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Sample records for active cold loads

  1. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...

  2. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg...

  3. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...

  4. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  5. Biotechnology of cold-active proteases.

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2013-05-03

    The bulk of Earth's biosphere is cold (<5 °C) and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes) have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth's surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  6. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    Tulasi Satyanarayana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  7. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  8. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  9. Aminopeptidase activity by spoilage bacteria and its relationship to microbial load and sensory attributes of poultry legs during aerobic cold storage.

    Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2010-02-01

    The shelf life of poultry legs stored aerobically and the possible role of the aminopeptidase activity of gram-negative bacteria (p-nitroaniline test) as a predictor of poultry spoilage were evaluated on the basis of microbiological and sensory parameters. Chicken legs (n = 30) obtained immediately after evisceration in a local poultry processing plant were kept under aerobic refrigeration (4 +/- 1 degrees C) for 7 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs) and sensory (odor, color, and general acceptability on a hedonic scale of 1 to 9) parameters and aminopeptidase activity (absorbance at 390 nm [A(390)]) determinations were performed after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of storage. Aerobic plate counts of 7 log CFU/g and a score of 6 for general acceptability were used as indicators of the end point of shelf life. Strong correlations (r > or = 0.76; P counts, hedonic scores, and A(390) values. Samples were judged as unacceptable (shelf-life end point) after 2 and 4 days on the basis of sensory and microbiological analyses, respectively. A(390) values of 0.52 and 0.89 (corresponding to p-nitroaniline concentrations of 6.25 and 10.7 microg/ml, respectively) are proposed as the upper limits for acceptability on the basis of sensory and microbiological determinations, respectively. However, these recommendations are based on a small set of samples, and their general application is yet to be verified.

  10. Generalized Shape and Gauge Decoupling Load Distribution Optimization Based on IGA for Tandem Cold Mill

    PENG Peng; YANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    Load distribution is the foundation of shape control and gauge control, in which it is necessary to take into account the shape control ability of TCM (tandem cold mill) for strip shape and gauge quality. First, the objective function of generalized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization was established, which considered the rolling force characteristics of the first and last stands in TCM, the relative power, and the TCM shape control ability. Then, IGA (immune genetic algorithm) was used to accomplish this multi-objective load distribution optimization for TCM. After simulation and comparison with the practical load distribution strategy in one tandem cold mill, general-ized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization on the basis of IGA approved good ability of optimizing shape control and gauge control simultaneously.

  11. Object Oriented Modeling of Thermostatically Controlled Devices for Cold Load Pick-up

    Alexandre A. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During service restoration, the power level at buses can significantly differ from the one presented under steady-state conditions, demanding an amount of electric power significantly higher than the normal load. Hence, their post-outage behavior must be adequately forecasted in order to permit the development of reliable restoration plans, or to avoid inadequate actions that may lead to a subsequent shutdown of the electric power system. This problem is known in the literature as cold load pick-up and the thermostatically controlled loads can be pointed as the main responsible for this behavior. Approach: This study proposes a methodology to model the thermostatically controlled load behavior during the reenergization process, based on object oriented programming and the physical modeling of individual loads, avoiding the explicitly modeling of the electric distribution feeder. In this context, the load aggregation is also implemented using “feeder” classes in an hierarchical structure. Results: The methodology was tested considering distinct devices distributed along a hypothetical feeder and the results show the impacts of interruption duration and environmental temperature in the load behavior. Conclusion: The Cold-load phenomena can be successfully simulated based on physical parameters of thermostatically controlled loads using objectoriented programming, yielding satisfactory results. In special, the impacts of the environmental temperature in the load to be restored can be assessed in detail.

  12. Magnetic levitation for effective loading of cold cesium atoms in a crossed dipole trap

    Li, Yuqing; Feng, Guosheng; Xu, Rundong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Jizhou; Chen, Gang; Dai, Xingcan; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-05-01

    We report a detailed study of effective magnetically levitated loading of cold atoms in a crossed dipole trap: an appropriate magnetic field gradient precisely compensates for the destructive gravitational force of the atoms and an additional bias field simultaneously eliminates the antitrapping potential induced by the magnetic field gradient. The magnetic levitation is required for a large-volume crossed dipole trap to form a shallow but very effective loading potential, making it a promising method for loading and trapping more cold atoms. For cold cesium atoms in the F =3 , m F =3 state prepared by three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling, a large number of atoms ˜3.2 ×106 have been loaded into a large-volume crossed dipole trap with the help of the magnetic levitation technique. The dependence of the number of atoms loaded and trapped in the dipole trap on the magnetic field gradient and bias field, respectively, is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The optimum magnetic field gradient of 31.13 G/cm matches the theoretical value of 31.3 G/cm well. This method can be used to obtain more cold atoms or a large number of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms for many atomic species in high-field seeking states.

  13. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  14. Are thermophilic microorganisms active in cold environments?

    Cockell, Charles S.; Cousins, Claire; Wilkinson, Paul T.; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Rozitis, Ben

    2015-07-01

    The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.

  15. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  16. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  17. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  18. Cold Thermal Storage and Peak Load Reduction for Office Buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Nabil Y.Abdel-Shafi; Ramzy R.Obaid; Ibrahim M.Jomoah

    2014-01-01

    This paper involves the investigations of the chilled water and ice cold thermal storage technologies along with the associated operating strategies for the air conditioning (AC) systems of the typical office buildings in Saudi Arabia, so as to reduce the electricity energy consumption during the peak load periods. In Saudi Arabia, the extensive use of AC for indoor cooling in offices composes a large proportion of the annual peak electricity demand. The very high temperatures over long summer periods, extending from May to October, and the low cost of energy are the key factors in the wide and extensive use of air conditioners in the kingdom. This intense cooling load adds up to the requirement increase in the capacity of power plants, which makes them under utilized during the off-peak periods. Thermal energy storage techniques are one of the effective demand-side energy management methods. Systems with cold storage shifts all or part of the electricity requirement from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce demand charges and/or take advantage of off-peak rates. The investigations reveal that the cold thermal energy storage techniques are effective from both technical and economic perspectives in the reduction of energy consumption in the buildings during peak periods.

  19. Control of the metal-support interface of NiO-loaded photocatalysts via cold plasma treatment.

    Zou, Ji-Jun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Ping

    2006-02-28

    NiO-loaded semiconductors have been extensively used as the photocatalysts for water splitting. The metal-support interface is an important factor affecting the efficiency. In the present work, the pretreatment methods were studied to produce a more desirable metal-support interface using Ta2O5 and ZrO2 as the support. The traditional method includes a thermal decomposition, reduction at 773 K, and oxidation at 473 K (R773-O473). The thermal decomposition of Ni(NO3)2 makes the Ni atoms migrate into the bulk of the supports, resulting in a diffused interfacial region. Alternatively, a cold plasma treatment was used to replace the thermal decomposition. Metal salts are quickly decomposed by glow discharge plasma treatment at room temperature, avoiding the thermal diffusion of Ni atoms. With the sequent R773-O473 treatment, a clean metal-support interface is produced. Moreover, the metal particles have optimal shapes with a larger surface. In photocatalysis, the clean metal-support interface is more favorable for the charge separation and transfer, and the increased metal surface provides more active sites. NiO/Ta2O5 and NiO/ZrO2 prepared with the plasma treatment exhibit higher activity for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from pure water and methanol solution, respectively. This work shows the potential of cold plasma treatment in the preparation of metal-loaded catalysts and nanostructured materials.

  20. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  1. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  2. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  3. Effects of cold stress and Salmonella Heidelberg infection on bacterial load and immunity of chickens.

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete Serrano; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the first to the seventh day of life) applied to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had high levels of norepinephrine on ED21. On ED21, an increased percentage and number of SH were found in birds of the PCS group. On ED7, a decrease in macrophages presenting MHCII, CD8(+) and CD8(+) γδ cells was observed in the chickens of the CS group. Decrease was observed in CD3(+) cells in the birds of the PCS group and increase in macrophages presenting MHCII cells and of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in chickens of the CS group on ED21. There was a decrease in CD8(+) γδ cells in birds of the CS group on ED21 and in the CD3(+) and CD8(+)cell numbers in chickens of the PCS group on ED21. Our results suggest that cold stress applied to chickens in the first 7 days of life increases both the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activities, leading to long-term immune cell dysfunction, thus allowing increased SH invasion and persistence within the birds' body.

  4. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  5. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  6. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  7. Temperature and Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading and Transport in Cold and Mild Weather

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bedding levels and trailer compartment on internal trailer temperature and relative humidity (RH during loading and transport of finishing pigs was evaluated in cold and mild weather. Three levels of bedding were used in each experiment: 0.6 m3, 1.2 m3, and 2.4 m3. In mild weather, internal temperatures were lower when 1.2 m3 or 2.4 m3 of bedding were used during loading and transport compared to 0.6 m3 (P < 0.05. Internal trailer temperature increased in a quadratic fashion in the top front compartment when 1.2 m3 was used (P < 0.05, and in a linear fashion in the top rear compartment when 2.4 m3 were used in cold weather (P < 0.05. In mild weather, temperature increased linearly in the top front compartment with heavy bedding levels. Relative humidity increased in a linear fashion in the top front compartment with 0.6 m3, bottom front with 1.2 m3, and top front with 1.2 m3 in cold weather (P < 0.05. In general, temperature and RH increased as bedding levels increased in both cold and mild temperatures. Excess bedding can absorb more moisture, resulting in transport loss and decreased animal welfare.

  8. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  9. The Role of Overloading on the Reduction of Residual Stress by Cyclic Loading in Cold-Drawn Prestressing Steel Wires

    Jesús Toribio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestressing steel wires are commonly used as reinforcement elements in structures bearing fatigue loads. These wires are obtained by a conforming process called cold drawing, where a progressive reduction of the wire diameter is produced, causing residual stress in the commercial wire. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of diverse in-service cyclic loading conditions (cyclic loading and cyclic loading with overload on such a residual stress field. To achieve this goal, firstly, a numerical simulation of the wire drawing process of a commercial prestressing steel wire was carried out to reveal the residual stress state induced by the manufacture technique. Afterwards, a numerical simulation was performed of the in-service loading conditions of a prestressing steel wire in which the previously calculated residual stress state is included. The analysis of the obtained results shows a significant reduction of the residual stress state of about 50% for common in-service loadings and as high as 90% for certain cases undergoing overloads during cyclic loading. Therefore, an improvement of the mechanical performance of these structural components during their life in-service can be achieved.

  10. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Cold-active α-Amylase Excreted by A Strain of Marine Cold-adaptive Penicillia

    WANG Tian-hong; ZHANG Gang; HOU Yun-hua

    2004-01-01

    The filamentous fungi from the Huanghai sea sludge were screened according to their ability to produce cold-active α-amylase. The strain with the highest amylase activity was identified as Penicillium species. The α-amylase purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on DEAE-sepharose and sephadex G-100 shows a molecular weight of about 55000 and a pI of 4.38. The enzyme is stable in a pH range of 5.5-8.0 and has a maximum activity at pH 6.0. Compared with the α-amylase from mesophiles and thermophiles, the cold-active enzyme shows a high enzyme activity at lower temperatures and a high sensitivity at temperatures higher than 50 ℃. The optimal temperature is 40 ℃ and the activity decreases dramatically at temperatures above 50 ℃. Ca2+ shows a significant effect on maintaining the structure and the activity of the enzyme. EDTA and Cu2+ are its inhibitors. The products from the hydrolysis of soluble starch with the cold-active enzyme are maltose and other oligosaccharides.

  12. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries.

  13. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  14. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  15. System ID Modern Control Algorithms for Active Aerodynamic Load Control and Impact on Gearbox Loading

    Berg, D.; Wilson, D.; Resor, B.; Berg, J.; Barlas, J.; Crowther, A.; Halse, C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed

  16. Cold Suppresses Agonist-induced Activation of TRPV1

    2011-01-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppress...

  17. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  18. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather

    Jeffers, Matthew A.; Chaney, Larry; Rugh, John P.

    2016-04-05

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Zhu, Wei; Lee, Se-Jun; Castro, Nathan J; Yan, Dayun; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and novel drug loaded core-shell nanoparticles and evaluate its underlying mechanism for targeted breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via co-axial electrospraying. Biocompatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) was selected as the polymer shell to encapsulate anti-cancer therapeutics. Results demonstrated uniform size distribution and high drug encapsulation efficacy of the electrosprayed nanoparticles. Cell studies demonstrated the effectiveness of drug loaded nanoparticles and CAP for synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell growth when compared to each treatment separately. Importantly, we found CAP induced down-regulation of metastasis related gene expression (VEGF, MTDH, MMP9, and MMP2) as well as facilitated drug loaded nanoparticle uptake which may aid in minimizing drug resistance-a major problem in chemotherapy. Thus, the integration of CAP and drug encapsulated nanoparticles provides a promising tool for the development of a new cancer treatment strategy.

  20. Analysis of the effects of rising temperature for embankments under seismic loads in cold regions

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature rising for frozen soil because of dynamic load was investigated by indoor tests.Roadway and railway embankments are always loaded by dynamic loads such as earthquakes and vehicles.Because the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is a re-gion where earthquakes occur frequently,it is essential to consider the temperature-rising effect of earthquakes or vehicles on railway and road embankment.In this paper and according to the theories of heat transfer and dynamic equilibrium equations,as-suming frozen soil as thermal elastic-viscoplastic material,taking the combination of thermal and mechanical stresses into account,we present the numerical formulae of this dynamic problem,and the computer program of the two-dimensional finite element is written.Using the program,the dynamic response analyses for embankments loaded by earthquake are worked out.Analysis in-dicated that the temperature-rising effect result from earthquakes for embankment in nonuniform distribution in some small areas,the maximum rising temperature is 0.16 ?C for consideration in this paper.

