456 nm). The \\eta_{ext.} value is one the highest reported at this wavelength for blue OLEDs and is related to an internal quantum efficiency up to 20%.

  12. Odorous Sulfur Compounds Emitted during Production of Compost Used as a Substrate in Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; van der Drift, C; van Griensven, L. J. L. D.; Vogels, G D

    1990-01-01

    Large-scale composting facilities are known to cause environmental problems, mainly through pungent air emitted by composting material. In air samples taken above stacks set up to prepare compost used as a substrate in mushroom cultivation, several volatile compounds were identified by means of the coupled techniques of gas chromatography and mass spectrography. Among the compounds identified, sulfur-containing compounds [H2S, COS, CH3SH, CS2, (CH3)2S, (CH3)2S2, and (CH3)2S3] are the most con...

  13. Fluorescence Spectra of Model Compounds for Light-emitting Alternating Copolymers in Heterogeneous Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the fluorescence spectra of model compounds of light-emitting alternating copolymers, M (TPA-PPV) and M (TPA-PAV) (Scheme 1) were studied and the effect of KNO3 on the interaction between model compounds and ionic micelle-water interface was also investigated. It is found that (I) The fluorescence changes of M (TPA-PPV) are related to the state of CTAB and SDS solution. (II) Aggregated state can be formed in M (TPA-PAV) solution at low concentration of CTAB. (III) Higher concentration of KNO3 may affect the interaction between model compounds and ionic micelle-water interface.

  14. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  15. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Problems in labeling receptor ligands and related compounds with positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the clinical application of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, there can be a need for tracer preparation several times a day, or in the case of some compounds such as 0-15 labeled water, several times an hour. This type of production schedule means that special emphasis must be placed both on reducing radiation dose to the chemist and on performing rapid quality control of products. The production, reduction of radiation dose, and quality control of oxygen-15 labeled oxygen, carbon monoxide and water, as well as carbon-11 labeled glucose and palmitic acid are used as examples for compounds being produced routinely for PET studies at Washington University

  17. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Property of New Orange Iridium Compounds for Flexible White Organic Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Hyunjin; Kim, Young Kwan; Ha, Yunkyoung

    2015-10-01

    Recently, white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have aroused considerable attention because they have the potential of next-generation flexible displays and white illuminated applications. White OLED applications are particularly heading to the industry but they have still many problems both materials and manufacturing. Therefore, we proposed that the new iridium compounds of orange emitters could be demonstrated and also applied to flexible white OLEDs for verification of potential. First, we demonstrated the chemical properties of new orange iridium compounds. Secondly, conventional two kinds of white phosphorescent OLEDs were fabricated by following devices; indium-tin oxide coated glass substrate/4,4'-bis[N-(napthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl/N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene doped with blue and new iridium compounds for orange emitting 8 wt%/1,3,5-tris[N-phenylbenzimidazole-2-yl]benzene/lithium quinolate/aluminum. In addition, we fabricated white OLEDs using these emitters to verify the potential on flexible substrate. Therefore, this work could be proposed that white light applications can be applied and could be extended to additional research on flexible applications. PMID:26726407

  18. Synthesis and light-emitting properties of organic electroluminescent compounds and their metal complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jianzhong; Kim Sung-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Several organic electroluminescent (EL) compounds, 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-3,3-dimethyl-in- dolenine (1), 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-benzoxazole (2), 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-benzothiazole (3), 4,4′- (1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-quinoline (4), 2,2′-(1,4-phenyle- nedivinylene)bis-quinoline (5), 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinyle- ne)bis-1,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine dichlo ride (6), 2,2′-(1,4- phenylene-divinylene)bis-1-hydro-3,3-dimethyl-indolenine dichloride (7), 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-8-acetoxy- quinoline (8), 2,2′-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-8-hydroxyq- uinoline (9) and metal complexes of 9, Al(PHQ) (10) and Zn(PHQ) (11), have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 6 was determined. Light emitting properties of the prepared compounds have been investigated. 1 produces an orange-yellow emission (λmax = 575 nm). The cation, 6, gives a red emission (λmax = 607 nm), which is shifted 32 nm to the red compared to 1. 8 produces a yellow emission (λmax = 567 nm). The metal complex 10 gives a red emission (λmax = 610 nm), which is a red shift of 43 nm compared to 8. The change in structure in the prepared compound caused a change in the electron distribution in the compounds, which induces a large wavelength shift of the emitted-light. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition temperatures of the metal complexes (10, 11) were higher than those for the smaller organic molecular compounds (1-9). Therefore, metal complexes (10, 11) can be used as EL materials over a larger temperature range.

  19. Balanced charge injection in multilayer polymer light-emitting diode with water soluble nonconjugated polymer dispersed by ionic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Kyu; Chun, A.-Rum; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Choong-Gi; Kwon, Tae-Woo; Cho, Seong-Jin; Woo, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Jae-Gyoung; Lee, Suck-Hyun; Guo, Zhi-Xin

    2007-07-01

    The authors have fabricated highly efficient polymeric light-emitting diode (PLED) from ionic compound dispersed water soluble nonconjugated polymer, polyurethane (PU), which was used as an ultrathin hole blocking and electron injection layer (HB-EIL) on the top of commercially available blue-emitting polymer, polyfluorene. The device with HB-EIL showed a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.7%, while the one without HB-EIL showed an efficiency of 0.6%. They propose that the better performance in PLED with PU layer was due to a well balanced charge injection in emitting layer after the enhanced electron injection due to ionic compound in the insulating PU layer.

  20. Active targeting of tumor cells using light emitting bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Hong, Yeong Jin; Kim, Hyun Ju; Le, Uuenchi N.; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Song, Ho Chun; Heo, Young Jun; Bom, Hee Seung; Choy, Hyon E [School of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The presence of bacteria and viruses in human tumors has been recognized for more than 50 years. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumors, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumor vectors. Here, we show that bacteria injected intravenously into live animals entered and replicated in solid tumors and metastases using the novel imaging technology of biophotonics. Bioluminescence operon (LuxCDABE) or fluorescence protein, GFP) has been cloned into pUC19 plasmid to engineer pUC19lux or pUC19gfp. Engineered plasmid was transformed into different kinds of wild type (MG1655) or mutant E. coli (DH5, ppGpp, fnr, purE, crpA, flagella, etc.) strains to construct light emitting bacteria. Xenograft tumor model has been established using CT26 colon cancer cell line. Light emitting bacteria was injected via tail vein into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo bioluminescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 14 days of bacterial injection. We observed localization of tumors by light-emitting E. coli in tumor (CT-26) bearing mice. We confirmed the presence of light-emitting bacteria under the fluorescence microscope with E. coli expressing GFP. Althoug varying mutants strain with deficient invading function has been found in tumor tissues, mutant strains of movement (flagella) couldn't show any light signal from the tumor tissue under the cooled CCD camera, indicating bacteria may actively target the tumor cells. Based on their 'tumor-finding' nature, bacteria may be designed to carry multiple genes or drugs for detection and treatment of cancer, such as prodrug-converting enzymes, toxins, angiogenesis inhibitors and cytokines.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationships in Nitro-Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R. A.; Rahman, S.; Crespo-Hernández, C. E.

    Many nitro-aromatic compounds show mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, posing a potential human health risk. Despite this potential health hazard, nitro-aromatic compounds continue to be emitted into ambient air from municipal incinerators, motor vehicles, and industrial power plants. As a result, understanding the structural and electronic factors that influence mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds has been a long standing objective. Progress toward this goal has accelerated over the years, in large part due to the synergistic efforts among toxicology, computational chemistry, and statistical modeling of toxicological data. The concerted influence of several structural and electronic factors in nitro-aromatic compounds makes the development of structure-activity relationships (SARs) a paramount challenge. Mathematical models that include a regression analysis show promise in predicting the mutagenic activity of nitro-aromatic compounds as well as in prioritizing compounds for which experimental data should be pursued. A major challenge of the structure-activity models developed thus far is their failure to apply beyond a subset of nitro-aromatic compounds. Most quantitative structure-activity relationship papers point to statistics as the most important confirmation of the validity of a model. However, the experimental evidence shows the importance of the chemical knowledge in the process of generating models with reasonable applicability. This chapter will concisely summarize the structural and electronic factors that influence the mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds and the recent efforts to use quantitative structure-activity relationships to predict those physicochemical properties.

  2. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  3. Influence of volatile organic compounds emitted by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains on Agrobacterium tumefaciens biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyuta, Vladimir; Lipasova, Valentina; Popova, Alexandra; Koksharova, Olga; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Szegedi, Erno; Chernin, Leonid; Khmel, Inessa

    2016-07-01

    The ability to form biofilms plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions, including plant pathogenicity. In this work, we investigated the action of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by rhizospheric strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449, Pseudomonas fluorescens B-4117, Serratia plymuthica IC1270, as well as Serratia proteamaculans strain 94, isolated from spoiled meat, on biofilms formation by three strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which are causative agents of crown-gall disease in a wide range of plants. In dual culture assays, the pool of volatiles emitted by the tested Pseudomonas and Serratia strains suppressed the formation of biofilms of A. tumefaciens strains grown on polycarbonate membrane filters and killed Agrobacterium cells in mature biofilms. The individual VOCs produced by the tested Pseudomonas strains, that is, ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) produced by Serratia strains, were shown to kill A. tumefaciens cells in mature biofilms and suppress their formation. The data obtained in this study suggest an additional potential of some ketones and DMDS as protectors of plants against A. tumefaciens strains, whose virulence is associated with the formation of biofilms on the infected plants. PMID:27214244

  4. Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lorraine T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc. and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway. Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (-3 was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non

  5. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 34 Table 34 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of...—Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS... Acrolein 107028 1.00 0.43 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 0.43 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 0.89 Benzene 71432...

  6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 40 Mediterranean plant species: VOC speciation and extrapolation to habitat scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, S.M.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C.N. [Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Department of Environmental Science

    2001-07-01

    Forty native Mediterranean plant species were screened for emissions of the C5 and C10 hydrocarbons, isoprene and monoterpenes, in five different habitats. A total of 32 compounds were observed in the emissions from these plants. The number of compounds emitted by different plant species varied from 19 (Quercus ilex) to a single compound emission, usually of isoprene. Emission rates were normalised to generate emission factors for each plant species for each sampling event at standard conditions of temperature and light intensity. Plant species were categorised according to their main emitted compound, the major groups being isoprene, {alpha}-pinene, linalool, and limonene emitters. Estimates of habitat fluxes for each emitted compound were derived from the contributing plant species' emission factors, biomass and ground cover. Emissions of individual compounds ranged from 0.002 to 505gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (camphene from garrigue in Spain in autumn and isoprene from riverside habitats in Spain in late spring, respectively). Emissions of isoprene ranged from 0.3 to 505gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (macchia in Italy in late spring and autumn, and riverside in Spain in late spring, respectively) and {alpha}-pinene emissions ranged from 0.51 to 52.92gha{sup -1}h{sup -1} (garrigue in Spain in late spring, and forest in France in autumn, respectively). Habitat fluxes of most compounds in autumn were greater than in late spring, dominated by emissions from Quercus ilex, Gemista scorpius and Quercus pubescens. This study contributes to regional emission inventories and will be of use to tropospheric chemical modellers. (author)

  7. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 40 Mediterranean plant species:. VOC speciation and extrapolation to habitat scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan Margaret; Boissard, Christophe; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    Forty native Mediterranean plant species were screened for emissions of the C5 and C10 hydrocarbons, isoprene and monoterpenes, in five different habitats. A total of 32 compounds were observed in the emissions from these plants. The number of compounds emitted by different plant species varied from 19 ( Quercus ilex) to a single compound emission, usually of isoprene. Emission rates were normalised to generate emission factors for each plant species for each sampling event at standard conditions of temperature and light intensity. Plant species were categorised according to their main emitted compound, the major groups being isoprene, α-pinene, linalool, and limonene emitters. Estimates of habitat fluxes for each emitted compound were derived from the contributing plant species' emission factors, biomass and ground cover. Emissions of individual compounds ranged from 0.002 to 505 g ha -1 h -1 (camphene from garrigue in Spain in autumn and isoprene from riverside habitats in Spain in late spring; respectively). Emissions of isoprene ranged from 0.3 to 505 g ha -1 h -1 (macchia in Italy in late spring and autumn; and riverside in Spain in late spring; respectively) and α-pinene emissions ranged from 0.51 to 52.92 g ha -1 h -1 (garrigue in Spain in late spring; and forest in France in autumn; respectively). Habitat fluxes of most compounds in autumn were greater than in late spring, dominated by emissions from Quercus ilex, Genista scorpius and Quercus pubescens. This study contributes to regional emission inventories and will be of use to tropospheric chemical modellers.

  8. Highly Efficient, Simplified, Solution-Processed Thermally Activated Delayed-Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-27

    Highly efficient, simplified, solution-processed thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes can be realized by using pure-organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters and a multifunctional buffer hole-injection layer, in which high EQE (≈24%) and current efficiency (≈73 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated. High-efficiency fluorescence red-emitting and blue-emitting devices can also be fabricated in this manner.

  9. Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) Environmental Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, George A.

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  10. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushna Ara Naznin

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF, Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA or Jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases.

  11. Analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted from aircraft carpets:comparison using headspace and dynamic chamber tests 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YANG Xu-Dong; GAO Peng

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from three types of carpets used in aircrafts were compared by using headspace and dynamic chamber tests. The headspace samples contained many compounds that were not detected in the dynamic chamber test;in addition, the dominant VOCs found by these two methods were different. The findings indicate that for highly sorptive materials such as carpets, headspace analysis may give inaccurate indication of actual VOC emissions, and it is necessary to conduct dynamic chamber tests over a certain period of time in order to identify the true emission characteristics. From the dynamic chamber tests, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol was the main VOC emitted from all three carpets. The study also examined the emission characteristics of aircraft carpets. In all experiments, total VOC (TVOC) concentration peaked within a few hours after the start of the experiment and was followed by rapid decay. The emission parameters of TVOC emitted by all three carpets were calculated and the simulated data matched the measured data well.

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Cyanohydrin and Monoterpenoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Coats

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activities of several cyanohydrins, cyanohydrin esters and monoterpenoid esters (including three monoterpenoid esters of a cyanohydrin were evaluated. Topical toxicity to Musca domestica L. adults was examined, and testing of many compounds at 100 mg/fly resulted in 100% mortality. Topical LD50 values of four compounds for M. domestica were calculated. Testing of many of the reported compounds to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellog resulted in 100% mortality at 10 ppm, and two compounds caused 100% mortality at 1 ppm. Aquatic LC50 values were calculated for five compounds for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L.. Monoterpenoid esters were among the most toxic compounds tested in topical and aquatic bioassays.

  13. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  14. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  15. Preparation and fluorescence property of red-emitting Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the energy efficient synthesis of a red-emitting Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor produced by heating a Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate phosphor. Concentration quenching of the Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate phosphor was not observed and the emission intensity did not decrease up to a Eu/(Ca+Eu) atomic ratio of 0.46. Heating of the Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate (Eu/(Ca+Eu) atomic ratio = 0.32) phosphor produced an amorphous Eu3+-activated calcium silicate phosphor, which had a maximum emission intensity at 870 oC and emitted in the red under near-ultraviolet irradiation (395 nm). The emission intensity of the Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor was about half that of a commercial BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ phosphor, and shows great potential for application in white light-emitting diodes.

  16. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  17. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia (2): Identification of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Haruo; Tohno, Susumu; Oda, Masafumi; Iriana, Windy; Lestari, Puji

    2015-06-01

    Smoke emitted from Indonesian peatland fires has caused dense haze and serious air pollution in Southeast Asia such as visibility impairment and adverse health impacts. To mitigate the Indonesian peatland fire aerosol impacts, an effective strategy and international framework based on the latest scientific knowledge needs to be established. Although several attempts have been made, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of peatland fire smoke for the source apportionment. In order to identify the key organic compounds of peatland fire aerosols, we conducted intensive field studies based on ground-based and source-dominated sampling of PM2.5 in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire seasons in 2012. Levoglucosan was the most abundant compound among the quantified organic compounds at 8.98 ± 2.28% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by palmitic acid at 0.782 ± 0.163% and mannosan at 0.607 ± 0.0861%. Potassium ion was not appropriate for an indicator of Indonesian peatland fires due to extremely low concentrations associated with smoldering fire at low temperatures. The vanillic/syringic acids ratio was 1.06 ± 0.155 in this study and this may be a useful signature profile for peatland fire emissions. Particulate n-alkanes also have potential for markers to identify impact of Indonesian peatland fire source at a receptor site.

  18. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  19. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda; Graciela Granados-Guzmán; Jonathan Pérez-Meseguer; González, Gloria M.; Noemí Waksman de Torres

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of t...

  20. Analysis of the Compounds from the BTEX Group, Emitted During Thermal Decomposition of Alkyd Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubecki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of the given binding agent for the moulding sands preparation depends on the one hand on the estimation of technological properties of the sand and the mould made of it and the obtained casting quality and on the other hand on the assessment of this sand influence on the natural and working environment. Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin (phenol-formaldehyde, urea, furfuryl, urea–furfuryl, alkyd under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH can be formed and released.The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditionsof formation compounds from the BTEX group. An emission of these components constitutes one of the basic criteria of the harmfulnessassessment of binders applied for moulding and core sands. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 5000C – 13000C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. Within investigations the minimal amount of adsorbent necessary for the adsorption of compounds released during the decomposition of the resin sample of a mass app. 15 mg was selected. Also the minimal amount of solvent needed for

  1. Room temperature red emitting carbodiimide compound Ca(CN2):Mn2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubus, Mariusz; Castro, Cristina; Enseling, David; Jüstel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Carbodiimides are a growing group of compounds, which raised interest as hosts for luminescent materials. Ca(CN2) doped with 5, 10 and 50 mol% Mn2+ was synthesized by a solid-state metathesis reaction at rather low temperature. The unit cell volume of Ca(CN2) decreases with increasing the Mn2+ concentration. The emission spectra of the doped material show an emission band in the red spectral range originating from the 4T1g(4G)-6A1g(6S) transition.

  2. Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays on flexible metal foil substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ta-Ko

    This dissertation presents the research efforts that deal with the development of polysilicon thin film transistors (TFTs) on stainless-steel-foil substrates, the implementation of high-resolution flexible active-matrix backplanes, and the integration of the flexible polysilicon TFT backplanes with polymer light-emitting diodes. This research investigated the preparation of the steel foil substrates, the fabrication of flexible polysilicon TFT backplanes and polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs), and the encapsulation of the flexible Active Matrix Polymer Light Emitting Diode displays. The first successful integration of polysilicon TFT backplane with PLEDs onto light-weight, robust, and flexible stainless-steel-foil substrates is presented. A top-emitting, monochrome active-matrix polymer light-emitting diode (AM-PLED) display, having the VGA (640x480) format and a 230 dpi resolution, is demonstrated for the first time on flexible stainless-steel-foil substrates. This work validates the compatibility of the polysilicon technology for high-resolution flexible AM-PLED displays. Furthermore, this work shows that a variety of other large-area microelectronics could also be implemented onto flexible metal foils, benefiting by the metal oil dimensional stability and ability to withstand high process temperature. In conclusion, the polysilicon TFT technology combining with metal-foil substrates opens up a new road for flexible displays as well as large-area flexible electronic applications.

  3. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds identified in rice, their antioxidant activity and their potential beneficial effects on health. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the rice grains with different pericarp colour (light brown, red and black showed potential beneficial effects on health related to the polyphenol content of the grain, such as reduction of oxidative stress, aid in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and complications of diabetes, among others.

  4. Activation analysis of particulates emitted from aircraft jet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter in emission gas from aircraft jet engines was subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis and the compositions of trace elements, such as Na, Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sb and Th were determined. For comparison, airborne dust samples collected in and around the airport and a soot sample collected in a jet nozzle were also analyzed. The analytical results obtained involve some ambiguous points mainly resulting from the imperfect sampling method. The analytical sensitivity was insufficient because of the too small amount of collected samples. These should be improved in future studies. (auth.)

  5. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Meirelles de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1. Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches.

  6. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; C. E. Stockwell; K. C. Barsanti

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mas...

  7. Low geometry counter for the absolute measurement of the activity of alpha-emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-geometry counter is described which allows the absolute determination of the activity for alpha-emitting sources. A Si implanted detector is used to obtain the spectrum of the sample. Two samples are measured with this counter and a 2 π gridded ion chamber. The results an their uncertainties for both instruments are discussed. (Author)

  8. Active Matrix Organic light Emitting Diode Display Based on “Super Top Emission” Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Tadashi; Yamada, Jiro; Hirano, Takashi; Iwase, Yuichi; Sato, Yukio; Nakagawa, Ryo; Sekiya, Mitsunobu; Sasaoka, Tatsuya; Urabe, Tetsuo

    2006-05-01

    We developed an original “Super Top Emission” technology, which enables us to optimize the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of a 100% NTSC gamut ratio, (2) wide viewing angle, (3) high contrast of 1000:1 maintaining high luminous efficiency with a color filter, (4) original all-solid sealing structure. In addition, Super Top Emission technology was demonstrated by developing a 3.8-type size half video graphics array (HVGA) active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM-OLED) display by the shadow mask patterning process.

  9. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  10. An exploratory comparative study of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and emitted by skin using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claire; Parekh, Bhavin; Walton, Christopher; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David; Evans, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has been used to carry out a pilot parallel study on five volunteers to determine changes occurring in several trace compounds present in exhaled breath and emitted from skin into a collection bag surrounding part of the arm, before and after ingesting 75 g of glucose in the fasting state. SIFT-MS enabled real-time quantification of ammonia, methanol, ethanol, propanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isoprene and acetone. Following glucose ingestion, blood glucose and trace compound levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h. All the above compounds, except formaldehyde, were detected at the expected levels in exhaled breath of all volunteers; all the above compounds, except isoprene, were detected in the collection bag. Ammonia, methanol and ethanol were present at lower levels in the bag than in the breath. The aldehydes were present at higher levels in the bag than in breath. The blood glucose increased to a peak about 1 h post-ingestion, but this change was not obviously correlated with temporal changes in any of the compounds in breath or emitted by skin, except for acetone. The decrease in breath acetone was closely mirrored by skin-emitted acetone in three volunteers. Breath and skin acetone also clearly change with blood glucose and further work may ultimately enable inferences to be drawn of the blood glucose concentration from skin or breath measurements in type 1 diabetes. PMID:18215004

  11. 2,4-Dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene Based Blue Light-emitting Star-shaped Compounds: Synthesis and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Xiaohang; CHEN,Xiaopeng; ZHAO,Zujin; L(U),Ping; WANG,Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    Two new star-shaped molecules 1 and 2 containing a triphenylamine/benzene moiety as the central core and three 2,4-dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene moieties as the peripheral functional groups were synthesized and characterized. Charge transfer properties for these compounds were observed in photophysical experiments due to their D-A molecular structure. Compound 1 presented dual fluorescence in high polar solvents. Moreover, these compounds exhibited moderate fluorescence and high thermal stabilities, indicating their potential application to blue light emitting materials.

  12. Characterizing Ice Nucleating Particles Emitted from Agricultural Activities and Natural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil dust and plant fragment emissions from agricultural harvesting and natural ecosystems are two potentially large, yet unquantified and largely uncharacterized, sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Both organic and mineral components have been shown to contribute to the ice-nucleating ability of soil dust, but apart from the likely presence of ice nucleation-active bacteria, little is known about the ice nucleating potential of plant tissues. This work aims to identify and differentiate the organic and inorganic contributions of soil and plant INP sources emitted from harvesting activities and natural landscapes. For this purpose, the CSU Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) and the Ice Spectrometer (IS) were utilized in a combination of ambient measurements and laboratory studies. Small variability and low INP numbers (activity. Further characterization of the sources and organic and inorganic contributions to terrestrially emitted INPs by comparison to laboratory studies on collected soil dust and plant samples will also be presented.

  13. Active differential optical absorption spectroscopy for NO2 gas pollution using blue light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz; Gasmi, Khaled; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-05-01

    Availability of high intensity light emitting diodes in the blue region offer excellent opportunity for using them in active Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to detect air pollution. Their smooth and relatively broad spectral emissions as well as their long life make them almost ideal light sources for active DOAS. In this study, we report the usage of a blue light emitting diode in an active DOAS setup to measure traces of NO2 gas and achieving few parts per billion detection limit for a path length of 300 m. Details of the setup will be presented along with the effects on measurement accuracy due to shifts in the measured spectra calibration and due to using theoretical instrument Gaussian function instead of the measured instrument function.

  14. Detection of the scintillation light emitted from direct-bandgap compound semiconductors by a Si avalanche photodiode at 150 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the direct-bandgap compound semiconductor materials are irradiated by α particles emitted from 241Am for the detection of scintillation light at the temperature of 150 mK. For the irradiation experiment, two disk shaped samples were fabricated from an epoxy resin mixed with the powder of PbI2 and CuI, respectively. Each disk-samples was cooled down to 150 mK by a compact liquid helium-free dilution refrigerator. A Si avalanche photodiode (APD) was employed for detecting the scintillation light emitted from the disk-sample inside the refrigerator. The detection signal current of Si APD was converted into the voltage pulses by a charge sensitive preamplifier. The voltage pulses of the scintillation light emitted from the direct-bandgap semiconductors were observed at the temperature of 150 mK. (author)

  15. Biological active compounds from Georgian Galanthus shaoricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhadze, M; Kuchukhidze, J; Chincharadze, D; Murtazashvili, T

    2011-10-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exhibit antitumour, antiviral and anticholinergic activities. Some of them have been used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, myopathy and diseases of the nervous system. In this study, the characterization of these compounds from Amaryllidaceae plants along with some biological activities and some regulations to conserve the native flora will be reviewed. Plants materials: Galanthus shaoricus Kem.-Nath., were collected in 2007-2008 during the flowering period in Georgia. The preparation of extracts and fractions were obtained using methanolic maceration. Crude alkaloidal extracts were typically purified by liquid-liquid partitioning of their basic forms in chloroform. Lycorine, galantamine and tazettine has been found as one of the major alkaloid from Amaryllidaceae plants. Galanthus shaoricus have shown good antimalarial and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts from bulbs demonstrated significant growth inhibition on human Hela and HCT-116 cells lines with IC50 (μg/mL) 16.3±1.8; 22.1±2.9 (aerial parts) and 12.8±1.7; 16.5±1.9 (Bulbs), respectively. Concerning the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, lycorine with IC50 (μM) 0.8±0.5 and 2.6±0.2, haemantaimene (IC50=1.1±0.7 and 2.7±0.8 μM), hamaine (IC50=3.4±1.0 and 6.2 ±1.4 μM), homolycorine (IC50=1.4±0.9 and 3.3±1.0 μM), hipeastrine (IC50=2.8±1.0 and 7.5±1.8 μM) were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 and Hela cell lines, respectively.

  16. Low-Voltage, Low-Power, Organic Light-Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. A.; Liu, B.; Donoghue, E. P.; Kravchenko, I.; Kim, D. Y.; So, F.; Rinzler, A. G.

    2011-04-01

    Intrinsic nonuniformity in the polycrystalline-silicon backplane transistors of active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays severely limits display size. Organic semiconductors might provide an alternative, but their mobility remains too low to be useful in the conventional thin-film transistor design. Here we demonstrate an organic channel light-emitting transistor operating at low voltage, with low power dissipation, and high aperture ratio, in the three primary colors. The high level of performance is enabled by a single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the light emitter into an efficient single stacked device. The performance demonstrated is comparable to that of polycrystalline-silicon backplane transistor-driven display pixels.

  17. Detection of the volatile organic compounds emitted from paints using optical fibre long period grating modified with the mesoporous nano-scale coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, Jiri; James, Stephen; Davis, Frank; Tatam, Ralph P.; Crump, Derrick; Korposh, Sergiy

    2015-09-01

    An optical fibre long period grating (LPG) modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensing mechanism is based on the transduction of the refractive index change induced by the complexion of the VOCs with calixarene into a change in the form of the transmission spectrum of the LPG. An LPG, modified with a calixarene-infused coating comprising 5 cycles of silica nanoparticles/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polycation (SiO2/PAH), was exposed to mixture of VOCs emitted from paint at conditions simulating ISO standards test (16000-10).

  18. Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Yu; Cho, Ting-Yi; Chen, Yen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Meng, Chao-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Hsu-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chung-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a pixel structure for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays that has a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell inserted between the driving polycrystalline Si thin-film transistor and the pixel OLED. Such an active-matrix OLED pixel structure not only exhibits a reduced reflection (and thus improved contrast) compared to conventional OLEDs but also is capable of recycling both incident photon energies and internally generated OLED radiation. Such a feature of energy recycling may be of use for portable/mobile electronics, which are particularly power aware.

  19. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  20. The Size of the Radio-Emitting Region in Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James M.; Ulvestad, James S.

    2005-01-01

    We have used the VLA to study radio variability among a sample of 18 low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), on time scales of a few hours to 10 days. The goal was to measure or limit the sizes of the LLAGN radio-emitting regions, in order to use the size measurements as input to models of the radio emission mechanisms in LLAGNs. We detect variability on typical time scales of a few days, at a confidence level of 99%, in half of the target galaxies. Either variability that is intrinsi...

  1. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Nakanotani, Hajime; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  2. Improved AC pixel electrode circuit for active matrix of organic light-emitting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yujuan; Lang, Liuqi; Chen, Wanzhong; Liu, Shiyong

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, a modified four-transistor pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting displays (AMOLED) was developed to improve the performance of OLED device. This modified pixel circuit can provide an AC driving mode to make the OLED working in a reversed-biased voltage during the certain cycle. The optimized values of the reversed-biased voltage and the characteristics of the pixel circuit were investigated using AIM-SPICE. The simulated results reveal that this circuit can provide a suitable output current and voltage characteristic, and little change was made in luminance current.

  3. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  4. A New Natural Compound with Cytotoxic Activity from Tripterygium hypoglaucum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; WANG Fang; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find antitumor cOnstituents from Tripterygium hypoglaucum.Methods The chloroform extract of T.hypoglaucum was separated by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC.The structures of compounds isolated were identified by spectral analysis and chemical evidence.Results Seven compounds were isolated and identified as rhein ethyl ester(1),chrysophenol(2),physcion(3),emodin(4),wilfordine(5),wilforgine(6),and wilforine(7).The cytotoxic activities of the compounds against cancer cell lines were assayed.Conclusion Compound 1 is a new natural compound with strong activities against human cancer cell lines (A2780 and OVCAR-3).Compounds 2-4 are isolated from this genus plants for the first time.The possible structure-activity relationship among compounds 1-4 shows that the methoxy group or oxyethyl moiety might be responsible for the cytotoxity.

  5. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  6. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence from {sup 3}nπ* to {sup 1}nπ* up-conversion and its application to organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Qisheng; Nomura, Hiroko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Functional Materials Laboratory, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Chemical Co., Ltd, 46–80 Nakabaru, Sakinohama, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804–8503 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    Intense nπ* fluorescence from a nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compound, 2,5,8-tris(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3MF), is demonstrated. The overlap-forbidden nature of the nπ* transition and the higher energy of the {sup 3}ππ* state than the {sup 3}nπ* one lead to a small energy difference between the lowest singlet (S{sub 1}) and triplet (T{sub 1}) excited states of HAP-3MF. Green-emitting HAP-3MF has a moderate photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.26 in both toluene and doped film. However, an organic light-emitting diode containing HAP-3MF achieved a high external quantum efficiency of 6.0%, indicating that HAP-3MF harvests singlet excitons through a thermally activated T{sub 1} → S{sub 1} pathway in the electroluminescent process.

  7. Simulation of the dose rate per activity of beta-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose rate per activity was simulated for 10 beta-emitting radionuclides and for different activity distributions (point source, areal sources and a semi-infinite volume source). The results are given for 7 different distances from the source (from 0.01 to 2 m) for both contributions: the beta- and electron-emission, and the X- and gamma-emission. Data are provided for both operational quantities and organ doses: Hp(0.07), Hp(3), Hp(10), Hskin and Hlens. Finally, a software application to interpolate the dose rate per activity due to the beta-emission of arbitrary radionuclides is presented and a simple superposition of these data and of gamma-ray dose constants to calculate the total dose rate is described. (authors)

  8. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C. E.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC / TOFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC / TOFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 722 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors (EFs) are presented for these compounds for burns of six different vegetative fuels, including conifer branches, grasses, agricultural residue, and peat. The number of compounds detected from individual burns ranged from 129 to 474, and included extensive isomer groups. For example, 38 monoterpene isomers were observed in the emissions from coniferous fuels; the isomeric ratios were found to be consistent with those reported in relevant essential oils, suggesting that the composition of such oils may be very useful when predicting fuel-dependent terpene emissions. Further, eleven sesquiterpenes were detected and tentatively identified, providing the first reported speciation of sesquiterpenes in gas-phase BB emissions. The calculated EFs for all measured compounds are compared and discussed in the context of potential SOA formation.

  9. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C. E.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC-ToFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 708 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors (EFs) are presented for these compounds for burns of six different vegetative fuels, including conifer branches, grasses, agricultural residue, and peat. The number of compounds meeting the peak selection criteria ranged from 129 to 474 among individual burns, and included extensive isomer groups. For example, 38 monoterpene isomers were observed in the emissions from coniferous fuels; the isomeric ratios were found to be consistent with those reported in relevant essential oils, suggesting that the composition of such oils may be very useful when predicting fuel-dependent terpene emissions. Further, 11 sesquiterpenes were detected and tentatively identified, providing the first reported speciation of sesquiterpenes in gas-phase BB emissions. The calculated EFs for all measured compounds are compared and discussed in the context of potential SOA formation.

  10. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  11. An advanced method of activity determination of large area beta emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented advanced method of activity determination of large area beta emitting sources is based on a version of efficiency tracing method using a test foil placed between the source and a conventional large area detector. It is shown that the total efficiency of the measuring system may depend on a dimensionless parameter derived from the difference in count rates caused by inserting the test foil while other disturbing effects are mostly reduced or compensated. - Highlights: • Efficiency tracing transmission method of beta activity determination. • Efficiency determined by means of a parameter independent of initial absorption conditions. • Parameter is derived from two counting results obtained with using a test foil. • Particularly useful for calibration and measurement of radionuclide standard sources

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2009-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  13. Novel Digital Driving Method Using Dual Scan for Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myoung Hoon; Choi, Inho; Chung, Hoon-Ju; Kim, Ohyun

    2008-11-01

    A new digital driving method has been developed for low-temperature polycrystalline silicon, transistor-driven, active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays by time-ratio gray-scale expression. This driving method effectively increases the emission ratio and the number of subfields by inserting another subfield set into nondisplay periods in the conventional digital driving method. By employing the proposed modified gravity center coding, this method can be used to effectively compensate for dynamic false contour noise. The operation and performance were verified by current measurement and image simulation. The simulation results using eight test images show that the proposed approach improves the average peak signal-to-noise ratio by 2.61 dB, and the emission ratio by 20.5%, compared with the conventional digital driving method.

  14. Driving technology for improving motion quality of active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryeol; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports transient response characteristics of active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for mobile applications. This work reports that the rising responses look like saw-tooth waveform and are not always faster than those of liquid crystal displays. Thus, a driving technology is proposed to improve the rising transient responses of AMOLED based on the overdrive (OD) technology. We modified the OD technology by combining it with a dithering method because the conventional OD method cannot successfully enhance all the rising responses. Our method can improve all the transitions of AMOLED without modifying the conventional gamma architecture of drivers. A new artifact is found when OD is applied to certain transitions. We propose an optimum OD selection method to mitigate the artifact. The implementation results show the proposed technology can successfully improve motion quality of scrolling texts as well as moving pictures in AMOLED displays.

  15. Voltage Drop Compensation Method for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-moo; Ryu, Do-hyung; Kim, Keum-nam; Choi, Jae-beom; Kim, Byung-hee; Berkeley, Brian

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the conventional voltage drop compensation methods are reviewed and the novel design and driving scheme, the advanced power de-coupled (aPDC) driving method, is proposed to effectively compensate the voltage IR drop of active matrix light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The advanced PDC driving scheme can be applied to general AMOLED pixel circuits that have been developed with only minor modification or without requiring modification in pixel circuit. A 14-in. AMOLED panel with the aPDC driving scheme was fabricated. Long range uniformity (LRU) of the 14-in. AMOLED panel was improved from 43% without the aPDC driving scheme, to over 87% at the same brightness by using the scheme and the layout complexity of the panel with new design scheme is less than that of the panel with the conventional design scheme.

  16. Reduction in Power Consumption for Full-Color Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Hamada, Yuji; Nishimura, Kazuki; Okumoto, Kenji; Saito, Nobuo; Mameno, Kazunobu; Shibata, Kenichi

    2006-09-01

    The active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) is expected to serve as next generation flat panels display with the outstanding features of wide viewing angle, vivid images, and quick response. For practical use of full-color AMOLEDs in mobile devices, it is essential to reduce the power consumption, which is generally higher than that of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). For this aim, a red, green, blue, and white (RGBW) pixel format combined with an RGB color filter array (RGBW format) with a common white emission layer (EML) has been developed. We find that the RGBW format can successfully reduce the power consumption of a full-color AMOLED by nearly half that of a conventionally filtered RGB pixel format. This improved power consumption is almost equal to the power consumption of a same-sized LCD. The RGBW format is a promising technique for the further reduction of the power consumption of a full-color AMOLED.

  17. First results on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds emitted by wax objects in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao, S; Langlois, J; Regert, M

    2008-04-11

    Sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a large variety of materials is nowadays a very useful technique for analytical purpose. In the field of cultural heritage, it can be applied to identify some constituents of museum artefacts off-gassing VOCs without sampling on the object itself. In this study, we focused on objects made of wax. First volatiles emitted by a reference beeswax were trapped and identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This allowed to identify numerous volatile biomarkers, namely saturated n-alkanes from C(10) to C(21), saturated n-carboxylic acids containing 6-12 carbon atoms, benzene and cinnamic derivatives that may be considered as volatile biomarkers of beeswax. The SPME strategy was then performed at the Orsay museum (Paris) in a showcase containing a wax sculpture "Le Mineur de la Loire" by J.-J. Carriès. The use of beeswax in this sculpture was unequivocally confirmed by the VOCs concentrated in the showcase, together with a set of characteristic molecular compounds identified by HT-GC/MS. HS-SPME-GC/MS thus appears to be a powerful in situ and non-invasive analytical technique that allows to identify natural substances in the field of cultural heritage without any sampling of solid matter from the object. The results obtained are promising for orientating the strategy of preventive conservation related to works of art characterised by important emission of VOCs.

  18. Feasibility of Active Machine Learning for Multiclass Compound Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tobias; Flachsenberg, Florian; von Luxburg, Ulrike; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-01-25

    A common task in the hit-to-lead process is classifying sets of compounds into multiple, usually structural classes, which build the groundwork for subsequent SAR studies. Machine learning techniques can be used to automate this process by learning classification models from training compounds of each class. Gathering class information for compounds can be cost-intensive as the required data needs to be provided by human experts or experiments. This paper studies whether active machine learning can be used to reduce the required number of training compounds. Active learning is a machine learning method which processes class label data in an iterative fashion. It has gained much attention in a broad range of application areas. In this paper, an active learning method for multiclass compound classification is proposed. This method selects informative training compounds so as to optimally support the learning progress. The combination with human feedback leads to a semiautomated interactive multiclass classification procedure. This method was investigated empirically on 15 compound classification tasks containing 86-2870 compounds in 3-38 classes. The empirical results show that active learning can solve these classification tasks using 10-80% of the data which would be necessary for standard learning techniques.

  19. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Marine Algal Polyphenolic Compounds: A Mechanistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship. PMID:27332715

  1. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.

  2. Applicability of light-emitting diodes as light sources for active differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Trick, Sebastian; Rippel, Bernhard; Platt, Ulrich

    2006-03-20

    We present what is to our knowledge the first use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Modern LEDs represent a potentially advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular to xenon arc lamps, which are the most common active DOAS light sources. The radiative properties of a variety of LEDs were characterized, and parameters such as spectral shape, spectral range, spectral stability, and ways in which they can be influenced by environmental factors were analyzed. The spectra of several LEDs were found to contain Fabry-Perot etalon-induced spectral structures that interfered with the DOAS evaluation, in particular when a constant temperature was not maintained. It was shown that LEDs can be used successfully as light sources in active DOAS experiments that measure NO2 and NO3 near 450 and 630 nm, respectively. Average detection limits of 0.3 parts in 10(9) and 16 parts in 10(12) respectively, were obtained by use of a 6 km light path in the open atmosphere. PMID:16579579

  3. Active-matrix organic light-emitting displays on flexible metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. K.; Jamshidi Roudbari, A.; Troccoli, M. N.; Chang, Y. L.; Reed, G.; Hatalis, M.; Spirko, J.; Klier, K.; Preis, S.; Pearson, R.; Najafov, H.; Biaggio, I.; Afentakis, T.; Voutsas, A.; Forsythe, E.; Shi, J.; Blomquist, S.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a 3.5 inch diagonal Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Display on flexible metal foils. The active matrix array had the VGA format and was fabricated using the polysilicon TFT technology. The advantages that the metal foil substrates offer for flexible display applications will first be discussed, followed by a discussion on the multilayer coatings that were investigated in order to achieve a high quality insulating layer on the metal foil substrate prior to TFT fabrication. Then the polysilicon TFT device performance will be presented as a function of the polysilicon crystallization method. Both laser crystallized polysilicon and solid phased crystallized polysilicon films were investigated for the TFT device fabrication. Due to the opaque nature of the metal foil substrates the display had a top emission structure. Both small molecule and polymer based organic material were investigated for the display emissive part. The former were evaporated while the latter were applied by spin-cast. Various transparent multi-layer metal films were investigated as the top cathode. The approach used to package the finished AMOLED display in order to protect the organic layers from environmental degradation will be described. The display had integrated polysilicon TFT scan drivers consisting of shift registers and buffers but external data drivers. The driving approach of the display will be discussed in detail. The performance of the finished display will be discussed as a function of the various materials and fabrication processes that were investigated.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  5. State-of-the-art in the measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted from building products: results of European interlaboratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, M; Kephalopoulos, S; Kirchner, S; Schauenburg, H; Vissers, H

    1999-06-01

    Eighteen laboratories from 10 European countries participated in a comparison organized as part of the VOCEM project, a 2.5-year research collaboration among 4 research institutes and 4 industrial companies. The scope of the project was to improve the procedure used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials and products in small test chambers. The interlaboratory comparison included the GC-MS determination of 5 target compounds from carpet, 8 from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cushion vinyl and 2 from paint; for the first time, chamber recovery (sinks), homogeneity of solid materials and possible contamination during transport were tested. The results show that the intralaboratory variance (random errors) is much smaller than the interlaboratory variance (systematic errors). Causes of the largest interlaboratory discrepancies were: (i) analytical errors; (ii) losses of the heaviest compounds due to sorption on the chamber walls; and (iii) non homogeneity of the materials. The output of this work concerns both the objective of labelling materials with regard to their VOC emissions and the pre-standard drafted by the European Commitee for Standardization (CEN) for this type of determination.

  6. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  7. High-Efficiency Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Phenoxaphosphine and Phenoxathiin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae Youn; Adachi, Chihaya; Yasuda, Takuma

    2016-06-01

    High-efficiency blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules, consisting of phenoxaphosphine oxide and phenoxathiin dioxide as acceptor units and 9,9-dimethylacridan as a donor unit, are reported. Maximum external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies of up to 20.5% are achieved in blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by employing these materials as TADF emitters.

  8. Compound Ag nanocluster-graphene electrodes as transparent and current spreading electrodes for improved light output power in near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduced a two-dimensional graphene network on a Ag nanocluster as a transparent and current spreading electrode (TCSE) for a near-ultraviolet light emitting diode (NUV-LED), and compared the performance with those with graphene electrodes or conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The current–voltage characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) data showed that compound Ag nanocluster-graphene (CA-G) electrodes operated well as TCSEs in NUV-LED devices. The forward voltage at an input current of 20 mA was 4.06 V for the NUV-LED of current spreading electrodes with CA-G electrodes, which is only slightly higher than the value 3.96 V with ITO electrodes as TCSEs. The EL intensity of NUV-LEDs with CA-G electrodes also showed a slight increase, compared to that of NUV-LEDs with planar ITO transparent conducting electrodes. (paper)

  9. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  10. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    Context • Telomeres are repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences (TTAGGG) that are located on the 5' ends of chromosomes, and they control the life span of eukaryotic cells. Compelling evidence has shown that the length of a person's life is dictated by the limited number of times that a human cell can divide. The enzyme telomerase has been shown to bind to and extend the length of telomeres. Thus, strategies for activating telomerase may help maintain telomere length and, thus, may lead to improved health during aging. Objective • The current study intended to investigate the effects of several natural compounds on telomerase activity in an established cell model of telomere shortening (ie, IMR90 cells). Design • The research team designed an in vitro study. Setting • The study was conducted at Roskamp Institute in Sarasota, FL, USA. Intervention • The tested single compounds were (1) α-lipoic acid, (1) green tea extract, (2) dimethylaminoethanol L-bitartrate (DMAE L-bitartrate), (3) N-acetyl-L-cysteine hydrochloride (HCL), (4) chlorella powder, (5) L-carnosine, (6) vitamin D3, (7) rhodiola PE 3%/1%, (8) glycine, (9) French red wine extract, (10) chia seed extract, (11) broccoli seed extract, and (12) Astragalus (TA-65). The compounds were tested singly and as blends. Outcome Measures • Telomerase activity for single compounds and blends of compounds was measured by the TeloTAGGG telomerase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 4 most potent blends were investigated for their effects on cancer-cell proliferation and for their potential effects on the cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of a chemotherapeutic agent, the topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan. The benefits of 6 population doublings (PDs) were measured for the single compounds, and the 4 blends were compared to 3 concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Results • Certain of the compounds increased

  11. Removal of airborne microorganisms emitted from a wastewater treatment oxidation ditch by adsorption on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Min Gao; Junxin Liu; Xuesong Guo

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol emissions from wastewater and wastewater treatment processes are a significant subgroup of atmospheric aerosols.Most previous work has focused on the evaluation of their biological risks.In this study, however, the adsorption method was applied to reduce airborne microorganisms generated from a pilot scale wastewater treatment facility with oxidation ditch.Results showed adsorption on granule activated carbon (GAC) was an efficient method for the purification of airborne microorganisms.The GAC itself had a maximum adsorption capacity of 2217 CFU/g for airborne bacteria and 225 CFU/g for fungi with a flow rate of 1.50 m3/hr.Over 85%of airborne bacteria and fungi emitted from thc oxidation ditch were adsorbed within 80 hr of continuous operation mode.Most of them had a particle size of 0.65-4.7 μm.Those airborne microorganisms with small particle size were apt to be adsorbed.The SEM/EDAX,BET and Boehm's titration methods were applied to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of the GAC.Relationships between GAC surface characteristics and its adsorption performance demonstrated that porous structure, large surface area, and hydrophobicity rendered GAC an effective absorber of airborne microorganisms.Two regenerate methods, ultraviolet irradiation and high pressure vapor, were compared for the regeneration of used activated carbon.High pressure vapor was an effective technique as it totally destroyed the microorganisms adhered to the activated carbon.Microscopic observation was also carried out to investigate original and used adsorbents.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  13. Organic thin-film transistor arrays for active-matrix organic light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyun; Moon, Hyunsik; Kim, Do H.; Koo, Bon-Won; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Bang-Lin; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Eunkyung; Hahn, Kook-Min; Han, Jeong-Seok; Park, Jung-Il; Seon, Jong-Baek; Kim, Jung-Woo; Chun, Young-Tea; Kim, Sangyeol; Kang, Sung K.

    2007-09-01

    We developed an active matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) on a glass using two organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) and a capacitor in a pixel. OTFTs switching-arrays with 64 scan lines and 64 (RGB) data lines were designed and fabricated to drive OLED arrays. In this study, OTFT devices have bottom contact structures with an ink-jet printed polymer semiconductor and an organic insulator as a gate dielectric. The width and length of the switching OTFT is 500μm and 10μm, respectively and the driving OTFT has 900μm channel width with the same channel length. The characteristics of the OTFTs were examined using test cells around display area. On/off ratio, mobility, on-current of switching OTFT and on-current of driving OTFT were 10 6, 0.1 cm2/V-sec, order of 8μA and over 70 μA respectively. These properties were enough to drive the AMOLEDs over 60 Hz frame rate. AMOLEDs composed of the OTFT switching arrays and OLEDs made by deposition of small molecule materials were fabricated and driven to make moving images, successfully.

  14. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  15. Stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display using printable elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Maeda, Hiroki; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo; Hata, Kenji; Someya, Takao

    2009-06-01

    Stretchability will significantly expand the applications scope of electronics, particularly for large-area electronic displays, sensors and actuators. Unlike for conventional devices, stretchable electronics can cover arbitrary surfaces and movable parts. However, a large hurdle is the manufacture of large-area highly stretchable electrical wirings with high conductivity. Here, we describe the manufacture of printable elastic conductors comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uniformly dispersed in a fluorinated rubber. Using an ionic liquid and jet-milling, we produce long and fine SWNT bundles that can form well-developed conducting networks in the rubber. Conductivity of more than 100Scm-1 and stretchability of more than 100% are obtained. Making full use of this extraordinary conductivity, we constructed a rubber-like stretchable active-matrix display comprising integrated printed elastic conductors, organic transistors and organic light-emitting diodes. The display could be stretched by 30-50% and spread over a hemisphere without any mechanical or electrical damage.

  16. Separated Carbon Nanotube Macroelectronics for Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Pochiang; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-02-01

    Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display holds great potential for the next generation visual technologies due to its high light efficiency, flexibility, lightweight, and low-temperature processing. However, suitable thin-film transistors (TFTs) are required to realize the advantages of AMOLED. Pre-separated, semiconducting enriched carbon nanotubes are excellent candidates for this purpose because of their excellent mobility, high percentage of semiconducting nanotubes, and room-temperature processing compatibility. Here we report, for the first time, the demonstration of AMOLED displays driven by separated nanotube thin-film transistors (SN-TFTs) including key technology components such as large-scale high-yield fabrication of devices with superior performance, carbon nanotube film density optimization, bilayer gate dielectric for improved substrate adhesion to the deposited nanotube film, and the demonstration of monolithically integrated AMOLED display elements with 500 pixels driven by 1000 SN-TFTs. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film display electronics.

  17. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ana O. de Souza; Fabio C. S. Galetti; Silva, Célio L.; Beatriz Bicalho; Márcia M. Parma; Sebastião F. Fonseca; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Angela C. L. B. Trindade; Rossimíriam P. Freitas Gil; Franciglauber S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Oliveira, Maria C. F.

    2007-01-01

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 µmol/L. Dihy...

  18. Antifungal Activity of Extractable Conifer Heartwood Compounds Toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper, ...

  19. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of certain chalcone based pyrazoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakara Rao Gerapati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions are involuntary, violent, spasmodic and prolonged contractions of skeletal muscles. That means a patient may have epilepsy without convulsions and vice versa. Epilepsy is a common neurological abnormality affecting about 1% of the world population. The primary objectives of these synthesized compounds are to suppress seizures and provide neuroprotection by minimizing the effects from seizure attacks. Here some of the chalcones and chalcone based various pyrazolines were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses and spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H-NMR & Mass spectroscopy. A preliminary evaluation of the prepared compounds has indicated that some of them exhibit moderate to significant anticonvulsant activity compared to a diazepam standard1-3.  All compounds were tested for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock induced convulsions (MES in mice at a dose level of 4 mg/kg.b.w. The compounds  Ph1, Ph2 , Py2 ,Py3 and Py4 have shown  to  good anticonvulsant activity when doses are administered as 25mg/ kg.b.w  , reduced the phases of seizures severity and  found to be active and also  increased survival rate. Remaining compounds are less efficacious.

  20. Hydroxylated PBDEs and brominated phenolic compounds in particulate matters emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenolic compounds in aerosol samples from a printed circuit boards recycling workshop were characterized. The results show that OH-PBDEs, which are naturally occurring compounds or metabolism of PBDEs, could also be emitted from the e-waste recycling. Five OH-PBDEs, several unidentified mono-OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBDE congeners were detected. The concentration of ∑OH-PBDEs was 1.74–4.22 ng m−3 (average of 2.66 ng m−3), with 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.329 ng m−3) as the most abundant identified congener. The total concentration of di- to tri-brominated phenols (BPs) was 18.8–32.0 ng m−3 (average of 26.3 ng m−3) with 2,4,6-triBP as the most abundant congener. These findings suggest that the recycling of printed circuit boards represent a strong source of OH-PBDEs and BPs to the atmosphere. Additionally, some phenolic compounds including brominated bisphenol A, hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl species and etc. were also identified. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs and BPs were abundant in the PM from printed circuit boards recycling. ► The patterns of OH-PBDEs and BPs were different from that in biotic environment. ► 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most abundant identified OH-PBDE congener. ► 2,4,6-triBP was the most abundant BP congener. ► Possible formation mechanisms of OH-PBDEs and BPs were discussed. -- Recycling of waste printed circuit boards might represent a strong source of OH-PBDEs, BPs and other phenolic compounds

  1. Organic compounds in PM 2.5 emitted from fireplace and woodstove combustion of typical Portuguese wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Cristina; Tarelho, Luís; Evtyugina, Margarita; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is the further characterisation of PM 2.5 emissions from the residential wood combustion of common woods grown in Portugal. This new research extends to eight the number of biomass fuels studied and tries to understand the differences that the burning appliance (fireplace versus woodstove) and the combustion temperature (cold and hot start) have on emissions. Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (Golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (Olive), Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were used in the combustion tests. Determinations included fine particle emission factors, carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermal-optical transmission technique and detailed identification and quantification of organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fine particle emission factors from the woodstove were lower than those from the fireplace. For both combustion appliances, the OC/EC ratio was higher in "cold start" tests (1.56 ± 0.95 for woodstove and 2.03 ± 1.34 for fireplace). These "cold start" OC/EC values were, respectively, for the woodstove and the fireplace, 51% and 69% higher than those obtained in "hot start" experiments. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl esters of acids. The smoke emission rate and composition varied widely depending on fuel type, burning appliance and combustion temperature.

  2. Characterization of odor-active compounds in guava wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Queris, Oscar

    2011-05-11

    The volatile compounds of guava wine were isolated by continuous solvent extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 124 volatile constituents were detected, and 102 of them were positively identified. The composition of guava wine included 52 esters, 24 alcohols, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 6 aldehydes, 6 terpenes, 4 phenols and derivatives, 4 lactones, 4 sulfur-compounds, and 5 miscellaneous compounds. The aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis and by odor activity values. Twelve odorants were considered as odor-active volatiles: (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 3-phenylpropanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methyltetrahydrothiophen-3-one, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone, ethyl (E)-cinnamate, ethyl butanoate, (E)-cinnamyl acetate, 3-phenylpropyl acetate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate. PMID:21417409

  3. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity.

  4. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  5. Prediction of Antifungal Activity of Gemini Imidazolium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pałkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA, which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds.

  6. Analysis and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from plastics used in museum construction by evolved gas analysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samide, Michael J; Smith, Gregory D

    2015-12-24

    Construction materials used in museums for the display, storage, and transportation of artwork must be assessed for their tendency to emit harmful pollution that could potentially damage cultural treasures. Traditionally, a subjective metals corrosion test known as the Oddy test has been widely utilized in museums for this purpose. To augment the Oddy test, an instrumental sampling approach based on evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectral (MS) detection has been implemented for the first time to qualitatively identify off-gassed pollutants under specific conditions. This approach is compared to other instrumental methods reported in the literature. This novel application of the EGA sampling technique yields several benefits over traditional testing, including rapidity, high sensitivity, and broad detectability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, unlike other reported instrumental approaches, the EGA method was used to determine quantitatively the amount of VOCs emitted by acetate resins and polyurethane foams under specific conditions using both an external calibration method as well as surrogate response factors. EGA was successfully employed to rapidly characterize emissions from 12 types of common plastics. This analysis is advocated as a rapid pre-screening method to rule out poorly performing materials prior to investing time and energy in Oddy testing. The approach is also useful for rapid, routine testing of construction materials previously vetted by traditional testing, but which may experience detrimental formulation changes over time. As an example, a case study on batch re-orders of rigid expanded poly(vinyl chloride) board stock is presented.

  7. Analysis and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from plastics used in museum construction by evolved gas analysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samide, Michael J; Smith, Gregory D

    2015-12-24

    Construction materials used in museums for the display, storage, and transportation of artwork must be assessed for their tendency to emit harmful pollution that could potentially damage cultural treasures. Traditionally, a subjective metals corrosion test known as the Oddy test has been widely utilized in museums for this purpose. To augment the Oddy test, an instrumental sampling approach based on evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectral (MS) detection has been implemented for the first time to qualitatively identify off-gassed pollutants under specific conditions. This approach is compared to other instrumental methods reported in the literature. This novel application of the EGA sampling technique yields several benefits over traditional testing, including rapidity, high sensitivity, and broad detectability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, unlike other reported instrumental approaches, the EGA method was used to determine quantitatively the amount of VOCs emitted by acetate resins and polyurethane foams under specific conditions using both an external calibration method as well as surrogate response factors. EGA was successfully employed to rapidly characterize emissions from 12 types of common plastics. This analysis is advocated as a rapid pre-screening method to rule out poorly performing materials prior to investing time and energy in Oddy testing. The approach is also useful for rapid, routine testing of construction materials previously vetted by traditional testing, but which may experience detrimental formulation changes over time. As an example, a case study on batch re-orders of rigid expanded poly(vinyl chloride) board stock is presented. PMID:26687162

  8. Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu Apolar Compounds with Antitubercular Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Higuchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of Byrsonima fagifolia leaves led to the isolation of active antitubercular compounds alkane dotriacontane (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC, 62.5 μg mL−1, triterpenoids as bassic acid (MIC = 2.5 μg mL−1, α-amyrin acetate (MIC = 62.5 μg mL−1, a mixture of lupeol, α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1 and a mixture of lupeol, and acetates of α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1. The antimycobacterial activity was determined by the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA and the structures of promising compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. This investigation constitutes the first report of a chemical and antitubercular study of apolar compounds from B. fagifolia Niedenzu (IK.

  9. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  11. EXPLORING COMPOUND PROMISCUITY PATTERNS AND MULTI-TARGET ACTIVITY SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound promiscuity is rationalized as the specific interaction of a small molecule with multiple biological targets (as opposed to non-specific binding events and represents the molecular basis of polypharmacology, an emerging theme in drug discovery and chemical biology. This concise review focuses on recent studies that have provided a detailed picture of the degree of promiscuity among different categories of small molecules. In addition, an exemplary computational approach is discussed that is designed to navigate multi-target activity spaces populated with various compounds.

  12. Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Seong; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2014-08-01

    High efficiency hybrid type white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) combining a green thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitting material with red/blue phosphorescent emitting materials were developed by manipulating the device architecture of WOLEDs. Energy transfer between a blue phosphorescent emitting material and a green TADF emitter was efficient and could be managed by controlling the doping concentration of emitters. A high quantum efficiency above 20% was achieved in the hybrid WOLEDs by optimizing the device structure of the hybrid type WOLEDs for the first time and the device performances of the hybrid WOLEDs were comparable to those of all phosphorescent WOLEDs.

  13. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure.

  14. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure. PMID:18618404

  15. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  16. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  17. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  18. Highly Efficient Nondoped Organic Light Emitting Diodes Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter with Quantum-Well Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingqiang; Wang, Hui; Wei, Xiaofang; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Yongzhen; Kong, Xiangbin; Lv, Xiaopeng; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Ying

    2016-08-17

    Highly efficiency nondoped thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with multiquantum wells structure were demonstrated. By using an emitting layer with seven quantum wells, the nondoped TADF OLEDs exhibit high efficiency with EQE of 22.6%, a current efficiency of 69 cd/A, and a power efficiency of 50 lm/W, which are higher than those of the conventional doped OLED and among the best of the TADF OLEDs. The high performance of the devices can be ascribed to effective confinement of the charges and excitons in the emission layer by the quantum well structure. The emission layer with multiquantum well structure is demonstrated to be cost effective for highly efficient nondoped TADF OLEDs and holds great potential for organic electronics.

  19. A single Eu2+-activated high-color-rendering oxychloride white-light phosphor for white-light-emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Peng Dai; Cong Li; Xin-Tong Zhang; Jun Xu; Xi Chen; Xiu-Li Wang; Yan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Single-phased,high-color-rendering index (CRI) white-light phosphors are emerging as potential phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) and as an alternative to blends of tricolor phosphors.However,it is a challenge to create a high CRI white light from a single-doped activator.Here,we present a high CRI (Ra =91) white-light phosphor,Sr5(PO4)3-x(BO3)xCl:Eu2+,composed of Sr5(PO4)3Cl as the beginning member and Sr5(BO3)3Cl as the end member.This work utilized the solid-solution method,and tunable EU2+ emission was achieved.Color-tunable Eu2+ emissions in response to structural variation were observed in Sr5(PO4)3-x(BO3)xCl solid solutions.This was further confirmed using X-ray Rietveld refinement,electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy,and in the photoluminescence spectra.The color-tunable emissions included the white light that originated from the combination of the blue emission of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ and an induced Eu2+ yellow emission at approximately 550 nm in the solid solution.Importantly,the white-light phosphors showed a greater R9 =90.2 under excitation at 365 nm.This result has rarely been reported in the literature and is greater than that of (R9 =14.3) commercial Y3A15O12:Ce3+-based WLEDs.These findings demonstrate the great potential of Sr5(PO4)3-x(BO3)xCl:O.O4Eu2+ as a white-light phosphor for near-UV phosphor-converted WLEDs.These results also provide a shortcut for developing a high CRI white-light phosphor from a single Eu2+-doped compound.

  20. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  1. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future. PMID:20514391

  2. Crystal Structures and Antimicrobial Activity of Two Phosphorus Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    One phosphorus heterocycle compound 1, C13H13N2OPS, was synthesized by the reaction of Lawesson's reagent (LR) with o-phenylene diamine. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P212121 with a = 5.5274(11), b = 8.1603(16), c = 28.830(6) (A), V =1300.4(4) (A)3, Z = 4, Mr= 276.28, Dc = 1.411 g/cm3, F(000) = 576,μ = 0.360 mm-1, R = 0.0259 and wR = 0.0652 for 1414 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). While compound 2, C14H17N2O2PS, was obtained as a ring-cleavage product of compound 1. This crystal is of monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 9.5619(19), b = 21.879(4), c = 7.3618(15) (A), β= 103.03(3)°, V=1500.4(5) (A)3,Z = 4, Mr= 308.33, Dc = 1.365 g/cm3, F(000) = 648, μ = 0.325 mm-1, R = 0.0383 and wR =0.0742for 2283 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Phosphorus atom in each compound bonds with sulfur and carbon atoms using sp3 hybrid orbitals, and crystals of these two compounds are formed and stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals' forces. The special structure of compound 1 leads to its good antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Monobromination of Activated Aromatic Compounds withPolyvinylbenzyltriphenylphosphonium Supported Tribromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-Hu; YANG Gui-Chun; CHEN Zu-Xing

    2001-01-01

    Chloromethylated crosslinked co-polyvinylbenzene-divinylber-zene (2% DVB) was treated with triphenylphospbhie and then with sodium bromate and hydrobromic acid to afford red col-ored insoluble polyvinylbenzyltriphenylphosphon supportedtribromide.This reagent could be used as a mild and efficient monobrominating reagent for activated aromatic compounds such as phenols,aromatic,aromatic amines and acety-lanilines with good yields and high para-selectivity.

  4. Olive mill wastewater anaerobically digested : phenolic compounds with antiradical activity

    OpenAIRE

    La Cara, Francesco; Ionata, Elena; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Loredana; Gonçalves, Marta R.; Marques, I. P.

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds, present in the olive fruits and its by-products, has been intensively studied by the antioxidant properties. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a phenolic-rich industrial effluent that can be advantageously valorized by the anaerobic digestion to the methane and agricultural fertilizer productions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antiradical activity of OMW after anaerobic digestion in order to maximize the valorization of this type o...

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  6. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-15

    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  7. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donor and acceptor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient exciplex type organic light-emitting diodes were developed using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donors and acceptors of an exciplex. Blue emitting bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)phenyl]sulfone (DMAC-DPS) was a donor and 9,9'-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (DDCzTrz) and 9,9',9″-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)benzene-1,2,3-triyl)tris(9H-carbazole) (TCzTrz) were acceptor materials. The exciplexes of DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz resulted in high photoluminescence quantum yield and high quantum efficiency in the green exciplex organic light-emitting diodes. High quantum efficiencies of 13.4% and 15.3% were obtained in the DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz exciplex devices.

  8. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donor and acceptor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient exciplex type organic light-emitting diodes were developed using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donors and acceptors of an exciplex. Blue emitting bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)phenyl]sulfone (DMAC-DPS) was a donor and 9,9‧-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (DDCzTrz) and 9,9‧,9″-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)benzene-1,2,3-triyl)tris(9H-carbazole) (TCzTrz) were acceptor materials. The exciplexes of DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz resulted in high photoluminescence quantum yield and high quantum efficiency in the green exciplex organic light-emitting diodes. High quantum efficiencies of 13.4% and 15.3% were obtained in the DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz exciplex devices.

  9. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belén Joray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1, isoliquiritigenin (2, pinocembrin (3, 7-hydroxyflavanone (4, and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5. Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound.

  10. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT THIOSEMICARBAZONE COMPOUNDS AGAINST MICROBIAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi Parul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone belongs to a large group of thiourea derivatives, whose biological activities are a function of parent aldehyde or ketone moiety. They have been evaluated over the last 50 year as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, leprosy, rheumatism, trypanosomiasis and coccidiodis. Thiosemicarbazones were prepared by simple process in which N4-thiosemicarbazone moiety was replaced by aliphatic, arylic and cyclic amines. Present study reported the anti-microbial activity of different thiosemicarbazone compounds against certain bacterial and fungal pathogens viz. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Moraxella cattarhalis, Staph. Saprophyticus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavans.

  12. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, X. C.; Huang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol ...