  1. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  2. Activation energy of the low-load NaCl transition from nanoindentation loading curves.

    Kaupp, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Access to activation energies E(a) of phase transitions is opened by unprecedented analyses of temperature dependent nanoindentation loading curves. It is based on kinks in linearized loading curves, with additional support by coincidence of kink and electrical conductivity of silicon loading curves. Physical properties of B1, B2, NaCl and further phases are discussed. The normalized low-load transition energy of NaCl (Wtrans/µN) increases with temperature and slightly decreases with load. Its semi-logarithmic plot versus T obtains activation energy E(a)/µN for calculation of the transition work for all interesting temperatures and pressures. Arrhenius-type activation energy (kJ/mol) is unavailable for indentation phase transitions. The E(a) per load normalization proves insensitive to creep-on-load, which excludes normalization to depth or volume for large temperature ranges. Such phase transition E(a)/µN is unprecedented material's property and will be of practical importance for the compatibility of composite materials under impact and further shearing interactions at elevated temperatures.

  3. ACTIVE MODEL ROCKET STABILIZATION VIA COLD GAS THRUSTERS

    Malyuta, Danylo; Collaud, Xavier; Martins Gaspar, Mikael; Rouaze, Gautier Marie Pierre; Pictet, Raimondo; Ivanov, Anton; Mullin, Nickolay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a reaction control system (RCS) for a model rocket named FALCO-4. The rocket uses cold gas jets to keep itself perfectly vertical at low speeds. We first describe the mechanical layout of FALCO-4 and the characteristics of the cold gas propulsion system. We then propose a dynamical model of the rocket and a control scheme based on decoupled PID regulators for roll, pitch and yaw. The control scheme is then evaluated based on MATLAB simulatio...

  4. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity.

    Vigotsky, Andrew David; Harper, Erin Nicole; Ryan, David Russell; Contreras, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  5. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  6. Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    Yann Ravussin

    Full Text Available Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.

  7. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  8. Antibacterial activity of heavy metal-loaded natural zeolite.

    Hrenovic, Jasna; Milenkovic, Jelena; Ivankovic, Tomislav; Rajic, Nevenka

    2012-01-30

    The antibacterial activity of natural zeolitized tuffs containing 2.60wt.% Cu(2+), 1.47 Zn(2+) or 0.52 Ni(2+) were tested. Antibacterial activities of the zeolites against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were tested after 1h and 24h of exposure to 1g of the zeolite in 100mL of three different media, namely Luria Bertani, synthetic wastewater and secondary effluent wastewater. The antibacterial activities of the zeolites in Luria Bertani medium were significantly lower than those in the other media and negatively correlated with the chemical oxygen demand of the media. The Ni-loaded zeolite showed high leaching of Ni(2+) (3.44-9.13wt.% of the Ni(2+) loaded) and weak antibacterial activity in the effluent water. Since Cu-loaded zeolite did not leach Cu(2+) and the leaching of Zn(2+) from Zn-loaded zeolite was low (1.07-1.61wt.% of the Zn(2+) loaded), the strong antibacterial activity classified the Cu- and Zn-loaded zeolite as promising antibacterial materials for disinfection of secondary effluent water.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of cold-induced CYP1A activation in rat liver microsomes.

    Perepechaeva, Maria; Kolosova, Natalia; Grishanova, Alevtina

    2011-12-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes) is known to metabolize anthropogenic xenobiotics to carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation is regulated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signal transduction pathway. CYP1A2 activation may occur through the AhR-dependent or AhR-independent signal transduction pathways. We used male Wistar rats to explore possible mechanisms of CYP1A activation induced by exposure to cold and the effects of the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein, herbimycin A, and geldanamycin on the properties of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins following exposure to cold and to classic CYP1A inducers. The molecular mechanisms of cold-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activation are different. The CYP1A2 activation apparently occurs at the post-transcriptional level. The CYP1A1 activation, whether caused by exposure to cold or by classic CYP1A inducers, is AhR-dependent and occurs at the transcriptional level. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors have no effect on benzo(a)pyrene-induced CYP1A expression but alter cold-induced CYP1A1 activity and the CYP1A1 mRNA level. Thus, treatment with herbimycin A or geldanamycin leads to an increase in CYP1A1 activity, while treatment with genistein increases CYP1A1 mRNA expression and decreases CYP1A2 activity. These data elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cold-induced CYP1A activation and the role of protein kinases in the regulation of CYP1A during exposure to cold. Our results can also help identify the differences between the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the classic CYP1A inducers and the effects of cooling.

  10. Cold Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate

    Edgar Perez Perez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH winter, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in cold surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in cold surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased cold surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of winter precipitation. The increased frequency of cold surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the cold surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.

  11. The mechano-activated K+ channels TRAAK and TREK-1 control both warm and cold perception

    Noël, Jacques; Zimmermann, Katharina; Busserolles, Jérome; Deval, Emanuel; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Diochot, Sylvie; Guy, Nicolas; Borsotto, Marc; Reeh, Peter; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The sensation of cold or heat depends on the activation of specific nerve endings in the skin. This involves heat- and cold-sensitive excitatory transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, we show here that the mechano-gated and highly temperature-sensitive potassium channels of the TREK/TRAAK family, which normally work as silencers of the excitatory channels, are also implicated. They are important for the definition of temperature thresholds and temperature ranges in which excita...

  12. Cold Air Activities in July 2004 and Its Impact on Intense Rainfalls over Southwest China

    2007-01-01

    The severe rainfall events in the mid-summer of July 2004 and the roles of cold air in the formation of heavy precipitation are investigated by using daily observational precipitation data of China and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that the severe rainfalls in Southwest China are closely related to the cold air activities from the mid-high latitudes, and the events take place under the cooperative effects of mid-high latitude circulation and low latitude synoptic regimes. It is the merging of a cold vortex over mid-latitudes with the northward landing typhoon and eastward Southwest China Vortex, as well as the abrupt transformation from a transversal trough into an upright one that causes three large alterations of mid-high atmospheric circulation respectively in the early and middle ten days of this month. Then, the amplitude of long waves soon magnifies, leading to the unusual intrusion of cold air to low-latitude areas in the mid-summer. Meanwhile, the warm and humid southwest summer monsoon is quite active. The strong interactions of cold air and summer monsoon over Southwest China result in the large-scale convective rainfalls on the southern side of cold air.With regard to the activities of cold air, it can influence rainfalls in three prominent ways. Firstly, the incursion of upper-level cold air is often accompanied by partial southerly upper-level jet. The ascending branch of the corresponding secondary circulation, which is on the left front side of the jet center, provides the favorite dynamic upward motion for the rainfalls. Secondly, the southward movement of cold air contributes to the establishment of atmospheric baroclinic structure, which would lead to baroclinic disturbances. The atmospheric disturbances associated with the intrusion of cold air can destroy the potential instability stratification, release the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and finally cause convective activities. In addition, the advection processes of dry

  13. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles.

    Lee, Ga Hyun; Lee, Sung June; Jeong, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Se Geun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Utilizing the biological activities of compounds by encapsulating natural components in stable nanoparticles is an important strategy for a variety of biomedical and healthcare applications. In this study, quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method, which is a suitable system for producing functional nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. The resulting quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in an aqueous system. Superoxide radical scavenging effects were found for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles as well as free quercetin. The quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles showed cell viability comparable to that of the controls. The amounts of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, such as interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were reduced significantly for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles. These results suggest that the antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin are maintained after encapsulation in silica. Silica nanoparticles can be used for the effective and stable incorporation of biologically active natural components into composite biomaterials.

  14. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  15. Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

    Santiago, Margarita; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Zamora, Ricardo A.; Parra, Loreto P.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications. PMID:27667987

  16. Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

    Margarita Santiago

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25 ºC makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Cold-Active Lipase from the Yeast Candida zeylanoides.

    Čanak, Iva; Berkics, Adrienn; Bajcsi, Nikolett; Kovacs, Monika; Belak, Agnes; Teparić, Renata; Maraz, Anna; Mrša, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Cold-active lipases have attracted attention in recent years due to their potential applications in reactions requiring lower temperatures. Both bacterial and fungal lipases have been investigated, each having distinct advantages for particular applications. Among yeasts, cold-active lipases from the genera Candida, Yarrowia, Rhodotorula, and Pichia have been reported. In this paper, biosynthesis and properties of a novel cold-active lipase from Candida zeylanoides isolated from refrigerated poultry meat are described. Heat-sterilized olive oil was found to be the best lipase biosynthesis inducer, while nonionic detergents were not effective. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using hydrophobic chromatography and its enzymatic properties were tested. Pure enzyme activity at 7 °C was about 60% of the maximal activity at 27 °C. The enzyme had rather good activity at higher temperatures, as well. Optimal pH of pure lipase was between 7.3 and 8.2, while the enzyme from the crude extract had an optimum pH of about 9.0. The enzyme was sensitive to high ionic strength and lost most of its activity at high salt concentrations. Due to the described properties, cold-active C. zeylanoides lipase has comparative advantages to most similar enzymes with technological applications and may have potential to become an industrially important enzyme.

  18. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...

  19. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (P<0.0001); Cold-water immersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, P<0.05) and affected muscular activation in different ways. In conclusion, ice pack increases isometric torque, while both ice pack and cold-water immersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary.

  20. Methane activation on palladium and mercury loaded solid supports

    Kataja, K.; Huuska, M.; Karinto, K.; Maijanen, A.; Reinikainen, M.; Kiviaho, J.; Hase, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Methane activation by non-radical method and especially possibilities to heterogenize the homogeneous non-radical system of Periana et al. was studied. Varied loadings of Pd and Hg were ion exchanged to acidic ZSM-5 zeolites with two different Si/A1 ratios. Activation was tested in tubular flow reactor and the outcoming gas was analyzed with quadrupole mass spectrometer. Catalysts, fresh and used, were characterized by XRF and XRD spectroscopies. The methane activation was observed on tested catalysts. However, the activation was concluded to occur mainly through radical reaction and only to some extent by the expected non-radical mechanism. (author) (9 refs.)

  1. Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

    Bandell, Michael; Story, Gina M; Hwang, Sun Wook; Viswanath, Veena; Eid, Samer R; Petrus, Matt J; Earley, Taryn J; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2004-03-25

    Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.

  2. Gearbox design for uncertain load requirements using active robust optimization

    Salomon, Shaul; Avigad, Gideon; Purshouse, Robin C.; Fleming, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    Design and optimization of gear transmissions have been intensively studied, but surprisingly the robustness of the resulting optimal design to uncertain loads has never been considered. Active Robust (AR) optimization is a methodology to design products that attain robustness to uncertain or changing environmental conditions through adaptation. In this study the AR methodology is utilized to optimize the number of transmissions, as well as their gearing ratios, for an uncertain load demand. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem where the objectives are to satisfy the load demand in the most energy efficient manner and to minimize production cost. The results show that this approach can find a set of robust designs, revealing a trade-off between energy efficiency and production cost. This can serve as a useful decision-making tool for the gearbox design process, as well as for other applications.

  3. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2011-June 2016.

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-10-01

    From July 2015 through June 2016, a total of 447 members of the active (n=383) and reserve (n=64) components had at least one medical encounter with a primary diagnosis of cold injury. The numbers of affected individuals in both components were the lowest since the 2011-2012 cold season, when the total was 394. In the active component, the service-specific incidence rates for each of the four services were lower than the respective rates for the previous (2014-2015) cold season. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury. During the five cold seasons in the surveillance period (2011-2016), rates tended to be higher among service members who were in the youngest age groups; female; black, non-Hispanic; or in the Army. The numbers of cold injuries associated with service in Iraq and Afghanistan have fallen precipitously in the past four cold seasons and included just 11 cases in the most recent year.

  4. Effects of cold-hardening on compatible solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities related to freezing tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings

    WANG Wei-juan; CHEN Yu-zhen; LIU Mei-qin; LU Cun-fu

    2008-01-01

    Cold acclimation is associated with many metabolic changes that lead to an increase of freezing tolerance. In order to investigate the biochemical process of cold acclimation in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, seedlings were acclimated at 2℃ under 16-h photoperiod (150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation) for 14 d. Freezing tolerance in seedlings increased after 14 d of cold-hardening. Contents of protein, proline and solute carbohydrate in cotyledon increased after cold acclimation. Patterns of isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. The activities of SOD, peroxidase and PPO in cold acclimated plants were increased during cold-hardening. We deduced that compatible solutes and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in development of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in this evergreen woody plant.

  5. Production of a novel cold-active lipase from Pichia lynferdii Y-7723.

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, In-Hwan; Hou, Ching T; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Shin, Beom-Soo

    2010-01-27

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, E.C. 3.1.1.3) is one of the most important enzymes applied to a broad range of industrial application fields. Especially, lipases with abnormal functionality such as thermostability and alkaline, acidic, and cold activities gain special attention because of their applicability in the restricted reaction conditions. In this study, 16 yeast strains prescreened for lipase induction were investigated for their actual lipase production, and we found a novel cold-active lipase produced from Pichia lynferdii Y-7723. The activity of lipase Y-7723 was retained by 74 and 70% at 20 and 10 degrees C, respectively, as compared to the maximum value at 35 degrees C. On the basis of an optimization study, the optimal lipase productivity was obtained at 96 h of incubation with 3% oil substrate in a medium composed of sucrose as a carbon source at pH 7.0. Among carbon sources tested, sucrose showed almost twice as high of a lipase production (184%) as the control, while the cell growth was similar (105%). Yeast extract and ammonium salts were effective as individual nitrogen sources for lipase production. This study demonstrated that the cold activity of lipase Y-7723 at 10 degrees C was highest among the cold-active lipases reported so far.