  13. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng, X. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol also exhibits stronger activity than 2-tert-butyl-4- methoxyphenol. The methylene of 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol can provide a hydrogen atom to active free radicals like a phenolic hydroxyl group does because it is greatly activated by both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group. Five factors affect the antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds: how stable the phenolic compound free radicals are after providing hydrogen atoms; how many hy drogen atoms each of the phenolic compounds can provide; how fast the phenolic compounds provide hydrogen atoms; how easily the phenolic compound free radicals can combine with more active free radicals, and whether or not a new antioxidant can form after the phenolic compound provides hydrogen atoms.La relación entre estructura y la actividad antioxidante de 21 compuestos fenólicos con impedimentos estéricos fue investigado mediante ensayos con Rancimat y DPPH·. El 3-terc-butil-5-metilbenceno-1,2-diol es el antioxidante más potente en los ensayos mediante Rancimat pero no mediante ensayos con DPPH·, porque sus dos grupos hidroxilo tienen una fuerte sinergia estérica. El 2,6-Di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metil-fenol mostró una actividad antioxidante tan fuerte como el 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-metoxifenol en ensayos con manteca de cerdo. El 2,6-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metilfenol también mostró una actividad más fuerte que el 2-terc-butil-4-metoxifenol. El grupo metileno del 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-hidroxi

  14. Electrochemical screening of biomembrane-active compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadi, Shahrzad, E-mail: cmsm@leeds.ac.uk; Tate, Daniel J.; Vakurov, Alexander; Nelson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Analytical technology application with improvement allowing for on-line high-throughput water toxin screening is presented. • Compound classes of related structure and shape interact with DOPC coated Pt/Hg with a class specific response. • Predecessor membrane system proved as fragile, complex and for environmental application incompatible. - Abstract: Interactions of biomembrane-active compounds with phospholipid monolayers on microfabricated Pt/Hg electrodes in an on-line high throughput flow system are demonstrated by recording capacitance current peak changes as rapid cyclic voltammograms (RCV). Detection limits of the compounds’ effects on the layer have been estimated from the data. Compounds studied include steroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines. The results show that the extent and type of interaction depends on the—(a) presence and number of aromatic rings and substituents, (b) presence and composition of side chains and, (c) molecular shape. Interaction is only indirectly related to compound hydrophobicity. For a selection of tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines the detection limit in water is related to their therapeutic normal threshold. The sensing assay has been tested in the presence of humic acid as a potential interferent and in a tap water matrix. The system can be applied to the screening of putative hazardous substances and pharmaceuticals allowing for early detection thereof in the water supply. The measurements are made in real time which means that potentially toxic compounds are detected rapidly within <10 min per assay. This technology will contribute greatly to environment safety and health.

  15. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ana O. de [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica e Biofisica]. E-mail: olivia@butantan.gov.br; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 {mu}mol/L. Dihydrocurvularin was moderately effective with a MIC of 40 {mu}mol/L. Clusia sp. floral resin and a gallocatechin-epigallocatechin mixture showed MIC of 0.02 g/L and 38 {mu}mol/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity was evaluated for N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline, curvularin, dihydrocurvularin and Clusia sp. floral resin, and the selectivity indexes were > 125, 0.47, 0.75 and 5, respectively. (author)

  16. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana O. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 8 µmol/L. Dihydrocurvularin was moderately effective with a MIC of 40 µmol/L. Clusia sp. floral resin and a gallocatechin-epigallocatechin mixture showed MIC of 0.02 g/L and 38 µmol/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity was evaluated for N-(salicylidene-2-hydroxyaniline, curvularin, dihydrocurvularin and Clusia sp. floral resin, and the selectivity indexes were > 125, 0.47, 0.75 and 5, respectively.

  17. Plant-Derived Compounds with Potential Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor-Kuponiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, etc., have been isolated and identified in different plants. Pharmacological and chemical investigations of medicinal plants have provided important advances in therapeutic approach to several pathologies as well as extremely useful tools for the theoretical study of physiology and pharmacology. With increased use of herbal medicine, medicinal plants are receiving more attention from the scientific and pharmaceutical communities. Several compounds have been isolated and evaluated for their sedative and anxiolytic properties. Although most of the reported works are more of academic interest and very few find entry at clinical trials; one is hopeful that as more discoveries of sedative and anxiolytic compounds from plants are made, it will lead to generation of more effective drugs.

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF INFALLING Fe II-EMITTING CLOUDS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANISOTROPIC PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate consequences of the discovery that Fe II emission in quasars, one of the spectroscopic signatures of 'Eigenvector 1', may originate in infalling clouds. Eigenvector 1 correlates with the Eddington ratio L/L Edd so that Fe II/Hβ increases as L/L Edd increases. We show that the 'force multiplier', the ratio of gas opacity to electron scattering opacity, is ∼103-104 in Fe II-emitting gas. Such gas would be accelerated away from the central object if the radiation force is able to act on the entire cloud. As had previously been deduced, infall requires that the clouds have large column densities so that a substantial amount of shielded gas is present. The critical column density required for infall to occur depends on L/L Edd, establishing a link between Eigenvector 1 and the Fe II/Hβ ratio. We see predominantly the shielded face of the infalling clouds rather than the symmetric distribution of emitters that has been assumed. The Fe II spectrum emitted by the shielded face is in good agreement with observations thus solving several long-standing mysteries in quasar emission lines.

  19. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  20. Anti-allergic activity of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Kummee, Sopa

    2008-02-28

    Kaempferia parviflora is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family, locally known in Thai as kra-chai-dam. In Thai traditional medicine, the decoction of Kaempferia parviflora powder with alcohol has been reported to cure allergy, asthma, impotence, gout, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcer and diabetes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate anti-allergic substances from this plant. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of seven methoxyflavone derivatives (1-7) from Kaempferia parviflora extract and they were identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among the compounds tested, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5) possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC(50) value of 8.0 microM, followed by 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2, IC(50)=20.6 microM) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4, IC(50)=26.0 microM), whereas others showed moderate activities (IC(50)=37.5-66.5 microM). Structure-activity trends of 7-methoxyflavone derivatives on anti-allergic activity can be summarized as follows: (1) substitution with vicinal methoxyl groups at positions 3' and 4' conferred higher activity than only one methoxylation, (2) methoxylation at position 3 reduced activity and (3) methoxylation at position 5 showed higher activity than hydroxylation. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were also determined for their mechanisms on ionomycin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The results indicated that the mechanism on inhibition of cell degranulation of compounds 2 and 5 mainly involve the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx to the cells, whereas that of 4 may be partly due to this inhibition. In regards to the active constituents for anti-allergic activity of Kaempferia parviflora, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4) are responsible for anti-allergic effect of this plant. The

  1. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic–inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic–inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol–gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-...

  2. Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Array for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Chihiro; Hata, Takuya; Chuman, Takashi; Ishizuka, Shinichi; Yoshizawa, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    We developed a 3-in. organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) array with an ink-jetted organic semiconductor. All layers except electrodes were fabricated by solution processes. The OTFT performed well without hysteresis, and the field-effect mobility in the saturation region was 0.45 cm2 V-1 s-1, the threshold voltage was 3.3 V, and the on/off current ratio was more than 106. We demonstrated a 3-in. active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display driven by the OTFT array. The display could provide clear moving images. The peak luminance of the display was 170 cd/m2.

  3. Enhanced Pixel-Driving Circuits for Active-Matrix Organic-Light-Emitting Diode Displays with Large Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sang Ho; Choi, Sung Wook; Shin, Hong Jae; Kwack, Kae Dal; Kim, Tae Whan

    2005-03-01

    Enhanced pixel-driving circuits for active-matrix organic-light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays with large sizes and highly uniform brightnesses were designed for system on panel. The driving method used the pre-charge functions of the data for a highly uniform brightness during a short time to program the current. The currents of the designed pixel-driving circuits were not significantly affected by variations in the threshold voltages, or by the mobilities of the driving thin-film transistors. These results indicate that the proposed pixel-driving circuits hold promise for potential applications in AM-OLED displays with large sizes and highly uniform brightnesses.

  4. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  5. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  6. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  7. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  8. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone.

  9. Influence of plasma-activated compounds on melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anser; Ashraf, Zaman; Kumar, Naresh; Rafiq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farukh; Park, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, SeungHyun; Seo, Sung-Yum; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Many organic chemists around the world synthesize medicinal compounds or extract multiple compounds from plants in order to increase the activity and quality of medicines. In this work, we synthesized new eugenol derivatives (ED) and then treated them with an N2 feeding gas atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to increase their utility. We studied the tyrosinase-inhibition activity (activity test) and structural changes (circular dichroism) of tyrosinase with ED and plasma activated eugenol derivatives (PAED) in a cell-free environment. Later, we used docking studies to determine the possible interaction sites of ED and PAED compounds with tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, we studied the possible effect of ED and PAED on melanin synthesis and its mechanism in melanoma (B16F10) cells. Additionally, we investigated the structural changes that occurred in activated ED after plasma treatment using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hence, this study provides a new perspective on PAED for the field of plasma medicine. PMID:26931617

  10. 3.4-Inch Quarter High Definition Flexible Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Display with Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kaoru; Chida, Akihiro; Okano, Tatsuya; Sugisawa, Nozomu; Inoue, Tatsunori; Seo, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Oikawa, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Eguchi, Shingo; Katayama, Masahiro; Sakakura, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a 3.4-in. flexible active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) display with remarkably high definition (quarter high definition: QHD) in which oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are used. We have developed a transfer technology in which a TFT array formed on a glass substrate is separated from the substrate by physical force and then attached to a flexible plastic substrate. Unlike a normal process in which a TFT array is directly fabricated on a thin plastic substrate, our transfer technology permits a high integration of high performance TFTs, such as low-temperature polycrystalline silicon TFTs (LTPS TFTs) and oxide TFTs, on a plastic substrate, because a flat, rigid, and thermally-stable glass substrate can be used in the TFT fabrication process in our transfer technology. As a result, this technology realized an oxide TFT array for an AMOLED on a plastic substrate. Furthermore, in order to achieve a high-definition AMOLED, color filters were incorporated in the TFT array and a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was combined. One of the features of this device is that the whole body of the device can be bent freely because a source driver and a gate driver can be integrated on the substrate due to the high mobility of an oxide TFT. This feature means “true” flexibility.

  11. Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yicheng; Shen, Yinchu

    2011-08-01

    The potential of tautomycin to control oilseed rape stem rot was investigated in this paper. Tautomycin produced by Streptomyces spiroverticillatus strongly inhibited Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes oilseed rape stem rot. Tautomycin showed great inhibition of the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. The values of EC(50) and MIC were 3.26 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM, respectively. Tautomycin treatment also resulted in morphological abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum such as hyphal swellings and abnormally branched shapes, which were observed microscopically. Sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum soaked in the tautomycin solution for 24 h remained viable, but their ability to undergo myceliogenic germination on PDA plates was completely inhibited when the concentration of tautomycin reached 6.52 × 10(-4) mM. Tautomycin-treated oilseed rape leaves were found to have a low incidence of leaf blight caused by S. sclerotiorum. The activity of the protein phosphatase (PP) in S. sclerotiorum decreased by 41.6% and 52.6% when treated with 3.30 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM tautomycin, respectively. Cellular constituents also leaked from S. sclerotiorum cells incubated with tautomycin. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of tautomycin is due to the inhibition of the PP and then a change of membrane permeability. This paper also investigated related compounds that possess either a maleic anhydride or maleic acid moiety. Results showed 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, diphenylmaleic anhydride and dimethyl maleate demonstrated significant activity against S. sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively. PMID:21772304

  12. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Lin Fan; Hao-Wei Chen; Hui-Lung Lai; Bo-Liang Guo; Bohr-Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The v...

  13. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  14. Amorphous silicon thin film transistor active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan A.

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are of immense interest because they have several advantages over liquid crystal displays, the current dominant flat panel display technology. OLED displays are emissive and therefore are brighter, have a larger viewing angle, and do not require backlights and filters, allowing thinner, lighter, and more power efficient displays. The goal of this work was to advance the state-of-the-art in active-matrix OLED display technology. First, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated on glass substrates. The devices operated at low voltages and demonstrated that lower performance TFTs could be utilized in active-matrix OLED displays, possibly allowing lower cost processing and the use of polymeric substrates. Attempts at designing more control into the display at the pixel level were also made. Bistable (one bit gray scale) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated. Such pixels could be used in novel applications and eventually help reduce the bandwidth requirements in high-resolution and large-area displays. Finally, a-Si:H TFT active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were fabricated on a polymeric substrate. Displays fabricated on a polymeric substrates would be lightweight; flexible, more rugged, and potentially less expensive to fabricate. Many of the difficulties associated with fabricating active-matrix backplanes on flexible substrates were studied and addressed.

  15. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  16. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Actively Cooled Compound Gun Barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; XIA Wei

    2005-01-01

    when a gun fires, a large amount of heat is brought in the barrel. Erosion/wear and security problems(self ignition of the propellant) associated with this high thermal energy have to be solved owing to the use of higher combustion gas temperature for improved cannon performance and firing at the sustained high rates. Barrel cooling technologies are the effective measures for addressing this issue. In view of the importance of having knowledge of the heat flux, an approach to calculate heat flux based on measurements was presented and validated. The calculated heat flux is used as the inner boundary condition for modeling heat transfer in a 155 mm mid-wall cooled compound gun barrel. Theoretical analysis and simulated results show that natural air cooling is dramatically slower than the forced liquid mid-wall cooling, accordingly wear life of actively cooled barrel is increased and barrel overheating is prevented.

  17. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated. PMID:22165149

  18. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine title compounds were synthesized. Their strucures were identified by means of IR, EA, 1H NMR and MS. The results from the primary biological test show that all the compounds have some activitiies of fungicide and plant growth regulator. When R group is 2,4-Cl2C6H3, compound 2 or compound 4 shows better biological activities.

  20. Structure and antibacterial activity of new layered perovskite compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Shao-zao; ZHANG Li-ling; XIA Liao-yuan; LIU Ying-liang; LI Du-xin

    2007-01-01

    New layered perovskite compounds, AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 (x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by an ion-exchange reaction of Na2La2Ti3O10 with AgNO3 solution and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The ion-exchange processes were optimized, and the antibacterial activity, light permanency and water-resistance were evaluated. Surprisedly, no significant changes in crystal structure of Na2La2Ti3O10 are found by the exchange of silver ions. The Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10 particles conglomerate obviously with irregular shape and size. Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10, possessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of 180 mg/L and 240 mg/L, has high antibacterial activity, good light permanency and water-resistance. The ionic state silver in AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 is the antibacterial active component.

  1. Hop pellets as an interesting source of antioxidant active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Holubková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity.  The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples  was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  3. Electrochemical potentiostatic activation for improvement of internal quantum efficiency of 385-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Hak Jun [Interdisciplinary Program of Photonics Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); LG Innotek Co. Ltd., Paju 413-901 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Ju; Seo, Hyo Won; Tawfik, Wael Z.; Ha, Jun-Seok; Ryu, Sang-Wan [Interdisciplinary Program of Photonics Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Seong Ran; Jeong, Tak [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Gwangju 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Key, E-mail: junekey@chonnam.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program of Photonics Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The electrochemical potentiostatic activation (EPA) method is proven to effectively improve the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 385-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). UV-LEDs wafers were immersed into 1.0 M HCl solution, and an electric voltage of 3.0 V was applied to the p-type GaN layer in order to increase the hole concentration by breaking the Mg-H complex. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis clearly indicates the successful removal of hydrogen atoms by the EPA process, which is a ∼35% reduction of the hydrogen concentration compared to the conventional N{sub 2} annealing. The light-output power was enhanced by ∼20% at an input current of 50 mA, which originated from an improvement of the IQE by ∼20%. The reverse leakage current was also lowered by about one order after the EPA process.

  4. Embedded Touch Sensing Circuit Using Mutual Capacitance for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ju; Seok, Su-Jeong; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ohyun

    2011-03-01

    We propose and simulate an embedded touch sensing circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The circuit consists of three thin-film transistors (TFTs), one fixed capacitor, and one variable capacitor. AMOLED displays do not have a variable capacitance characteristic, so we realized a variable capacitor to detect touches in the sensing pixel by exploiting the change in the mutual capacitance between two electrodes that is caused by touch. When a dielectric substance approaches two electrodes, the electric field is shunted so that the mutual capacitance decreases. We use the existing TFT process to form the variable capacitor, so no additional process is needed. We use advanced solid-phase-crystallization TFTs because of their stability and uniformity. The proposed circuit detects multi-touch points by a scanning process.

  5. Time-Domain Quaternary-Weighted Pulse Width Modulation Driving Method for Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Sang; Kuk, Seung-Hee; Han, Min-Koo

    2008-03-01

    We proposed a new digital driving method and its pixel structure for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays employing time-domain quaternary-weighted pulse width modulation. In the new digital driving method, the luminance of AMOLED displays is accurately determined by averaging photon flux to the desired level over a frame period. The proposed pixel was verified by spice simulation and the output linearity between the grayscale and the OLED current was successfully achieved. In the proposed digital driving pixel, the timing margin was increased and the effect on luminance of AMOLED displays by the troublesome variation of the thin-film transistors (TFTs) was suppressed without additional compensation schemes.

  6. A New Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor Pixel Circuit for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yan; Chang, Jyu-Yu; Sun, Bo-Jhang; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-06-01

    This study presents one novel compensation pixel design and driving method for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with a voltage feed-back method and the simulation results are proposed and verified by SPICE simulator. The measurement and simulation of LTPS TFT characteristics demonstrate the good fitting result. The proposed circuit consists of four TFTs and two capacitors with an additional signal line. The error rates of OLED anode voltage variation are below 0.3% under the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT (ΔVTH = ±0.33 V). The simulation results show that the pixel design can improve the display image non-uniformity by compensating the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT and the degradation of OLED threshold voltage at the same time.

  7. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values <10(-15). A per-assay assessment showed that the BEDROC(α = 100), which is of particular relevance for early retrieval of actives, improved for 38 out of 46 assays, increasing the success rate of smaller follow-up screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  8. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  9. Detection of Spectral Evolution in the Bursts Emitted During the 2008-2009 Active Episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Gruber, David; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G.; Gogus, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L.; Bhat, Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A.; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert D.; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data of all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations 170ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to less than or equal to 8 degrees. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a single blackbody function, for the 2009 bursts an Optically Thin Thermal Bremsstrahlung (OTTB) is clearly preferred. We attribute this evolution to changes in the magnetic field topology of the source, possibly due to effects following the very energetic main bursting episode.

  10. Detection of spectral evolution in the bursts emitted during the 2008-2009 active episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    CERN Document Server

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G; Göğüş, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L; Bhat, P Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E 1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations \\sim 170 ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to < 8 deg. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a sin...

  11. Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sreekumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231, and endometrial (HEC-1A, cervical (SiHa, HeLa, and ovarian (SKOV3 cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A at concentration of 20–320 μg/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80 μg/mL significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds.

  12. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  13. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  14. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  15. Potential therapeutic applications of microbial surface-active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Fracchia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of microbial surface-active compounds or biosurfactants over the past two decades have led to the discovery of many interesting physicochemical and biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and therapeutic among many other pharmaceutical and medical applications. Microbial control and inhibition strategies involving the use of antibiotics are becoming continually challenged due to the emergence of resistant strains mostly embedded within biofilm formations that are difficult to eradicate. Different aspects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm control are becoming issues of increasing importance in clinical, hygiene, therapeutic and other applications. Biosurfactants research has resulted in increasing interest into their ability to inhibit microbial activity and disperse microbial biofilms in addition to being mostly nontoxic and stable at extremes conditions. Some biosurfactants are now in use in clinical, food and environmental fields, whilst others remain under investigation and development. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival that of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial, fungal and yeast biofilms as well as viral membrane structures. This presents them as potential candidates for future uses in new generations of antimicrobial agents or as adjuvants to other antibiotics and use as preservatives for microbial suppression and eradication strategies.

  16. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives. PMID:27487177

  17. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Linfeng Xu; Yuanzhi Lao; Yanhui Zhao; Jian Qin; Wenwei Fu; Yingjia Zhang; Hongxi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode o...

  18. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  19. The Antibacterial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Oakmoss against Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    野村, 陽恵; 一色, 恭徳; Sakuda, Keisuke; 佐久間, 克也; 近藤, 誠一

    2012-01-01

    Oakmoss is a natural fragrance ingredient exhibiting highly specific, potent antibacterial activity against Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of severe water-bone pneumonia. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of individual compounds isolated from oakmoss was investigated against L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. A total of 18 known compounds and two minor novel compounds (i.e., 3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (compound 9) and 8-(2,4-dihydro...

  20. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  1. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-11-05

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction using {sup 14}N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second {sup 16}N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs.

  2. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity.

  3. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  4. Biological activity of terpene compounds produced by biotechnological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Trytek, Mariusz; Król, Sylwia K; Kud, Joanna; Frant, Maciej; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Fiedurek, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Context Biotransformation systems are profitable tools for structural modification of bioactive natural compounds into valuable biologically active terpenoids. Objective This study determines the biological effect of (R)-(+)-limonene and (-)-α-pinene, and their oxygenated derivatives, (a) perillyl alcohol and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-carvone enantiomers and (b) linalool, trans-verbenol and verbenone, respectively, on human colon tumour cells and normal colonic epithelium. Materials and methods Biotransformation procedures and in vitro cell culture tests were used in this work. Cells were incubated for 24 h with terpenes at concentrations of 5-500 μg/mL for NR, MTT, DPPH, and NO assays. IL-6 was determined by ELISA with/without 2 h pre-activation with 10 μg/mL LPS. Results trans-Verbenol and perillyl alcohol, obtained via biotransformation, produced in vitro effect against tumour cells at lower concentrations (IC50 value = 77.8 and 98.8 μg/mL, respectively) than their monoterpene precursors, (R)-(+)-limonene (IC50 value = 171.4 μg/mL) and (-)-α-pinene (IC50 value = 206.3 μg/mL). They also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 > 500 and > 200 μg/mL, respectively). (S)-(+)-Carvone was 59.4% and 27.1% more toxic to tumour and normal cells, respectively, than the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. (R)-(+)-limonene derivatives decreased IL-6 production from normal cells in media with or without LPS (30.2% and 13.9%, respectively), while (-)-α-pinene derivatives induced IL-6 (verbenone had the strongest effect, 60.2% and 29.1% above control, respectively). None of the terpenes had antioxidative activity below 500 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusions Bioactivity against tumour cells decreased in the following order: alcohols > ketones > hydrocarbons. (R)-(+)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, and their derivatives expressed diverse activity towards normal and tumour cells with noticeable enantiomeric differences. PMID:26808720

  5. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of chosen dyes and surface active compounds used in the textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Barański, B; Spiechowicz, E; Szymczak, W

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic properties of ten dyes and four surface active compounds using Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test. Five of the investigated dyes (Acid Blue 7, Acid Green 16, Direct Black 19:1, Basic Red 22, Basic Orange 28) possessed mutagenic activity with regard to test strains of Salmonella. In addition, all of them increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice. Three other compounds (Acid Blue 62, Direct Yellow 12, Direct Red 81), which were not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay, were genotoxic in the micronucleus test. The other two dyes (Reactive Blue 13, Acid Red 213), as well as tested surface active compounds, did not exert mutagenic and genotoxic effects, and therefore, it is most probable that they do not have carcinogenic properties. Besides, it was noted that Acid Blue 62, Direct Black 19:1, Direct Red 81 and Basic Orange 28 cause a significant decrease in the ratio polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice, which means that, at the doses used in the experiment, they are toxic to the erythrocyte series cells of bone marrow. The other compounds under consideration have no such effect.

  6. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the Lockheed Mapping X-Ray Heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of Hα plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of 4 x 106 K in a region having a density of the order of 1010 cm-3 is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by plasma with a temperature of the order 3 x 106 K. If it is assumed that the X-rays result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it can be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration. (Auth.)

  7. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  8. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)

  9. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  10. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1086 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  11. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  12. NGC5252: a pair of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei?

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaolong; Paragi, Zsolt; Liu, Xiang; An, Tao; Bianchi, Stefano; Ho, Luis C; Cui, Lang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Xiaocong

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray source CXO J133815.6+043255 has counterparts in the UV, optical, and radio bands. Based on the multi-band investigations, it has been recently proposed by Kim et al. (2015) as a rarely-seen off-nucleus ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source with a black hole mass of >= 10^4 solar mass in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252. To explore its radio properties at very high angular resolution, we performed very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz. We find that the radio counterpart is remarkably compact among the known ULXs. It does not show a resolved structure with a resolution of a few milliarcsecond (mas), and the total recovered flux density is comparable to that measured in earlier sub-arcsecond-resolution images. The compact radio structure, the relatively flat spectrum, and the high radio luminosity are consistent with a weakly accreting supermassive black hole in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. The nucleus of NGC 5252 itself has simi...

  13. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies. PMID:23931348

  14. Antitumoral Activity Of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klink

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results show that both NO donors demonstrated a wide range of action on both ovarian cancer cell lines. Therefore, they have a high potential of being a supporting compounds in the cancer therapies.

  15. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Ihssen; Mark Schubert; Linda Thöny-Meyer; Michael Richter

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of ...

  16. Improving vacuum-UV (VUV) photolysis of organic compounds in water with a phosphor converted xenon excimer lamp emitting at 193 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Hennings, U; Pötschke, L; Wietor, C; Bringmann, S; Braun, N; Hayashi, D; Linnemann, V; Pinnekamp, J

    2016-01-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet excimer lamp emitting light at 193 nm was used to investigate the degradation of organic micropollutants in ultrapure water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Overall, light at 193 nm proved to be efficient to degrade the investigated micropollutants (diclofenac, diatrizoic acid, sulfamethoxazole). Experiments with WWTP effluent proved the ability of radiation at 193 nm to degrade micropollutants which are hardly removed with commonly used oxidation technologies like ozonation (diatrizoic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). PMID:27533863

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Design,synthesis and antifungal activities in vitro of novel tetralin compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tang; You Jun Zhou; Yao Wu Li; Jia Guo Lv; Can Hui Zheng; Jun Chen; Ju Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Novel chiral tetralin compounds were designed and synthesized, and their antifungal activities in vitro were tested. The results showed that all of target compounds had potent antifungal activities, and were stronger than that of control compounds tetrahydroisoquinolines. The binding model of lead molecules in the active site of CYP51 of Candida albicans showed that lead compound specifically interacted with the amino acids residues in the active site, without binding with the heme of CYP51, which was different from azole antifungal drugs. The present study might afford a novel lead molecule to develop non-azole CYP51 inhibitors of fungi.

  19. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  20. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  3. Mn2+ activated MgSrAl10O17 green-emitting phosphor-A luminescence and EPR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations on MgSrAl10O17:Mn2+ green-emitting phosphor. Single-phase MgSrAl10O17 was successfully synthesized by the one-step solution combustion route without the need for post-annealing at a higher temperature. Crystallization of the powder was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The luminescence of Mn2+- activated MgSrAl10O17 shows a strong green-emission peak around 515 nm due to the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions under the excitation (453 nm). The EPR spectra of Mn2+ ions exhibit a sextet hyperfine structure centered at g ∼1.995. The Mn2+ ion occupies Mg sites which are in tetrahedral symmetry. The magnitude of the hyperfine splitting (A) indicates that Mn2+ is in a moderately ionic environment. The number of spins participating in resonance (N), the paramagnetic susceptibility (χ) and the zero-field splitting parameter (D) have been evaluated and discussed

  4. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivatives-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Geon Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors were investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculate the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1)-excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state using a dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT. The calculated {\\Delta}EST values of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would have a suitable blue OLED emitter, because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the HOMO and the LUMO and, consequently, the small {\\Delta}EST an...

  6. A High-Performance Current-Mode Source Driver IC for Mobile Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Il-Hun; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we describe two types of 8-bit current-mode driver ICs with a small area and good performance for applications high accuracy current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs), and improved channel-to-channel uniformity for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. One uses the proposed current steering DAC (type A), which is an improved architecture of a binary-weighted DAC, and the other uses a DAC that is a combination of a thermometer-decoded of the DAC and a binary-weighted type. The measured results show that the peak integral nonlinearity (INL) is within ±0.5 the least significant bit (LSB), the peak differential nonlinearity (DNL) is within ±0.5 LSB, and the nonuniformity of output current among channels and chips is within ±0.5 LSB. The size of the driver IC is 15,820 ×1,500 µm2 and the total power consumption of the current-mode driver IC is less than 9 mW when the display has full-white pattern with a luminance of 150 cd/m2. The chip area and power consumption with the proposed current DAC are reduced by 26 and 10%, respectively, compared with those of conventional driver ICs with a fully binary-weighted DAC.

  7. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, G.; González, L. A.; Alshareef, H. N.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-López, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 µA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 µA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented.

  8. Investigation of Pattern-Induced Brightness Non-uniformity in Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Park, Hye-Hyang; Kwon, Ohseob; Kim, Moojin; Lee, Ki-Yong; Park, Yongwoo; Choi, JongHyun; Yu, CheolHo; Kim, Hye-Dong; Kim, Sung Chul; Chung, Ho-Kyoon

    2008-01-01

    We recently improved the brightness non-uniformity in active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) regarding non-uniform laser energy distribution by applying a “shot mixing” technique in sequential lateral solidification (SLS) method. Although the new SLS technique was employed, another brightness non-uniformity that appeared as oblique lines on AMOLED panels became a crucial issue. In this work, we attempted to investigate the origins of the non-uniformity. Our systematic analysis on the oblique lines revealed that the line type non-uniformity was attributed to both the SLS process and the thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication processes. In particular, we found that such oblique patterns might be related to moiré patterns that appear when primary grain boundaries aligned in a repetitive pattern is placed over other repetitive TFT patterns such as metal lines. We adopted a method to diminish the moiré pattern type non-uniformity by applying top emission TFT structure.

  9. Structural Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Thin Films after Rapid Thermal Annealing for Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugiraneza, Jean de Dieu; Miyahira, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Akinori; Chen, Yi; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi; Itoh, Taketsugu

    2010-12-01

    The microcrystalline phase obtained by adopting a two-step rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process for rf-sputtered silicon films deposited on thermally durable glass was characterized. The optical properties, surface morphology, and internal stress of the annealed Si films are investigated. As the thermally durable glass substrate allows heating of the deposited films at high temperatures, micro-polycrystalline silicon (micro-poly-Si) films of uniform grain size with a smooth surface and a low internal stress could be obtained after annealing at 750 °C. The thermal stress in the Si films was 100 times lower than that found in the films deposited on conventional glass. Uniform grains with an average grain size of 30 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the films annealed at 800 °C. These micro-poly-Si films have potential application for fabrication of uniform and reliable thin film transistors (TFTs) for large scale active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays.

  10. The FeII emission in active galactic nuclei: excitation mechanisms and location of the emitting region

    CERN Document Server

    Marinello, A O M; Garcia-Rissmann, A; Sigut, T A A; Pradhan, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of FeII emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ a NIR FeII template derived in the literature and found that it successfully reproduces the observed FeII spectrum. The FeII bump at 9200 Angstroms detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyman-alpha fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Angstroms bump, the 1 micron lines and the optical FeII imply that Lyman-alpha fluorescence plays an important role in the FeII production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical FeII is due to this process while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed FeII. The line profiles of FeII 10502, OI 11287, CaII 8664 and Paschen-beta were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that FeII, OI and CaII have similar widt...

  11. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivative-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally-activated delayed fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Hyeong; Kim, Young Sik

    2016-08-01

    A novel thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors was investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculated the energies of the first singlet (S1) and the first triplet (T1) excited states of the TADF materials by using the dependence on the charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT to perform density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state. The calculated Δ E ST value, where Δ E ST is the difference in energy between the S1 and T1 states, of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and the accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would be a suitable blue OLED emitter because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO), consequently, it has a small value of Δ E ST and an emission wavelength of 2.82 eV and 439.9 nm, respectively.

  12. Phenolic Compounds from the Flowers of Bombax malabaricum and Their Antioxidant and Antiviral Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bo Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new phenolic compounds 1–3 and twenty known ones 4–23 were isolated from the flowers of Bombax malabaricum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR and chemical reactions. The antioxidant capacities of the isolated compounds were tested using FRAP and DPPH radical-scavenging assays, and compounds 4, 6, 8, 12, as well as the new compound 2, exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than ascorbic acid. Furthermore, all of compounds were tested for their antiviral activities against RSV by the CPE reduction assay and plaque reduction assay. Compounds 4, 10, 12 possess in vitro antiviral activities, and compound 10 exhibits potent anti-RSV effects, comparable to the positive control ribavirin.

  13. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  14. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of antithrombotic thiourea compounds: biological and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André Luiz; Saito, Max Seidy; Dorneles, Luís Eduardo Gomes; Viana, Gil Mendes; Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Aguiar, Lúcia Cruz de Sequeira; de Pádula, Marcelo; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Fraga, Aline Guerra Manssour; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Castro, Helena Carla; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p) displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations. PMID:25903367

  15. Adsorption of Purine Compounds in Beer with Activated Carbon Prepared from Beer Lees

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Junji; MURAYAMA, Norihiro; TAKEYAMA, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Six hundred thousand tons of beer lees are discharged annually in Japanese breweries. It is well known that purine compounds are one of substances which cause the gout and beer especially contains a lot of purine compounds such as adenosine, adenosine 5’-phosphate and so on, compared with the other alcoholic drinks. The application of activated carbon prepared from beer lees was investigated in order to remove purine compounds in beer. The reuse and recycling of beer lees to activated carbon ...