  6. Soluble proteins and polyphenoloxidase activity in bud flowers, flowers and leaves of cold stored lisianthus

    Cavasini, R.; Nunes, K.N.M.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of soluble protein present in lisianthus bud flowers, flowers and leaves in room temperature (24±2°C) and pre-exposure cold chamber at 9±2°C for 24 h, in order to examine a possible correlation between these ...

  7. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    In sifts activity of intestinal chymotrypsin in sugar-salted whole herring during cold storage was evaluated by analysing changes in the low-molecular-weight nitrogen fraction when a specific inhibitor was added. Addition of chymostatin (0.01 mM) to sugar-salted herring gave 100% inhibition...

  8. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my disse

  9. The mechano-activated K+ channels TRAAK and TREK-1 control both warm and cold perception.

    Noël, Jacques; Zimmermann, Katharina; Busserolles, Jérome; Deval, Emanuel; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Diochot, Sylvie; Guy, Nicolas; Borsotto, Marc; Reeh, Peter; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel

    2009-05-01

    The sensation of cold or heat depends on the activation of specific nerve endings in the skin. This involves heat- and cold-sensitive excitatory transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, we show here that the mechano-gated and highly temperature-sensitive potassium channels of the TREK/TRAAK family, which normally work as silencers of the excitatory channels, are also implicated. They are important for the definition of temperature thresholds and temperature ranges in which excitation of nociceptor takes place and for the intensity of excitation when it occurs. They are expressed with thermo-TRP channels in sensory neurons. TRAAK and TREK-1 channels control pain produced by mechanical stimulation and both heat and cold pain perception in mice. Expression of TRAAK alone or in association with TREK-1 controls heat responses of both capsaicin-sensitive and capsaicin-insensitive sensory neurons. Together TREK-1 and TRAAK channels are important regulators of nociceptor activation by cold, particularly in the nociceptor population that is not activated by menthol.

  10. Antioxidation and ATPase activity in the gill of mud crab Scylla serrata under cold stress

    KONG Xianghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2007-01-01

    Mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an important commercial crustacean in China. An experiment was designed to study the effect of cold stress on S. serrata. After a one-week adaptation at 28 ℃, the temperature is suddenly reduced to 4 ℃. The crabs were sampled every 2 h for 10 h and dissected immediately to measure the enzyme activity. The crabs at room temperature (28 ℃) were used as the control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of 4 ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase;Mg2+-ATPase; Ca2+-ATPase; Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase) were measured biochemically. In contrast to the control group, the SOD activity increased significantly from 2 to 6 h after the cold stress, and then decreased. The CAT and GPX activities increased in 2 h, and then decreased gradually. The content of MDA increased gradually in 4 h. The activity ofNa+, K+-ATPase decreased in 2 h, increased up to the top value at Hour 6,then decreased again. The activities of Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase increased significantly in 6 h, insignificantly in any other hours. Under cold stress, the activity of antioxidative enzymes in S. serrata was reduced at first then stabilized, ROS-scavenging weakened, and MDA accumulated gradually in the gill after 6 h. The activity of the 4 ATPases in the crab decreased after 6 h,suggesting that the ability to regulate ion concentration has been paralyzed. Therefore, the maximum period to sustain healthy meat in the crab under cold stress is 6 hours.

  11. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  12. Cold hardiness estimation of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis based on changes in ionic leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and other physiological activities under cold stress

    Peng Meng; Xuefeng Bai; Hongdan Li; Xiaodong Song; Xueli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis grows fast, and its drought and salinity resistance are better than Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We compared cold hardiness and mechanisms of cold hardiness between the two species, to provide a theoretical basis for promoting and applying P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis in cold regions. A cold stress experiment was carried out on 3-year-old plantlets of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mon-golica after hardening at five temperature regimes, 5,-10,-20, -40, and -60 ?C, respectively. Some indices of needle samples for both species were measured, such as relative conductivity (REL), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS), and stomata density. REL and MDA values of both species after hard-ening had the same trend of increasing, but the trend was opposite in Fv/Fm value with increasing cold stress. Com-pared with P. sylvestris var. mongolica, the P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had smaller increases in REL and MDA, and a smaller decline in Fv/Fm during cold stress. Com-pared to the control, REL growth of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica at -60 ?C were 0.41 and 0.60, and MDA growth was 29.94 mol g-1 FW and 47.80 mol g-1 FW, and Fv/Fm declines were 0.08 and 0.27. Half-lethal temperatures (LT50) calculated by logistic equation for P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica were -58.23 and -50.34 ?C, respectively. These data suggest that cold resistance of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis is stronger than that of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. Cold-resistance mechanisms of the two species differed. In response to cold stress, P. sylvestris var. mongolica had strong osmotic adjustment ability because of higher Pro and SS content, while P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis had strong antioxidant ability due to stronger CAT activity. Stomata density and diameter of P. densiflora var

  13. Update: cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2009-June 2014.

    Connor, Ricardford R

    2014-10-01

    From July 2013 through June 2014, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=719) was the highest of the past five cold seasons (2009-2014). The rate of cold injury among active component personnel was also the highest of the 5-year period. Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in each of the services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, younger than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Numbers of cases in the combat zone have decreased in the past 2 years, presumably as a result of declining numbers of personnel exposed and the changing nature of operations. The increase in numbers and the geographic distribution of cold injuries in the previous cold season are compatible with the unusual pattern of cold weather that marked Winter 2013-2014.

  14. Active stabilization of thin-wall structures under compressive loading

    Welham, Jared; Calius, Emilio P.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2003-08-01

    The active suppression of elastic buckling instability has the potential to significantly increase the effective strength of thin-wall structures. Despite all the interest in smart structures, the active suppression of buckling has received comparatively little attention. This paper addresses the effects of embedded actuation on the compression buckling strength of laminated composite plates through analysis and simulation. Numerical models are formulated that include the influence of essential features such as sensor uncertainty and noise, actuator saturation and control architecture on the buckling process. Silicon-based strain sensors and diffuse laser distance sensors are both considered for use in the detection of incipient buckling behavior due to their increased sensitivity. Actuation is provided by paired distributions of piezo-electric material incorporated into both sides of the laminate. Optimal controllers are designed to command the structure to deform in ways that interfere with the development of buckling mode shapes. Commercial software packages are used to solve the resulting non-linear equations, and some of the tradeoffs are enumerated. Overall, the results show that active buckling control can considerably enhance resistance to instability under compressive loads. These buckling load predictions demonstrate the viability of optimal control and piezo-electric actuation for implementing active buckling control. Due to the importance of early detection, the relative effectiveness of active buckling control is shown to be strongly dependent on the performance of the sensing scheme, as well as on the characteristics of the structure.

  15. Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Nobiletin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Ana G. Luque-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavonoid with a remarkable antiproliferative effect. In order to overcome its low aqueous solubility and chemical instability, the use of nanoparticles as carriers has been proposed. This study explores the possibility of binding nobiletin to chitosan nanoparticles, as well as to evaluate their antiproliferative activity. The association and loading efficiencies are 69.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The formation of an imine bond between chitosan amine groups and the carbonyl group of nobiletin, via Schiff-base, is proposed. Nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibit considerable inhibition (IC50=8 μg/mL of cancerous cells, revealing their great potential for applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Application of Active Flow Control Technique for Gust Load Alleviation

    XU Xiaoping; ZHU Xiaoping; ZHOU Zhou; FAN Ruijun

    2011-01-01

    A new gust load alleviation technique is presented in this paper based on active flow control.Numerical studies are conducted to investigate the beneficial effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil using arrays of jets during the gust process.Based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations,the grid-velocity method is introduced to simulate the gust influence,and dynamic response in vertical gust flow perturbation is investigated for the airfoil as well.An unsteady surface transpiration boundary condition is enforced over a user specified portion of the airfoil's surface to emulate the time dependent velocity boundary conditions.Firstly,after applying this method to simulate typical NACA0006 airfoil gust response to a step change in the angle of attack,it shows that the indicial responses of the airfoil make good agreement with the exact theoretical values and the calculated values in references.Furthermore,gust response characteristic for the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil is analyzed.Five kinds of flow control techniques are introduced as steady blowing,steady suction,unsteady blowing,unsteady suction and synthetic jets.The physical analysis of the influence on the effects of gust load alleviation is proposed to provide some guidelines for practice.Numerical results have indicated that active flow control technique,as a new technology of gust load alleviation,can affect and suppress the fluid disturbances caused by gust so as to achieve the purpose of gust load alleviation.

  17. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  18. Herbal Prescription, DSGOST, Prevents Cold-Induced RhoA Activation and Endothelin-1 Production in Endothelial Cells

    Sung-Gook Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal prescription, Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-tang (DSGOST, has long been used to treat Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, a biological mechanism by which DSGOST ameliorates RP is yet deciphered. In this study, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits cold-induced activation of RhoA, in both vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC and endothelial cells (EC, and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path for cold response on vessels. While cold induced RhoA activity in both cell types, DSGOST pretreatment prevented cold-induced RhoA activation. DSGOST inhibition of cold-induced RhoA activation further blocked α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation to the plasma membrane in VSMC. In addition, DSGOST inhibited endothelin-1-mediated RhoA activation and α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation in VSMC. Meanwhile, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced or RhoA-dependent phosphorylation of FAK, SRC, and ERK. Consistently, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced endothelin-1 expression in EC. Therefore, DSGOST prevents cold-induced RhoA in EC and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path between EC and VSMC. In conclusion, our data suggest that DSGOST is beneficial for treating RP-like syndrome.

  19. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    El Latifa Sri Suharto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and goat’s milk yogurt. The yogurt was stored in cold storage and evaluated the quality and antioxidant activity variables on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15th. The results showed that there were interaction (P<0.05 between types of yogurt and storage time on pH value and total lactic acid bacteria (LAB, but no interaction effect on viscosity. The types of yogurt significantly affected (P<0.05 aw, total titrable acid (TTA, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle and goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle were the best yogurt that contributed to a good quality and high antioxidant activity up to 15 d at cold storage.

  20. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  1. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...... famous Rosen type design back in the 1950s. After the discovered of new piezoelectric materials and new PT designs have been invented, the PT based power converters are in the area where they can outperform tradition electromagnetic based converters in certain applications. The performance of PTs can...

  2. Activated carbon load equalization of gas-phase toluene: effect of cycle length and fraction of time in loading

    William M. Moe; Kodi L. Collins; John D. Rhodes [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-08-01

    Fluctuating pollutant concentrations pose challenges in the design and operation of air pollution control devices such as biofilters. Effective load equalization could decrease or eliminate many of these difficulties. In research described here, experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of cycle length and fraction of time contaminants are supplied on the degree of load equalization achieved by passively operated granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Columns packed with bituminous coal based Calgon BPL 4 x 6 mesh GAC were subjected to a variety of cyclic loading conditions in which toluene was supplied at concentrations of 1000 or 250 ppmv during loading intervals, and uncontaminated air flowed through the columns during no-loading intervals. The fraction of time when toluene was supplied ranged from 1/2 to 1/6, and cycle lengths ranged from 6 to 48 h. Results demonstrate that passively operated GAC columns can temporarily accumulate contaminants during intervals of high influent concentration and desorb contaminants during intervals of no loading, resulting in appreciable load equalization without need for external regeneration by heating or other means. Greater load equalization was achieved as the fraction of time toluene was loaded decreased and as the cycle length decreased. A pore and surface diffusion model, able to predict the level of contaminant concentration attenuation in GAC columns with reasonable accuracy, was used to further explore the range of load equalization performance expected from columns of various packed bed depths. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    Barlas, Thanasis; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components of interest including the blades, main bearing and tower top, with no influence on fatigue loads and power performance. In addition, an individual flap controller for fatigue load reduction in above rated power conditions is also implemented and integrated in the general controller architecture. The system is shown to be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling, by combining extreme and fatigue load reduction.

  4. The cold adaptability of microorganisms with different carbon source in activated sludge treating synthetical wastewater.

    Niu, Chuan; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2012-11-01

    The cold adaptability of microorganisms with different carbon source under 5°C was studied in activated sludge for treating synthetical wastewater. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicated contents of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membrane at 5°C were 13.66% and 24.96% higher for glucose and sodium acetate source than that at 25°C. PLFA biomarkers showed more Gram-negative bacteria enriched than Gram-positive bacteria in low-temperature activated sludge. The Shannon-Wiener diversity analysis demonstrated glucose fed reactor in low temperature had lower PLFA diversity index (1.21-1.30) than that at 25°C and sodium acetate source was reverse (1.08-0.69). The 16S rRNA analysis manifested certain microbes were considerably suitable for existence under cold environment, most of which belong to Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    El Latifa Sri Suharto; Irma Isnafia Arief3); Epi Taufik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and ...