  16. SPME applied to the study of volatile organic compounds emitted by three species of Eucalyptus in situ. Solid-phase micro extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cláudia A; Augusto, Fabio; Christensen, Eva; Caramão, Elina B; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2002-12-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) was used to identify and monitor the emission patterns of biogenic volatile organic compounds from leaves of Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus saligna, and Eucalyptus citriodora in situ. Short extractions (1 min) were performed every 30 min for periods of 8-10 h during 24 days taking advantage of the high capacity of this porous polymer coating. Forty-two compounds were detected and 20 identified in the headspace of E. saligna leaves, and 19 of 27 compounds were identified in the headspace of E. dunnii leaves. The emission pattern of (E)-beta-ocimene and rose oxide suggests that they may play a bioactive role in Eucalyptus. PMID:12452632

  17. A new method for calculating the activity of stable compound from binary phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dengfu; DONG Lingyan; BAI Chenguang; LIU Qingcai; WANG Chuanjun

    2006-01-01

    A new method to calculate the activity of a stable compound in a binary phase diagram was presented and dis cussed. According to the formula for calculating activity from the binary phase diagram, the equilibrium constant can be calculated through the mass action principle after the activities of two pure components were computed respectively. Based on that, the activity of a stable compound can be easily obtained at last. The activity of the stable compound InSb is calculated in the In-Sb binary system by using this method. The result is well consistent with another calculation value.

  18. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  19. Application of Genetic Programming in Predicting Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin CAO; Huan Ying LI

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we calculated 37 structural descriptors of 174 organic compounds. The154 molecules were used to derive quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficientrelationship by genetic programming, the other 20 compounds were used to test the model. Theresult showed that molecular partition property and three-dimensional structural descriptors havesignificant influence on the infinite dilution activity coefficients.

  20. Synthesis and quorum sensing inhibitory activity of key phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Vijendra; Murthy, Pushpa S; Manjunatha, J R; Bettadaiah, B K

    2014-09-15

    Phenolic components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) viz. [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and zingerone exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activity (QSI) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibitory activity of all the compounds was studied by zone inhibition, pyocyanin, and violacein assay. All the compounds displayed good inhibition at 500ppm. [6]-Azashogaol, a new derivative of [6]-shogaol has been synthesized by Beckmann rearrangement of its oxime in the presence of ZnCl2. The structure elucidation of this new derivative was carried out by 1D ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and NOESY) spectral studies. This compound showed good QSI activity against P. aeruginosa. An isoxazoline derivative of [6]-gingerol was prepared and it exhibited good QSI activity. Present study illustrated that, the phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives form a class of compounds with promising QSI activity. PMID:24767081

  1. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides a review of recent scientific research on the removal by activated carbon (AC) in drinking water (DW) treatment of 1) two classes of currently unregulated trace level contaminants with potential chronic toxicity-pharmaceutically activate compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); 2) cyanobacterial toxins (CyBTs), which are a group of highly toxic and regulated compounds (as microcystin-LR); and 3) the above mentioned compounds by the hybrid system powdered AC/membrane filtration. The influence of solute and AC properties, as well as the competitive effect from background natural organic matter on the adsorption of such trace contaminants, are also considered. In addition, a number of adsorption isotherm parameters reported for PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs are presented herein. AC adsorption has proven to be an effective removal process for such trace contaminants without generating transformation products. This process appears to be a crucial step in order to minimize PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs in finished DW, hence calling for further studies on AC adsorption removal of these compounds. Finally, a priority chart of PhACs and EDCs warranting further study for the removal by AC adsorption is proposed based on the compounds' structural characteristics and their low removal by AC compared to the other compounds. PMID:22885596

  2. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides a review of recent scientific research on the removal by activated carbon (AC) in drinking water (DW) treatment of 1) two classes of currently unregulated trace level contaminants with potential chronic toxicity-pharmaceutically activate compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); 2) cyanobacterial toxins (CyBTs), which are a group of highly toxic and regulated compounds (as microcystin-LR); and 3) the above mentioned compounds by the hybrid system powdered AC/membrane filtration. The influence of solute and AC properties, as well as the competitive effect from background natural organic matter on the adsorption of such trace contaminants, are also considered. In addition, a number of adsorption isotherm parameters reported for PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs are presented herein. AC adsorption has proven to be an effective removal process for such trace contaminants without generating transformation products. This process appears to be a crucial step in order to minimize PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs in finished DW, hence calling for further studies on AC adsorption removal of these compounds. Finally, a priority chart of PhACs and EDCs warranting further study for the removal by AC adsorption is proposed based on the compounds' structural characteristics and their low removal by AC compared to the other compounds.

  3. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Inoue, Kazumasa; Gomi-Miyagishi, Tomoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kameoka, Satoru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation reaction of the incident protons on target nuclei using a PET apparatus. The activity of the positron-emitting nuclei generated in a patient was measured with a PET-CT apparatus after proton beam irradiation of the patient. Activity measurement was performed in patients with tumors of the brain, head and neck, liver, lungs, and sacrum. The 3-D PET image obtained on the CT image showed the visual correspondence with the irradiation area of the proton beam. Moreover, it was confirmed that there were differences in the strength of activity from the PET-CT images obtained at each irradiation site. The values of activity obtained from both measurement and calculation based on the reaction cross section were compared, and it was confirmed that the intensity and the distribution of the activity changed with the start time of the PET imaging after proton beam irradiation. The clinical use of this information about the positron-emitting nuclei will be important for promoting proton treatment with higher accuracy in the future.

  4. Theoretical Study of Some Nitrososulfamide Compounds with Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Fatiha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest-energy conformations of four 2-chloroethylnitrososulfamides were determined using the MM+ molecular mechanics method as implemented in Hyperchem 6.0. Some of the calculated structural parameters, angles and bonds lengths were compared with the crystal structure data of N-nitroso-N-(2-chloroethyl-N’-sulfamoyl- proline. Using MM+, AM1 and PM3 the anti conformation was predicted to be more stable than the syn conformation in each of these compounds. With these methods we found that the relative energy of the transition state (TS was considerably higher, but with the ab initio method using RHF with minimal basic function STO-3G we found that the syn conformation is predicted to be slightly more stable. The determination of some atomic charges of a selection of atoms on the syn, anti and TS structures of the various compounds provided some details about the nature of the transition state.

  5. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of certain chalcone based pyrazoline compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhakara Rao Gerapati; Kalaichelvan V K; Ganguri Sudhakara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Convulsions are involuntary, violent, spasmodic and prolonged contractions of skeletal muscles. That means a patient may have epilepsy without convulsions and vice versa. Epilepsy is a common neurological abnormality affecting about 1% of the world population. The primary objectives of these synthesized compounds are to suppress seizures and provide neuroprotection by minimizing the effects from seizure attacks. Here some of the chalcones and chalcone based various pyrazolines were evaluated ...

  6. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  7. Fluorescence Properties and Synthesis of Green-Emitting Tb3+-Activated Amorphous Calcium Silicate Phosphor by Ultraviolet Irradiation of 378 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Kojima; Masaaki Numazawa; Shinnosuke Kamei; Nobuyuki Nishimiya

    2012-01-01

    The excitation wavelength of conventional Tb3+-activated phosphor is near 270 nm. This study describes novel green-emitting Tb3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate by ultraviolet excitation at 378 nm. The Tb3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate was prepared by heating a sample of Tb3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) at 900°C for 30 minutes. The emission wavelength of the resulting phosphor was 544 nm. The optimum excitation wavelength within the range 300–400 nm was 378 nm. The T...

  8. Antibacterial activity of rhizome of curcuma aromatica and partial purification of active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Revathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains. Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ΅g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone.

  9. Radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Chiasson, F.; Borsa, J.; Ouattara, B.

    2004-09-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in ground beef was evaluated in the presence of 18 active compounds. Medium fat ground beef (23% fat) was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi and each active compound was added separately at various concentrations. For E. coli, the most efficient compounds were trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol and thyme. For S. typhi, the most efficient compounds was trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol. The addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, carvacrol and ascorbic acid had no effect on the irradiation sensitivity of E. coli. For S. typhi, only ascorbic acid had no effect.

  10. Radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Chiasson, F.; Borsa, J.; Ouattara, B

    2004-10-01

    The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in ground beef was evaluated in the presence of 18 active compounds. Medium fat ground beef (23% fat) was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi and each active compound was added separately at various concentrations. For E. coli, the most efficient compounds were trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol and thyme. For S. typhi, the most efficient compounds was trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol. The addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, carvacrol and ascorbic acid had no effect on the irradiation sensitivity of E. coli. For S. typhi, only ascorbic acid had no effect.

  11. Sm3+-activated gadolinium molybdate: an intense red-emitting phosphor for solid-state lighting based on InGaN LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sm3+-activated gadolinium molybdate, Gd2(MoO4)3:Sm3+ red-emitting phosphor was prepared by conventional solid-state method. The structure, morphology, and luminescent properties of these powder samples have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescent spectrophotometry, respectively. The as-obtained phosphor has a monoclinic structure with single crystalline phase. Its mean particle size is about 6-8 μm with pseudo-pompon shape and large surface area, which is suitable for manufacture of white LEDs. The phosphor can be efficiently excited by incident light of 348-445 nm, well matched with the output wavelength of a near-UV InGaN-based chip, and re-emits an intense red light peaking at 650 nm. By combing this phosphor with a 405 nm-emitting InGaN chip, a red LED was fabricated, so that the applicability of this novel phosphor to white LEDs was confirmed. It is considered to be an efficient red-emitting conversion phosphor for solid-state lighting based on InGaN LEDs.

  12. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lai, Hui-Lung; Chang, Jyu-Yu

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel pixel design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs). The proposed threshold voltage compensation circuit, which comprised five transistors and two capacitors, has been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator. The driving scheme of this voltage programming method includes four periods: precharging, compensation, data input, and emission. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<1%) and high output current. The proposed pixel circuit shows high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation characteristics of both the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED.

  13. Photo-catalytic Activities of Plant Hormones on Semiconductor Nanoparticles by Laser-Activated Electron Tunneling and Emitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-03-01

    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi2O3)0.07(CoO)0.03(ZnO)0.9 semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  14. Photo-catalytic activities of plant hormones on semiconductor nanoparticles by laser-activated electron tunneling and emitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO₂), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi₂O₃)₀.₀₇(CoO)₀.₀₃(ZnO)₀.₉ semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  15. Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds for Their Pharmacological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Venugopala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one is a plant-derived natural product known for its pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, antiadipogenic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. Dietary exposure to benzopyrones is significant as these compounds are found in vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, coffee, tea, and wine. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further.

  16. A strongly greenish-blue-emitting Cu4Cl4 cluster with an efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC): fast phosphorescence versus thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Yu, Rongmin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Liang, Dong; Jia, Ji-Hui; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report a new greenish-blue-emitting Cu(i) complex, Cu4Cl4(NP)2, a with high photoluminescence quantum yield of 90% and a short decay time of 9.9 μs. Due to the strong SOC combined with the small activation energy ΔEST, the emission at room temperature consists of approximately equivalent fast phosphorescence and TADF. PMID:27086679

  17. A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit to Compensate the Electronic Degradation for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Lin Fan; Fan-Ping Tseng; Hui-Lung Lai; Bo-Jhang Sun; Kuang-Chi Chao; Yi-Chiung Chen

    2013-01-01

    A novel pixel driving circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays with low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) is studied. The proposed compensation pixel circuit is driven by voltage programming scheme, which is composed of five TFTs and one capacitor, and has been certified to provide uniform output current by the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator. The...

  18. In Vitro Neuroprotective Activities of Compounds from Angelica shikokiana Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica shikokiana is widely marketed in Japan as a dietary food supplement. With a focus on neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, the aerial part was extracted and through bio-guided fractionation, fifteen compounds [α-glutinol, β-amyrin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, methyl chlorogenate, chlorogenic acid, hyuganin E, 5-(hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, adenosine (isolated for the first time from A. shikokiana, isoepoxypteryxin and isopteryxin] were isolated. Isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro neuroprotection using acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, protection against hydrogen peroxide and amyloid β peptide (Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells, scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species and thioflavin T assays. Quercetin showed the strongest AChE inhibition (IC50 value = 35.5 µM through binding to His-440 and Tyr-70 residues at the catalytic and anionic sites of acetylcholine esterase, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, its methyl ester, quercetin and luteolin could significantly protect neuro-2A cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and scavenge hydroxyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoiside, hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin significantly decreased Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity and Th-T fluorescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about neuroprotection of hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity of Schiff base compounds of cinnamaldehyde and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Yuan, Haijian; Li, Shujun; Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Mingyue

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize hydrophilic cinnamaldehyde Schiff base compounds and investigate those bioactivity. A total of 24 Schiff base compounds were synthesized using a simple approach with 3 cinnamaldehyde derivates and 8 amino acids as raw materials. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed using FTIR, (1)HNMR, HRMS purity and melting point. The antimicrobial activities of new compounds were evaluated with fluconazole and ciprofloxacin as the control against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Findings show that major compounds exhibited significant bioactivity. Results from the structure-activity relationship suggest that both -p-Cl on benzene ring of cinnamaldehyde and the number of -COOK of amino acid salts significantly contributed to antimicrobial activity. PMID:26774583

  20. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  1. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole and beta-lactam moiety

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K F Ansari; C Lal

    2009-11-01

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was done by disc diffusion method using Gram-positive (S. aureus, S. mutans and B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) bacteria and fungi (C. albicans, A. flavus and A. niger). Among the compounds tested 5a, 5b, 5d, 5i, 5j and 5k exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacteria, while 5d and 5i also showed notable antifungal activity. Specially compounds 5a and 5b exhibited appreciable activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis comparable to reference drugs.

  3. Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed. PMID:15139308

  4. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  5. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...

  6. Compound A, a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, enhances heat shock protein Hsp70 gene promoter activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse M Beck

    Full Text Available Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA's anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells.

  7. STUDIES ON THE MALE ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANShao-Zhen; XUYe; WANGYi; ZHANGZhu-Tao; LINNing; WANGShi-Min; QIAi-Ping; GUZhi-Ping

    1989-01-01

    The multiglycosides of Triptvrygium wilfordii (GTW) was a male antifertility agvnt recently explorvd in China. In order to isolate the active principle from the drug, a couple of institutions have carried out work on phytochemical separation and structural

  8. New Driving Scheme to Improve Hysteresis Characteristics of Organic Thin Film Transistor-Driven Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Takei, Tatsuya; Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Suzuki, Mitsunori; Motomura, Genichi; Sato, Hiroto; Tokito, Shizuo; Fujikake, Hideo

    2011-02-01

    A new driving scheme for an active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display was developed to prevent the picture quality degradation caused by the hysteresis characteristics of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this driving scheme, the gate electrode voltage of a driving-OTFT is directly controlled through the storage capacitor so that the operating point for the driving-OTFT is on the same hysteresis curve for every pixel after signal data are stored in the storage capacitor. Although the number of OTFTs in each pixel for the AMOLED display is restricted because OTFT size should be large enough to drive organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) due to their small carrier mobility, it can improve the picture quality for an OTFT-driven flexible OLED display with the basic two transistor-one capacitor circuitry.

  9. Review of organic light-emitting diodes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters for energy-efficient sustainable light sources and displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) is an emerging hot topic. Even though this photophysical mechanism itself has been described more than 50 years ago and optoelectronic devices with organic matter have been studied, improved, and even commercialized for decades now, the realization of the potential of TADF organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) happened only recently. TADF has been proven to be an attractive and very efficient alternative for phosphorescent materials, such as dopants in OLEDs, light-emitting electrochemical cells as well as potent emitters for chemiluminescence. In this review, the TADF concept is introduced in terms that are also understandable for nonchemists. The basic concepts behind this mechanism as well as state-of-the-art examples are discussed. In addition, the future economic impact, especially for the lighting and display market, is addressed here. We conclude that TADF materials are especially helpful to realize efficient, durable deep blue and white displays.

  10. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...

  11. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of octocrylene-inspired compounds for UV-filter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson C. Polonini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Octocrylene (2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl-2-propenoate is present in several sunscreens and is known to work synergistically with UV filters. We prepared eight octocrylene-related compounds to test their photoprotective activities by measuring diffuse transmittance. The compounds had varied photoprotection profiles, with Sun Protection Factors (SPF ranging from 1 to 5 and UVA Protection Factors (UVAPF ranging from 1 to 8. Compounds 4, 5, and 7 showed the best protection against UVB sunrays, while compounds 5, 6, and 7 presented the best results for protection from UVA, so compound 7 had the most balanced protection overall. Results for compounds 4, 8, and 9 are reported for the first time in the literature.

  13. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  14. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  15. Adsorption of aromatic compounds from the biodegradation of azo dyes on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P. C. C.; Órfão, J. J. M.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Pereira, M. F. R.

    2008-03-01

    The adsorption of three selected aromatic compounds (aniline, sulfanilic acid and benzenesulfonic acid) on activated carbons with different surface chemical properties was investigated at different solution pH. A fairly basic commercial activated carbon was modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3, yielding an acid activated carbon. The textural properties of this sample were not significantly changed after the oxidation treatment. Equilibrium isotherms of the selected compounds on the mentioned samples were obtained and the results were discussed in relation to their surface chemistry. The influence of electrostatic and dispersive interactions involved in the uptake of the compounds studied was evaluated. The Freundlich model was used to fit the experimental data. Higher uptakes are attained when the compounds are present in their molecular form. In general, adsorption was disfavoured by the introduction of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of the activated carbon.

  16. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the "itch mite" Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues--acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. CONCLUSIONS: The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

  17. Bioproduction, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli M.M. Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various crude extract preparations (ethanol, methanol, buthanol, acetone, DMSO and water from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were examined for Antioxidant activity, Phytochemical screening and Antimicrobial properties. In vitro free radical quenching and total antioxidant activity of extracts were investigated with 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and compared with cathequin and Gallic acid as positive controls. In most cases, results showed a significant association between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolics content. The aqueous extract showed both the highest antioxidant activity for inhibition scavenging (68.5% and highest phenolic content (3.45 mg/ mL. Antimicrobial activities were carried out using disc diffusion assays and the broth dilution method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results demonstrated activity between the aqueous extract and most specimens (Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enteretidis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the aqueous crude extract of C. vulgaris could be considered as a biological antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, and a valuable tool for the biotechnology field.

  18. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Anouar, El Hassane; Shilpi, Jamil A; Trabolsy, Zuhra Bashir Khalifa Al; Zain, Sharifuddin Bin Md; Zakaria, Nur Shahidatul Shida; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Malek, Sri Nurestri A; Rahman, Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-01-01

    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.

  19. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds of Iberian ham headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2002-03-27

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) based on detection frequency (DF) was used to characterize the most odor-active compounds from the headspace of Iberian ham. Twenty-eight odorants were identified by GC-O on two capillary columns, including aldehydes (11), sulfur-containing compounds (7), ketones (5), nitrogen-containing compounds (2), esters (2), and an alcohol. Among them, the highest odor potencies (DF values) were found for 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-heptanone, 3-methylbutanal, methanethiol, hexanal, hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and (E)-2-hexenal. Nine of the 28 most odor-active compounds were identified for the first time as aroma components of dry-cured ham, including hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, and the meaty-smelling compounds 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline.

  20. Anti depressant activity of Mamsyadi Kwatha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreevathsa, M; Ravishankar, B; Dwivedi, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P depressant activity. PMID:24049416

  1. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  2. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  3. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract and isolated compounds from Croton bonplandianum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, A.; J. BARUA; M.E. FLORES-GIUBI; D. BAZAN; Ferro, E.; N.L. ALVARENGA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding t...

  4. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, R.; HT. Godoy

    2014-01-01

    The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtain...

  5. Atmospheric reactivity of hydroxyl radicals with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), a biomass burning emitted compound: Secondary organic aerosol formation and gas-phase oxidation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauraguais, Amélie; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Cassez, Andy; Deboudt, Karine; Fourmentin, Marc; Choël, Marie

    2014-04-01

    Methoxyphenols are low molecular weight semi-volatile polar aromatic compounds produced from the pyrolysis of wood lignin. The reaction of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) with hydroxyl radicals has been studied in the LPCA simulation chamber at (294 ± 2) K, atmospheric pressure, low relative humidity (RH Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) analysis show the formation of nitroguaiacol isomers as main oxidation products in the gas- and aerosol-phases. In the gas-phase, the formation yields were (10 ± 2) % for 4-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene; 4-NG) and (6 ± 2) % for 3- or 6-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3-nitrobenzene or 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene; 3/6-NG; the standards are not commercially available so both isomers cannot be distinguished) whereas in SOA their yield were much lower (≤0.1%). To our knowledge, this work represents the first identification of nitroguaiacols as gaseous oxidation products of the OH reaction with guaiacol. As the reactivity of nitroguaiacols with atmospheric oxidants is probably low, we suggest using them as biomass burning emission gas tracers. The atmospheric implications of the guaiacol + OH reaction are also discussed.

  6. Molecular modeling and snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by phenolic compounds: Structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder

    2016-05-23

    In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads. PMID:26986086

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT THIOSEMICARBAZONE COMPOUNDS AGAINST MICROBIAL PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Negi Parul; Nandy Subhangkar; Mahato Arun

    2012-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazone belongs to a large group of thiourea derivatives, whose biological activities are a function of parent aldehyde or ketone moiety. They have been evaluated over the last 50 year as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, leprosy, rheumatism, trypanosomiasis and coccidiodis. Thiosemicarbazones were prepared by simple process in which N4-thiosemicarbazone moiety was replaced by aliphatic, arylic and cyclic amines. Present study reported the anti-microbia...

  8. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  9. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthal, Donald N; Phan, Tran B; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Landucci, Gary; Chu, Hencelyn; Elofsson, Mikael; Peterson, Ellena

    2012-10-01

    Salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds have been shown to inhibit bacterial pathogens, including Chlamydia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If such compounds could also target HIV-1, their potential use as topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections would be considerable. In this study, the in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of action of several salicylidene acylhydrazides were determined. Inhibitory activity was assessed using TZM-bl cells and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as targets for HIV-1 infection. Antiviral activity was measured against cell-free and cell-associated virus and in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Since the antibacterial activity of salicylidene acylhydrazides is reversible by Fe(2+), the ability of Fe(2+) and other cations to reverse the anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was determined. Real-time PCR was also employed to determine the stage affected in the HIV-1 replication cycle. Four compounds with 50% inhibitory concentrations against HIV-1 of 1-7 μM were identified. In vitro toxicity varied but was generally limited. Activity was similar against three R5 clade B primary isolates and whether the target for virus replication was TZM-bl cells or PBMCs. Compounds inhibited cell-free and cell-associated virus and were active in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Fe(2+), but not other cations, reversed the anti-HIV-1 effect. Finally, the inhibitory effect of the compounds occurred at a post-integration step. In conclusion, salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified with in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in the micromolar range. The activity of these compounds against other sexually transmitted pathogens makes them potential candidates to formulate for use as a broad-spectrum topical genital microbicide. PMID:22819150

  10. Antiprotozoal and Antimycobacterial Activities of Pure Compounds from Aristolochia elegans Rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of rhizomes from Aristolochia elegans. Some compounds of this extract were purified and tested against a group of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We also evaluated their antiprotozoal activities. The hexane extract was active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv at a MIC=100 μg mL−1; the pure compounds eupomatenoid-1, fargesin, and (8R,8′R,9R-cubebin were active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC = 50 μg mL−1, while fargesin presented activity against three monoresistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a MDR clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis (MIC<50 μg mL-1. Both the extract and eupomatenoid-1 were very active against E. histolytica and G. lamblia (IC50<0.624 μg mL-1; in contrast, fargesin and (8R,8′R,9R-cubebin were moderately active (IC50<275 μg mL-1. In this context, two compounds responsible for the antimycobacterial presented by A. elegans are fargesin and cubebin, although others may exert this activity also. In addition to the antimycobacterial activity, the hexane extract has important activity against E. histolytica and G. lamblia, and eupomatenoid-1 is one of the compounds responsible for the antiparasite activity.

  11. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

  12. Hypervalent iodine compounds as potent antibacterial agents against ice nucleation active (INA) Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, U; Karamanoli, K; Spyroudis, S; Constantinidou, H I

    2001-08-01

    Twenty-three hypervalent iodine compounds belonging to aryliodonium salts, 1, aryliodonium ylides, 2, and (diacyloxyiodo)arenes, 3, were tested for their antibacterial activities against ice nucleation active (INA) Pseudomonas syringae, and the MIC and EC(50) values were determined. All of the compounds examined caused a dose-dependent decrease in bacterial growth rates. Aryliodonium salts, especially those with electron-withdrawing groups, exhibit higher antibacterial activities with MIC = 8-16 ppm, whereas the nature of the anion does not seem to affect the activities of the diaryliodonium salts. PMID:11513659

  13. Leishmanicidal and cholinesterase inhibiting activities of phenolic compounds from Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Weniger, Bernard; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Kaiser, Marcel; Naz, Qamar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1), garcinol (2), cambogin (3) and guttiferone F (4), along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5), xanthone V1 (6) and globulixanthone C (7) as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from S. globulifera leaves, while compounds 2-5 were obtained from A. monticola fruits. Guttiferone A (1) and F (4) showed particulary strong leishmanicidal activity in vitro, with IC50 values (0.2 microM and 0.16 microM, respectively) comparable to that of the reference compound, miltefosine (0.46 microM). Although the leishmanicidal activity is promising, the cytotoxicity profile of these compounds prevent at this state further in vivo biological evaluation. In addition, all the isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their anticholinesterase properties. The four benzophenones showed potent anticholinesterase properties towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (AChE). For AChE, the IC50 value (0.66 microM) of garcinol (2) was almost equal to that of the reference compound galanthamine (0.50 microM). Furthermore, guttiferone A (1) and guttiferone F (4) (IC50 = 2.77 and 3.50 microM, respectively) were more active than galanthamine (IC50 = 8.5) against BChE. PMID:17960072

  14. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  15. Electronic structure and luminescence properties of Tb3+-activated NaBaBO3 green-emitting phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑将辉; 程其进; 吴顺情; 陈蓉; 蔡丽晗; 陈朝

    2015-01-01

    A novel green-emitting phosphor Tb3+doped NaBaBO3 was prepared using a conventional high temperature solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure and luminescence properties of NaBaBO3:Tb3+were studied. The NaBaBO3 host was also investigated using density functional theory calculations. Our calculated lattice parameters of NaBaBO3 host were found to be in excellent agreement with experiment. Theoretically, the host matrix NaBaBO3 was a wide-gap semiconductor with a direct band gap of 3.66 eV, where the bottom of conduction band and the top of valence band were dominated by Ba 5d state and O 2p state, respectively. The excitation spectra indicated that the phosphor could be effectively excited by near ultraviolet light. The phosphor featured a satisfactory green performance with the highest photoluminescence intensity located at 543 nm excited by 377 nm light and the measured Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity was determined to be (0.2860, 0.4640). The op-timum Tb3+concentration in NaBaBO3 was 5.0 mol.%. The concentration quenching occurred when Tb3+concentration was be-yond 5.0 mol.%and the concentration quenching mechanism could be explained by the dipole-dipole interaction. The effects of charge compensators (including Li+, Na+and K+) and temperature on the photoluminescence of NaBaBO3:Tb3+were also studied. The present work suggested that the NaBaBO3:Tb3+phosphor was a promising green-emitting material for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  16. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  17. Activated phosphors having matrices of yttrium-transition metal compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kalb, E.L.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for preparing a phosphor composition containing a lanthanide activator element with a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO$sub 4$ with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On x-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence. (auth)

  18. Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

    2010-03-10

    Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

  19. Oxidation of pharmaceutically active compounds by a ligninolytic fungal peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibes, Gemma; Debernardi, Gianfranco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, M Teresa; Lema, Juan M

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals are an important group of emerging pollutants with increasing interest due to their rising consumption and the evidence for ecotoxicological effects associated to trace amounts in aquatic environments. In this paper, we assessed the potential degradation of a series of pharmaceuticals: antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole), antidepressives (citalopram hydrobromide and fluoxetine hydrochloride), antiepileptics (carbamazepine), anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and naproxen) and estrogen hormones (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol) by means of a versatile peroxidase (VP) from the ligninolytic fungus Bjerkandera adusta. The effects of the reaction conditions: VP activity, organic acid concentration and H(2)O(2) addition rate, on the kinetics of the VP based oxidation system were evaluated. Diclofenac and estrogens were completely degraded after only 5-25 min even with a very low VP activity (10 U l(-1)). High degradation percentages (80%) were achieved for sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Low or undetectable removal yields were observed for citalopram (up to 18%), fluoxetine (lower than 10%) and carbamazepine (not degraded). PMID:20972884

  20. Overcoming Chloroquine Resistance in Malaria: Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Hybrid Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhar, Aicha; Ng, Xiao Wei; Loh, Chiew Yee; Chia, Wan Ni; Tan, Zhi Ming; Nosten, Francois; Dymock, Brian W; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to antimalarial therapies, including artemisinin, has emerged as a significant challenge. Reversal of acquired resistance can be achieved using agents that resensitize resistant parasites to a previously efficacious therapy. Building on our initial work describing novel chemoreversal agents (CRAs) that resensitize resistant parasites to chloroquine (CQ), we herein report new hybrid single agents as an innovative strategy in the battle against resistant malaria. Synthetically linking a CRA scaffold to chloroquine produces hybrid compounds with restored potency toward a range of resistant malaria parasites. A preferred compound, compound 35, showed broad activity and good potency against seven strains resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin. Assessment of aqueous solubility, membrane permeability, and in vitro toxicity in a hepatocyte line and a cardiomyocyte line indicates that compound 35 has a good therapeutic window and favorable drug-like properties. This study provides initial support for CQ-CRA hybrid compounds as a potential treatment for resistant malaria.

  1. New Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models Improve Predictability of Ames Mutagenicity for Aromatic Azo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Serena; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-10-01

    Existing Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have limited predictive capabilities for aromatic azo compounds. In this study, 2 new models were built to predict Ames mutagenicity of this class of compounds. The first one made use of descriptors based on simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES), calculated with the CORAL software. The second model was based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. The statistical quality of the predictions from single models was satisfactory. The performance further improved when the predictions from these models were combined. The prediction results from other QSAR models for mutagenicity were also evaluated. Most of the existing models were found to be good at finding toxic compounds but resulted in many false positive predictions. The 2 new models specific for this class of compounds avoid this problem thanks to a larger set of related compounds as training set and improved algorithms.

  2. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The voltage programming method of the proposed pixel circuit comprises three periods: reset, compensation with data input, and emission periods. The simulated results reflected excellent performance. For instance, when ΔVTH=±0.33 V, the average error rate of the OLED current variation was low (<0.8%, and when ΔVTH_OLED=+0.33 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 4.7%. Moreover, when the I×R (current × resistance drop voltage of a power line was 0.3 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 5.8%. The simulated results indicated that the proposed pixel circuit exhibits high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFTs and OLEDs, and simultaneously compensates for the I×R drop voltage of a power line.

  3. Screening of natural compounds as activators of the keap1-nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai C; McDonald, Peter R; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is a master regulator that promotes transcription of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative/electrophilic stress. A large number of natural dietary compounds are thought to protect against oxidative stress, and a few have been reported to induce genes involved in antioxidant defense through activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Therefore, a library of 54 natural compounds were collected to determine whether they are nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activators and to compare their efficacy and potency to activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The assay utilized AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control of antioxidant response element promoters. Each natural compound was tested at 13 concentrations between 0.02 and 30 µM. Known nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activators tert-butylhydroquinone and 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide were used as positive controls in parallel with the natural compounds. Among the 54 tested natural compounds, andrographolide had the highest efficacy, followed by trans-chalcone, sulforaphane, curcumin, flavone, kahweol, and carnosol, all of which had better efficacy than tert-butylhydroquinone. Among the compounds tested, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide was the most potent, having an EC50 of 0.41 µM. Seven of the natural compounds, namely andrographolide, trans-chalcone, sulforaphane, curcumin, flavone, kahweol, and cafestol had lower EC50 values than tert-butylhydroquinone but higher than 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide. The present study provides insights into which natural compounds activate the Keap1-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and thus might be useful for detoxifying oxidative/electrophilic stress.