  6. Cold-active hydrolases producing bacteria from two different sub-glacial Himalayan lakes.

    Sahay, Harmesh; Babu, Bandamaravuri Kishore; Singh, Surendra; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2013-08-01

    Microorganisms, native to the cold environments have successfully acclimatized their physiological, metabolic, and biological features, exhibiting uniqueness in their enzymes, proteins, and membrane structures. These cold-active enzymes have immense biotechnological potential. The diversity of culturable bacteria in two different water lakes (the sub-glacial freshwater and the brackish) of Himalayas was analyzed using SYBR green staining and cultural methods. A total of 140 bacteria were isolated and were grouped as psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, and psychrotolerant organisms, based on their optimal temperature for growth. The amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes facilitated the grouping of these isolates into 96 genotypes at ≥85% polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the bacterial strains from both lakes belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (α, β, and γ) or Actinobacteria. Screening of the germplasm for the activity of different cold-active hydrolases such as protease, amylase, xylanase, and cellulase, revealed that about 16 isolates were positive, and exhibiting a wide range of stability at various temperature and pH. Our results suggest that the distinctly different ecosystems of sub-glacial freshwater and brackish water lakes have diverse groups of bacteria, which can be an excellent source of extracellular hydrolases with a wide range of thermal stability.

  7. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

  8. Active Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring: Preprint

    Jin, Xin

    2016-05-16

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques that estimate the electricity usage of individual appliances from power measurements taken at a limited number of locations in a building. One of the key challenges in NILM is having too much data without class labels yet being unable to label the data manually for cost or time constraints. This paper presents an active learning framework that helps existing NILM techniques to overcome this challenge. Active learning is an advanced machine learning method that interactively queries a user for the class label information. Unlike most existing NILM systems that heuristically request user inputs, the proposed method only needs minimally sufficient information from a user to build a compact and yet highly representative load signature library. Initial results indicate the proposed method can reduce the user inputs by up to 90% while still achieving similar disaggregation performance compared to a heuristic method. Thus, the proposed method can substantially reduce the burden on the user, improve the performance of a NILM system with limited user inputs, and overcome the key market barriers to the wide adoption of NILM technologies.

  9. Fatigue strength evaluation of self-piercing riveted cold rolled steel joints under mixed mode loading conditions

    KYUNG-MIN LEE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength of cross-shaped specimens of SPR joints made of SPCC was evaluated at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°. For the static strength at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, the maximum loads were determined to be 4890N, 1969N, and 1611N, respectively. Regarding for the relationship between the load amplitude and the number of cycles (Nf, the results were Pamp = 2209.3N−f 0.014 , = 8610.8 −0.199 Pamp N f , and = 3459.3 −0.149 Pamp N f for the load angle of 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. On the basis of the lifetime of 106 cycles, the load amplitudes which correspond to the fatigue limit for load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38%, 28%, and 29% of the static strength, respectively. The effective stress intensity factor was not found to be appropriate in the evaluation of the fatigue lifetime due to the different fatigue fracture behavior of these specimens.

  10. A novel cold-regulated cold shock domain containing protein from scallop Chlamys farreri with nucleic acid-binding activity.

    Chuanyan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cold shock domain (CSD containing proteins (CSDPs are one group of the evolutionarily conserved nucleic acid-binding proteins widely distributed in bacteria, plants, animals, and involved in various cellular processes, including adaptation to low temperature, cellular growth, nutrient stress and stationary phase. METHODOLOGY: The cDNA of a novel CSDP was cloned from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (designated as CfCSP by expressed sequence tag (EST analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE approach. The full length cDNA of CfCSP was of 1735 bp containing a 927 bp open reading frame which encoded an N-terminal CSD with conserved nucleic acids binding motif and a C-terminal domain with four Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG repeats. The CSD of CfCSP shared high homology with the CSDs from other CSDPs in vertebrate, invertebrate and bacteria. The mRNA transcripts of CfCSP were mainly detected in the tissue of adductor and also marginally detectable in gill, hepatopancreas, hemocytes, kidney, mantle and gonad of healthy scallop. The relative expression level of CfCSP was up-regulated significantly in adductor and hemocytes at 1 h and 24 h respectively after low temperature treatment (P<0.05. The recombinant CfCSP protein (rCfCSP could bind ssDNA and in vitro transcribed mRNA, but it could not bind dsDNA. BX04, a cold sensitive Escherichia coli CSP quadruple-deletion mutant, was used to examine the cold adaptation ability of CfCSP. After incubation at 17°C for 120 h, the strain of BX04 containing the vector pINIII showed growth defect and failed to form colonies, while strain containing pINIII-CSPA or pINIII-CfCSP grew vigorously, indicating that CfCSP shared a similar function with E. coli CSPs for the cold adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CfCSP is a novel eukaryotic cold-regulated nucleic acid-binding protein and may function as an RNA chaperone in vivo during the cold adaptation process.

  11. Evidence of active methanogen communities in shallow sediments of the sonora margin cold seeps.

    Vigneron, Adrien; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Godfroy, Anne; Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John; Toffin, Laurent

    2015-05-15

    In the Sonora Margin cold seep ecosystems (Gulf of California), sediments underlying microbial mats harbor high biogenic methane concentrations, fueling various microbial communities, such as abundant lineages of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). However, the biodiversity, distribution, and metabolism of the microorganisms producing this methane remain poorly understood. In this study, measurements of methanogenesis using radiolabeled dimethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate showed that biogenic methane production in these sediments was mainly dominated by methylotrophic methanogenesis, while the proportion of autotrophic methanogenesis increased with depth. Congruently, methane production and methanogenic Archaea were detected in culture enrichments amended with trimethylamine and bicarbonate. Analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and reverse-transcribed PCR-amplified 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from these enrichments revealed the presence of active methylotrophic Methanococcoides burtonii relatives and several new autotrophic Methanogenium lineages, confirming the cooccurrence of Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales methanogens with abundant ANME populations in the sediments of the Sonora Margin cold seeps.

  12. Dodecylamine-loaded halloysite nanocontainers for active anticorrosion coatings

    Jesus Marino Falcón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently the most promising approach in the corrosion protection by smart coatings is the use of nanoreservoirs loaded with corrosion inhibitors. Nanocontainers are filled with anti-corrosive agents and embedded into a primer coating. Future prospective containers are halloysite nanotubes due to their low price, availability, durability, with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The aim of this work is to study the use of halloysite nanotubes as nanocontainers for encapsulated dodecylamine for active corrosion protection of carbon steel. Halloysite clay was characterized by XRD and TGA- thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Halloysite nanotubes were loaded with dodecylamine and embedded into an alkyd primer with a weight ratio of 10 wt.% . The anticorrosive performance of the alkyd primer doped with 10 wt.% of entrapped-dodecylamine halloysite was tested on coated carbon steel by direct exposure of the coated samples with a provoked defect into 0.01 mol/L NaCl corrosive media using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET. EIS and SVET measurements showed the self-healing properties of the doped alkyd coating. Coated samples were also evaluated in a salt spray chamber and the self-healing effect was unequivocally noticed.

  13. Chest wall and trunk muscle activity during inspiratory loading.

    Cala, S J; Edyvean, J; Engel, L A

    1992-12-01

    We measured the electromyographic (EMG) activity in four chest wall and trunk (CWT) muscles, the erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and trapezius, together with the parasternal, in four normal subjects during graded inspiratory efforts against an occlusion in both upright and seated postures. We also measured CWT EMGs in six seated subjects during inspiratory resistive loading at high and low tidal volumes [1,280 +/- 80 (SE) and 920 +/- 60 ml, respectively]. With one exception, CWT EMG increased as a function of inspiratory pressure generated (Pmus) at all lung volumes in both postures, with no systematic difference in recruitment between CWT and parasternal muscles as a function of Pmus. At any given lung volume there was no consistent difference in CWT EMG at a given Pmus between the two postures (P > 0.09). However, at a given Pmus during both graded inspiratory efforts and inspiratory resistive loading, EMGs of all muscles increased with lung volume, with greater volume dependence in the upright posture (P < 0.02). The results suggest that during inspiratory efforts, CWT muscles contribute to the generation of inspiratory pressure. The CWT muscles may act as fixators opposing deflationary forces transmitted to the vertebral column by rib cage articulations, a function that may be less effective at high lung volumes if the direction of the muscular insertions is altered disadvantageously.

  14. Dodecylamine-loaded halloysite nanocontainers for active anticorrosion coatings

    Falcón, Jesus; Sawczen, Tiago; Aoki, Idalina

    2015-11-01

    Currently the most promising approach in the corrosion protection by smart coatings is the use of nanoreservoirs loaded with corrosion inhibitors. Nanocontainers are filled with anti-corrosive agents and embedded into a primer coating. Future prospective containers are halloysite nanotubes due to their low price, availability, durability, with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The aim of this work is to study the use of halloysite nanotubes as nanocontainers for encapsulated dodecylamine for active corrosion protection of carbon steel. Halloysite clay was characterized by XRD and TGA- thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Halloysite nanotubes were loaded with dodecylamine and embedded into an alkyd primer with a weight ratio of 10 wt.% . The anticorrosive performance of the alkyd primer doped with 10 wt.% of entrapped-dodecylamine halloysite was tested on coated carbon steel by direct exposure of the coated samples with a provoked defect into 0.01 mol/L NaCl corrosive media using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). EIS and SVET measurements showed the self-healing properties of the doped alkyd coating. Coated samples were also evaluated in a salt spray chamber and the self-healing effect was unequivocally noticed.

  15. Intracerebroventricular administration of leptin increase physical activity but has no effect on thermogenesis in cold-acclimated rats.

    Tang, Gang-Bin; Tang, Xiang-Fang; Li, Kui; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-08

    Most small homotherms display low leptin level in response to chronic cold exposure. Cold-induced hypoleptinemia was proved to induce hyperphagia. However, it is still not clear whether hypoleptinemia regulates energy expenditure in cold condition. We try to answer this question in chronic cold-acclimated rats. Results showed that 5-day intracerebroventricular(ICV) infusion of leptin (5 μg/day) had no effects on basal and adaptive thermogenesis and uncoupling protein 1 expression. Physical activity was increased by leptin treatment. We further determined whether ghrelin could reverse the increasing effect of leptin on physical activity. Coadministration of ghrelin (1.2 μg/day) completely reversed the effect of leptin on physical activity. Collectively, this study indicated the regulation of leptin on energy expenditure during cold acclimation may be mainly mediated by physical activity but not by thermogenesis. Our study outlined behavioral role of leptin during the adaptation to cold, which adds some new knowledge to promote our understanding of cold-induced metabolic adaptation.

  16. Load-Induced Confinement Activates Diamond Lubrication by Water

    Zilibotti, G.; Corni, S.; Righi, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tribochemical reactions are chemical processes, usually involving lubricant or environment molecules, activated at the interface between two solids in relative motion. They are difficult to be monitored in situ, which leaves a gap in the atomistic understanding required for their control. Here we report the real-time atomistic description of the tribochemical reactions occurring at the interface between two diamond films in relative motion, by means of large scale ab initio molecular dynamics. We show that the load-induced confinement is able to catalyze diamond passivation by water dissociative adsorption. Such passivation decreases the energy of the contacting surfaces and increases their electronic repulsion. At sufficiently high coverages, the latter prevents surface sealing, thus lowering friction. Our findings elucidate effects of the nanoscale confinement on reaction kinetics and surface thermodynamics, which are important for the design of new lubricants.

  17. Load alleviation potential of active flaps and individual pitch control in a full design load basis

    Barlas, Athanasios; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig;

    2015-01-01

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Basis (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF co...

  18. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression

    Miller, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    These slide sets describe the OCLA formulation and associated algorithms as a set of new technologies in the first practical application of load limiting flight control utilizing load feedback as a primary control measurement. Slide set one describes Experiment Development and slide set two describes Flight-Test Performance.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon.

    Montiel, R; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Langa, S; El Aouad, N; Arqués, J L; Reyes, F; Medina, M

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P579 was used for the production and purification of reuterin. The purity of reuterin was assessed by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After purification, reuterin concentration obtained was 1.3 M. The inhibitory activity using Escherichia coli K12 as indicator strain was estimated to be 510 AU/ml. Survival curves in tryptic soy broth revealed that reuterin required to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was in the range of 2-4 AU/ml. Purified reuterin (10 AU/g) significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon kept under moderate or strong temperature abuse conditions. After 15 d at 8 °C, cold-smoked salmon with added reuterin exhibited L. monocytogenes counts 2.0 log CFU/g lower than control smoked salmon with no reuterin added. At 30 °C, reuterin also controlled the growth of the pathogen, with counts 1.4 and 0.9 log CFU/g lower than those observed in control smoked salmon after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The addition of purified reuterin might be used as a hurdle technology to improve the safety and extend the shelf-life of lightly preserved seafood products such as cold-smoked salmon.

  20. Cold pressor test demonstrates residual sympathetic cardiovascular activation in familial dysautonomia.

    Hilz, M J; Axelrod, F B; Braeske, K; Stemper, B

    2002-04-15

    In familial dysautonomia (FD), i.e. Riley-Day-syndrome, sympathetic cardiovascular function, as well as afferent temperature and pain mediating neurons, are significantly reduced. Thus, it was questioned if cold pressor test (CPT), which normally enhances sympathetic outflow and induces peripheral vasoconstriction by the activation of thermo- and nociceptive system activation, could be used to assess sympathetic function in FD. To evaluate whether CPT can be used to assess sympathetic activation in FD, we performed CPT in 15 FD patients and 18 controls. After a 35-min resting period, participants immersed their right hand and arm up to the elbow into 0-1 degrees C cold water while we monitored heart rate (HR), respiration, beat-to-beat radial artery blood pressure (BP), and laser Doppler skin blood flow (SBF) at the right index finger pulp. From these measurements, heart rate variability parameters were calculated: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), coefficient of variation (CV), low and high frequency (LF, HF) power spectra of the electrocardiogram (ECG). All participants perceived cold stimulation and indicated discomfort. In controls, SBF decreased and HR and BP increased rapidly upon CPT. After 60 s, SBF indicated secondary vasodilatation in six controls, BP rise attenuated and HR returned to baseline in all controls. In the patients, SBF remained unchanged, HR and BP increased significantly, but after 50-60 s of CPT and changes were lower than in controls (p<0.05). RMSSD and CV decreased and LF increased significantly only in the controls. We conclude that CPT activates sympathetic HR and BP modulation despite impaired pain and temperature perception in FD patients. BP increase in the presence of almost unchanged SBF might be due to HR increase and to nociceptive arousal and emotionally induced catecholamine release as seen in emotional crises of FD patients. CPT assesses sympathetic cardiovascular responses independently from baroreflex

  1. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  2. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  3. Activation of Latent HIV Using Drug-loaded Nanoparticles

    Kovochich, Michael

    Antiretroviral therapy is currently only capable of controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, rather than completely eradicating virus from patients. This is due in part to the establishment of a latent virus reservoir in resting CD4+ T-cells, which persists even in the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is thought that forced activation of latently infected cells could induce virus production, allowing targeting of the cell by the immune response. A variety of molecules are able to stimulate HIV from latency. However, no tested purging strategy has proven capable of eliminating the infection completely or preventing viral rebound if therapy is stopped. Hence, novel latency activation approaches are required. Nanoparticles can offer several advantages over more traditional drug delivery methods, including improved drug solubility, stability, and the ability to simultaneously target multiple different molecules to particular cell or tissue types. Here we describe the development of a novel lipid nanoparticle with the protein kinase C activator bryostatin-2 incorporated (LNP-Bry). These particles can target, activate primary human CD4+ T-cells, and stimulate latent virus production from human T-cell lines in vitro and from latently infected cells in a humanized mouse model ex vivo. This activation was synergistically enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate. Furthermore, LNP-Bry can also be loaded with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (LNP-Bry-Nel), producing a particle capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. LNP-Bry was further tested for its in vivo biodistribution in both wild type mice (C57 black 6), as well as humanized mice (SCID-hu Thy/Liv, and bone marrow-liver-thymus [BLT]). LNP-Bry accumulated in the spleen and induced the early activation marker CD69 in wild type mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate the ability of nanotechnological approaches to

  4. Single-site substitutions improve cold activity and increase thermostability of the dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP).

    Zhao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Li-Ying; Liu, Gang; Feng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To engineer dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) variants to improve cold activity and increase thermostability so these variants are suitable for the leather processing industry. Based on previous studies with bacterial alkaline proteases, double-site mutations (W106K/V149I and W106K/M124L) were introduced into the DHAP from Bacillus pumilus. Compared with the wild-type DHAP hydrolytic activity, the double-site variant W106K/V149I showed an increase in specific hydrolytic activity at 15 °C by 2.3-fold toward casein in terms of hydrolytic rate and 2.7-fold toward the synthetic peptide AAPF-pN by means of kcat/Km value. The thermostability of the variant (W106K/V149I) was improved with the half-life at 60 and 70 °C increased by 2.7- and 5.0-fold, respectively, when compared with the thermostability of the wild-type DHAP. Conclusively, an increase in the cold activity and thermostability of a bacterial alkaline protease was achieved by protein engineering.

  5. Gene Profiling for Invertase Activity: Assessment of Potato Varieties for Resistance towards Cold Induced Sweetening

    Arfan Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato is the most important staple food in the world. Cold-induced sweetening occurs when potatoes are stored at low temperature for longer period of time. Due to non- enzymatic Millard reaction it causes unwanted changes in colour, taste and in flavor when fried and roasted at high temperature. However, long-term cold storage is mandatory to keep an adequate supply of potatoes throughout the year. The cause of cold-induced sweetening is invertase enzyme. Methods: Five potato varieties (Hermes (A Lady Rosetta (B Oscar (C Kuroda (D and Multa (E were investigated for invertase activity during two month cold storage at 4°C. Crude protein was extracted by PD Midi Trap G25 column technique. Quantification of mRNA expression was employed through QPCR. Determination of sucrose, reducing sugars and organic acids was simply done by 80% ethanol method and concentration were find out by using HPLC with already set standards. The correlation between invertase enzyme, sugar content and mRNA expression was calculated through Statistical methods. Results: Significant activity of invertase was observed at 4ºC with up to 6.3 nmol/min/mg of protein in the type-1 & 4 (cv. Hermes and Kuroda; 2.5 times less in type 2 (Rosetta and 3.5 times less in type 3 (Multa when compared with same at 4ºC. In addition, malic acid concentration was found positively correlated with invertase activity at 4ºC as compared with its concentration at harvesting time. However, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations were independent of invertase enzyme activity. The transcript level of invertase enzyme was found significantly high in potato tubers stored at 4ºC in result 1 & 4 type, less in result type 2(C and negligible in result 3(E potato variety when revealed through reverse transcription PCR. Conclusions: In conclusion, Oscar (C and Multa (E were found more resistant to CIS at 4ºC storage and may be used for future variety improvement programs for CIS resistant

  6. Hydrogen isotherms in palladium loaded carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    Martinez, M. T.; Anson, A.; Lafuente, E.; Urriolabeitia, E.; Navarro, R.; Benito, A. M.; Maser, W. K.

    2005-07-01

    Session 5a In order to increase the hydrogen sorption capacity of carbon materials, a sample of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the activated carbon MAXSORB have been loaded with palladium nanoparticles. While carbon materials adsorb hydrogen due to physical interactions, palladium can capture hydrogen into the bulk structure or chemically react to form hydrides. Experiental SWNTs have been synthesized in an electric arc reactor, using Ni and Y as catalysts in a 660 mbar He atmosphere. MAXSORB is a commercial activated carbon obtained from petroleum coke through a chemical treatment with KOH. Palladium has been deposited over the carbon support by means of a reflux method in a solution of an organometallic complex. Different samples have been prepared depending on the weight ratio (Carbon material / Pd) in the original reactants. The effectiveness of the deposition method has been examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), induction coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The volumetric system Autosorb-1 from Quantachrome Instruments has been used to obtain the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K for all the materials. The hydrogen isotherms at 77 K and room temperature and up to 800 torr have also been obtained in the Autosorb-1. The BET specific surface area and the micropore volume have been calculated from the nitrogen adsorption data. High pressure hydrogen isotherms up to 90 bar have been carried out at room temperature in a VTI system provided with a Rubotherm microbalance. (Author)

  7. Effect of matrine on Kupffer cell activation in cold ischemia reperfusion injury of rat liver

    Xin-Hua Zhu; Yu-Dong Qiu; Hao Shen; Ming-Ke Shi; Yi-Tao Ding

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of matrine on activation of Kupffer cell during cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).METHODS: 168 syngeneic SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: untreated group, small-dose treated group, large-dose treated group and sham operation group. After 5 hours of preservation in Ringer's (LR) solution, orthotopic implantation of the donor liver was performed. At 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 24 h after reperfusion of the portal vein, 6 rats were killed in each group to collect the serum and the liver for assay and pathology.RESULTS: Matrine markedly inhibited the activation of Kupffer cells and their release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF cytotoxicity level at 2 h decreased significantly by matrine treatment (7.94±0.42, 2.39±0.19 and 2.01±0.13 U/ml,respectively; P<0.01), so did the other three time points. The level of hylluronic acid (HA) and alanine transaminase (ALT) decreased significantly in both treated groups, and matrine treatment markedly ameliorated focal necrosis of hepatocytes, inflammatory cells aggregating, rounding and detachment of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). And no significant difference was observed between the treated groups.CONCLUSION: Matrine can inhibit the activation of Kupffer cell and prevent the donor liver from cold preservation and reperfusion injury in rat orthotopic liver transplantation.

  8. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    Cao, Huiluo

    2015-07-21

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  9. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea

    Huiluo eCao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of ammonia oxidizing archaea in different habitats (water versus sediment potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  10. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  11. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The parameters influencing the long term extreme operating design loads are identified through the implementation of a Design of Experiment (DOE) method. A function between the identified critical factors and the ultimate out-of-plane loads on the blade is determined. Variations in the initial bl...... for different values of the integral gain as resulting in rotor speed error and the rate of change of rotor speed. Based on the results a new load case for the simulation of extreme loads during normal operation is also presented....

  12. [Degradation of Acid Orange 7 with Persulfate Activated by Silver Loaded Granular Activated Carbon].

    Wang, Zhong-ming; Huang, Tian-yin; Chen, Jia-bin; Li, Wen-wei; Zhang, Li-ming

    2015-11-01

    Granular activated carbon with silver loaded as activator (Ag/GAC) was prepared using impregnation method. N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to characterize the Ag/GAC, showing that silver was successfully loaded on granular activated carbon. The oxidation degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) by the Ag/GAC activated by persulfate (PS) was investigated at ambient temperature. The influences of factors such as Ag loading, PS or Ag/GAC dosages and initial pH on the degradation of AO7 were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of AO7 could reach more than 95.0% after 180 min when the Ag loading content, PS/AO7 molar ratio, the Ag/GAC dosage were 12.7 mg x g(-1), 120: 1, 1.0 g x L(-1), respectively. The initial pH had significant effect on the AO7 degradation, with pH 5.0 as the optimal pH for the degradation of AO7. The possible degradation pathway was proposed for the AO7 degradation by using UV-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GG/MS). The azo bond and naphthalene ring in the AO7 were destroyed during the degradation, with phthalic acid and acetophenone as the main degradation products.

  13. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF COLD WATER EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM IN RATS

    Wanigasekara Daya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antinociceptive potential of cold water extract (CWE of Desmodium triflorum (Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae plant. One of four doses of CWE (dose 4000 mg/ml, 2000 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml or 1 ml tap water was orally administered to male wistar rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using tail flik and hot plate techniques. The results showed that CWE possessed marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate test but not in the tail flick test. Antinociceptive action was dose-dependent. Further, it had a rapid onset (1h and a short duration (3h of action. The CWE was safe and was not accompanied with side effects even after sub chronic administration. The antinociception action was mediated by supraspinal mechanisms, possibly via alkaloids and flavonoids. It is concluded that CWE of D. triflorum may be used as a cheap, orally active safe antinociceptive drug.

  14. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Experiment Development

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads. The subject of this paper is the design of the optimal control architecture, and provides the reader with some techniques for tailoring the architecture, along with detailed simulation results.

  15. MOLECULAR MODELING AND DOCKING STUDIES OF COLD ACTIVE LIPASE FROM Pseudomonas fluorescens

    G. N. Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Modeling is essential tool in the drug design process describes the generation, manipulation or representation of 3D structures of the molecules and associated physico-chemical properties while docking predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex. A cold active lipase producing potential psychrophilic bacteria (GN was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA molecular studies as Pseudomonas vancouverensis. Lipase gene from closely related species P. fluorescens was investigated for their functional role and in silico characterization using molecular modeling and docking studies. A 3D structure of lipase gene was generated with SWISS-MODEL and Discovery Studio 3.0. The stereochemistry of the constructed model of cold active lipase was subjected to energy minimization and the stereo-chemical quality of the predicted structure was assessed. The superimposition of the template (PDBID: 2Z8X with predicted structure showed that weighted root mean square deviation of Cα trace between the template and the final refined model was 0.2 Å with a significant Zscore of 8.2 and sequence identity was 80.5%. Three ligands P-Nitrophenol, Acetate ion and Diethyl phosphonate were taken for docking calculation with generated structure. They were interacting on the functional motifs of predicted model. It has been observed that Leu26, Tyr29, Asn31, Asp33, Pro315 and Thr316 residues were involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with selected ligands. So these interacted residues can be used as prominent active binding sites and which was common to the predicted active site. Based on above investigations it has been found that P. vancouverensis lipase protein can play a similar role in lipid metabolic process and triglyceride lipase functional activity as reported for P. fluorescens lipase protein.

  16. Trunk muscle activation and low back loading in lifting in the absence of load knowledge

    Looze, M.P. de; Steenhuizen, S.; Boeken-Kruger, M.C.; Baten, C.T.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    People who know the actual mass of an object to be lifted normally prepare themselves before attempting a lift to control the movement and to minimize low back loading. In this study, the trunk muscular reactions and low back torque were investigated in the situation in which the individual did not

  17. Variability in cold front activities modulating cool-season evaporation from a southern inland water in the USA

    Liu, Heping; Blanken, Peter D.; Weidinger, Tamas; Nordbo, Annika; Vesala, Timo

    2011-04-01

    Understanding seasonal variations in the evaporation of inland waters (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) is important for water resource management as well as the prediction of the hydrological cycles in response to climate change. We analyzed eddy covariance-based evaporation measurements from the Ross Barnett Reservoir (32°26'N, 90°02'W which is always ice-free) in central Mississippi during the cool months (i.e., September-March) of 2007 and 2008, and found that the variability in cold front activities (i.e., passages of cold fronts and cold/dry air masses behind cold fronts) played an important role in modulating the exchange of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes. Our analysis showed that 2007's warmer cool season had smaller mean H and λE than 2008's cooler cool season. This implies that the warmer cool season did not accelerate evaporation and heat exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. Instead, more frequent cold fronts and longer periods of cold/dry air masses behind the cold fronts in 2008 resulted in overall larger H and λE as compared with 2007, this primarily taking the form of sporadic short-term rapid 'pulses' of H and λE losses from the water's surface. These results suggest that future climate-induced changes in frequency of cold fronts and the meteorological properties of the air masses behind cold fronts (e.g., wind speeds, temperature, and humidity), rather than other factors of climate change, would produce significant variations in the water surface's energy fluxes and subsequent evaporation rates.

  18. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: II. Application in bio-based plastics for active packaging.