  4. Terpenoid bioactive compound from Streptomyces rochei (M32): taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The present study emphasized the production of biologically active terpenoid compound from Streptomyces rochei M32, which was isolated from Western Ghats ecosystem, South India. The presence of resistant genes like mecA, vanA of Staphylococcus aureus and bla SHV, bla TEM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by molecular studies. The isolated compound from Streptomyces rochei M32 inhibited wide range of standard and clinical drug resistant pathogens and enteric pathogens. The rice bran supplemented basal medium influenced the active compound production on 8th day of fermentation and yielded 1875 mg of crude extract from 10 g of rice bran substrate. Purification and characterization of crude ethyl acetate extract was achieved by preparative thin layer chromatography. The active fraction was identified as terpenoid class compound by chemical screening. Based on the results of spectral studies (NMR, LC-MS, FTIR, etc.), the active compound was tentatively identified as 1, 19-bis (3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl) nonadeca-5, 14-diene-1, 8, 12, 19-tetraone with molecular weight 462.41 g/mol. Minimum inhibitory concentration value ranges between 7.6 and 31.2 µg/mL against test organisms was observed. The cytotoxicity results on cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed IC50 value of 2.034 µg/mL. The corresponding compound is not previously reported from any microbial resources. PMID:27562595

  5. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[Nmethyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xue-Yuan; ZHANG Jia-Yu; XU Chun-Xiang; QIAO Yi; GUI Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Employing an organic dye salt oftrans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alqa) as the electron transporting layer and N,Nt-diphenyl-N,Nl-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[l,l'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  6. Threshold-Voltage-Shift Compensation and Suppression Method Using Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistors for Large Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyonghwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2012-03-01

    A threshold-voltage-shift compensation and suppression method for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays fabricated using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane is proposed. The proposed method compensates for the threshold voltage variation of TFTs due to different threshold voltage shifts during emission time and extends the lifetime of the AMOLED panel. Measurement results show that the error range of emission current is from -1.1 to +1.7% when the threshold voltage of TFTs varies from 1.2 to 3.0 V.

  7. Relationship between electronic properties and drug activity of seven quinoxaline compounds: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Roonasi, Payman; Assle taghipour, Khatoon; van der Spoel, David; Manzetti, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The quantum chemical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory were carried out on seven quinoxaline compounds, which have been synthesized as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Three conformers were optimized for each compound and the lowest energy structure was found and used in further calculations. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters as well as electron density around oxygen and nitrogen atoms were calculated for each compound. The relationship between the calculated electronic parameters and biological activity of the studied compounds were investigated. Six similar quinoxaline derivatives with possible more drug activity were suggested based on the calculated electronic descriptors. A mechanism was proposed and discussed based on the calculated electronic parameters and bond dissociation energies.

  8. Supercritical Algal Extracts: A Source of Biologically Active Compounds from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the potential applicability of the process of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE in the production of algal extracts with the consideration of the process conditions and yields. State of the art in the research on solvent-free isolation of biologically active compounds from the biomass of algae was presented. Various aspects related with the properties of useful compounds found in cells of microalgae and macroalgae were discussed, including their potential applications as the natural components of plant protection products (biostimulants and bioregulators, dietary feed and food supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Analytical methods of determination of the natural compounds derived from algae were discussed. Algal extracts produced by SFE process enable obtaining a solvent-free concentrate of biologically active compounds; however, detailed economic analysis, as well as elaboration of products standardization procedures, is required in order to implement the products in the market.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds from Desmodium caudatum leaves and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Sohyun; Chae, Doobyeong; Hyun, Jin Won; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-01

    Four flavanonols (1-4), one xanthone (5), and three flavonoid glycosides (6-8), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Desmodium caudatum. Their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data with reported values. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-6, IL-12 p40, and TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 6.0 to 29.4 μM. Compound 5 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. These results warrant further studies of the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits of compounds from D. caudatum. PMID:24026429

  10. Phenolic compounds from sugarcane molasses possessing antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kensaku; Ushijima, Kenji; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Yamashita, Masatsugu

    2007-01-01

    During the course of our research into the use of cane by-products from sugar manufacturing, we have studied the isolation and structural determination of bioactive compounds present in sugarcane molasses. In this study, dehydrodiconiferylalcohol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isoorientin-7, 3'-O-dimethyl ether (2) were isolated as antibacterial active compounds against cariogenic bacteria. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and ESI-MS. The activities of these isolated compounds against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were assessed by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The MICs of compounds 1 and 2 against both S. mutans and S. sobrinus were >4 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:17938552

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of sulfur compounds showing structural analogy with combretastatin A-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Edson dos A. dos; Prado, Paulo C.; Carvalho, Wanderley R. de; Lima, Ricardo V. de; Beatriz, Adilson; Lima, Denis P. de, E-mail: denis.lima@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Hamel, Ernest [Screening Technologies Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Dyba, Marzena A. [Basic Science Program , SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Structural Biophysics Laboratory National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Albuquerque, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-09-01

    We extended our previous exploration of sulfur bridges as bioisosteric replacements for atoms forming the bridge between the aromatic rings of combretastatin A-4. Employing coupling reactions between 5-iodo-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene and substituted thiols, followed by oxidation to sulfones with m-CPBA, different locations for attaching the sulfur atom to ring A through the synthesis of nine compounds were examined. Antitubulin activity was performed with electrophoretically homogenous bovine brain tubulin, and activity occurred with the 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene (12), while the other compounds were inactive. The compounds were also tested for leishmanicidal activity using promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR175/M2904),and the greatest activity was observed with 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-(phenylthio)benzene (10) and 1,2,3-trimethoxy-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) sulfinyl]benzene (15). (author)

  12. Iron ore tailings used for the preparation of cementitious material by compound thermal activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-lai Yi; Heng-hu Sun; Xiu-quan Wei; Chao Li

    2009-01-01

    In the background of little reuse and large stockpile for iron ore railings, iron ore tailing from Chinese Tonghua were used as raw material to prepare cementitious materials. Cementitious properties of the iron ore tailings activated by compound thermal ac-tivation were studied. Testing methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and IR were used for researching the phase and structure variety of the iron ore tailings in the process of compound thermal activation. The results reveal that a new cementitious material that contains 30wt% of the iron ore tailings can be obtained by compounded thermal activation, whose mortar strength can come up to the stan-dard of 42.5 cement of China.

  13. Antifeedant Activity of Extracts & Isolated Compounds of Two Himalayan Plants Against A Polyphagous Pest Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Negi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexane and methanolic extracts of plant Scutellaria scandens and Hyptis suveolens was prepared and compounds were isolated by means of column chromatography. The antifeedant activity of methanol and hexane extracts were tested for antifeedant activity using leaf dip method in term of % growth reduction.Isolated compounds were tested for antifeedant activity using duel choice leaf disc method against Spodoptera litura a polyphagous pest of cotton rice, tomato, tobacco, groundnut, castor and legumes. Methanol extracts of Scutellaria scandens exhibit maximum growth reduction followed by hexane extract of Hyptis suveolens , hexane extract of Scutellaria scandens and methanol extract Hyptis suveolens

  14. Isolation and Structural Speculation of Herbicide-Active Compounds from the Metabolites of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-hui; ZHANG Jin-lin; LIU Ying-chao; CAO Zhi-yan; HAN Jian-min; YANG Juan; DONG Jin-gao

    2013-01-01

    Natural herbicides, or environment-friendly bioherbicides have been attracted more and more attentions. Isolation and structural identification of natural herbicide-active compounds from plant pathogens has been proved to be an effective approach for novel lead discovery of the pesticide development. In this study, the metabolites of the mutant strain PAM1, which obtained from PA1 of Pythium aphanidermatum (Eds.) Fitzp by ultraviolet radiation were separated and identified by HPLC, NMR, and IR. The results revealed that three active compounds including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and two indole derivatives, exhibited inhibition activity on the elongation of radical and coleoptile of Digtaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

  15. Isolation,Purification and Identification of the Spermicidal Active Compound from Neem Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhongqiong(殷中琼); Gao Ping; Gao Rong; Jiang Dehong; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the chloroform extract of the neem oil has resulted in the isolation of one new esters derivatives named 2-Octadecanoic acid-4-Palmitic acid-2,4-Pentanediyl ester (compound 1). Its structure is deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The test of in vitro spermicidal activity of the compound 1 shows that the compound 1 can kill all sperms of Kunming mice in vitro in less than 20 sec at the concentration of 2mg/ml.

  16. [Biosynthesis of biologically active low-molecular weight compounds by fungi of the genus Penicillium (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskii, A G; Antipova, T V; Zhelifonova, V P

    2015-01-01

    The recent data on exometabolite biosynthesis in fungi of the genus Penicillium is summarized. The study of creative species, as well as those isolated from extreme ecotopes, resulted in the identification of a number of novel, biologically active compounds. Alkaloid biosynthesis has been shown to begin on.the first day of fungus cultivation and to proceed throughout the cultivation period. Idiophase kinetics was observed for the biosynthesis of polyketide metabolites. The mechanisms of regulation of biosynthesis of promising bioactive compounds are discussed.

  17. Hydraphiles: A Rigorously Studied Class of Synthetic Channel Compounds with In Vivo Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedeh Negin; Smith, Bryan A.; Alexandra Unger; W Matthew Leevy; Gokel, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR or ion-selective electrodes, as well as biophysical experiments in planar bilayers. During the past decade, biological activity was observed for these compounds including toxicity to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells due to stress caused by th...

  18. Performance of Conventional Activated Sludge to Remove Nitrogen Compounds from Tomato Factory Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Meghdad Pirsaheb; Kiomars Sharafi; Golchin Rostami; Serveh Hosainie

    2012-01-01

    Today discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) to the surface water causing an Utrification phenomenon, will be due to excessive growth of algae in the receptive water source. Each of the of wastewater treatment system, providing principled design and operation can be reduced nutrients to standard level [1]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional activated sludge systems to remove nitrogen compounds from wa...

  19. Rapid, Semiquantitative Assay To Discriminate among Compounds with Activity against Replicating or Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Quezada, Landys Lopez; Glasheen, Jou; Ballinger, Elaine; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Warrier, Thulasi; Warren, J. David; Nathan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The search for drugs that can kill replicating and nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis faces practical bottlenecks. Measurement of CFU and discrimination of bacteriostatic from bactericidal activity are costly in compounds, supplies, labor, and time. Testing compounds against M. tuberculosis under conditions that prevent the replication of M. tuberculosis often involves a second phase of the test in which conditions are altered to permit the replication of bacteria that survived the fir...

  20. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New Schiff Base Compounds Containing 2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various novel Schiff base compounds have been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with substituted benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and different substituted aromatic or heterocyclic amines in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structures of all these compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data and have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  1. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Efremova, N.; Molodoi, E.; Usatîi, A.; Fulga, L.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast bi...

  2. Antifungal activity of extracts and select compounds in heartwood of seven western conifers toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western red cedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper,...

  3. [Progress in study of flavonoids from Annonaceae and biological activities of these compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jiu-Hong

    2007-05-01

    More than 50 new flavonoids derived from Annonaceae are reported in the last two decades. Many genuses in Annonaceae contain flavonoids having structural novelty and broad pharmacological activities. Due to the pharmacological interest of some of these compounds, chemical investigations on this topic have grown considerably in the decades. Here the biological activities of some of these flavonoids are also briefly discussed.

  4. Cancer Stem Cells: The Potential Targets of Chinese Medicines and Their Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pivotal role of cancer stem cells (CSCs in the initiation and progression of malignancies has been rigorously validated, and the specific methods for identifying and isolating the CSCs from the parental cancer population have also been rapidly developed in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of recent research progress of Chinese medicines (CMs and their active compounds in inhibiting tumor progression by targeting CSCs. A great deal of CMs and their active compounds, such as Antrodia camphorate, berberine, resveratrol, and curcumin have been shown to regress CSCs, in terms of reversing drug resistance, inducing cell death and inhibiting cell proliferation as well as metastasis. Furthermore, one of the active compounds in coptis, berbamine may inhibit tumor progression by modulating microRNAs to regulate CSCs. The underlying molecular mechanisms and related signaling pathways involved in these processes were also discussed and concluded in this paper. Overall, the use of CMs and their active compounds may be a promising therapeutic strategy to eradicate cancer by targeting CSCs. However, further studies are needed to clarify the potential of clinical application of CMs and their active compounds as complementary and alternative therapy in this field.

  5. Cancer Stem Cells: The Potential Targets of Chinese Medicines and Their Active Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Tan, Hor Yue; Li, Sha; Cheung, Fan; Wang, Ning; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The pivotal role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of malignancies has been rigorously validated, and the specific methods for identifying and isolating the CSCs from the parental cancer population have also been rapidly developed in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of recent research progress of Chinese medicines (CMs) and their active compounds in inhibiting tumor progression by targeting CSCs. A great deal of CMs and their active compounds, such as Antrodia camphorate, berberine, resveratrol, and curcumin have been shown to regress CSCs, in terms of reversing drug resistance, inducing cell death and inhibiting cell proliferation as well as metastasis. Furthermore, one of the active compounds in coptis, berbamine may inhibit tumor progression by modulating microRNAs to regulate CSCs. The underlying molecular mechanisms and related signaling pathways involved in these processes were also discussed and concluded in this paper. Overall, the use of CMs and their active compounds may be a promising therapeutic strategy to eradicate cancer by targeting CSCs. However, further studies are needed to clarify the potential of clinical application of CMs and their active compounds as complementary and alternative therapy in this field. PMID:27338343

  6. Novel ruthenium(II) cyclopentadienyl thiosemicarbazone compounds with antiproliferative activity on pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana; Arce, Esteban Rodríguez; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Morais, Tânia S; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Azar, Claudio Olea; Figueroa, Roberto; Diego Maya, J; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo; Helena Garcia, M; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

    2015-12-01

    Searching for new prospective antitrypanosomal agents, three novel Ru(II)-cyclopentadienyl compounds, [Ru(η(5)-C5H5)(PPh3)L], with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. The compounds were evaluated in vitro on the blood circulating trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c strain), the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (strain 427) and on J774 murine macrophages and human-derived EA.hy926 endothelial cells. The compounds were active against both parasites with IC50 values in the micromolar or submicromolar range. Interestingly, they are much more active on T. cruzi than previously developed Ru(II) classical and organometallic compounds with the same bioactive ligands. The new compounds showed moderate to very good selectivity towards the parasites in respect to mammalian cells. The global results point at [RuCp(PPh3)L2] (L2=N-methyl derivative of 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazone and Cp=cyclopentadienyl) as the most promising compound for further developments (IC50T. cruzi=0.41μM; IC50T. brucei brucei=3.5μM). Moreover, this compound shows excellent selectivity towards T. cruzi (SI>49) and good selectivity towards T. brucei brucei (SI>6). In order to get insight into the mechanism of antiparasitic action, the intracellular free radical production capacity of the new compounds was assessed by ESR. DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide) spin adducts related to the bioreduction of the complexes and to redox cycling processes were characterized. In addition, DNA competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide by fluorescence measurements showed that the compounds interact with this biomolecule. PMID:26275470

  7. Antitumor and antiparasitic activity of novel ruthenium compounds with polycyclic aromatic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserachs, Helena Guiset; Cipriani, Micaella; Grau, Jordi; Vilaseca, Marta; Lorenzo, Julia; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía; Moreno, Virtudes

    2015-09-01

    Five novel ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with polycyclic aromatic ligands were synthesized, comprising three compounds of the formula [RuCl(η(6)-p-cym)(L)][PF6], where p-cym = 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene and L are the bidentate aromatic ligands 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, 1, 5-amine-1,10-phenanthroline, 4, or 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-phenanthroline, 5. In the other two complexes [RuCl2(η(6)-p-cym)(L')], the metal is coordinated to a monodentate ligand L', where L' is phenanthridine, 2, or 9-carbonylanthracene, 3. All compounds were fully characterized by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis, as well as NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. Obtained ruthenium compounds as well as their respective ligands were tested for their antiparasitic and antitumoral activities. Even though all compounds showed lower Trypanosoma brucei activity than the free ligands, they also resulted less toxic on mammalian cells. Cytotoxicity assays on HL60 cells showed a moderate antitumoral activity for all ruthenium compounds. Compound 1 was the most potent antitumoral (IC50 = 1.26±0.78 μM) and antiparasitic (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.05 μM) agent, showing high selectivity towards the parasites (selectivity index >100). As complex 1 was the most promising antitumoral compound, its interaction with ubiquitin as potential target was also studied. In addition, obtained ruthenium compounds were found to bind DNA, and they are thought to interact with this macromolecule mainly through intercalation of the aromatic ligand.

  8. Antioxidant, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Ferula lutea Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir. Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2, reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, methyl caffeate (5, methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8, (−-marmesin (9, isoimperatorin (10 and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11. Compounds 3–10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2, as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  9. Small-molecule activators of insulin-degrading enzyme discovered through high-throughput compound screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Cabrol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypocatabolism of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD, making pharmacological activation of IDE an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, it has not been established whether the proteolytic activity of IDE can be enhanced by drug-like compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the finding that ATP and other nucleotide polyphosphates modulate IDE activity at physiological concentrations, we conducted parallel high-throughput screening campaigns in the absence or presence of ATP and identified two compounds--designated Ia1 and Ia2--that significantly stimulate IDE proteolytic activity. Both compounds were found to interfere with the crosslinking of a photoaffinity ATP analogue to IDE, suggesting that they interact with a bona fide ATP-binding domain within IDE. Unexpectedly, we observed highly synergistic activation effects when the activity of Ia1 or Ia2 was tested in the presence of ATP, a finding that has implications for the mechanisms underlying ATP-mediated activation of IDE. Notably, Ia1 and Ia2 activated the degradation of Abeta by approximately 700% and approximately 400%, respectively, albeit only when Abeta was presented in a mixture also containing shorter substrates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes the first examples of synthetic small-molecule activators of IDE, showing that pharmacological activation of this important protease with drug-like compounds is achievable. These novel activators help to establish the putative ATP-binding domain as a key modulator of IDE proteolytic activity and offer new insights into the modulatory action of ATP. Several larger lessons abstracted from this screen will help inform the design of future screening campaigns and facilitate the eventual development of IDE activators with therapeutic utility.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aiyelabola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard.

  11. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI. PMID:25766808

  12. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast biomass and have beneficial effect on the catalase activity at selected yeast strain. The maximum increase of catalase activity in yeast biomass was established in case of iron and zinc citrate supplementation to the nutritive medium in optimal concentration of 15.0 mg/l. Results of the present study could be used for the elaboration of new procedures of catalase obtaining by directed synthesis with the utilization of selected metal compounds.

  13. Activity Profile of an FDA-Approved Compound Library against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Panic

    Full Text Available As plans to expand mass drug treatment campaigns to fight schistosomiasis form, worries about reliance on praziquantel as the sole available treatment motivate the investigation for novel antischistosomal compounds. Drug repurposing might be an inexpensive and effective source of novel antischistosomal leads.1600 FDA approved compounds were first assayed against Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula at a concentration of 10 µM. Active compounds identified from this screen were advanced to the adult worm screen at 33.33 µM, followed by hit characterization. Leads with complementary pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were then selected for in vivo studies.The in vitro screen identified 121 and 36 compounds active against the schistosomula and adult stage, respectively. Further, in vitro characterization and comparison with already available pharmacokinetic and toxicity data identified 11 in vivo candidates. Doramectin (10 mg/kg and clofazimine (400 mg/kg were found to be active in vivo with worm burden reductions of 60.1% and 82.7%, respectively.The work presented here expands the knowledge of antischistosomal properties of already approved compounds and underscores variations observed between target-based and phenotypic approaches and among laboratories. The two in vivo-active drugs identified in this study, doramectin and clofazimine are widely available and present as novel drug classes as starting points for further investigation.

  14. Highly efficient hybrid light-emitting device using complex of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in co-polymer as an active layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Seo, Jun-Seon; Jeong, Sohee; Lee, Jihye; Han, Chang-Soo; Kim, Do-Eok; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2010-08-16

    We propose a highly efficient hybrid light-emitting device (LED) with a single active layer where CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are dispersed as a guest material in a conjugated polymer (co-polymer) matrix used for a host material. In our structure, the QDs act on light-emitting chromophores by trapping the migrating excitons in the co-polymer matrix via Förster energy transfer, and improve the charge balance within the co-polymer by trapping the injected electron carriers. Experimental results show that the electroluminescent properties highly depend on the doping density of the QDs within the co-polymer matrix, where the luminance as well as the external current efficiency are initially enhanced with increasing the concentration of the dispersed QDs in the co-polymer solution, and then such properties are degraded due to aggregation of the QDs. We can get the maximum brightness of 9,088 cd/m(2) and the maximum external current efficiency of 7.5 cd/A in mixing ratio of the QDs by 1.0 wt%. The external current efficiency is enhanced by over 15 times and the turn-on voltage is reduced in comparison with the corresponding values for a reference device that uses only a co-polymer as an active layer. PMID:20721223

  15. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Andrographis stenophylla Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Neelaveni Thangavel; Jayanta Kumar Gupta

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts of Andrographis stenophylla leaf was evaluated in vitro using ferric thiocyanate method. Reductive ability and free radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also investigated. Amounts of phenolic compounds in each of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and compared to observe the correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content. Methanol extract exhibited maximum antioxidant activity and was found...

  16. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Durak; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed...

  17. Leishmanicidal and Cholinesterase Inhibiting Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Sewald

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1, garcinol (2, cambogin (3 and guttiferone F (4, along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5, xanthone V1 (6 and globulixanthone C (7 as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from S. globulifera leaves, while compounds 2-5 were obtained from A. monticola fruits. Guttiferone A (1 and F (4 showed particulary strong leishmanicidal activity in vitro, with IC50 values (0.2 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively comparable to that of the reference compound, miltefosine (0.46 μM. Although the leishmanicidal activity is promising, the cytotoxicity profile of these compounds prevent at this state further in vivo biological evaluation. In addition, all the isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their anticholinesterase properties. The four benzophenones showed potent anticholinesterase properties towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butylcholinesterase (AChE. For AChE, the IC50 value (0.66 μM of garcinol (2 was almost equal to that of the reference compound galanthamine (0.50 μM. Furthermore, guttiferone A (1 and guttiferone F (4 (IC50 = 2.77 and 3.50 μM, respectively were more active than galanthamine (IC50 = 8.5 against BChE.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Compounds Isolated from the Root Woods of Erythrina droogmansiana

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    AJG Yaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, to characterize secondary metabolites from methanolic extract of the root woods of Erythrina droogmansiana and to assess the antioxidant activity of the crude extract and isolated compounds. The phytochemical study led to the isolation of 3-(3’,4’-methelenedioxyphenyl-2,3-epoxypropanol (1, asperphenamate (2 and three flavonoids namely genistein, diadzein and 4’,5,7-trihydroxy-8-prenylisoflavone. These compounds were characterized using their 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, HSQC, COSY, mass spectral and the literature. To evaluate antioxidant activity of crude extract and isolated compounds, the radical scavenging (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Ability Power (FRAP were performed using ascorbic acid as standard. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate radical scavenging potential with IC50 value of 3.14 and 3.31 mg/ml respectively, and moderate reducing power ability with value of 0.14±0.01 mgAAE/mg and 0.21±0.01 mgAAE/mg respectively. The more active compound was genistein (3 with IC50 value of 1.96 mg/ml for the DPPH radical scavenging potential and 0.24±0.02 mgAAE/mg for its ability to reduce iron.

  19. Contact-based ligand-clustering approach for the identification of active compounds in virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantsyzov AB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexey B Mantsyzov,1 Guillaume Bouvier,2 Nathalie Evrard-Todeschi,1 Gildas Bertho11Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne, Paris, France; 2Institut Pasteur, Paris, FranceAbstract: Evaluation of docking results is one of the most important problems for virtual screening and in silico drug design. Modern approaches for the identification of active compounds in a large data set of docked molecules use energy scoring functions. One of the general and most significant limitations of these methods relates to inaccurate binding energy estimation, which results in false scoring of docked compounds. Automatic analysis of poses using self-organizing maps (AuPosSOM represents an alternative approach for the evaluation of docking results based on the clustering of compounds by the similarity of their contacts with the receptor. A scoring function was developed for the identification of the active compounds in the AuPosSOM clustered dataset. In addition, the AuPosSOM efficiency for the clustering of compounds and the identification of key contacts considered as important for its activity, were also improved. Benchmark tests for several targets revealed that together with the developed scoring function, AuPosSOM represents a good alternative to the energy-based scoring functions for the evaluation of docking results.Keywords: scoring, docking, virtual screening, CAR, AuPosSOM

  20. Effects of the compounds 2-methoxynaphthoquinone, 2-propoxynaphthoquinone, and 2-isopropoxynaphthoquinone on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Martin J; Brescia, Aaron I; Smith, Stan L; Morgan, E David

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the natural compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, isolated from the leaves of Impatiens glandulifera and the synthetic compounds 2-propoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-isopropoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E-20-M) activity were examined in three insect species. Homogenates of wandering stage third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, or abdomens from adult female Aedes aegypti, or fat body or midgut from fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta were incubated with radiolabelled ecdysone and increasing concentrations (from 1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-3) M) of the three compounds. All three compounds were found to inhibit in a dose-dependent fashion the E-20-M activity in the three insect species. The concentration of these compounds required to elicit a 50% inhibition of this steroid hydroxylase activity in the three insect species examined ranged from approximately 3 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-4) M. PMID:17694563

  1. Antifungal, antioxidant and larvicidal activities of compounds isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiew, P; Ioset, J R; Kokpol, U; Chavasiri, W; Hostettmann, K

    2003-02-01

    Eleven compounds isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei were tested for their antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans, as well as for their larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti and radical scavenging properties in a DPPH assay. Mansonone C (4) was found to be the most interesting compound with antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans as well as for its larvicidal properties against Aedes aegypti. Mansonone E (5) was active against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. Two coumarin derivatives, mansorin A (1) and mansorin B (2) were also found to be active against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while mansonone N (9) was the only isolated product to show radical scavenging properties. PMID:12601687

  2. Evaluation of the effect of germination on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in sorghum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-04-01

    The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties. PMID:15796598

  3. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract and isolated compounds from Croton bonplandianum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BURGOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding the pure compounds, the crotsparine was inactive against the microorganisms assayed, whereas the sparsiflorine indicated a moderate activity similar to the alkaloid extract. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive of the tested microorganisms with MIC of 0.141 mg/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the extract may be credited mainly to the presence of the sparsiflorine. Although the activity of the sparsiflorine does not get close to the antimicrobial drugs in clinical use, it still could be a lead compound for the development of new antibacterial substances.

  4. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-Δ8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 μM, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively.

  5. Measurement of the neutron activity of a 252Cf source relative to the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission for the spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for measuring the absolute neutron activity of a large 252Cf source. The neutron counting assembly is composed of eight BF3 counters mounted in a large tank filled with water which is used as a moderator. The detection efficiency is determined using a low activity 252Cf source. The method is based on the identification of every fission event, followed by the counting of the fission neutrons detected by the BF3 counters during a time interval equal to the maximum neutron lifetime in the moderator. The efficiency is thus obtained relative to the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per 252Cf spontaneous fission which is commonly used as a standard. The measurement accuracy is estimated to be of the order of 1%

  6. Antiviral activity of Plantago major extracts and related compounds in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, L C; Chiang, W; Chang, M Y; Ng, L T; Lin, C C

    2002-07-01

    Plantago major L., a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases varying from cold to viral hepatitis. The aim of present study was to examine the antiviral activity of aqueous extract and pure compounds of P. major. Studies were conducted on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11). The antiviral activity of EC50 was defined as the concentration achieved 50% cyto-protection against virus infection and the selectivity index (SI) was determined by the ratio of CC50 (concentration of 50% cellular cytotoxicity) to EC50. Results showed that aqueous extract of P. major possessed only a slight anti-herpes virus activity. In contrast, certain pure compounds belonging to the five different classes of chemicals found in extracts of this plant exhibited potent antiviral activity. Among them, caffeic acid exhibited the strongest activity against HSV-1 (EC50=15.3 microg/ml, SI=671), HSV-2 (EC50=87.3 microg/ml, SI=118) and ADV-3 (EC50=14.2 microg/ml, SI=727), whereas chlorogenic acid possessed the strongest anti-ADV-11 (EC50=13.3 microg/ml, SI=301) activity. The present study concludes that pure compounds of P. major, which possess antiviral activities are mainly derived from the phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid. Its mode of action against HSV-2 and ADV-3 was found to be at multiplication stages (postinfection of HSV-1: 0-12 h; ADV-3: 0-2 h), and with SI values greater than 400, suggesting the potential use of this compound for treatment of the infection by these two viruses.

  7. Antileishmanial Activity and Structure-Activity Relationship of Triazolic Compounds Derived from the Neolignans Grandisin, Veraguensin, and Machilin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda C. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 1,4-diaryl-1,2,3-triazole compounds 4–19 derived from the tetrahydrofuran neolignans veraguensin 1, grandisin 2, and machilin G 3 were tested against Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. Triazole compounds 4–19 were synthetized via Click Chemistry strategy by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between terminal acetylenes and aryl azides containing methoxy and methylenedioxy groups as substituents. Our results suggest that most derivatives were active against intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 4.4 to 32.7 µM. The index of molecular hydrophobicity (ClogP ranged from 2.8 to 3.4, reflecting a lipophilicity/hydrosolubility rate suitable for transport across membranes, which may have resulted in the potent antileishmanial activity observed. Regarding structure-activity relationship (SAR, compounds 14 and 19, containing a trimethoxy group, were the most active (IC50 values of 5.6 and 4.4 µM, respectively, with low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells (SI = 14.1 and 10.6. These compounds induced nitric oxide production by the host macrophage cells, which could be suggested as the mechanism involved in the intracellular killing of parasites. These results would be useful for the planning of new derivatives with higher antileishmanial activities.

  8. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones. In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%, flavonols (max. 44% and anthocyanins (max. 29%, than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of C-geranyl compounds from Paulownia tomentosa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejkal, Karel; Babula, Petr; Slapetová, Tereza; Brognara, Eleonora; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Zemlicka, Milan; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Cvacka, Josef

    2008-10-01

    The newly discovered 5,7-dihydroxy-6-geranylchromone ( 1) was isolated from PAULOWNIA TOMENTOSA fruit and subsequently characterized. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments including HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY, as well as HR-MS, IR, and UV. The cytotoxicity of 1 was evaluated using a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cells. The other phytoconstituents ( 2 - 8) previously isolated from P. TOMENTOSA were similarly evaluated together with the known flavanones 10 and 11. The cytotoxicity (human erythro-leukaemia cell line K562) and activity on erythroid differentiation of compounds 2 - 9 and 12 and 13 have also been evaluated. Acteoside ( 2) was determined to be the most toxic of the compounds tested on BY-2 cells, diplacone ( 6) on the K562 cell line. Some aspects of the relationship between the flavanone skeleton substitution and the metabolic activation necessary for a toxic effect are discussed. PMID:18729043

  10. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  11. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm.W-1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs.

  12. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  14. Moooving forward on determining biologically active compounds in milk and their impact on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some of the lesser studied components in milk, known as biologically active compounds (BACs), may provide potential benefits to human health. The added health-value of raw milk and milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, an...

  15. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  16. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  17. Thyroid in a jar: towards an integrated in vitro testing strategy for thyroid-active compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.

    2015-01-01

      Jomaa, B. (2015). Thyroid in a Jar: Towards an Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategy for Thyroid-Active Compounds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Abstract The aim of this thesis was to find in vitro and toxicogenomics-based alternatives to

  18. NMR and DFT Study of Co-C Bond Activation Mechanism in Vitamin B12 Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ This report focuses on a theoretical study of the cobalt-cabon bond activation mechanism in Vitamin B12, its coenzyme complexes, and model compounds such as cobalamins (Cbl), cobaloximes and cobalt porphyrins. In particular, emphasis is placed on the nucleotide loop and its role in the baseon and baseoff mechanism.

  19. GENETIC STUDIES ON TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII--AN ACTIVE COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM THE PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SillJia-Fang; WANGYi; LIUQi-Lan; PANLi; SUNJia-Qing; ZI-IANGZhu-Tao; HUYanZhong; XUYe; QIANShao-Zhen

    1989-01-01

    The multiglycosides ofTriptcrygium wilfordii Hook. f(GTW), a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of certain diseases, has been shown to cause reversible infertility both in male rats and in men. Very recently, we Found that an active compound (T4)

  20. A study on the catalytic activity of new catalysts for removal of NOx, CH and CO emitted from car exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Walid Bizreh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three catalysts were prepared from copper oxide carried on a matrix of a mixture of Syrian, Jordanian natural zeolite, Syrian bentonite, and Al2O3–CuO. As a simulation to the field motor car condition, a good quantity of macrosize granules of the catalyst was used, and the initial reacting agents were the car exhaust gases (C.E.G.. Catalytic experiments were conducted by means of a flow micro pulse–like reactor using the gases emitted from car exhaust. When the (ZJB–CuO, Al2O3–CuO catalyst was applied, the maximal de-CO conversion was as estimated as 60% at 250 °C, and 90% for de-CH at 400 °C, whereas the de-CH rate conversion of the (ZB–CuO, Al2O3–MoO3–CuO catalyst was as much as 80% at 360 °C and 78% for de-CO at 360 °C. The catalytic data made it possible to suggest a mechanism for each of the ongoing reactions. A maximal de-CH, conversion rate on the (ZB–CuO, Al2O3–CuO catalyst was reached at 450 °C. The N2 adsorption–desorption measurements were carried out at (−196 °C, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction for the catalysts were studied as well. A comparative study was conducted between the catalysts [(ZB–CuO, Al2O3–MoO3–CuO, and (ZJB–CuO, Al2O3–CuO] and a honeycomb structure commercial catalyst manufactured for use in gasoline vehicles.

  1. Influence of various phenolic compounds on phenol hydroxylase activity of a Trichosporon cutaneum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Manasiev, Jordan; Shivarova, Nedka; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2007-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Trichosporon cutaneum R57 utilizes various aromatic and aliphatic compounds as a sole carbon and energy source. The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase [EC 1.14.13.7] of a Trichosporon cutaneum R57 strain grown on phenol (0.5 g/l) were measured. Different toxic phenol derivatives (cresols, nitrophenols and hydroxyphenols) were used as substrates in the reaction mixture for determination of the enzyme activity. The data obtained showed that the investigated enzyme was capable to hydroxylate all applied aromatic substrates. The measured activities of phenol hydroxylase varied significantly depending on the aromatic compounds used as substrates. The rate of phenol hydroxylase activity with phenol as a substrate (1.0 U/mg total cell protein) was accepted as 100%.

  2. Synthesis and Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Some Novel Benzo-Heterocyclic Amine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel unsaturated five-membered benzo-heterocyclic amine derivatives were synthesized and assayed to determine their in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activities. The biological results showed that most of our synthesized compounds exhibited potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Notably, compounds 3f (IC50 = 3.21–5.06 μM and 3g (IC50 = 0.71–34.87 μM showed potent activity towards both RNA viruses (influenza A, HCV and Cox B3 virus and a DNA virus (HBV at low micromolar concentrations. An SAR study showed that electron-withdrawing substituents located on the aromatic or heteroaromatic ring favored antiviral activity towards RNA viruses.

  3. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanan Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1 using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H,17α(H,(20R-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies.

  4. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. PMID:27211614

  5. Study of the Biological Activity of Novel Synthetic Compounds with Antiviral Properties against Human Rhinoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaello Pompei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Picornaviridae represent a very large family of small RNA viruses, some of which are the cause of important human and animal diseases. Since no specific therapy against any of these viruses currently exists, palliative symptomatic treatments are employed. The early steps of the picornavirus replicative cycle seem to be privileged targets for some antiviral compounds like disoxaril and pirodavir. Pirodavir’s main weakness is its cytotoxicity on cell cultures at relatively low doses. In this work some original synthetic compounds were tested, in order to find less toxic compounds with an improved protection index (PI on infected cells. Using an amino group to substitute the oxygen atom in the central chain, such as that in the control molecule pirodavir, resulted in decreased activity against Rhinoviruses and Polioviruses. The presence of an -ethoxy-propoxy- group in the central chain (as in compound I-6602 resulted in decreased cell toxicity and in improved anti-Rhinovirus activity. This compound actually showed a PI >700 on HRV14, while pirodavir had a PI of 250. These results demonstrate that modification of pirodavir’s central hydrocarbon chain can lead to the production of novel derivatives with low cytotoxicity and improved PI against some strains of Rhinoviruses.

  6. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure–activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR; principal component analysis (PCA; and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2 vary from 0%–55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.

  7. Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subashini Devarajan; Subhashree Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potential of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey.METHODS:Phenolic compounds were extracted from Indian honey through column chromatography.The antioxidant potential of extracted phenolic compounds was measured by two different biochemical assays:ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)assay and scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.Moreover,α-amylase inhibition assay of phenolic compounds of honey was also evaluated.RESULTS:The scavenging inhibition rate varied from 86.8% to 78.6% from the highest (6mg·mL-1) to the lowest (1.5 mg·mL-1) concentration,whereas,reducing power assay varied from 0.89 Abs to 0.19 Abs from the highest to the lowest concentration.Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as reference compound for antioxidant assays.α-amylase inhibition assay is reported from the phenolic honey extracts for the first time.The inhibition rate for α-amylase varied from 88.8% to 30.5% from the highest (20 μg·mL-1) to the lowest concentration (4.μg·mL-1).CONCLUSION:Honey phenolic extract possessed antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activity,thus increasing its potential therapeutic property.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadjui Bonaventure T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artocarpus communis is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract (ACB and compounds isolated from the bark of this plant, namely peruvianursenyl acetate C (1, α-amyrenol or viminalol (2, artonin E (4 and 2-[(3,5-dihydroxy-(Z-4-(3-methylbut-1-enylphenyl]benzofuran-6-ol (5. Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC, against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The MIC results indicated that ACB as well as compounds 4 and 5 were able to prevent the growth of all tested microbial species. All other compounds showed selective activities. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The corresponding value of 32 μg/ml was recorded with compounds 4 and 5 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and compound 5 on E. coli ATCC 8739, their inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa PA01 being more than that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The overall results of this study provided supportive data for the use of A. communis as well as some of its constituents for the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  9. In Silico Analysis and Experimental Validation of Active Compounds from Cichorium intybus L. Ameliorating Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Yu; Zheng, Ya-Xin; Sun, Fu-Zhou; Huang, Jian; Lou, Meng-Meng; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms of hepatic protective activity of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) in acute liver injury. Pathological observation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and measurements of biochemical indexes on mouse models proved hepatic protective effect of Cichorium intybus L. Identification of active compounds in Cichorium intybus L. was executed through several methods including ultra performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). Similarity ensemble approach (SEA) docking, molecular modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were applied in this study to explore possible mechanisms of the hepato-protective potential of Cichorium intybus L. We then analyzed the chemical composition of Cichorium intybus L., and found their key targets. Furthermore, in vitro cytological examination and western blot were used for validating the efficacy of the selected compounds. In silico analysis and western blot together demonstrated that selected compound 10 in Cichorium intybus L. targeted Akt-1 in hepatocytes. Besides, compound 13 targeted both caspase-1 and Akt-1. These small compounds may ameliorate liver injury by acting on their targets, which are related to apoptosis or autophagy. The conclusions above may shed light on the complex molecular mechanisms of Cichorium intybus L. acting on hepatocytes and ameliorating liver injury. PMID:26389883

  10. In Silico Analysis and Experimental Validation of Active Compounds from Cichorium intybus L. Ameliorating Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yu Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms of hepatic protective activity of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory in acute liver injury. Pathological observation, reactive oxygen species (ROS detection and measurements of biochemical indexes on mouse models proved hepatic protective effect of Cichorium intybus L. Identification of active compounds in Cichorium intybus L. was executed through several methods including ultra performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS. Similarity ensemble approach (SEA docking, molecular modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD simulation were applied in this study to explore possible mechanisms of the hepato-protective potential of Cichorium intybus L. We then analyzed the chemical composition of Cichorium intybus L., and found their key targets. Furthermore, in vitro cytological examination and western blot were used for validating the efficacy of the selected compounds. In silico analysis and western blot together demonstrated that selected compound 10 in Cichorium intybus L. targeted Akt-1 in hepatocytes. Besides, compound 13 targeted both caspase-1 and Akt-1. These small compounds may ameliorate liver injury by acting on their targets, which are related to apoptosis or autophagy. The conclusions above may shed light on the complex molecular mechanisms of Cichorium intybus L. acting on hepatocytes and ameliorating liver injury.

  11. Natural compounds' activity against cancer stem-like or fast-cycling melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Sztiller-Sikorska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports the concept that melanoma is highly heterogeneous and sustained by a small subpopulation of melanoma stem-like cells. Those cells are considered as responsible for tumor resistance to therapies. Moreover, melanoma cells are characterized by their high phenotypic plasticity. Consequently, both melanoma stem-like cells and their more differentiated progeny must be eradicated to achieve durable cure. By reevaluating compounds in heterogeneous melanoma populations, it might be possible to select compounds with activity not only against fast-cycling cells but also against cancer stem-like cells. Natural compounds were the focus of the present study. METHODS: We analyzed 120 compounds from The Natural Products Set II to identify compounds active against melanoma populations grown in an anchorage-independent manner and enriched with cells exerting self-renewing capacity. Cell viability, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, gene expression, clonogenic survival and label-retention were analyzed. FINDINGS: Several compounds efficiently eradicated cells with clonogenic capacity and nanaomycin A, streptonigrin and toyocamycin were effective at 0.1 µM. Other anti-clonogenic but not highly cytotoxic compounds such as bryostatin 1, siomycin A, illudin M, michellamine B and pentoxifylline markedly reduced the frequency of ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5-positive cells. On the contrary, treatment with maytansine and colchicine selected for cells expressing this transporter. Maytansine, streptonigrin, toyocamycin and colchicine, even if highly cytotoxic, left a small subpopulation of slow-dividing cells unaffected. Compounds selected in the present study differentially altered the expression of melanocyte/melanoma specific microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and proto-oncogene c-MYC. CONCLUSION: Selected anti-clonogenic compounds might be further investigated as potential adjuvants

  12. Leishmanicidal and Cholinesterase Inhibiting Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Sewald; Etienne Tsamo; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Qamar Naz; Marcel Kaiser; Joseph Ngoupayo; Krishna Prasad Devkota; Bernard Weniger; Catherine Vonthron-Sénécheau; Bruno Ndjakou Lenta

    2007-01-01

    In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1), garcinol (2), cambogin (3) and guttiferone F (4), along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5), xanthone V1 (6) and globulixanthone C (7) as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolat...

  13. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Butnariu Monica; Coradini Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy...

  14. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries. Recently, attention has been paid to the identification of new sources of safe natural antioxidants for the food industry. The antioxidant activities of spices are mainly attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Saffron is one of the spices believed to possess antioxidant properties, but information on its antioxidant activity and phenolic, flavonoids compound are rather limited, therefore this research was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of saffron stigmas extracted with different solvents. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds of saffron were also examined using reversed phase (RP-HPLC. Results showed that saffron stigma possess antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of saffron stigma at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 68.2% and 78.9%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic saffron extract was 6.54 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids, 5.88 ± 0.12 mg rutin equivalent/g DW, which were also higher than values obtained from the ethanolic and boiling water extracts. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol as two bioactive compounds. In summary, saffron stigmas showed antioxidant activity and methanol appeared to be the best solvent to extract the active components, among which the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol might contribute towards the stigma’s antioxidant properties. Hence, saffron stigma could be applied as a natural antioxidant

  15. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and compounds from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2008-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora was tested against human pathogens,including bacteria, yeast and dermatophyte fungi, using the agar disc diffusion. The ethanol extract exhibited strong antifungalactivity against dermatophytes with clear zone values from 10.7-19.8 mm at concentration of 2 mg/disc. However,ethanol extract showed no activities against all bacteria and yeast tested. The ethanol extract and seven compounds of K.parviflora were further stu...

  17. In Silico Analysis and Experimental Validation of Active Compounds from Cichorium intybus L. Ameliorating Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Yu Li; Ya-Xin Zheng; Fu-Zhou Sun; Jian Huang; Meng-Meng Lou; Jing-Kai Gu; Jin-Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the possible mechanisms of hepatic protective activity of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) in acute liver injury. Pathological observation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and measurements of biochemical indexes on mouse models proved hepatic protective effect of Cichorium intybus L. Identification of active compounds in Cichorium intybus L. was executed through several methods including ultra performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectr...

  18. A Study of Effect of the Compound Physical Activity Therapy on Muscular Strength in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kak, Hwang-Bo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Young-Hwa; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Oh, Byoung-Don; Koh, Hyung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine how compound physical activity affects muscular strength of middle-aged obese women. [Subjects] The research subjects were 40–50 year-old middle-aged women with excess body fat (30%). [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to two group, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group performed two types of exercise programs for 16 weeks. Aerobic physical activity was performed 5 times per week, and anaerobic physical...

  19. Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nuansri Rakariyatham; Kilburn, Jeremy D.; Aphiwat Teerawutgulrag; Nont Thitilertdecha

    2010-01-01

    Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit whose peel possesses antioxidant properties. Experiments on the isolation and identification of the active constituents were conducted, and on their antioxidant activity using a lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The methanolic extract of N. lappaceum peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography was utilized in the isolation of each constituent and the antioxidant properties of each was studied. The isolated compounds w...

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content in methanol extract obtained from leaves Commiphora Myrrha

    OpenAIRE

    Celia Eliane de Lara da Silva; Rosilene Valota; Karimi Sater Gebara; Rogerio Cesar de Lara da Silva; Euclesio Simionatto

    2013-01-01

    This work presents shows the study of antioxidant activity and quantification of phenolic content determined for the methanol extract obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The high content of phenolic compounds were evaluated against the potential to sequester free radical through the model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrizil hydrazyl (DPPH) and compared with a standard rutin. The results show that the inhibitory capacity of the extract (IC50) was 0.21 mg.L-1. The extract pursued an antioxidant activity of 91...

  1. An Antimicrobial Compound Isolated from Cinnamomum Iners Leaves with Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Mahsufi Mansor; Marina Shah; Sabariah Ismail; Jayant Indurkar; Fazlina Mustaffa

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum iners standardized leave methanolic extract (CSLE), its fractions and isolated compounds. CSLE and fractions were subjected to disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests using different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. Within the series of fractions tested, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active, particularly against methicil...

  2. Polyphenolic Compounds and Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Eight Lamiaceae Herbs of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhyarani Devi KHOMDRAM; Potsangbam Kumar SINGH

    2011-01-01

    Eight plants of Lamiaceae under subfamily Nepetoideae found in Manipur, India were selected for estimation of their polyphenolic compounds and free radical scavenging activity which is expressed on dry weight basis. In this present study, the total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the free radical scavenging activity were studied using spectrophotometric method. The total phenol content was determined based on Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, flavonoid was determined by aluminium chloride s...

  3. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Riana Ningsih; Zusfahair Zusfahair; Dwi Kartika

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.). This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-h...

  4. Effects of various poisoning compounds on the activity and stereospecificity of heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A TiCl4/ethylbenzoate/MgCl2 Ziegler-Natta catalyst was pretreated with chemically different poisoning compounds to investigate their effects on the catalyst activity and stereospecificity for propylene polymerization. The poisoning power on the activity was in the order of methanol > acetone > ethyl acetate. A kinetic analysis using the stopped-flow method revealed that addition of the poisoning materials decreased the activity through the reduction of the number of active sites, whereas the catalyst isospecificity was hardly affected by these materials.

  5. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  6. Rapid, Semiquantitative Assay To Discriminate among Compounds with Activity against Replicating or Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Quezada, Landys Lopez; Glasheen, Jou; Ballinger, Elaine; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Warrier, Thulasi; Warren, J David; Nathan, Carl

    2015-10-01

    The search for drugs that can kill replicating and nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis faces practical bottlenecks. Measurement of CFU and discrimination of bacteriostatic from bactericidal activity are costly in compounds, supplies, labor, and time. Testing compounds against M. tuberculosis under conditions that prevent the replication of M. tuberculosis often involves a second phase of the test in which conditions are altered to permit the replication of bacteria that survived the first phase. False-positive determinations of activity against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis may arise from carryover of compounds from the nonreplicating stage of the assay that act in the replicating stage. We mitigate these problems by carrying out a 96-well microplate liquid MIC assay and then transferring an aliquot of each well to a second set of plates in which each well contains agar supplemented with activated charcoal. After 7 to 10 days-about 2 weeks sooner than required to count CFU-fluorometry reveals whether M. tuberculosis bacilli in each well have replicated extensively enough to reduce a resazurin dye added for the final hour. This charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) distinguishes between bacterial biomasses in any two wells that differ by 2 to 3 log10 CFU. The CARA thus serves as a pretest and semiquantitative surrogate for longer, more laborious, and expensive CFU-based assays, helps distinguish bactericidal from bacteriostatic activity, and identifies compounds that are active under replicating conditions, nonreplicating conditions, or both. Results for 14 antimycobacterial compounds, including tuberculosis (TB) drugs, revealed that PA-824 (pretomanid) and TMC207 (bedaquiline) are largely bacteriostatic. PMID:26239979

  7. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  8. Antialgal and antilarval activities of bioactive compounds extracted from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianyu; Han, Xiurong; Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    With the global ban on the application of organotin-based marine coatings by the International Maritime Organization, the development of environmentally friendly, low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries has become an urgent need. Marine microorganisms have been considered as a potential source of natural antifoulants. In this study, the antifouling potential of marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, the toxic and red-tide microalgae, was investigated. We performed a series of operations to extract the bioactive substances from Amphidinium carterae and tested their antialgal and antilarval activities. The crude extract of Amphidinium carterae showed significant antialgal activity and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 55.4 μg mL-1. After purification, the isolated bioactive substances (the organic extract C) exhibited much higher antialgal and antilarval activities with EC50 of 12.9 μg mL-1 against Skeletonema costatum and LC50 of 15.1 μg mL-1 against Amphibalanus Amphitrite larvae. Subsequently, IR, Q-TOFMS, and GC-MS were utilized for the structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- to 22-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested the bioactive compounds isolated from Amphidinium carterae exhibited a significant inhibiting effect against the diatom Skeletonema costatum and Amphibalanus Amphitrite larvae, and could be substitutes for persistent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  9. Adsorption studies of recalcitrant compounds of molasses spentwash on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figaro, S; Louisy-Louis, S; Lambert, J; Ehrhardt, J-J; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2006-10-01

    Due to high levels of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent of molasses spentwash (MSW) after anaerobic treatment, acceptable COD levels for discharge cannot be achieved without some form of post-treatment. In this study, the particulate composition of molasses spentwash after anaerobic digestion (MSWD), is characterised as to its particle size distribution, using micro- and ultrafiltration and three activated carbons are characterised as to their ability to reduce significantly the COD of MSWD effluent. The activated carbons tested as adsorbent, were characterised by XPS spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, and acid-base titration using the Boehm's method. Adsorption of phenol, used here as a reference compound, and of some organic compounds contained in MSWD (gallic acid, tannic acid, and melanoidin, respectively), was studied. It was clearly demonstrated that an activated carbon with a significant distribution of both micropores and mesopores and a significant amount of macropores that are assumed to act as conduits providing access to micro- and mesopores, have a good adsorption efficiency for compounds such as tannic acid and melanoidins. It is a good adsorbent for melanoidin and coloured compounds of MSWD, which represents a large source of the aqueous pollution in sugar cane industries. PMID:16987542

  10. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  11. Anti-amyloid Aggregation Activity of Natural Compounds: Implications for Alzheimer's Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xian-Le; Rao, Praveen P N; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Several plant-derived natural compounds are known to exhibit anti-amyloid aggregation activity which makes them attractive as potential therapies to treat Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms of their anti-amyloid activity are not well known. In this regard, many natural compounds are known to exhibit direct binding to various amyloid species including oligomers and fibrils, which in turn can lead to conformational change in the beta-sheet assembly to form nontoxic aggregates. This review discusses the mechanism of anti-amyloid activity of 16 natural compounds and gives structural details on their direct binding interactions with amyloid aggregates. Our computational investigations show that the physicochemical properties of natural products do fit Lipinski's criteria and that catechol and catechol-type moieties present in natural compounds act as lysine site-specific inhibitors of amyloid aggregation. Based on these observations, we propose a structural template to design novel small molecules containing site-specific ring scaffolds, planar aromatic and nonaromatic linkers with suitably substituted hydrogen bond acceptors and donors. These studies will have significant implications in the design and development of novel amyloid aggregation inhibitors with superior metabolic stability and blood-brain barrier penetration as potential agents to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Impact of hydrogen peroxide activated by lighting-emitting diode/laser system on enamel color and microhardness: An in situ design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Ana Bárbara Araújo; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydrogen peroxide (HP) at lower concentration can provide less alteration on enamel surface and when combined with laser therapy, could decrease tooth sensitivity. This in situ study evaluated the influence of 15% and 35% HP gel activated by lighting-emitting diode (LED)/laser light for in-office tooth bleaching. Materials and Methods: Forty-four bovine enamel slabs were polished and subjected to surface microhardness (load of 25 g for 5 s). The specimens were placed in intraoral palatal devices of 11 volunteers (n = 11). Sample was randomly distributed into four groups according to the bleaching protocol: 15% HP, 15% HP activated by LED/laser, 35% HP, and 35% HP activated by LED/laser. The experimental phase comprised 15 days and bleaching protocols were performed on the 2nd and 9th days. Surface microhardness (KHN) and color changes were measured and data were analyzed by ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in microhardness values neither in color alteration of enamel treated with 15% HP and 35% HP activated or not by LED/laser system (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Both concentrations of HP (15 or 35%), regardless of activated by an LED/laser light, did not affect the surface microhardness and had the same effectiveness in enamel bleaching.

  13. Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Thin Film Transistor Current-Scaling Pixel Electrode Circuit for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlene; Abe, Katsumi; Fung, Tze-Ching; Kumomi, Hideya; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze application of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistors (a-InGaZnO TFTs) to current-scaling pixel electrode circuit that could be used for 3-in. quarter video graphics array (QVGA) full color active-matrix organic light-emitting displays (AM-OLEDs). Simulation results, based on a-InGaZnO TFT and OLED experimental data, show that both device sizes and operational voltages can be reduced when compare to the same circuit using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFTs. Moreover, the a-InGaZnO TFT pixel circuit can compensate for the drive TFT threshold voltage variation (ΔVT) within acceptable operating error range.

  14. Driving Method for Compensating Reliability Problem of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors and Image Sticking Phenomenon in Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Seok; Jo, Yun-Rae; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a driving method for compensating the electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFTs) and the luminance degradation of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices for large active matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays. The proposed driving method senses the electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs and OLEDs using current integrators and compensates them by an external compensation method. Threshold voltage shift is controlled a using negative bias voltage. After applying the proposed driving method, the measured error of the maximum emission current ranges from -1.23 to +1.59 least significant bit (LSB) of a 10-bit gray scale under the threshold voltage shift ranging from -0.16 to 0.17 V.

  15. Driving Method Compensating for the Hysteresis of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myoung-Hoon; Kim, Ohyun; Kim, Byeong-Koo; Chung, Hoon-Ju

    2009-05-01

    A new driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays is proposed and evaluated. The pixel structure of the proposed driving method is composed of three thin-film transistors (TFTs) and one capacitor. It inserts black data into display images to reset driving TFTs for the purpose of maintaining constant electrical characteristics of driving TFTs. The proposed driving scheme is less sensitive to the hysteresis of low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) TFTs than the conventional pixel structure with two TFTs and one capacitor, and this scheme can virtually eliminate the recoverable residual image that occurs owing to the hysteresis characteristics of LTPS TFTs. In the proposed driving scheme, black data are inserted into displayed images so that the motion image quality is improved.

  16. Transparent Pixel Circuit with Threshold Voltage Compensation Using ZnO Thin-Film Transistors for Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ik-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2009-03-01

    A transparent pixel circuit with a threshold voltage compensating scheme using ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) for active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is proposed. This circuit consists of five n-type ZnO TFTs and two capacitors and can compensate for the threshold voltage variation of ZnO TFTs in real time. From simulation results, the maximum deviation of the emission current of the pixel circuit with a threshold voltage variation of ±1 V is determined to be less than 10 nA. From measurement results, it is verified that the maximum deviation of measured emission currents with measurement position in a glass substrate is less than 15 nA in a higher current range, and the deviation of emission current with time is less than 3%.

  17. Source Driver Channel Reduction Schemes Employing Corresponding Pixel Alignments for Current Programming Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Kwang; Oh, Du-Hwan; Jeong, Seok-Hee; Park, Young-Ju; Kim, Byeong-Koo; Ha, Yong-Min; Jang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    We propose two types of novel scheme for reducing the number of output channels of driver-integrated circuit (D-IC) for the current programming compensation pixel structures of active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs). One is a 2:1 data demultiplexing technique that can reduce the number of output channels of D-IC by half. The proposed second scheme is a vertically aligned red (R), green (G), and blue (B) subpixel scheme instead of a horizontally aligned R-G-B subpixel one, which is regarded as the conventional pixel alignment scheme. We have also successfully implemented these schemes in a 2.4-in.-sized QCIF + (176 × RGB × 220) AMOLED using p-type excimer laser annealing (ELA) low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) technology and evaluated key performance characteristics.

  18. Current-Sensing and Voltage-Feedback Driving Method for Large-Area High-Resolution Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Hai‑Jung; Choi, Byong‑Deok; Chung, Ho‑Kyoon; Kwon, Oh‑Kyong

    2006-05-01

    There is the problem of picture quality nonuniformity due to thin film transistor (TFT) characteristic variations throughout a panel of large-area high-resolution active matrix organic light emitting diodes. The current programming method could solve this issue, but it also requires very long charging time of a data line at low gray shades. Therefore, we propose a new driving method and a pixel circuit with emission-current sensing and feedback operation in order to resolve these problems. The proposed driving method and pixel circuit successfully compensate threshold voltage and mobility variations of TFTs and overcome the data line charging problem. Simulation results show that emission current deviations of the proposed driving method are less than 1.7% with ± 10.0% mobility and ± 0.3 V threshold voltage variations of pixel-driving TFTs, which means the proposed driving method is applicable to large-area high-resolution applications.

  19. Bactericidal Activity of Some Lichen Secondary Compounds of Cladonia ochrochlora , Parmotrema nilgherrensis & Parmotrema sancti-angelii

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    VERMA NEERAJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bactericidal potential of some lichen secondary compounds has been presented. Three lichen species namely Cladonia ochrochlora, Parmotrema nilgherrensis and Parmotrema sancti-angelii were successively fractionated in various organic solvents nhexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The ethyl acetate fraction (10 μg/ml of these lichen species showed promised bactericidal activity and the order of the activity of lichen species were found as P. nilgherrensis > P. sanctiangelii > C. ochrochlora. Seven lichen secondary compounds alectoronic acid, atranorin, $-collatolic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, hypoprotocetraric acid, lecanoric acid and protocetraric acid isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of above lichen species demonstrated moderate to strong bactericidal activity with low MIC value; alectoronic acid showed MIC 21.9 μg to 162.1 μg/ml, atranorin (5 μg - 70.7 μg/ml, $-collatolic acid (8.6 μg - 245 μg/ml, fumarprotocetraric acid (24 μg - 227.3 μg/ml, hypoprotocetraric acid (12.2 μg - 278.5 μg/ml, lecanoric acid (24.6 μg - 591.7 μg/ml, protocetraric acid (18.7 μg - 740.7 μg/ml. These secondary compounds were found most effective to kill microorganisms within a period of 0 hrs to 6 hrs incubation as evident from the kinetic time kill assay study. As far as the stability of the lichen compounds for the observed activity, it was found that these compounds were stable at 4oC without loosing their bactericidal potential.

  20. New guаnidin-containing compounds with biocidal active: synthesis and prospects of study

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    Nadejda Kyznecova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized a new complex compound-ditsitratoborat guanidinium studied its composition, structure , physical and chemical properties using IR spectroscopy , thermal , X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis , conductivity , quantum-chemical modeling . Proven biocidal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylo-coccus aureus, yeasts bioassay methods . On the basis of silicate (clay and the Trans-Baikal Territory materials synthesized coordination compound obtained organic-inorganic composites in various ways (using mechanical activation and ultrasonic vibrations , studied its properties. The present invention extends the range of antiseptic preparations , the resulting composite is promising a wide range of applications due to their sorption properties and biocidal activity : qualitative improvement of natural , domestic, wastewater , swimming pools, reservoirs , soil objects .

  1. Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Nuansri Rakariyatham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit whose peel possesses antioxidant properties. Experiments on the isolation and identification of the active constituents were conducted, and on their antioxidant activity using a lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The methanolic extract of N. lappaceum peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography was utilized in the isolation of each constituent and the antioxidant properties of each was studied. The isolated compounds were identified as ellagic acid (EA (1, corilagin (2 and geraniin (3. These compounds accounted for 69.3% of methanolic extract, with geraniin (56.8% as the major component, and exhibited much greater antioxidant activities than BHT in both lipid peroxidation (77-186 fold and DPPH• (42-87 fold assays. The results suggest that the isolated ellagitannins, as the principal components of rambutan peels, could be further utilized as both a medicine and in the food industry.

  2. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

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    Yanli You

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  3. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. PMID:25976793

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and compounds from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora

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    Sopa Kummee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora was tested against human pathogens,including bacteria, yeast and dermatophyte fungi, using the agar disc diffusion. The ethanol extract exhibited strong antifungalactivity against dermatophytes with clear zone values from 10.7-19.8 mm at concentration of 2 mg/disc. However,ethanol extract showed no activities against all bacteria and yeast tested. The ethanol extract and seven compounds of K.parviflora were further studied using agar dilution method against dermatophytes. It was found that the ethanol extract of K.parviflora exhibited strong anti-fungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporumgypseum with MIC values of 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/ml, respectively. Only compound 6 (3, 5, 7-trimethoxyflavone present inthis extract showed appreciable anti-fungal activity with MIC values of 250 mg/ml against these three dermatophytes.According to the obtained results, compound 6 could be responsible only in part of the antifungal effect of theEtOH extract. The antifungal activity of the EtOH extract of K. parviflora supports its traditional use for the treatment ofdermatophyte infections

  5. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their Whitening Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Jung; Noh, Hye-Ji; Na, Chun Su; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hong, Cheol Yi; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-05-01

    The half-dried leaves of Stewartia. pseudocamellia were extracted with hot water (SPE) and partitioned with n-hexane (SPEH), dichloromethane (SPED), and ethyl acetate (SPEE) successively. SPE and SPEE showed significant inhibitory effects against melanogenesis and tyrosinase activities. By bioassay-guided isolation, ten phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography from SPEE. The whitening effect of the isolated compounds from SPEE were tested for the inhibitory activities against melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells, in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase, and L-3,4-dihydorxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (L-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay. A cytotoxic activity assay was done to examine the cellular toxicity in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Of the compounds isolated, gallic acid and quercetin revealed significant inhibitory activities against melanogenesis compared to arbutin. In particular, quercetin exhibited similar inhibitory activities against tyrosinase and L-DOPA oxidation without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that SPE could be used as a potential source of natural skin-whitening material in cosmetics as well as in food products. PMID:25995828

  6. Phenolic compounds in drumstick peel for the evaluation of antibacterial, hemolytic and photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Sridharan, Makuteswaran

    2016-08-01

    Most of the wastes emitted from the food processing industries are not utilized for any further purpose. The economic value of the food waste is very less when compared to the collection or reuse or discard. To increase the economic value we have to design the food waste as useful product or applicable in most of the current field. Nothing is waste in this world with this concept we have investigated the phytochemical analysis of drumstick peel (Moringa oleifera). The result supports the presence of phenols, alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides and tannins. Since various functional groups containing molecules are present in the extract; it has been further subjected to antibacterial and hemolytic activities. To analysis the antibacterial studies we have employed human pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium. The result of antibacterial activity clearly shows that it possesses significant activity on both bacterial cultures. The hemolytic activity was performed on red blood cells (RBCs). From this result we observed that drumstick peel extract has been considered as non-toxic on RBCs. Malachite green was selected to perform photocatalytic activity. The results stated that the drumstick peel extract possessed good behaviour towards photocatalytic investigation. The malachite green was degraded upto 99.7% using drumstick peel extract. PMID:27318603

  7. A QSAR, Pharmacokinetic and Toxicological Study of New Artemisinin Compounds with Anticancer Activity

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    Josinete B. Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Density Functional Theory (DFT method and the 6-31G** basis set were employed to calculate the molecular properties of artemisinin and 20 derivatives with different degrees of cytotoxicity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 line. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were employed to select the most important descriptors related to anticancer activity. The significant molecular descriptors related to the compounds with anticancer activity were the ALOGPS_log, Mor29m, IC5 and GAP energy. The Pearson correlation between activity and most important descriptors were used for the regression partial least squares (PLS and principal component regression (PCR models built. The regression PLS and PCR were very close, with variation between PLS and PCR of R2 = ±0.0106, R2ajust = ±0.0125, s = ±0.0234, F(4,11 = ±12.7802, Q2 = ±0.0088, SEV = ±0.0132, PRESS = ±0.4808 and SPRESS = ±0.0057. These models were used to predict the anticancer activity of eight new artemisinin compounds (test set with unknown activity, and for these new compounds were predicted pharmacokinetic properties: human intestinal absorption (HIA, cellular permeability (PCaCO2, cell permeability Maden Darby Canine Kidney (PMDCK, skin permeability (PSkin, plasma protein binding (PPB and penetration of the blood-brain barrier (CBrain/Blood, and toxicological: mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The test set showed for two new artemisinin compounds satisfactory results for anticancer activity and pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Consequently, further studies need be done to evaluate the different proposals as well as their actions, toxicity, and potential use for treatment of cancers.

  8. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

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    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  9. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

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    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  10. Activities of \\gamma-ray emitting isotopes in rainwater from Greater Sudbury, Canada following the Fukushima incident

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, B T; Lawson, I T; Smith, N J T; Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2012-01-01

    We report the activity measured in rainwater samples collected in the Greater Sudbury area of eastern Canada on 3, 16, 20, and 26 April 2011. The samples were gamma-ray counted in a germanium detector and the isotopes 131I and 137Cs, produced by the fission of 235U, and 134Cs, produced by neutron capture on 133Cs, were observed at elevated levels compared to a reference sample of ice-water. These elevated activities are ascribed to the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor complex in Japan that followed the 11 March earthquake and tsunami. The activity levels observed at no time presented health concerns.