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of using eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as antioxidants for active bio-based packaging material. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated into thermoplastic flour (TPF) - a model bio-based plastic - through an extrusion process at temperatures above 150°C. The influences of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on crystallinity, morphology, thermal properties, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, tensile properties and barrier properties of TPF were investigated. Although the incorporation of 3% (w/w) of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the extensibility and the oxygen barrier property of TPF, it provided antioxidant activity and improved the water vapor barrier property. In addition, TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited superior radical scavenging activity and stronger reducing power compared with TPF containing naked eugenol. The results suggest the applicability of TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an antioxidant active packaging material.

  19. Optimization of culture conditions for production of a novel cold-active lipase from Pichia lynferdii NRRL Y-7723.

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Bae, Jae-Han; Hou, Ching T; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2013-01-30

    Lipases with abnormal properties such as thermostability, alkalinity, acidity, and cold activity receive industrial attention because of their usability under restricted reaction conditions. Most microbial cold-active lipases originate from psychrotrophic and psychrophilic microorganisms found in Antarctic regions, which has led to difficulties in the practical production of cold-active lipase. Recently, a mesophilic yeast, Pichia lynferdii NRRL Y-7723, was reported to produce a novel cold-active lipase. This study focused on optimization of environmental factors, while giving particular attention to the relationships between given factors and incubation time, to maximize the production of a novel cold-active lipase from P. lynferdii NRRL Y-7723. Maximum lipase production was highly dependent on the incubation time at a given environmental factor. Lipase production varied with incubation time at a given temperature, and 20 °C was selected as the optimum temperature for lipase production. Fructose was selected as the best carbon source, and maximum lipase production was obtained when it was present at 0.7% (w/v). Yeast extract was an efficient organic nitrogen source, with maximum lipase production occurring at 0.9% (w/v). Specifically, at the optimum yeast extract level the lipase production was >10 times higher than the productivity under standard conditions. All natural oils tested showed lipase production, but their maximum productivities varied according to incubation time and oil species.

  20. Chemical stability of a cold-active cellulase with high tolerance toward surfactants and chaotropic agent

    Thaís V. Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CelE1 is a cold-active endo-acting glucanase with high activity at a broad temperature range and under alkaline conditions. Here, we examined the effects of pH on the secondary and tertiary structures, net charge, and activity of CelE1. Although variation in pH showed a small effect in the enzyme structure, the activity was highly influenced at acidic conditions, while reached the optimum activity at pH 8. Furthermore, to estimate whether CelE1 could be used as detergent additives, CelE1 activity was evaluated in the presence of surfactants. Ionic and nonionic surfactants were not able to reduce CelE1 activity significantly. Therefore, CelE1 was found to be promising candidate for use as detergent additives. Finally, we reported a thermodynamic analysis based on the structural stability and the chemical unfolding/refolding process of CelE1. The results indicated that the chemical unfolding proceeds as a reversible two-state process. These data can be useful for biotechnological applications.

  1. Cold-induced precipitation of a monoclonal IgM: a negative activation enthalpy reaction.

    Meliga, Stefano C; Farrugia, William; Ramsland, Paul A; Falconer, Robert J

    2013-01-17

    Cold-induced precipitation of a monoclonal IgM cryoglobulin isolated from a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia was observed to have a negative activation enthalpy. The rate of the reaction increased, as the temperature decreased. Differential scanning calorimetry of the monoclonal IgM showed precipitation as an inverted peak during a downward temperature scan. The transition temperature was between 14 and 15 °C and was possibly concentration dependent. At temperatures below the transition the precipitation was best described by second-order kinetics. The difference in change in enthalpy between precipitation and disassociation suggests that cold-induced precipitation had a fast precipitation stage followed by a slower consolidation reaction. Negligible curvature of the Eyring plot suggested the precipitation reaction was dominated by van der Waal forces and hydrogen bonding. Conversely, during an upward temperature scan, disassociation was observed as a positive enthalpy peak. This reaction had two stages, a reaction undoing consolidation followed by heat-induced disassociation that had first-order kinetics.

  2. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  3. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  5. Mechanisms for the formation of Northeast China cold vortex and its activities and impacts: An overview

    Lian, Yi; Shen, Baizhu; Li, Shangfeng; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    In the mid 20th century, great efforts were made to investigate the formation process of high-latitude cold vortex, which is regarded as a major weather system in the atmospheric circulation. In the late 1970s, Chinese researchers noticed that the Northeast China cold vortex (NECV) is an active and frequently occurring weather system over Northeast Asia, which is generated under specific conditions of topography and land-sea thermal contrast on the local and regional scales. Thereby, the NECV study was broadened to include synoptic situations, mesoscale and dynamic features, the heavy rain process, etc. Since the 21st century, in the context of the global warming, more attention has been paid to studies of the mechanisms that cause the NECV variations during spring and early summer as well as the climatic impacts of the NECV system. Note that the NECV activity, frequent or not, not only affects local temperature and precipitation anomalies, but also regulates the amount of precipitation over northern China, the Huai River basin, and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The NECV influence can even reach the Guangdong-Guangxi region. However, compared to the achievements for the blocking system study, theoretical studies with regard to the NECV system are still insufficient. Research activities regarding the mechanisms for the NECV formation, particularly theoretical studies using linear or weak nonlinear methods need to be strengthened in the future. Meanwhile, great efforts should be made to deepen our understanding of the relations of the NECV system to the oceanic thermal forcing, the low-frequency atmospheric variations over mid-high latitudes, and the global warming.

  6. Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin Increases the Cholesterol Content of Goat Sperm to Improve Cold and Osmotic Resistance and Maintain Sperm Function after Cryopreservation.

    Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2016-04-01

    The success of semen cryopreservation depends on sperm membrane integrity and function after thawing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is used for in vitro incorporation of cholesterol to protect cells against cold temperatures. We hypothesized that CLC treatment also enhances sperm cholesterol content to increase tolerance to osmotic shock and cryoresistance, thereby improving fertility. We confirmed the fact that treatment of goat semen with 3 mg/ml CLC increases sperm cholesterol content using both the Liebermann-Burchard approach and filipin III labeling of membrane cholesterol. Sperm were then treated with or without CLC and cryopreserved. After thawing, sperm cholesterol dramatically fell, even in the presence of CLC, which explains the mechanism of cryocapacitation. CLC treatment, however, maintained a normal prefreeze cholesterol level in sperm after cryopreservation. Furthermore, fresh sperm treated with CLC and subjected to either cold shock or incubated in hypo-, iso-, and hyperosmotic media, designed to mimic stresses associated with freezing/thawing, displayed increased temperature and osmotic tolerance. CLC treatment also improved sperm viability, motility, and acrosome integrity after thawing. Furthermore, CLC treatment did not affect the sperm's ability to undergo in vitro capacitation according to chlortetracycline fluorescence and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A pilot field trial demonstrated that artificial insemination with sperm that underwent increased cholesterol levels following CLC treatment yielded higher fertility ( ITALIC! P< 0.1) and proliferation ( ITALIC! P< 0.05) rates in vivo than untreated semen from the same ejaculate samples. These observations suggest that CLC treatment could be used to improve cryoprotection during the freezing and thawing of goat sperm.

  7. The effect of active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery on subsequent knee extension and flexion strength

    Barbora Strejcová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recovery is an important aspect of every physical activity. Many athletes train hard without giving their body time to recover which can lead to overreaching, burnout or poor performance. Currently cold-water immersion recovery and active recovery have emerged as some of the most popular interventions enabling faster recovery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of three kinds of recovery (active recovery, cold water immersion, passive recovery on medium-term knee strength in the extension and flexion. METHODS: Fourteen athletes at the age of 26.6 ± 4.4 years performed, in a random cross-over design, 3 sessions with 3 repeated medium-term isokinetic tests. The effect of active recovery, passive rest and cold water immersion were assessed by 3 × 3 (time × recovery repeated-measure ANOVA, respectively. The dependent variables were – peak torque, total work and average power. RESULTS: We found significantly lower absolute differences between the first and third trial in knee extension for peak torque after the active recovery (↑ 0.9 N × m than after the cold water immersion (↓ 14.6 N × m or the passive recovery (↓ 13.9 N × m. The decrease of the average power was significantly lower differences after the active recovery (↓ 5 W than after the cold water immersion (↓ 23.7 W or passive recovery (↓ 25.9 W. The changes in total work were not significant. We did not found any changes in the isokinetic strength for the knee flexors after different kinds of recovery. Maximal heart rate (HRmax was significantly higher during the active recovery than during the cold water immersion and the passive recovery (173 ± 14, 166 ± 14 and 167 ± 14 rpm. We have found significant differences in the average heart rates (HRavg during active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery (124 ± 8, 97 ± 9 and 107 ± 12 rpm. CONCLUSION: We found the positive effect of the active recovery on the subsequent medium-term performance for

  8. Activation of Spinal α2-Adrenoceptors Using Diluted Bee Venom Stimulation Reduces Cold Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold allodynia is an important distinctive feature of neuropathic pain. The present study examined whether single or repetitive treatment of diluted bee venom (DBV reduced cold allodynia in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI rats and whether these effects were mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors. Single injection of DBV (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg was performed into Zusanli acupoint 2 weeks post CCI, and repetitive DBV (0.25 mg/kg was injected for 2 weeks beginning on day 15 after CCI surgery. Single treatment of DBV at a low dose (0.25 mg/kg did not produce any anticold allodynic effect, while a high dose of DBV (2.5 mg/kg significantly reduced cold allodynia. Moreover, this effect of high-dose DBV was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist or propranolol (nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, coadministration of low-dose DBV (0.25 mg/kg and intrathecal clonidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonist synergically reduced cold allodynia. On the other hand, repetitive treatments of low-dose DBV showing no motor deficit remarkably suppressed cold allodynia from 7 days after DBV treatment. This effect was also reversed by intrathecal idazoxan injection. These findings demonstrated that single or repetitive stimulation of DBV could alleviate CCI-induced cold allodynia via activation of spinal α2-adrenoceptor.

  9. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Ongoing activities and selected key tasks for the coming years

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-09-01

    Projected climate change in cold environments is expected to alter melt-season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. In addition, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. The combined effects of these changes will alter surface environments in cold climate regions and change the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of data, coordinated process monitoring and coordinated quantitative analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment are acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme has been formed to address this key knowledge gap and builds on the earlier European Science Foundation (ESF) SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink-Fluxes in Cold Environments) Network. Coordinated efforts are carried out to monitor, quantify, compare and model sedimentary fluxes and possible effects of predicted climate change in currently 44 selected SEDIBUD Key Test Sites (cold climate environment catchments) worldwide.

  10. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.;

    2015-01-01

    and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P aerobic exercise caused......). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... at the dominant arm and leg before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after conditioning and exercise as well as before and after rest. PPTs were also recorded during conditioning. RESULTS: At baseline, PPTs in inactive men were increased compared with inactive women (P 

  11. Loading and reflexes : the influence of body weight and active movements on reflex responses in humans

    Bastiaanse, Catharina Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes six studies on the influence of active movements and body loading on reflex responses. To measure those influences healthy subjects were asked to walk with different loadings (e.g. a backpack) or with different active movements (e.g. arm swing) while different reflex responses

  12. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  13. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  14. Cold Adaptation, Ca2+ Dependency and Autolytic Stability Are Related Features in a Highly Active Cold-Adapted Trypsin Resistant to Autoproteolysis Engineered for Biotechnological Applications

    Olivera-Nappa, Alvaro; Reyes, Fernando; Andrews, Barbara A.; Asenjo, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done. PMID:23951314

  15. A gene encoding a new cold-active lipase from an Antarctic isolate of Penicillium expansum.

    Mohammed, Suja; Te'o, Junior; Nevalainen, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Cold-active lipases are of significant interest as biocatalysts in industrial processes. We have identified a lipase that displayed activity towards long carbon-chain-p-nitrophenyl substrates (C12-C18) at 25 °C from the culture supernatant of an Antarctic Penicillium expansum strain assigned P. expansum SM3. Zymography revealed a protein band of around 30 kDa with activity towards olive oil. DNA fragments of a lipase gene designated as lipPE were isolated from the genomic DNA of P. expansum SM3 by genomic walking PCR. Subsequently, the complete genomic lipPE gene was amplified using gene-specific primers designed from the 5'- and 3'-regions. Reverse transcription PCR was used to amplify the lipPE cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 285 residues that included a predicted signal peptide. Three peptides identified by LC/MS/MS analysis of the proteins in the culture supernatant of P. expansum were also present in the deduced amino acid sequence of the lipPE gene suggesting that this gene encoded the lipase identified by initial zymogram activity analysis. Full analysis of the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the lipPE gene encodes a novel P. expansum lipase. The lipPE gene was expressed in E. coli for further characterization of the enzyme with a view of assessing its suitability for industrial applications.

  16. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes.

  17. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  18. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Induces Period-Doubling Cascades and Chaos in a Cold Thermoreceptor Model

    Xu, Kesheng; Maidana, Jean P.; Caviedes, Mauricio; Quero, Daniel; Aguirre, Pablo; Orio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion. Depending on the parameters, this model can generate a variety of firing patterns that includes bursting, regular tonic and polymodal firing. Here we show that the transitions between different firing patterns are often accompanied by a range of chaotic firing, as suggested by an irregular, non-periodic firing pattern. To confirm this, we measure the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the voltage trajectories, and the Lyapunov exponent and Lempel-Ziv's complexity of the ISI time series. The four-variable slow system (without spiking) also generates chaotic behavior, and bifurcation analysis shows that this is often originated by period doubling cascades. Either with or without spikes, chaos is no longer generated when the Ih is removed from the system. As the model is biologically plausible with biophysically meaningful parameters, we propose it as a useful tool to understand chaotic dynamics in neurons. PMID:28344550

  19. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  20. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  1. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  2. Field measurement of dermal soil loading attributable to various activities: implications for exposure assessment.