  11. Distribution of artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide activity concentration in the top soil in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and other regions in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Marciulioniene, Danute [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Rozkov, Andrej [PLL ' LOKMIS' Radiometry Department, Visoriu 2, LT-08300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gudelis, Arunas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Holm, Elis [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-22185 Lund (Sweden); Galvonaite, Audrone [Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment, Rudnios str. 6, LT-09300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of the operating Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) on the contamination of top soil layer with artificial radionuclides has been studied. Results of the investigation of artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide distribution in soil in the vicinity of the INPP and distant regions in Lithuania in 1996-2008 (INPP operational period) show that nowadays {sup 137}Cs remains the most important artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide in the upper soil layer. Mean {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the top soil layer in the vicinity of the INPP were found to be significantly lower compared to those in remote regions of Varena and Plunge ({approx} 300 km from INPP). In 1996 and 1998 mean {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were in the range of 28-45 Bq/kg in the nearest vicinity to the INPP, 103 Bq/kg in Varena and 340 Bq/kg in Plunge region. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were 5-20 times lower in meadow soil (4-14 Bq/kg) compared to swamp and forest soil. {sup 60}Co, the INPP origin radionuclide, was detected in samples only in 1996 and 2000, and the activity concentration of {sup 60}Co was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 7.0 Bq/kg at the sampling ground nearest to the INPP. Average annual activity concentrations of the INPP origin {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in the air and depositions in the INPP region were modeled using Pasquill-Gifford equations. The modeling results of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co depositional load in the INPP vicinity agree with the experimentally obtained values. Our results provide the evidence that the operation of INPP did not cause any significant contamination in soil surface. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma-emitters in top soil were studied during the operational period of the Ignalina NPP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only {sup 137}Cs was detected in each sample of the top soil in studied regions every year. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean {sup 137}Cs activity in the top soil of the INPP

  12. Optically active red-emitting Cu nanoclusters originating from complexation and redox reaction between copper(ii) and d/l-penicillamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tengfei; Guo, Yanjia; Lin, Min; Yuan, Mengke; Liu, Zhongde; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-05-01

    Despite a significant surge in the number of investigations into both optically active Au and Ag nanostructures, there is currently only limited knowledge about optically active Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs) and their potential applications. Here, we have succeeded in preparing a pair of optically active red-emitting CuNCs on the basis of complexation and redox reaction between copper(ii) and penicillamine (Pen) enantiomers, in which Pen serves as both a reducing agent and a stabilizing ligand. Significantly, the CuNCs feature unique aggregation induced emission (AIE) characteristics and therefore can serve as pH stimuli-responsive functional materials. Impressively, the ligand chirality plays a dramatic role for the creation of brightly emissive CuNCs, attributed to the conformation of racemic Pen being unfavorable for the electrostatic interaction, and thus suppressing the formation of cluster aggregates. In addition, the clusters display potential toward cytoplasmic staining and labelling due to the high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs) and remarkable cellular uptake, in spite that no chirality-dependent effects in autophagy and subcellular localization are observed in the application of chiral cluster enantiomer-based cell imaging.Despite a significant surge in the number of investigations into both optically active Au and Ag nanostructures, there is currently only limited knowledge about optically active Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs) and their potential applications. Here, we have succeeded in preparing a pair of optically active red-emitting CuNCs on the basis of complexation and redox reaction between copper(ii) and penicillamine (Pen) enantiomers, in which Pen serves as both a reducing agent and a stabilizing ligand. Significantly, the CuNCs feature unique aggregation induced emission (AIE) characteristics and therefore can serve as pH stimuli-responsive functional materials. Impressively, the ligand chirality plays a dramatic role for the creation of

  13. Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of Prangos ferulaceae, with antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prangos ferulaceae (Apiaceae is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran where it is used as a medicinal plant. In folk medicine, extracts of the roots and fruits of the plant have been used for the treatment of digestive disorders, healing scars, and to stop bleeding. In the present work, we report the presence of some phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of the plant. Material and Methods: The air-dried powder of Prangos ferulaceae leaves were Soxhlet extracted, successively, with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. A portion of concentrated residue of methanol extract was fractionated with an SPE-C18 cartridge using different mixtures of methanol-water. The 40% methanol fraction was analyzed by preparative HPLC using a methanol and water gradient to afford 4 compounds. Results: The purified compounds using preparative HPLC were: a glucosilated coumarin, celereoside and three flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O- glucorhamnoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by UV, IR, 1D, and 2 D NMR spectral data. Quercetin glucoside and isorhamnetin glucoside exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the DPPH test with an RC50 value of 36.2 and 64.4 ug/mL respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the P. ferulaceae aerial parts contain antioxidant flavonoids and furanocoumarins and that the plants bioactivities and medicinal potential might be attributed to presence of these compounds.

  14. Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study

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    N Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS. Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 μg/g and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 μg/g; also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 μg/g and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 μg/g phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH test and EC 50 values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively.

  15. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from  Zea mays L.

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    Tae Hyeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase (AR inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L., 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7 and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12 were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78 μM. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications.

  16. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  17. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

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    Kuete Victor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2 and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1, B (2, C (3, F (4, G (5 and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6, were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential

  18. Activation Effect of Cathartic Natural Compound Rhein to CFTR Chloride Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in intestinal exocrine glands, which plays a key role in intestinal fluid secretion. A natural anthraquinone activator of CFTR Cl- channel, rhein, was identified by screening 217 single compounds from Chinese herbs via a cellbased halide-sensitive fluorescent assay. Rhein activates CFTR Cl- transportation in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of cAMP with a physiological concentration. This study provides a novel molecular pharmacological mechanism for the laxative drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine such as aloe, cascara and senna.

  19. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  20. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Myrciariaferruginea (Myrtaceae

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    Cinthia Costa de Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity, cell viability and migration ability on 3T3 murine fibroblast cells of extracts and isolated compounds [lupeol (1, hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2 and a mixture of 1 and betulinaldehyde (3] of Myrciaria ferruginea. In antibacterial assays extracts were susceptible only against S. aureus (MIC 500 μg/mL and S. epidermidis (MIC ranging from 7.8 to 500 μg/mL and compounds 1-3have shown no significant activity. In trials for c ell viability, with exception of MeOH-H 2O fraction from leaves (viable cells > 90%, both the crude extract and other fractions showed inhibition of cell growth (viable cells ≤ 80% at 15.625 and 31.25 μg/mL; while the samples from stems, with the exception of CHCl 3 fraction that showed strong cytotoxic effect at the lowest concentration tested (15.625 μg/mL, the other fractions were not cytotoxic. Compounds (1-3 inhibited cell viability in dose dependent manner (15.625 to 500 μg/mL. Mixture containing 1 and 3 showed inhibitions only in concentrations greater than 62.5 μg/mL while compound 2 decreased from the lowest concentration tested. In scratch wound assay, these compoundsnot increased the population of fibroblasts at concentrations less than 62.5 μg/mL.

  1. Production and characterization of surface-active compounds from Gordonia amicalis

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    Ani Beatriz Jackisch-Matsuura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to make crude preparations of surface-active compounds (SACs produced by Gordonia amicalis grown on the medium containing 1% diesel oil. Using a 2:1 (v/v solution of chloroform:methanol for extraction, Type I SACs were isolated and shown to produce oil in water (O/W emulsions. Type II SACs were isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and produced predominantly water in oil emulsions (W/O. The crude Type I and II preparations were able to produce a significant reduction in the surface tension of water; however, the crude Type II preparation had 10-25 fold higher emulsification activity than the Type I preparation. Both SAC preparations were analyzed by the TLC and each produced two distinct bands with Rf 0.44 and 0.62 and Rf 0.52 and 0.62, respectively. The partially purified SACs were characterized by the ESI(+-MS, FT-IR and NMR. In each one of these fractions, a mixture of 10 oligomers was found consisting of a series of compounds, with masses from 502 to 899, differing in molecular mass by a repeating unit of 44 Daltons. The mass spectra of these compounds did not appear to match other known biosurfactants and could represent a novel class of these compounds.

  2. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  3. Rigorous selection of random forest models for identifying compounds that activate toxicity-related pathways

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    Yoshihiro eUesawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Random forest (RF is a machine-learning ensemble method with high predictive performance. Majority voting in RF uses the discrimination results in numerous decision trees produced from bootstrapping data. For the same dataset, the bootstrapping process yields different predictive capacities in each generation. As participants in the Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 DATA Challenge 2014, we produced numerous RF models for predicting the structures of compounds that can activate each toxicity-related pathway, and then selected the model with the highest predictive ability. Half of the compounds in the training dataset supplied by the competition organizer were allocated to the validation dataset. The remaining compounds were used in model construction. The charged and uncharged forms of each molecule were calculated using the molecular operating environment (MOE software. Subsequently, the descriptors were computed using MOE, MarvinView, and Dragon. These combined methods yielded over 4,071 descriptors for model construction. Using these descriptors, pattern recognition analyses were performed by RF implemented in JMP Pro (a statistical software package. A hundred to two hundred RF models were generated for each pathway. The predictive performance of each model was tested against the validation dataset, and the best-performing model was selected. In the competition, the latter model selected a best-performing model from the 50% test set that best predicted the structures of compounds that activate the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain (ER-LBD.

  4. Molluscicidal activity of compounds isolated from Euphorbia conspicua N. E. Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3β-(E)- cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl- 3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL-1, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses. (author)

  5. Molluscicidal activity of compounds isolated from Euphorbia conspicua N. E. Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Rosalina C.S. [Chemistry Department, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda (Angola); Mendonca, Dina I.M.D. de; Vieira, Liliana, E-mail: disabel@ubi.p [Textile and Paper Materials Center, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Santos, Aldenir F. dos; Silva, Luciana A. da; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Gaspar, Jorge F.; Martins, Celia; Rueff, Jose [Department of Genetics , Faculty of Medical Sciences, New University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3{beta}-(E)- cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl- 3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL{sup -1}, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses. (author)

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

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    Jaime Tortoriello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1 through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  7. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

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    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  8. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  9. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment. PMID:26581489

  10. Formation of an activated N-nitroso compound in nitrite-treated fava beans (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacek-Llanes, B G; Tannenbaum, S R

    1982-01-01

    Fava beans are prominent in the diet of the Colombian population at high gastric cancer risk. Upon nitrite treatment under simulated gastric conditions, a potent mutagen was formed as detected by a forward mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TM677 without microsomal activation. The promutagen was partially purified by preparative t.l.c. and normal phase h.p.l.c. of the acetone-soluble portion of a dried aqueous extract. The nitrosated promutagen fully accounted for the mutagenicity observed with whole fava beans. One gram of fresh fava beans yielded approximately 0.35 nmol of mutagen. Mutagenicity data indicated that this mutagen was more potent than N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The characteristics of the mutagen were typical of an activated N-nitroso compound, that is a compound in which the N-nitroso moiety is attached to an activating group, such as a carbonyl group. Irradiation of the mutagen yielded a Griess positive reaction. By reverse-phase h.p.l.c. photohydrolysis, a single peak could be ascribed to the mutagen. Its stability varied as a function of pH, being most unstable under alkaline conditions. Cysteine and phosphate concentration had no effect on its rate of decomposition, thereby strongly suggesting that the mutagen is an N-nitrosourea. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis of carcinogenesis via the intragastric production of activated N-nitroso compounds. PMID:7151253

  11. Involvement of antioxidant activity of Lactobacillus plantarum on functional properties of olive phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachouri, Faten; Ksontini, Hamida; Kraiem, Manel; Setti, Khaoula; Mechmeche, Manel; Hamdi, Moktar

    2015-12-01

    Eight lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional fermented foods were investigated for their antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals, β-carotene bleaching assay and linoleic acid test. L. plantarum LAB 1 at a dose of 8.2 10(9) CFU/ml showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity, with inhibition rate of 57.07 ± 0.57 % and an antioxidant activity (TAA = 43.47 ± 0.663 % and AAC = 172.65 ± 5.57), which increase with cell concentrations. When L. plantarum LAB 1 was administered to oxidative enzymes, residual activities decreased significantly with cell concentrations. The use of L. plantarum LAB 1 on olives process, favours the increase of the antioxidant activity (24 %). HPLC results showed a significant increase of orthodiphenols (74 %). Viable cells of strain were implicated directly on minimum media growth with 500 mg/l of olive phenolic compounds. Results showed an increase in their antioxidant activity. CG-SM analysis, identify the presence of compounds with higher antioxidant activity as vinyl phenol and hydroxytyrosol. PMID:26604364

  12. Pyrazole compound BPR1P0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity

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    Yeh Jiann-Yih

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. More recently, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. Although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. In addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the face of high rate of emergence of influenza strains resistant to several existing influenza antivirals. Methods We searched for novel anti-influenza inhibitors using a cell-based neutralization (inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect assay. After screening 20,800 randomly selected compounds from a library from ChemDiv, Inc., we found that BPR1P0034 has sub-micromolar antiviral activity. The compound was resynthesized in five steps by conventional chemical techniques. Lead optimization and a structure-activity analysis were used to improve potency. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle. Results The 50% effective inhibitory concentration (IC50 of BPR1P0034 was 0.42 ± 0.11 μM, when measured with a plaque reduction assay. Viral protein and RNA synthesis of A/WSN/33 (H1N1 was inhibited by BPR1P0034 and the virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced. BPR1P0034 exhibited broad inhibition spectrum for influenza viruses but showed no antiviral effect for enteroviruses and echovirus 9. In a time-of-addition assay, in which the compound was added at different stages along the viral replication cycle (such as at adsorption or after adsorption, its antiviral activity was more efficient in cells treated with the test compound between 0 and 2 h, right after viral infection, implying that an early step of viral replication might be the target of the compound. These results suggest

  13. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of two novel tetraphenolic compounds derived from toluhydroquinone and tertiary butylhydroquinone

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    Jiang, Z. W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel compounds bearing four hydroxyphenyl groups were synthesized by the acid-catalyzed condensation reaction of glyoxal with toluhydroquinone (THQ or tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the newly synthesized compounds was assessed by the Rancimat test, a 2,2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and reducing power assay. In the Rancimat antioxidant test using lard oil as substrate, the performance of two newly synthesized compounds was superior to TBHQ at 140 °C. It was suggested that two newly synthesized compounds can be used to improve the oxidative stability of lipid products during high temperature processing. With regard to the DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, the performance of synthesized compounds was inferior to their mother compounds, respectively. The results show that the DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of a compound did not correlate with its ability to retard lipid oxidation.Dos nuevos compuestos con cuatro grupos hidroxifenilo se sintetizaron mediante reacción de condensación catalizada por glioxal con toluhidroquinona (THQ o terbutilhidroquinona (TBHQ, respectivamente. La actividad antioxidante de los compuestos sintetizados se evaluó mediante Rancimat, método del 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH y poder reductor. Para el ensayo de Rancimat se usó manteca de cerdo como sustrato, la efectividad de los dos compuestos recién sintetizados fue superior a la del TBHQ a 140 °C. Se sugiere que los compuestos sintetizados se pueden utilizar para mejorar la estabilidad oxidativa de productos lipídicos durante el procesamiento a alta temperatura. Con respecto a la actividad de eliminación de radicales DPPH y poder reductor, la efectividad de los compuestos sintetizados fue inferior a los compuestos matrices. Los resultados mostraron que la actividad de eliminación de radicales DPPH y poder reductor de un compuesto no se correlacionó con su

  14. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  15. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane M. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Cromatografic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, β-amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol.

  16. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae) and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Chromatographic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-Orhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, -amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol. (author)

  17. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rosane M. [Departamento de Quimica e Exatas, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil); Alves, Clayton Q.; David, Jorge M.; Rezende, Larissa C. de; Lima, Luciano S., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); David, Juceni P. [Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae) and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Chromatographic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-Orhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, -amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol. (author)

  18. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  19. Isolation and antimicrobial activity of two phenolic compounds from Pulicaria odora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoubeiri, A; Gadhi, C A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Vanhaelen, M

    2005-06-01

    The essential oil of Pulicaria odora, a Moroccan medicinal plant; was analyzed by GC-MS, and subjected to column chromatography on silica gel. Two major constituents were isolated and identified as 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) and isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2), by analysis of spectroscopic data (MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments). The isolated compounds are reported for the first time from Pulicaria genus. The essential oil and its major constituents (compounds 1 and 2) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the diffusion and dilution methods. Results showed that the essential oil and the 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) exhibited a very significant antibacterial and antifungal activity, while the isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2) was inactive for all tested strains.

  20. QSAR study on estrogenic activity of structurally diverse compounds using generalized regression neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Li; WANG XiaoDong; LUO Si; QIN Liang; YANG XvShu; LIU ShuShen; WANG LianSheng

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been becoming a powerful tool in understanding the structural requirements for chemicals to bind the estrogen receptor (ER), designing drugs for human estrogen replacement therapy, and identifying potential estrogenic endocrine disruptors, in this study, a simple yet powerful neural network technique, generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was used to develop a QSAR model based on 131 structurally diverse estrogens (training set). Only nine descriptors calculated solely from the molecular structures of compounds selected by objective and subjective feature selections were used as inputs of the GRNN model. The predictive power of the built model was found to be comparable to that of the more traditional techniques but requiring significantly easy implementation and a shorter computation-time. The obtained result indicates that the proposed GRNN model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogenic activity of organic compounds.

  1. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl-4-Phenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Derivative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazudin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A unique of synthetic methods was employed to prepare 2-(4-methoxyphenyl-4-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5 derivatives from 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (1, acetophenone (2, and 8-aminoquinoline (4 with aldol condensation and cyclization reactions. The derivatives were tested through antiplasmodial test. The synthesis of derivatives compound 5 was conducted in three steps. The 3-(4-methoxyphenyl-1-phenylpropenone 3 was synthesized through aldol condensation of 1 and 2 which has a yield of 96.42%. The compound 5 was synthesized through cyclization of compound 4 and 3 with 84.55% yield. The derivative of compound 5 was synthesized from compound 5 using DMS and DES reagents which refluxed for 21 and 22 h, to produce (1-N-methyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-7-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate (6 and (1-N-ethyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-7-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate (7 with 91.42 and 86.36% yields, respectively. Results of in vitro testing of antiplasmodial activity of compound 5 derivatives (i.e., compound 6 and 7 against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum FCR3 strain showed that compound 7 had higher antimalarial activity than compounds 5 and 6. Whereas, results of in vitro testing against chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum D10 strain showed that compound 6 has higher antimalarial activity than compounds 5 and 7.

  2. Illumination from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) disrupts pathological cytokines expression and activates relevant signal pathways in primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Xie, Chen; Gu, Yangshun; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the aged people. The latest systemic review of epidemiological investigations revealed that excessive light exposure increases the risk of AMD. With the drastically increasing use of high-energy light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light in our domestic environment nowadays, it is supposed to pose a potential oxidative threat to ocular health. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major ocular source of pathological cytokines, which regulate local inflammation and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that high-energy LED light might disrupt the pathological cytokine expression of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD. Primary human RPE cells were isolated from eyecups of normal eye donors and seeded into plate wells for growing to confluence. Two widely used multichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2954 and 7378 K were used in this experiment. The confluent primary RPE cells were under white LEDs light exposure until 24 h. VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs were measured using an ELISA kit and RT-PCR, respectively. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Akt, Janus kinase (JAK)2 and Nuclear factor (NF)-κB signal pathways after LEDs illumination were evaluated by western blotting analysis. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using chloromethyl- 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Inhibitors of relevant signal pathways and anti-oxidants were added to the primary RPE cells before LEDs illumination to evaluate their biological functions. We found that 7378 K light, but not 2954 K upregulated the VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and downregulated MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs levels in a time-dependent manner. In parallel, initial activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signal pathways were also observed after 7378 K light exposure. Mechanistically, antioxidants for eliminating reactive oxygen

  3. Illumination from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) disrupts pathological cytokines expression and activates relevant signal pathways in primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Xie, Chen; Gu, Yangshun; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the aged people. The latest systemic review of epidemiological investigations revealed that excessive light exposure increases the risk of AMD. With the drastically increasing use of high-energy light-emitting diodes (LEDs) light in our domestic environment nowadays, it is supposed to pose a potential oxidative threat to ocular health. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major ocular source of pathological cytokines, which regulate local inflammation and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that high-energy LED light might disrupt the pathological cytokine expression of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD. Primary human RPE cells were isolated from eyecups of normal eye donors and seeded into plate wells for growing to confluence. Two widely used multichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2954 and 7378 K were used in this experiment. The confluent primary RPE cells were under white LEDs light exposure until 24 h. VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs were measured using an ELISA kit and RT-PCR, respectively. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Akt, Janus kinase (JAK)2 and Nuclear factor (NF)-κB signal pathways after LEDs illumination were evaluated by western blotting analysis. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using chloromethyl- 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Inhibitors of relevant signal pathways and anti-oxidants were added to the primary RPE cells before LEDs illumination to evaluate their biological functions. We found that 7378 K light, but not 2954 K upregulated the VEGF-A, IL-6, IL-8 and downregulated MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs levels in a time-dependent manner. In parallel, initial activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signal pathways were also observed after 7378 K light exposure. Mechanistically, antioxidants for eliminating reactive oxygen

  4. High-power low-droop violet semipolar (303¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devices grown on nonpolar and semipolar planes of GaN offer key performance advantages over devices grown on the conventional c-plane, including reduced polarization fields. This allows for a wider design space on semipolar planes for light emitting diodes (LEDs) to address the problem of efficiency droop at high current densities. LED structures with very thick (10–100 nm) InGaN single-quantum-well/double heterostructure active regions were grown using conventional metal organic chemical vapor deposition on semipolar (303¯1¯) free-standing GaN substrates and processed and packaged using conventional techniques. Simulated band diagrams showed reduced polarization fields on the (303¯1¯) plane. The calculated critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation is higher on the (303¯1¯) plane than on other semipolar planes, such as (202¯1¯), allowing for thicker active regions than our previous work to further reduce droop. The higher critical thickness was confirmed with defect characterization via cathodoluminescence. A trend is demonstrated in lower efficiency droop for devices with thicker active regions. Thermal droop characteristics of these devices are also presented. These observed results were utilized to demonstrate over 1 W of output power at a current density of 1 kA/cm2 from a single 0.1 mm2 LED device.

  5. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Karimi; Ehsan Oskoueian

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries. Recently, attention has been paid to the identification of new sources of safe natural antioxidants for the food industry. The antioxidant activities of spices are mainly attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Saffron is one of the spices believed to possess antioxidant properties, bu...

  6. Thyroid in a jar: towards an integrated in vitro testing strategy for thyroid-active compounds

    OpenAIRE

    JOMAA,B

    2015-01-01

      Jomaa, B. (2015). Thyroid in a Jar: Towards an Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategy for Thyroid-Active Compounds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Abstract The aim of this thesis was to find in vitro and toxicogenomics-based alternatives to in vivo thyroid hormone disruption tests. In vitro alternatives can help reduce the amount of animal testing required under the European Union regulation for the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals ...

  7. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Monopoli; Pietro Cotugno; Zambonin, Carlo G.; Francesco Ciminale; Angelo Nacci

    2015-01-01

    The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand...

  8. Voltammetric and amperometric determination of biologically active organic compounds using various types of silver amalgam electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Barek, Jiří; Fischer, Jan; Moreira, Josino C.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, possibilities of various types of silver amalgam electrodes for determination of micromolar and submicromolar concentrations of various electrochemically reducible biologically active organic compounds are reviewed. Attention is paid to the use of polished and mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrodes, silver amalgam paste electrodes both with and without pasting liquids, single crystal silver amalgam electrodes, composite silver amalgam electrodes, and porous s...

  9. The Potential Use of Indigobush (Amorpha fruticosa L.) as Natural Resource of Biologically Active Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Jakovljević; Jasna Halambek; Kristina Radošević; Karla Hanousek; Marija Gradečki-Poštenjak; Višnja Gaurina Srček; Ivana Radojčić Redovniković; Alessandra De Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Recent research indicates that a weed like Indigobush (Amorpha fruticosa L.) gives great opportunities for its commercialization through a rich spectrum of its beneficial biological features with possible use in the forestry and biotechnology field. Therefore, in this study we wanted to explore some of potential application of Indigobush extract, as a source of biologically active compounds, for animal cell culturing as well as green corrosion inhibitors. Materials ...

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Duarte; Cecília Baptista; Nuno Gil; Hélio Faustino

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in ter...

  11. Aqueous-mediated Michael Addition of Active Methylene Compounds with Nitroalkenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文凯; 徐东成; 谢建武

    2012-01-01

    A simple, atom economical and highly efficient green protocol has been developed for the synthesis of Michael adducts of nitroalkenes and 2-amino-2-chromene derivatives by Michael addition of active methylene compounds (such as malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate) to nitroalkenes under aqueous-mediated conditions. This green approach provided the desired products in high yields and the reaction scope proved to be quite broad.

  12. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkov, D. A.; Geisman, A. N.; Khandazhinskaya, A. L.; Novikov, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  13. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oszmiański; Paulina Nowicka; Mirosława Teleszko; Aneta Wojdyło; Tomasz Cebulak; Krzysztof Oklejewicz

    2015-01-01

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressu...

  14. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Da Sun; Shikang Zhang; Yuefei Wang; Ping Xu; Yuejin Zhu; Le Ying

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained f...

  15. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN MESOIONIC SYDNONE COMPOUNDS CONTAINING CHALCONE MOIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Shreenivas R.; Pai, K. Vasantakumar

    2010-01-01

    In order to have antibacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in the same molecule, 4-[1-oxo-3- (substituted aryl)-2-propenyl]-3-(4-chlorophenyl) sydnones were synthesized by condensing 4-acetyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)sydnone with various substituted aryl aldehydes and characterized by spectral studies; 4-acetyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)sydnone itself, was prepared by acetylation of 3-(4-chlorophenyl) sydnone. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and anti-inflammato...

  16. The Content of Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity Varies with Carrot Origin and Root Color

    OpenAIRE

    Leja, Maria; Kamińska, Iwona; Kramer, Maike; Maksylewicz-Kaul, Anna; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    The contents of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities were assessed in a carrot collection comprising 35 cultivars, landraces and breeding populations. The accessions originated from various world regions and they represented Eastern and Western carrot gene pools. In two-year field trial carrot roots of orange, red, yellow, white and purple color were cultivated, freeze-dried and analyzed for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and UV/Vis assay. Radical scavenging activit...

  17. Antiproliferative and cell apoptosis-inducing activities of compounds from Buddleja davidii in Mgc-803 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buddleja davidii is widely distributed in the southwestern region of China. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of B. davidii as a Chinese traditional medicine with anticancer activity by isolating natural products for their activity against the human gastric cancer cell line Mgc-803 and the human breast cancer cell line Bcap-37. Results Ten compounds were extracted and isolated from B. davidii, among which colchicine was identified in B. davidii for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated in Mgc-803, Bcap-37 cells in vitro by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, and the results showed that luteolin and colchicine had potent inhibitory activities against the growth of Mgc-803 cells. Subsequent fluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that these two compounds could induce apoptosis in Mgc-803 cells. The results also showed that the percentages of early apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-, where PI is propidium iodide and late apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI+ increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 36 h of incubation with luteolin at 20 μM, the percentages of cells were approximately 15.4% in early apoptosis and 43.7% in late apoptosis; after 36 h of incubation with colchicine at 20 μM, the corresponding values were 7.7% and 35.2%, respectively. Conclusions Colchicine and luteolin from B. davidii have potential applications as adjuvant therapies for treating human carcinoma cells. These compounds could also induce apoptosis in tumor cells.

  18. Bioreactor Cultivation of Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray) Mans.: A Novel Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Radović; Branislav Šiler; Jasmina Nestorović Živković; Tijana Banjanac; Suzana Živković; Miloš Nikolić; Marina Soković; Danijela Mišić

    2013-01-01

    With regard to world’s increasing demand for biologically active compounds, a novel source of xanthones and secoiridoid glycosides has been studied . Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray) Mans., an insufficiently acknowledged North American medicinal plant species, may be considered a pharmacological substitute for commercial C. erythraea Rafn, since it accumulates in aerial parts nearly the same amount of secoiridoid glycosides: swertiamarin, gentiopicrin, and sweroside (13.76, 7.56, and 0.17...

  19. Antibacterial activities and structure-activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omosa, Leonidah K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Tankeo, Simplice B; Seukep, Jackson A; Voukeng, Igor K; Dzotam, Joachim K; Isemeki, John; Derese, Solomon; Omolle, Ruth A; Efferth, Thomas; Kuete, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3' together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4-64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are

  20. Activation of Hydrogen-Passivated Mg in GaN-Based Light Emitting Diode Annealing with Minority-Carrier Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ling; HAO Yue; LI Pei-Xian; ZHOU Xiao-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss an issue on the activation of p-GaN material under different annealing conditions and study the mechanism for the p-GaN activation. Under annealing in nitrogen, it is found that hydrogen cannot be completely removed from p-GaN. The experiments also indicate that rudimental hydrogen can exist stably in a certain state where hydrogen does not passivate the Mg acceptor in the sample annealing under bias. However, making additional annealing in nitrogen, we find that the steady state hydrogen can be decomposed and the Mg-H complex could generate again. Hydrogen remaining in the layer seems to play a major role in this reversible phenomenon.

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from Trilepisium madagascariense stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teke Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats. Materials and Methods : The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined. Results : The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min compared to the saline control (60.80 min. The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control. Conclusion : The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities.

  2. Control of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli on Bean_Using Copper Compounds and Plant Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Todorović

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of several new formulations of copper compounds, namely Cuprozin 35 WP (copper-oxychloride, Cuproxat (copper-sulphate, Funguran OH (copper-hydroxideand the plant activator Bion(acibenzolar-S-methyl, and their combinations with dithiocarbamates(Dithane M-70 was estimated in controlling Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (artificial inoculation in field conditions in two localities during 2006. In the locality Zemun, the efficacy of copper compounds ranged from 92.7% to 98.5%. The plant activator Bion 50 WG exhibited similar efficacy (94.4-97.1%. Combinations of Funguran OH and Dithane M-70, applied at different concentrations, also showed high efficacy (98.3-99.3%, as well as the combinations of Bion 50 WG and the other bactericides (95.5-96.8%. There was no significantdifference between the efficacies achieved by the compounds applied individually and their combinations, except Cuproxat, which exhibited decreased efficacy at lower concentration. In the locality Smederevska Palanka, the efficacy of copper compounds was 95.0-98.2%, while Bion achieved 96.8-97.7% efficacy. Combinations of copper-hydroxide(Funguran OH and dithiocarbamates (Dithane M-70 also showed high efficacy (98.1-99.4% but without a significant difference. The efficacy of combinations of Bion and copper-hydroxide, and Bion and mancozeb was 97.9-98.9%. There was no significant difference in the efficacies of the bactericides tested or the efficacies of their combinations in that locality.Our investigation confirmed high efficacy of acibenzolar-S-methyl, which was equal to the efficacy of standard bactericide treatment. This compound therefore offers a very good alternative to conventional chemicals used for controlling bacterial diseases in beans.

  3. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon. PMID:19657534

  4. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  5. Immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon for degradation of sulphonated phenolic compound in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Karthikeyan, S. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667 (India); Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Boopathy, R.; Maharaja, P. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Xenobiotic compounds are used in considerable quantities in leather industries besides natural organic and inorganic compounds. These compounds resist biological degradation and thus they remain in the treated wastewater in the unaltered molecular configurations. Immobilization of organisms in carrier matrices protects them from shock load application and from the toxicity of chemicals in bulk liquid phase. Mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) has been considered in the present study as the carrier matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus sp. isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) employed for the treatment of wastewater containing sulphonated phenolic (SP) compounds. Temperature, pH, concentration, particle size and mass of MAC were observed to influence the immobilization behavior of Bacillus sp. The percentage immobilization of Bacillus sp. was the maximum at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and at particle size 300 {mu}m. Enthalpy, free energy and entropy of immobilization were - 46.9 kJ mol{sup -1}, - 1.19 kJ mol{sup -1} and - 161.36 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} respectively at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and particle size 300 {mu}m. Higher values of {Delta}H{sup 0} indicate the firm bonding of the Bacillus sp. in MAC. Degradation of aqueous sulphonated phenolic compound by Bacillus sp. immobilized in MAC followed pseudo first order rate kinetics with rate constant 1.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation on phenolic syntan using immobilized activated carbon as catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor removed all refractory organic loads. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal mechanism is due to co-metabolism between carbon and organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organics are completely metabolized rather than adsorption.

  6. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  7. Electrospun nanofiber layers with incorporated photoluminescence indicator for chromatography and detection of ultraviolet-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampalanonwat, Pimolpun; Supaphol, Pitt; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-07-19

    For the first time, electrospun nanofiber phases were fabricated with manganese-activated zinc silicate as photoluminescent indicator (UV254) to transfer and enlarge its application to the field of UV-active compounds. By integration of such an indicator, UV-active compounds got visible on the chromatogram. The separation of 7 preservatives and a beverage sample were studied on the novel luminescent polyacrylonitrile layers. The mat thickness and mean fiber diameters were calculated for additions of different UV254 indicator concentrations. The separation efficiency on the photoluminescent layers was characterized by comparison to HPTLC layers and calculation of the plate numbers and resolutions. Some benefits were the reduction in migration distance (3cm), migration time (12min), analyte (10-nL volumes) and mobile phase volumes (1mL). As ultrathin stationary phase, such layers are suited for their integration into the Office Chromatography concept. For the first time, electrospun nanofiber layers were hyphenated with mass spectrometry and the confirmation of compounds was successfully performed using the elution-head based TLC-MS Interface.

  8. Hydraphiles: A Rigorously Studied Class of Synthetic Channel Compounds with In Vivo Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Negin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR or ion-selective electrodes, as well as biophysical experiments in planar bilayers. During the past decade, biological activity was observed for these compounds including toxicity to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells due to stress caused by the disruption of ion homeostasis. The channel mechanism was verified in cells using membrane polarity sensitive dyes, as well as patch clamping studies. This body of work has provided a solid foundation with which hydraphiles have recently demonstrated acute biological toxicity in the muscle tissue of living mice, as measured by whole animal fluorescence imaging and histological studies. Here we review the critical structure-activity relationships in the hydraphile family of compounds and the in vitro and in cellulo experiments that have validated their channel behavior. This report culminates with a description of recently reported efforts in which these molecules have demonstrated activity in living mice.

  9. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

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    Butnariu Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction. Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls, polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm.

  10. Cytokinin Nucleosides - Natural Compounds with a Unique Spectrum of Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenichev, Mikhail S; Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinin nucleosides exhibit antitumor, antiviral, antiprotozoal, blood pressure reducing, anti-inflammatory, and antipsychotic activity. These compounds also influence platelet aggregation and exhibit some other biological activities. Cytokinins are N6-substituted adenines and represent an important group of phytohormones with diverse biochemical functions in plants, stimulating cell division and plant growth. The main structural feature of cytokinin nucleosides is the presence of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon moiety at the N6-position of adenosine. This moiety is responsible for a difference in physicochemical and biological properties as compared to adenosine. 1-N-Tuberculosinyladenosine and N6-tuberculosinyladenosine are specifically produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis as components of the plasmatic membrane, thus making them attractive targets for clinical test development. Structurally related compounds were found in marine organisms. It has been shown also that tRNA contains N6-isoprenyladenosine and some other related compounds. This review summarizes the structural features, biological activity, and the synthesis of cytokinin nucleosides and some of their closely related derivatives such as cytokinins and terpene derivatives of adenine. PMID:27086793

  11. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  12. Synthesis, Cytotoxic and Antimalarial Activities of Benzoyl Thiosemicarbazone Analogs of Isoquinoline and Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Ruchirawat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone analogs of papaveraldine and related compounds 1–6 were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic and antimalarial activities. The cytotoxic activity was tested against HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3 human cancer cell lines. Thiosemicarbazones 1–5 displayed cytotoxicity toward all the tested cell lines, while compounds 2–5 selectively showed potent activity against the MOLT-3 cell lines. Significantly, N(4-phenyl-2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone 4 exhibited the most potent activity against HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.03, 4.75, 0.04 and 0.004 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, 2-benzoylpyridine thio-semicarbazones 3 and 4 showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 of 10-7 to < 10-6 M. The study demonstrates the quite promising activity of analog 4 as a lead molecule for further development.

  13. Generating nanoparticles containing a new 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone compound with antileishmanial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britta, Elizandra Aparecida; da Silva, Cleuza Conceição; Rubira, Adley Forti; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Borsali, Redouane

    2016-12-01

    Thiosemicarbazones are an important class of compounds that have been extensively studied in recent years, mainly because of their broad profile of pharmacological activity. A new 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone compound (BZTS) that was derived from S-limonene has been demonstrated to have significant antiprotozoan activity. However, the hydrophobic characteristic of BZTS limits its administration and results in low oral bioavailability. In the present study, we proposed the synthesis of nanoparticle-based block copolymers that can encapsulate BZTS, with morphological evaluation of the nanoparticle suspensions being performed by transmission and cryo-transmission electronic microscopy. The mean particle sizes of the nanoparticle suspensions were determined by static light and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS), and the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) was determined using the Stokes-Einstein equation. The zeta potential (ζ) and polydispersity index (PDI) were also determined. The entrapment encapsulation efficiency of the BZTS nanoparticles was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In vitro activity of BZTS nanoparticle suspensions against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and cytotoxic activity were also evaluated. The results showed the production of spherical nanoparticles with varied sizes depending on the hydrophobic portion of the amphiphilic diblock copolymers used. Significant concentration-dependent inhibitory activity against intracellular amastigotes was observed, and low cytotoxic activity was demonstrated against macrophages. PMID:27612813

  14. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

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    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  15. A SAR and QSAR Study of New Artemisinin Compounds with Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleydson Breno R. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hartree-Fock method and the 6-31G** basis set were employed to calculate the molecular properties of artemisinin and 20 derivatives with antimalarial activity. Maps of molecular electrostatic potential (MEPs and molecular docking were used to investigate the interaction between ligands and the receptor (heme. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were employed to select the most important descriptors related to activity. The correlation between biological activity and molecular properties was obtained using the partial least squares and principal component regression methods. The regression PLS and PCR models built in this study were also used to predict the antimalarial activity of 30 new artemisinin compounds with unknown activity. The models obtained showed not only statistical significance but also predictive ability. The significant molecular descriptors related to the compounds with antimalarial activity were the hydration energy (HE, the charge on the O11 oxygen atom (QO11, the torsion angle O1-O2-Fe-N2 (D2 and the maximum rate of R/Sanderson Electronegativity (RTe+. These variables led to a physical and structural explanation of the molecular properties that should be selected for when designing new ligands to be used as antimalarial agents.

  16. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Some Commercial Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Aazza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene.

  17. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  18. Representation of multi-target activity landscapes through target pair-based compound encoding in self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Preeti; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    Activity landscape representations provide access to structure-activity relationships information in compound data sets. In general, activity landscape models integrate molecular similarity relationships with biological activity data. Typically, activity against a single target is monitored. However, for steadily increasing numbers of compounds, activity against multiple targets is reported, resulting in an opportunity, and often a need, to explore multi-target structure-activity relationships. It would be attractive to utilize activity landscape representations to aid in this process, but the design of activity landscapes for multiple targets is a complicated task. Only recently has a first multi-target landscape model been introduced, consisting of an annotated compound network focused on the systematic detection of activity cliffs. Herein, we report a conceptually different multi-target activity landscape design that is based on a 2D projection of chemical reference space using self-organizing maps and encodes compounds as arrays of pair-wise target activity relationships. In this context, we introduce the concept of discontinuity in multi-target activity space. The well-ordered activity landscape model highlights centers of discontinuity in activity space and is straightforward to interpret. It has been applied to analyze compound data sets with three, four, and five target annotations and identify multi-target structure-activity relationships determinants in analog series.

  19. Predicting Flash Point of Organosilicon Compounds Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Peng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP of a compound is the primary property used in the assessment of fire hazards for flammable liquids and is amongst the crucial information that people handling flammable liquids must possess as far as industrial safety is concerned. In this work, the FPs of 236 organosilicon compounds were collected and used to construct a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR model for predicting their FPs. The CODESSA PRO software was adopted to calculate the required molecular descriptors, and 350 molecular descriptors were developed for each compound. A modified stepwise regression algorithm was applied to choose descriptors that were highly correlated with the FP of organosilicon compounds. The proposed model was a linear regression model consisting of six descriptors. This 6-descriptor model gave an R2 value of 0.9174, QLOO2 value of 0.9106, and Q2 value of 0.8989. The average fitting error and the average predictive error were found to be of 10.34 K and 11.22 K, respectively, and the average fitting error in percentage and the average predictive error in percentage were found to be of 3.30 and 3.60%, respectively. Compared with the known reproducibility of FP measurement using standard test method, these predicted results were of a satisfactory precision.

  20. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Ten Iranian Pomegranate Cultivars Depend on Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Akhavan; Mohsen Barzegar; Helmut Weidlich; Zimmermann, Benno F.

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method. The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A (5.40–285 mg/L), punicalagin B (25.9–884 mg/L), and ellagic acid (17.4–928 mg/L). The major ...

  1. Human myeloperoxidase activity is inhibited in vitro by quercetin. Comparison with three related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemail, J; Deby, C; Thirion, A; de Bruyn-Dister, M; Goutier, R

    1988-05-15

    Quercetin is an effective inhibitor of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, both with purified enzyme (IC50 = 3.5 microM) and in a system using stimulated human neutrophils. Quercetin is significantly more potent than three other related compounds (rutin, rutin sulfate and troxerutin) and than methimazole, a previously-known myeloperoxidase inhibitor. The inhibitory activity of quercetin is of the competitive type. Moreover, quercetin is directly able to scavenge hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a chlorinated species generated by the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system.

  2. Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerubo, Leonidah Omosa; Midiwo, Jacob Ogweno; Derese, Solomon; Langat, Moses K; Akala, Hosea M; Waters, Norman C; Peter, Martin; Heydenreich, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    From the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus fourteen known methylated flavonoids and one phenol were isolated and characterized. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The surface exudate and the flavonoids isolated showed moderate to good antiplasmodial activity with 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-dimethoxyflavanone having the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 values of 3.2 +/- 0.8 and 4.4 +/- 0.01 microg/mL respectively. PMID:23513721

  3. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanosized Cadmium Sulfides Synthesized by Complex Compound Thermolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanosized cadmium sulfides (CdSs containing different phase structures were synthesized via the complex compound thermolysis method using different molar ratio of thiourea to acetate cadmium (S/Cd and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-Vis, and IR spectra. The results of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RB show that the activity order of CdS concerning the phase compositions is of cubic > hexagonal > cubic + hexagonal, where the CdS with the cubic phase has the best photocatalytic degradation activity of RB due to its larger abilities of adsorption and absorbance and smaller particle size of about 10∼13 nm.

  4. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Piperazine Moiety

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    Yanwei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi.

  5. Activity of HMR 3647 Compared to Those of Six Compounds against 235 Strains of Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Lin, Gengrong; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Agar dilution was used to test the activities of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin against 235 strains of Enterococcus faecalis. HMR 3647 was the most active compound (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC50 and MIC90, respectively] of 0.06 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively). The MIC50 and MIC90 (with the MIC50 given first and the MIC90 given second; both in micrograms per milliliter) for other com...

  6. Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron (Pall. Voss and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis as quercetin (1, 3,5,7,8,4'-pentahydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone (2, 3-O-methylquercetin (3, 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (4, 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, isorhamentin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (6, 8-O-methylretusin (7, 8-O-methylretusin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8, salicylic acid (9, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ferulic acid (10, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (11. They were sorted as flavonols (1–6, soflavones (7 and 8, and phenolic acids (9–11. Among the compounds, flanools 1–4 revealed a strong antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 50–150 μg/mL, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 26.8–125.1 μg/mL. The two isoflavones (7 and 8 showed moderate inhibitory activity on the test bacteria. Three phenolic acids (9, 10 and 11 showed strong antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 28.1–149.7 μg/mL. Antifungal activities of the compounds were similar to their antibacterial activities. All these phenolic compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum as well as antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. In general, the flavonol aglycones with relatively low polarity exhibited stronger activities than the glycosides. The results suggest the potential of this plant as a source of functional food ingredients and provide support data for its utilization as forage as well.

  7. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  8. Estrogenic activity associated with organochlorine compounds in fish extracts from European mountain lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish muscle extracts from ten European mountain lakes were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (OCs) and estrogenic activity, the latter by a recombinant yeast assay based on the human estrogen receptor. Seventy percent of the samples showed estrogenic activity above detection limits and a subset of five samples showed estrogenic activities, equivalent to more than 10,000 pg/g of estradiol. These highly estrogenic samples occurred in two lakes, Velke Hincovo in the Tatra Mountains and Redon in the Pyrenees. Principal component analysis correlated estrogenic activity of muscle extracts to fish age and concentrations of the more chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). This is consistent with previously observed correlations of these PCBs with fish age. In addition, most fish with high estrogenic activity were found in lakes containing high OC levels in the sediments, which gives further ground to atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic pollutants as main process leading to the observed endocrine disruption effects. - Estrogen receptor agonists in lake fish are correlated with organochlorine compound content

  9. The effect of phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds on the measured CCN activity of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romakkaniemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the CCN activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1 how big fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles before activation in the CCN counter? (2 How much the CCN activity can be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? The results show that, to increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions is needed. We used nitric acid as a test compound. A concentration of several ppb or higher is needed for measurable effect. In the case of particle evaporation, we used ammonium nitrate as a test compound and found that it partially evaporates before maximum supersaturation is reached in the CCN counter, thus causing an underestimation of CCN activity. The effect of evaporation is clearly visible in all supersaturations, leading to an underestimation of the critical dry diameter by 10 to 15 nanometres in the case of ammonium nitrate particles in different supersaturations. This result was also confirmed by measurements in supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.7%.

  10. The effect of phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds on the measured CCN activity of aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the CCN activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles before activation in the CCN counter? (2) How much the CCN activity can be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? The results show that, to increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) is needed. We used nitric acid as a test compound. A concentration of several ppb or higher is needed for measurable effect. In the case of particle evaporation, we used ammonium nitrate as a test compound and found that it partially evaporates before maximum supersaturation is reached in the CCN counter, thus causing an underestimation of CCN activity. The effect of evaporation is clearly visible in all supersaturations, leading to an underestimation of the critical dry diameter by 10 to 15 nanometres in the case of ammonium nitrate particles in different supersaturations. This result was also confirmed by measurements in supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.7%.

  11. Antiproliferative activity of New Zealand propolis and phenolic compounds vs human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Owen; Mitchell, Kevin; Bloor, Stephen; Davis, Paul; Suddes, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    New Zealand propolis is a "European" type propolis obtained by honey bees mainly from exudates of poplar. European type propolis is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and this activity has been attributed to some of the main constituents such as chrysin and CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester). As part of our studies on how New Zealand propolis might benefit gastro-intestinal health, we carried out in vitro bioactivity-guided fractionation of "Bio30™" propolis using both anti-inflammatory (TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2) and anti-colon cancer (DLD-1 colon cancer cell viability) assays; and determined the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. The New Zealand wax-free Bio30™ propolis tincture solids had very high levels of the dihydroflavonoids pinocembrin and pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, and high levels of the dimethylallyl, benzyl and 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeates relative to CAPE. The DLD-1 assays identified strong anti-proliferative activity associated with these components as well as chrysin, galangin and CAPE and a number of lesser known or lower concentration compounds including benzyl ferulate, benzyl isoferulate, pinostrobin, 5-phenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and tectochrysin. The phenolic compounds pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, tectochrysin, dimethylallyl caffeate, 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeate, benzyl ferulate and benzyl isoferulate also showed good broad spectrum activity in anti-proliferative assays against three other gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines; HCT-116 colon carcinoma, KYSE-30 oesophageal squamous cancer, and NCI-N87 gastric carcinoma. Activity is also observed in anti-inflammatory assays although it appears to be limited to one of the first cytokines in the inflammatory cascade, TNF-α. PMID:26347954

  12. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples

  13. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples

  14. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  15. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  16. Isolation of natural compounds from Phlomis stewartii showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Bushra; Riaz, Naheed; Saleem, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad Akram; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Rafiq, Hafiza Mehwish; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Jabbar, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Stewartiiside (1), a phenylethanoid glycoside and three 28-nortriterpenoids: stewertiisins A-C [(17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-3α,18β,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-norolean-12-ene, 2; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,16β,18β,23,24-pentahydroxy-28-norolean-12-en-3-one, 3; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,3α,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-noroleane-11,13-diene, 4] together with eight known compounds: lunariifolioside (5), notohamosin A (6), phlomispentanol (7), isorhamnetin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), tiliroside (9), caffeic acid (10), p-hydrxybenzoic acid (11) and oleanolic acid (12) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of whole plant of Phlomis stewartii. The structures of these isolates (1-12) were elucidated by the combination of 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D (HMQC, HMBC COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EIMS, HREIMS, FABMS, HRFABMS) and in comparison with literature data of related compounds. All the isolates (1-12) showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging between 14.5 and 355.4 μM, whereas, compounds 1, 5, 9 and 10 showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values below 30 μM.

  17. Discovery of New Compounds Active against Plasmodium falciparum by High Throughput Screening of Microbial Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Cantizani, Juan; Sánchez-Carrasco, Paula; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; Martín, Jesús; el Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José Rubén; González-Menendez, Víctor; González, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Due to the low structural diversity within the set of antimalarial drugs currently available in the clinic and the increasing number of cases of resistance, there is an urgent need to find new compounds with novel modes of action to treat the disease. Microbial natural products are characterized by their large diversity provided in terms of the chemical complexity of the compounds and the novelty of structures. Microbial natural products extracts have been underexplored in the search for new antiparasitic drugs and even more so in the discovery of new antimalarials. Our objective was to find new druggable natural products with antimalarial properties from the MEDINA natural products collection, one of the largest natural product libraries harboring more than 130,000 microbial extracts. In this work, we describe the optimization process and the results of a phenotypic high throughput screen (HTS) based on measurements of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. A subset of more than 20,000 extracts from the MEDINA microbial products collection has been explored, leading to the discovery of 3 new compounds with antimalarial activity. In addition, we report on the novel antiplasmodial activity of 4 previously described natural products. PMID:26735308

  18. Degradation of mixture of phenolic compounds by activated sludge processes using mixed consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, M. Rajani; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad 500 085 (India)

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the feasibility of aerobic treatment of wastewater having mixed Phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-4dinitrophenol, 2-4dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol) by using 9L lab scale Activated Sludge Process (ASP) at HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Time) varying between 3.0 ,2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1 day. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD) , compound reduction is used to asses the treatment efficiency of ASP. The highest percentage COD removal and percentage compound reduction of 98% and 99.3% of phenol was observed at 3.0 d HRT respectively. After treatment pollutants are removed in the order of phenol > 4chlorophenol (4CP) > 4nitrophenol (4NP) > 2-4dichlorophenol (2-4DCP) > 2-4 dinitrophenol (2,4DNP). The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor was found to be 1-3 mg/L and 7-8 respectively. The optimum biomass concentration was 2500-3000 mg/L, whereas the corresponding SVI was found to be around 70mL/g. The morphological characterization of aerobic granules was carried out by using SEM. Thus the results obtained indicate that ASP could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater containing mixed phenols.

  19. Degradation of mixture of phenolic compounds by activated sludge processes using mixed consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajani Rani, D. Sreekanth, V. Himabindu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the feasibility of aerobic treatment of wastewater having mixed Phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-4dinitrophenol, 2-4dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol by using 9L lab scale Activated Sludge Process (ASP at HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Time varying between 3.0 ,2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1 day. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP, Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD , compound reduction is used to asses the treatment efficiency of ASP. The highest percentage COD removal and percentage compound reduction of 98% and 99.3% of phenol was observed at 3.0 d HRT respectively. After treatment pollutants are removed in the order of phenol > 4chlorophenol (4CP > 4nitrophenol (4NP > 2-4dichlorophenol (2-4DCP > 2-4 dinitrophenol (2,4DNP. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor was found to be 1-3 mg/L and 7-8 respectively. The optimum biomass concentration was 2500-3000 mg/L, whereas the corresponding SVI was found to be around 70mL/g. The morphological characterization of aerobic granules was carried out by using SEM. Thus the results obtained indicate that ASP could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater containing mixed phenols.

  20. Facile Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some New Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporating a Biologically Active Sulfamoyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and convenient synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents was reported. The precursor 3-oxo-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylpropionamide was coupled smoothly with arenediazonium salt producing hydrazones which reacted with malononitrile or triethylorthoformate affording pyridazine and triazine derivatives, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the same precursor with DMF-DMA was followed by aminotriazole; aromatic aldehydes was followed by hydrazine hydrate, triethylorthoformate, or thiourea affording triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, pyrazole, acrylamide, and dihydropyrimidine derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of the precursor propionamide with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt which was treated with dilute HCl followed by 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone affording carboxamide derivative. While the same intermediate salt reacted in situ with chloroacetone, ethyl 2-chloroacetate, 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one, methyl iodide, or 2-oxo-N-phenylpropane hydrazonoyl chloride afforded the thiophene, ketene N,S-acetal, and thiadiazole derivatives, respectively. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out whereby four compounds were found to have moderate activities and one compound showed the highest activity.

  1. Spectral Response and Diagnostics of Biological Activity of Hydroxyl-Containing Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Mayer, G. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using IR Fourier spectra and employing quantum-chemical calculations of electronic structure, spectra, and proton-acceptor properties, synthetic derivatives of aminophenol exhibiting biological activity in the suppression of herpes, influenza, and HIV viruses have been investigated from a new perspective, with the aim of establishing the spectral response of biological activity of the molecules. It has been experimentally established that the participation of the aminophenol hydroxyl group in intramolecular hydrogen bonds is characteristic of structures with antiviral properties. A quantum-chemical calculation of the proton-acceptor ability of the investigated aminophenol derivatives has shown that biologically active structures are characterized by a high proton-acceptor ability of oxygen of the hydroxyl group. A correlation that has been obtained among the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond, high proton-acceptor ability, and antiviral activity of substituted aminophenols enables us to predict the pharmacological properties of new medical preparations of the given class of compounds.

  2. Inhibition of Peroxidase Activity of Cytochrome c: De Novo Compound Discovery and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Ahmet; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Bayir, Hulya; Hu, Feizhou; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria is accepted to be the point of no return for eliciting a cascade of interactions that lead to apoptosis. A strategy for containing sustained apoptosis is to reduce the mitochondrial permeability pore opening. Pore opening is enhanced by peroxidase activity of cyt c gained upon its complexation with cardiolipin in the presence of reactive oxygen species. Blocking access to the heme group has been proposed as an effective intervention method for reducing, if not eliminating, the peroxidase activity of cyt c. In the present study, using a combination of druggability simulations, pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in vitro fluorescence measurements to probe peroxidase activity, we identified three repurposable drugs and seven compounds that are validated to effectively inhibit the peroxidase activity of cyt c. PMID:26078313

  3. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  4. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 196 West Huayang Road, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Lv, Lu, E-mail: esellu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lan, Pei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 196 West Huayang Road, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Pan, Bingcai, E-mail: bcpan@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhang, Weiming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of EfOM significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and rates of PFCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-molecular-weight EfOM compounds (<1 kDa) compete for adsorption sites of PFSs directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large-molecular-weight EfOM compounds (>30 kDa) affect the adsorption through pore blockage or restriction effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in surface properties of PAC caused by preloaded EfOM could affect PFCs adsorption. - Abstract: Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC-EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds (<1 kDa) were found to be the major contributors to the significant reduction in PFC adsorption capacity, while large-molecular-weight compounds (>30 kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity.

  5. Highly Efficient Cuprous Complexes with Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence for Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Chen, Xu-Lin; Liao, Jian-Zhen; Hu, Jin-Yu; Jia, Ji-Hui; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Two mononuclear cuprous complexes [Cu(PNNA)(POP)]BF4 (1) and [Cu(PNNA)(Xantphos)]BF4 (2) (PNNA = 9,9-dimethyl-10-(6-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-9,10-dihydroacridine, POP = bis[2-(dipenylphosphino)phenyl]ether, Xantphos =4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene), with intense bluish-green luminescence based on a new diimine ligand were designed and synthesized. Their structural, electrochemical, and photophysical properties were characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, cyclic voltammetry, temperature dependence of spectroscopy, time-dependent emission spectroscopy, etc. The complexes exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields in doped films (up to 74.6%) at room temperature. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence based on intraligand charge transfer was observed by grafting a strong electron-donor moiety, 9,9-dimethylacridan, on the diimine ligand, which is supported by the density functional theory calculations on two complexes. Highly efficient solution-processed OLEDs based on these two complexes were fabricated, among which the electroluminescent device using 2 as dopant shows a peak external quantum efficiency of 7.42%, a peak current efficiency of 20.24 cd/A, and a maximum brightness of 5579 cd/m(2). PMID:27404980

  6. Structural Characterization and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Astragalus taipaishanensis and Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wenjun; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Eight phenolic compounds were isolated using bio-guided isolation and purified from the roots of Astragalus taipaishanensis Y. C. Ho et S. B. Ho (A. taipaishanensis) for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR as 7,2‧-dihydroxy-3‧,4‧-dimethoxy isoflavan (1), formononetin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), quercetin (4), kaempferol (5), ononin (6), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) and vanillic acid (8). Six flavonoids (compounds 1-6) exhibited stronger antioxidant activities (determined by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) than those of BHA and TBHQ and also demonstrated noticeable protective effects (particularly quercetin and kaempferol) on Escherichia coli under oxidative stress. Additionally, the chemical constituents compared with those of Astragalus membranaceus and the structure-activity relationship of the isolated compounds were both analyzed. The results clearly demonstrated that A. taipaishanensis has the potential to be selected as an alternative medicinal and food plant that can be utilized in health food products, functional tea and pharmaceutical products.

  7. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol

  8. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety.

  9. Effect of Pharmaceutically Active Compound Nitroxoline on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in an Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganapathi Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nitroxoline, antibiotic drug, was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS in an acidic environment by chemical method (mass loss measurement and electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. The surface morphology of mild steel was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy techniques. From the chemical and electrochemical methods, the resistance of corrosion was increased with the addition of Nitroxoline concentration. Tafel curves indicate that the pharmaceutically active compound is a cathodic type inhibitor. An adsorption of Nitroxoline on the surface of mild steel was obeyed by Langmuir isotherm. SEM, EDX, and AFM techniques prove the adsorption process. All the obtained results confirmed that the investigated compound Nitroxoline acts as a good inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in an acidic environment.

  10. Phenolic Compounds and Antifungal Activity of Hedera helix L. (Ivy Flowers and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification and quantitative analysis of the phenolic compounds from Hedera helix L. (ivy flower and fruit ethanol extracts by LC/MS, in vitro germination and growth inhibition effects on Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tulipae, Penicillium gladioli and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were performed. In the non-hydrolyzed samples of flower and fruit extracts were determined, in different amounts, five polyphenols (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutoside, quercetol and kaempferol while quercitrin was identified only in the ivy flower extract. The hydrolyzed samples of the same ivy extracts indicated four phenolic compounds (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetol and kaempferol, in different concentrations, whereas sinapic acid was only detected in the ivy fruit extract. The antifungal activity of the fresh flower extract was stronger than that of the fresh fruit extract and was compared to that of an antimycotic drug.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somayeh Fani,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,1 Kong Mun Lo,2 Najihah Mohd Hashim,1 Kit May Chow,2 Fatemeh Ahmadipour1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzylaquatin(IV chloride, (compound C1, was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 2.5±0.50 µg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 µg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the

  12. Preparation and luminescent characteristics of Pr3+ activated CsGd(WO4)2 red-emitting phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth activated inorganic materials are widely used in many applications. Common inorganic phosphors have drawbacks like chemical instability, high production cost and lower life time. Alkaline rare earth double tungstates with general formula ARE(WO4)2 (A=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+, RE= Eu3+, Pr3+, Gd3+, Y3+, Ho3+) overcome the above drawbacks and also have broad absorption in UV and near UV region. Pr3+ ions are one of the prominent ions in the rare earth family, that offers emission in blue, green and red region depending upon the host lattices. In this present work, Prx:CsGd(1-x)(WO4)2(0≤x≤0.06) (CGPW) red phosphor was synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized phosphors were characterized by powder XRD, Raman, FE-SEM and luminescence. The formation of the monoclinic structure with P21/m phase was confirmed by XRD. The Raman bands reveal the formation of tungstate bridges in high frequency region. The morphology changes with respect to thermal treatments were analyzed in FE-SEM micrographs. The excitation spectrum shows a charge transfer (W-O) band within the WO42- group. The emission spectrum shows an intense red emission at 610 nm at the excitation wavelength of λexci=450 nm. The emission bands due to the intraconfigurational 4f→4f transitions, originating from the 3P0 multiplets of the Pr3+ ion were also identified. The results will be discussed in detail. (author)

  13. p-HPEA-EDA, a phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, activates AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prem; Oh, Won-Keun; Yun, Hyo Jeong; Namgoong, Gwang Mo; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kwon, Seong-Min; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Choi, Hong Seok

    2011-04-01

    Phenolic constituents of virgin olive oil are reported to have antitumor activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and specific target proteins of virgin olive oil remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA), a phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, inhibits tumor promoter-induced cell transformation in JB6 Cl41 cells and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumorigenicity by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HT-29 cells. p-HPEA-EDA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p90RSK in JB6 Cl41 cells, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, activator protein-1 transactivation and cell transformation promoted by TPA. Moreover, p-HPEA-EDA strongly inhibited the cell viability and COX-2 expression by activation of AMPK activity in HT-29 cells, resulted from depletion of intracellular adenosine triphosphate. p-HPEA-EDA-induced activation of caspase-3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase, phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells, leading to apoptosis. Importantly, p-HPEA-EDA suppressed the colony formation of HT-29 cells in soft agar. In contrast, Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, blocked the p-HPEA-EDA-inhibited colony formation in HT-29 cells. In vivo chorioallantoic membrane assay also showed that p-HPEA-EDA-inhibited tumorigenicity of HT-29 cells. These findings revealed that targeted activation of AMPK and inhibition of COX-2 expression by p-HPEA-EDA contribute to the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of virgin olive oil against colon cancer cells. PMID:21216846

  14. Theoretical and experimental study on lipophilicity and wound healing activity of ginger compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Afroz Bakht; Mohammed F Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Aftab Alam; Prawez Alam; Tariq Mohammed Aljarba

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the chromatographic and computational method to calculate lipophilicity of selected ginger compounds and to observe the effects of log P on wound healing. Methods:Mixtures of acetonitrile and water with acetonitrile content between 95% and 50% v/v in 5% increments were kept separately in 10 different chromatographic chambers, saturated with solvent for 2 h. Spots were observed under UV light at λ=254 nm p-anisaldehyde used as a spraying reagent. Theoretical calculation was done using the Alogps 2.1 online program at www. vcclab.org/lab/alogps. For percentage wound contraction, five groups of animal (mice) (25-30 g) of either sex were selected. Wound were created on dorsal surface of animals using toothed forceps, scalpel and pointed scissors. The wound areas were calculated using vernier caliper. After making wound mice were orally administered 35 mg/kg 6-shogoal, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol respectively. Group E as the control group received tap water. Results:The lipophilicity values determined in thin layer chromatography were correlated with the theoretically calculated various log P by linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between log P values calculated by software program and the experimental reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography data. Order of wound healing property of ginger compounds is directly dependent on lipophilicity i.e. more lipophilic compound has highest activity. Conclusions:Experimentally determined lipophilicity (RMO) values were correlated with log Pdetermined by software's and found satisfactory. Lipophilicity (RMO) is a useful parameter for the determination and prediction of biological activity of ginger compounds.

  15. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively. PMID:24635720

  16. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and compounds from Polygonum limbatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean P; Nkuete, Antoine H L; Kuete, Victor; Tala, Michel F; Wabo, Hippolyte K; Guru, Santosh K; Rajput, Vikrant S; Sharma, Akash; Tane, Pierre; Khan, Inshad A; Saxena, Anil K; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract (PLA) as well as fractions (PLA1-4) and compounds [cardamomin (1), (±)-polygohomoisoflavanone (2), (S)-(-)-pinostrobin (3), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',6'-dimethoxychalcone (4), (2S)-(-)-5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (5), and (2S)-(-)-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6)] obtained from leaves of Polygonum limbatum. The microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against 11 microbial strains including Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S.epidermidis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The sulphorhodamine B cell growth inhibition assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the above samples on lung A549 adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma MCF-7, prostate carcinoma PC-3, cervical carcinoma HeLa, and the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. The results of the MIC determination indicated that, apart from fraction PLA3, all other fractions as well as PLA and compound 3 were selectively active. MIC values were noted on 100 % of the 11 tested microorganisms for fraction PLA3, 72.7 % for PLA, fraction PLA2, and compound 4, 63.6 % for PLA1, and 54.5 % for fraction PLA4. The results of the cytotoxicity assay revealed that, except for A459 cells, more than 50 % inhibition of the proliferation was obtained with each of the tested samples on at least one of the four other cell lines. IC₅₀ values below 4 µg/mL were obtained with 1 and 4 on THP-1 cells. The overall results of the present study provided baseline information for the possible use of Polygonum limbatum as well as some of the isolated compounds for the control of cancer diseases and mostly leukemia. PMID:22495442

  17. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambassa Pantaleon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR, as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5 and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1 and (E-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8. Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC, against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections.

  18. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Rhizophora apiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora apiculata (R. apiculata contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of R. apiculata were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-O-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the R. apiculata might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in R. apiculata.

  19. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. PMID:26072200

  20. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibited dehydrogenase activities. Generally, phenol is less toxic than substituted phenols. Estimations of the degree of inhibition/stimulation of dehydrogenase activities showed significant dose-dependent responses that are describable by logistic functions. The toxicity thresholds varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the bacterial strains and phenolic compounds. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s ranged from 4.118 ± 0.097 mg.L-1 for 4-nitrophenol against Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 1407.997 ± 7.091 mg.L-1 for phenol against Bacillus sp. DISK1. This study suggested that the organisms have moderate sensitivity to phenols and have the potential to be used as indicators for assessment of chemical toxicity. They could also be used as catalysts for degradation of phenols in effluents.