    Kissel, J C; Richter, K Y; Fenske, R A

    1996-02-01

    Estimates of soil adherence to skin are required for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in soils. Previously available estimates depend heavily on indirect measurements and/or artificial activities and reflect sampling of hands only. Results are presented here from direct measurement of soil loading on skin surfaces of volunteers before and after normal occupational and recreational activities that might reasonably be expected to lead to soil contact. Skin surfaces assayed included hands, forearms, lower legs, faces and/or feet. Observed hand loadings vary over five orders of magnitude (roughly from 10(-3) to 10(2) mg/cm2) and are dependent upon type of activity. Hand loadings within the current default range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/cm2 were produced by activities providing opportunity for relatively vigorous soil contact (rugby, farming). Loadings less than 0.2 mg/cm2 were found on hands following activities presenting less opportunity for direct soil contact (soccer, professional grounds maintenance) and on other body parts under many conditions. The default range does not, however, represent a worst case. Children playing in mud on the shore of a lake generated geometric mean loadings well in excess of 1 mg/cm2 on hands, arms, legs, and feet. Post-activity average loadings on hands were typically higher than average loadings on other body parts resulting from the same activity. Hand data from limited activities cannot, however, be used to conservatively predict loadings that might occur on other body surfaces without regard to activity since non-hand loadings attributable to higher contact activities exceeded hand loadings resulting from lower contact activities. Differences between pre- and post-activity loadings also demonstrate that dermal contact with soil is episodic. Typical background (pre-activity) geometric mean loadings appear to be on the order of 10(-2) mg/cm2 or less. Because exposures are activity dependent, quantification of dermal exposure

  3. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation.

  4. Influence of Pretreatment on Cold Water Solubility and Esterification Activity of Starch

    Jiaying Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve the Cold Water Solubility (CWS and esterification activity of Native corn Starch (NS by pretreatment NS using NaOH/urea aqueous solution. The influence of pretreatment on granule shape and crystal structure of corn starch was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. It has been found that the average particle size of Pretreatment corn Starch (PS decreased to nanometer level, smaller than those of NS (4-15 μm. XRD revealed that crystalline pattern of PS was VH-type, which was different from that of NS (A-type. The maximum CWS of PS was 96.77%, while the NS was only 0.3%. NS and PS were esterified with oleic acid catalyzed by lipase under the same conditions respectively. The effects of the pretreatment on esterification activity of the corn starches were investigated by analyzing the Degrees of Substitutions (DS of the esterification products. The maximum DS of pretreatment starch oleate was 0.229, while the DS of native starch oleate was very low and even could not be detected.

  5. Cold dynamic compaction of pre-alloyed titanium and activated sintering

    Raybould, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of dynamic compaction has been found to allow the cold consolidation of Ti-6Al-4V to densities of 99% T.D. Although full interparticle welding was not attained, bonding was found to occur during a low temperature sintering operation; below the ..beta.. transition. The high strengths and toughness values thus obtained are due to an activation of the sintering operation caused by the removal of surface oxide and good metal to metal bonds formed during dynamic compaction, when extensive local shearing of the particles surface occurs. This activation of sintering allows a control of microstructure and in particular, avoidance of embrittling phases. During compaction the passage of the shock wave results in the formation of a shocked structure. Spherical powders usually compact dynamically to characteristic shapes. The shock hardening allows the particle through which the shock has passed to deform the subsequent particle it impacts. This is rarely observed with the titanium alloy, indicating the low shock hardening or high initial hardness of the powders. Areas of interparticle melting were observed, but appeared to be the melting of a third particle rather than melting and bonding between particles.

  6. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  7. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing with and without inspiratory and expiratory loads in healthy subjects.

    Mesquita Montes, António; Baptista, João; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Santos, Rita; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System modulates the motor activities of all trunk muscles to concurrently regulate the intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. The study aims to evaluate the effect of inspiratory and expiratory loads on abdominal muscle activity during breathing in healthy subjects. Twenty-three higher education students (21.09±1.56years; 8males) breathed at a same rhythm (inspiration: two seconds; expiration: four seconds) without load and with 10% of the maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures, in standing. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique muscles, during inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly lower with inspiratory load when compared to without load (p=0.009) and expiratory load (p=0.002). During expiration, the activation intensity of all abdominal muscles was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to without load (pmuscle to modulate the intra-abdominal pressure for the breathing mechanics.

  8. Further studies on the numerical simulation of bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region

    LI Canping; GOU Limin; YOU Jiachun; LIU Xuewei; OU Chuling

    2016-01-01

    Using the occurrence characteristics of bubble plumes in the South China Sea as a reference, this paper continues to study the seismic responses produced by bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region. To make the plume modelling scheme more reasonable, we modified the original modelling scheme and reconstructed a plume water body model based on the variation of its radius as bubbles rise in seawater. The plume seismic records of shot gathers were obtained by forward simulation. The seismic records of single shot show obvious characteristics of a scattering wave field and the periodic characteristics of the model. Seismic records of shot gathers were processed using prestack depth migration. The boundary of its imaging section has a good convergence effect. The migration sections can be imaged distinctly with higher accuracy. The aforementioned studies once again laid a foundation for the further study of the seismic responses produced by plumes. They also gradually probed a more suitable seismic data processing method for plumes and provided a theoretical guidance for the identification of plumes.

  9. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    Nicole A. Vander Schaaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  10. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR...

  11. Cold Urticaria

    Diseases and Conditions Cold urticaria By Mayo Clinic Staff Cold urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) is a skin reaction to cold. Skin that has ... in contact with cold develops reddish, itchy welts (hives). The severity of cold urticaria symptoms varies widely. ...

  12. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Systematic functional analysis and application of a cold-active serine protease from a novel Chryseobacterium sp.

    Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Subramanian, Parthiban; Chandrasekaran, Suganthi; Karthikeyan, Sivashanmugam; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan

    2017-02-15

    Psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from natural and artificially cold environments were screened for synthesis of cold-active protease. The strain IMDY showing the highest protease production at 5°C was selected and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IMDY as novel bacterium with Chryseobacterium soli(T) as its nearest neighbor. Classical optimization enhanced the protease production from 18U/mg to 26U/mg and the enzyme was found to be active at low temperature, activity enhanced by CaCl2, inhibited by PMSF, stable against NaCl, and its activity retained in the presence of surfactants, organic solvents and detergents. On testing, the meat tenderization, myofibril fragmentation, pH, and TBA values were favorable in IMDY-protease treated meat compared to control. SDS profiling and SEM analysis also showed tenderization in meat samples. Hence, this study proposes to consider the cold-active protease from Chryseobacterium sp. IMDY as a pertinent candidate to develop potential applications in food processing industry.

  14. Cold Stress

    ... CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Cold Stress Cold Related Illnesses Cold Water Immersion Recommendations Resources Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the Heat Read " Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the ...

  15. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  16. Amygdala activation to threat under attentional load in individuals with anxiety disorder

    Straube Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that strong attentional distraction prevents the amygdala from responding to threat stimuli. Here, we investigated the effects of attentional load on amygdala activation to threat-related stimuli in individuals suffering from an anxiety disorder. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, spider-phobicand healthy control subjects were presented with phobia-related and neutral stimuli while performing a distraction task with varying perceptual load (high vs low. Results Our data revealed a pattern of simultaneously increased amygdala and visual cortical activation to threat vs neutral pictures in phobic individuals, compared with controls, occurring regardless of attentional load. Conclusions These results suggest that, in contrast to studies in healthy subjects, amygdala activation to clinically relevant threat stimuli is more resistant to attentional load.

  17. Response of Global Lightning Activity Observed by the TRMM/LIS During Warm and Cold ENSO Phases

    Chronis, Themis G.; Cecil, Dan; Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the response of global lightning activity to the transition from the warm (January February March-JFM 1998) to the cold (JFM 1999) ENSO phase. The nine-year global lightning climatology for these months from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) provides the observational baseline. Flash rate density is computed on a 5.0x5.0 degree lat/lon grid within the LIS coverage area (between approx.37.5 N and S) for each three month period. The flash rate density anomalies from this climatology are examined for these months in 1998 and 1999. The observed lightning anomalies spatially match the documented general circulation features that accompany the warm and cold ENSO events. During the warm ENSO phase the dominant positive lightning anomalies are located mostly over the Western Hemisphere and more specifically over Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and Northern Mid-Atlantic. We further investigate specifically the Northern Mid-Atlantic related anomaly features since these show strong relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Furthermore these observed anomaly patterns show strong spatial agreement with anomalous upper level (200 mb) cold core cyclonic circulations. Positive sea surface temperature anomalies during the warm ENSO phase also affect the lightning activity, but this is mostly observed near coastal environments. Over the open tropical oceans, there is climatologically less lightning and the anomalies are less pronounced. Warm ENSO related anomalies over the Eastern Hemisphere are most prominent over the South China coast. The transition to the cold ENSO phase illustrates the detected lightning anomalies to be more pronounced over East and West Pacific. A comparison of total global lightning between warm and cold ENSO phase reveals no significant difference, although prominent regional anomalies are located over mostly oceanic environments. All three tropical "chimneys" (Maritime Continent, Central

  18. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  19. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  20. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    Xianjun Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1 Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2 Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3 Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources.

  1. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources. PMID:28191021

  2. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  3. Total lactate dehydrogenase activity of tail muscle is not cold-adapted in nocturnal lizards from cool-temperate habitats.

    Hare, K M; Miller, J H; Clark, A G; Daugherty, C H

    2005-12-01

    The dependence of metabolic processes on temperature constrains the behavior, physiology and ecology of many ectothermic animals. The evolution of nocturnality in lizards, especially in temperate regions, requires adaptations for activity at low temperatures when optimal body temperatures are unlikely to be obtained. We examined whether nocturnal lizards have cold-adapted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH was chosen as a representative metabolic enzyme. We measured LDH activity of tail muscle in six lizard species (n=123: three nocturnal, two diurnal and one crepuscular) between 5 and 35 degrees C and found no differences in LDH-specific activity or thermal sensitivity among the species. Similarly, the specific activity and thermal sensitivity of LDH were similar between skinks and geckos. Similar enzyme activities among nocturnal and diurnal lizards indicate that there is no selection of temperature specific LDH enzyme activity at any temperature. As many nocturnal lizards actively thermoregulate during the day, LDH may be adapted for a broad range of temperatures rather than adapted specifically for the low temperatures encountered when the animals are active. The total activity of LDH in tropical and temperate lizards is not cold-adapted. More data are required on biochemical adaptations and whole animal thermal preferences before trends can be established.

  4. Cold activation of serum complement in patients with chronic hepatitis C: study on activating pathway and involvement of IgG.

    Ishii Y

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that the serum complement activities measured by hemolytic assay (CH50 are decreased after storage of sera at a low temperature in some patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been identified yet. Here, we tried to elucidate factors involved in the cold activation of complement (CAC. To clarify what pathway is activated in CAC, we measured complement cleavage products after cold storage of sera. C4d increased significantly after 12 h-storage at cold temperatures in 5 CAC (+ sera compared with 5 CAC (- (P < 0.01 and 3 control sera (P < 0.05, while Bb did not increase in any of the groups. In order to determine whether IgG or IgG complex is necessary for CAC, 8 CAC (+ sera were incubated with Protein G Sepharose gel beads, and all of them retained hemolytic activities to some extent after cold storage. Column chromatography through Superose 6HR of CAC-positive serum identified the fractions containing molecules that induced CAC in normal serum, which were depleted by treatment with protein G Sepharose. In conclusion, CAC in hepatitis C seems to occur via a classical or lectin pathway, and the IgG complex produced in hepatitis C virus infection may be an important factor in inducing CAC, a common extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C.

  5. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  6. Electrolytic treatment of mercury-loaded activated carbon from a gas cleaning system

    Sobral; Santos; Barbosa

    2000-10-16

    This study aimed at extracting the adsorbed mercury from the mercury-loaded activated carbon so as to recycling both, the elemental mercury and the carbon, after being reactivated. The process used in this study was the electro-oxidation of the mercury in a reaction system where the loaded carbon is acting as an anode, during the electrolysis of brine, the electrolyte of the cell.

  7. The antifungal activity of corona treated polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with silver nanoparticles

    Saponjic, Z.; Ilic, V.; Vodnik, V.; Mihailovic, D.; Jovancic, P.; Nedeljkovic, J.; Radetic, M.

    2008-07-01

    This study is aimed to highlight the possibility of using the corona treatment for fiber surface activation that can facilitate the loading of silver nanoparticles from colloids onto the polyester and polyamide fabrics and thus enhance their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Additionally, the laundering durability of achieved effects was studied. Corona activated polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with silver nanoparticles showed better antifungal properties compared to untreated fabrics. The positive effect of corona treatment became even more prominent after 5 washing cycles, especially for polyester fabrics.

  8. Benzocaine-loaded polymeric nanocapsules: study of the anesthetic activities.

    De Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; De Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; Grillo, Renato; Moraes, Carolina Morales; De Matos, Angélica Prado; de Paula, Eneida; Rosa, André Henrique; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a comparison of different polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) prepared with the polymers poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), poly(L-lactide) (PLA), and poly(ε-caprolactone) and used as carrier systems for the local anesthetic (LA) benzocaine (BZC). The systems were characterized and their anesthetic activities investigated. The results showed particle size distributions with polydispersity indices below 0.135, average diameters up to 120 nm, zeta potentials up to -30 mV, and entrapment efficiencies around 70%. Formulations of BZC using the polymeric NCs presented slower release profiles, compared with that of free BZC. Slowest release (release constant, k = 0.0016 min(-1)) was obtained using the PLA NC system. Pharmacological evaluation showed that encapsulation of BZC in PLA NCs prolonged its anesthetic action. This new formulation could potentially be used in future applications involving the gradual release of local anesthetics (LAs).

  9. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  10. Preparation of palladium loaded carbon nanotubes and activated carbons for hydrogen sorption

    Anson, A. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: aanson@ualberta.ca; Lafuente, E. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Urriolabeitia, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Navarro, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Benito, A.M. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Maser, W.K. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M.T. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-06-14

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and MAXSORB activated carbon have been used as the support of palladium nanoparticles. The preparation of the palladium loaded carbon materials has been done by direct reaction between the support and a Pd (0) compound, either Pd{sub 2}(dba){sub 3}.CHCl{sub 3} or Pd(PPh{sub 3}){sub 4}. The efficiency of the loading reaction has been much better when Pd{sub 2}(dba){sub 3}.CHCl{sub 3} has been chosen as the Pd source, reaching high palladium loadings (up to ca. 45 wt.%) with relatively small particle size (5-10 nm for SWNTs and 30-40 nm for MAXSORB). The hydrogen isotherms of the palladium loaded materials present a steep increase at very low pressures. The H/Pd atomic ratio of the samples has been found to be dependent on the Pd precursor, being higher in the case of Pd{sub 2}(dba){sub 3}.CHCl{sub 3}. Several samples have achieved H/Pd ratios higher than the value for bulk Pd (H/Pd {approx} 0.6-0.7). Maximum hydrogen sorption at room temperature in the palladium loaded samples has been found to be of 0.5 wt.% at atmospheric pressure. Oxidative treatments on the substrate before the palladium loading have diminished the efficiency of the loading reaction, the hydrogen adsorption, and the H/Pd atomic ratio.

  11. Computer program for analysis of the electrical power consumption billing through the A-load and potency hyperboloid in a cold-storage slaughter house; Programa computacional para analise do faturamento do consumo de energia eletrica atraves do A-hiperboloide de carga e potencia em uma empresa frigorifica abatedora de bovinos

    Cardim, Delcio [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia]. E-mail: delciocardim@uol.com.br; Gabriel, Luiz Roberto Almeida [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica]. E-mail: gabriel@prudente.unesp.br

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to project and develop a computer program to analyze the billing of the electrical power consumption and the demand of active and reactive potency of a cold-storage slaughter house, by verifying their efficient and rational use of the electrical power. From the electrical standards of a enterprise, it is obtained,during peak and non-peak times, the potency factor (FP), the load factor (FC) and the average active consumption C{sub m}. Basing on the load factor (FC) and potency factor (FP) dta of slaughter house in a specific period, and by means of mathematical models, which govern the electrical consumption billing and demand of both the active and the reactive potency, it was possible to generate the surface denominated A-Load and Potency Hyperboloid. Then, the areas and volumes that were determined by this Hyperboloid were calculated. The results that were obtained through the volumes of the solids, determined by the hyperboloid and the areas of the regions determined by this surface, were used to analyze the situation of the considered slaughter house, regarding the electrical power consumption billing and demand of both the active and the reactive potency. Borland Delphi 5.0 Microsoft Windows environment was used of elaborating the compute program. (author)

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of a functional, recombinant, cold-active lipase (LipA) from psychrotrophic Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Ji, Xiuling; Li, Shan; Wang, Baoqiang; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Lianbing; Dong, Zhiyang; Wei, Yunlin

    2015-11-01

    A novel cold-active lipase gene encoding 294 amino acid residues was obtained from the Yersinia enterocolitica strain KM1. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this novel lipase is a new member of the bacterial lipase family I.1. The lipase shares the conserved GXSXG motif and catalytic triad Ser85-Asp239-His261. The recombinant protein LipA was solubly and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and then characterized. LipA was active over a broad range spanning 15-60°C with an optimum activity at 25°C and across a wide pH range from 5.0 to 11.0 with an optimum activity at pH 7.5. The molecular weight was estimated to be 34.2 KDa. The lipase could be activated by Mg(2+) and a low concentration (10%) of ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol and acetonitrile, whereas it was strongly inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Mn(2+). This cold-active lipase may be a good candidate for detergents and biocatalysts at low temperature.

  13. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  14. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

    Dongjuan Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1 from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1, Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL, and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL. Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  15. Leukotriene B4-loaded microspheres: a new therapeutic strategy to modulate cell activation

    Sanz Maria J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a potent inflammatory mediator that also stimulates the immune response. In addition, it promotes polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, chemotaxis, chemokinesis and modulates cytokines release. Regarding chemical instability of the leukotriene molecule, in the present study we assessed the immunomodulatory activities conferred by LTB4 released from microspheres (MS. A previous oil-in-water emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation method was chosen to prepare LTB4-loaded MS. Results In the mice cremasteric microcirculation, intraescrotal injection of 0.1 ml of LTB4-loaded MS provoked significant increases in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and emigration besides significant decreases in the leukocyte rolling velocity. LTB4-loaded MS also increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα expression by murine peritoneal macrophages and stimulate them to generate nitrite levels. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and nitric oxide (NO productions were also increased when human umbilical vein and artery endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUAECs, respectively were stimulated with LTB4-loaded MS. Conclusion LTB4-loaded MS preserve the biological activity of the encapsulated mediator indicating their use as a new strategy to modulate cell activation, especially in the innate immune response.

  16. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept. 2002) effort. With many of these million dollar turbines failing at only half the design lifespans, conventional techniques for stiffening rotors, enlarging generators and gearboxes, and reinforcing towers are insufficient to accommodate the demands for bigger, taller and more powerful turbines. The DOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports R&D efforts to develop lighter, more efficient and longer lasting wind turbines and advance turbine components. However, as wind turbine systems continue to increase in size and complexity, fundamental research and technology development has not kept pace with needs. New technologies to increase turbine life spans and to reduce costs are needed to realize wind electricity generation potentials. It is becoming quite evident that without a better understanding of static and dynamic response to normal and abnormal operating loads coupled with sophisticated flow analysis and control techniques, large turbine operating life and component life will be severely limited. Promising technologies include active load control and load alleviation systems to mitigate peak loads from damaging key components. This project addresses science and engineering challenges of developing enabling technologies for active load control for turbine applications using an innovative, translational microtab approach. Figure 1.1 illustrates the microtabs as applied on a wind turbine system. Extending wind turbine operating life is a crucial component for reducing the cost of wind-generated electricity, enabling wind

  17. Biogeography, biodiversity and fluid dependence of deep-sea cold-seep communities at active and passive margins

    Sibuet, Myriam; Olu, Karine

    1998-01-01

    To date, several cold-seep areas which fuel chemosynthesis-based benthic communities have been explored, mainly by deployment of manned submersibles. They are located in the Atlantic and in the Eastern and Western Pacific oceans and in the Mediterranean Sea, in depths ranging between 400 and 6000 m in different geological contexts in passive and active margins. Our study is based on a review of the existent literature on 24 deep cold seeps. The geographic distribution of seeps, the variations of origin and composition of fluids, and rates of fluid flow are presented as they are important factors which explain the spatial heterogeneity and the biomass of biological communities. Methane-rich fluid of thermogenic and/or biogenic origin is the principal source of energy for high-productive communities; however, production of sulphide by sulphate reduction in the sediment also has a major role. The dominant seep species are large bivalves belonging to the families Vesicomyidae or Mytilidae. Other symbiont-containing species occur belonging to Solemyidae, Thyasiridae, Lucinidae bivalves, Pogonophora worms, Cladorhizidae and Hymedesmiidae sponges. Most of the symbiont-containing cold-seep species are new to science. Different symbiont-containing species rely on sulphide or methane oxidation, or both, via chemoautotrophic endosymbiotic bacteria. A total of 211 species, from which 64 are symbiont-containing species, have been inventoried. Patterns in biodiversity and biogeography are proposed. A large majority of the species are endemic to a seep area and the symbiont-containing species are mainly endemic to the cold-seep ecosystem. A comparison of species found in other deep chemosynthesis-based ecosystems, hydrothermal vents, whale carcass and shipwreck reduced habitats, reveals from the existing data, that only 13 species, of which five are symbiont-containing species occur, at both seeps and hydrothermal vents. The species richness of cold-seep communities decreases

  18. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% o...

  19. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  20. Molecular evidence that phylogenetically diverged ciliates are active in microbial mats of deep-sea cold-seep sediment.

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Cold seeps are areas of the seafloor where hydrogen sulfide- and methane-rich fluid seepage occurs, often sustaining chemosynthetic ecosystems. It is well known that both archaea and bacteria oxidize sulfides and methane to produce chemical energy and that several endemic animals use this energy to thrive in cold seeps. On the other hand, there is little knowledge regarding diversity and ecology of microbial eukaryotes in this ecosystem. In this study we isolated environmental RNA and DNA from microbial mats of cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan, and retrieved eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences with polymerase chain reaction methods followed by clone library construction. Most RNA-derived clones obtained were from ciliates, although DNA-derived clones were mainly from the fungus Cryptococcus curvatus, suggesting that ciliates are active in the environment. The ciliate sequences were phylogenetically diverse, and represented eight known class lineages as well as undesignated lineages. Because most ciliates are bacterivorous, it is highly likely that the ciliates for which sequences were recovered play a role in the food web of this ecosystem as grazers of microbial mats. In addition, given that the environment studied is under highly reduced (anoxic) conditions, based on the prokaryotic community structure deduced from T-RFLP profiles, the ciliates detected may be obligatory or facultative anaerobes.

  1. Intercomparison of Neutron Beam Guides for Cold Neutron Activation Station at HANARO using McStas/VITESS/RESTRAX Codes

    Tuan, Hoang Sy Minh; Sun, Gwang Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The HANARO (KAERI) research reactor has been developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron (CN) research facilities since July, 2003. The neutron guide system plays an important role in transporting cold neutrons from the CN source to the neutron facilities as CN-NDP, CN-PGAA, SANS, etc. The CN activation station is being installed in the HANARO cold-neutron research project. The CN-NDP and CN-PGAA were selected as two facilities using at this station. At the end position of CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the CN-NDP and CN-PGAA will be installed in the CN guide hall. In order to predict the neutron flux and intensity values at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the simulation results of neutron flux at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides are presented by using several Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing simulation codes. The intercomparison of neutron flux values between McStas, VITESS and RESTRAX are performed for getting fairly correct results at two neutron beam guides

  2. Effects of cold stress on the messenger ribonucleic acid levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} in spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of chickens.

    Wang, J T; Li, S; Li, J L; Zhang, J W; Xu, S W

    2009-12-01

    This study was to investigate the expression trait of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) gene and the effect of cold stress on the mRNA levels of PPAR-gamma in spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of chickens. Eighty-four 1-d-old male chickens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (7 chickens per group). There was 1 control group and 5 treatment groups for acute cold stress and 3 control groups and 3 treatment groups for chronic cold stress. Chickens were maintained in our animal facility, kept under a 16L:8D cycle and temperature (30 +/- 2 degrees C), and given free access to standard chow and water. The cold stress was initiated when the birds were 15 d of age, with the duration of the acute cold stress being 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and the chronic cold stress was 5, 10, and 20 d, respectively. Cold stress temperature was 12 +/- 1 degrees C. Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were collected for the assessment of the mRNA levels by real-time PCR after stress termination. The results showed that the PPAR-gamma gene is expressed in spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius, and its expression level is different in different tissues and at different ages. Acute cold stress significantly decreased (P stress resulted in a significant increase (P stress applied and also varies by tissue.

  3. Controlled release and antibacterial activity of tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded bacterial cellulose composite membranes.

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shuxia; Wu, Jimin; Huang, Min; Min, Huihua; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-07-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is widely used in biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared an antibiotic drug tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH)-loaded bacterial cellulose (BC) composite membranes, and evaluated the drug release, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The structure and morphology of the fabricated BC-TCH composite membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The TCH release results show that the incorporation of BC matrix to load TCH is able to control the release. In vitro antibacterial assay demonstrate that the developed BC-TCH composites displayed excellent antibacterial activity solely associated with the loaded TCH drug. More importantly, the BC-TCH composite membranes display good biocompatibility. These characteristics of BC-TCH composite membranes indicate that they may successfully serve as wound dressings and other medical biomaterials.

  4. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick;

    2016-01-01

    Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components of interest including the blades, main bearing and tower top, with no influence on fatigue loads and power...... performance. In addition, an individual flap controller for fatigue load reduction in above rated power conditions is also implemented and integrated in the general controller architecture. The system is shown to be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling, by combining extreme and fatigue load reduction....

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Glass lonomer Cement Incorporated with Chlorhexidine-Loaded Zeolite Nanoparticles.

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-02-01

    A functional dental restorative system with antimicrobial properties was developed using zeolite (ZE) nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery carrier. ZE NPs loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) were prepared using the ionic immobilization method. The resulting CHX-loaded ZE NPs were then incorporated into commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). The average size of the CHX-loaded ZE NPs was about 100 to 200 nm, and the NPs were dispersed homogeneously in the GIC. The in vitro release profile of encapsulated GIC containing CHX showed an early release burst of approximately 30% of the total CHX by day 7, whereas GIC containing CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a sustained release of CHX without the early release burst in a 4-week immersion study. The agar diffusion test results showed that the GIC incorporated with CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a larger growth inhibition zone of Streptococcus mutans than GIC alone, indicating that this innovative delivery platform potently imparted antimicrobial activity to the GIC. Moreover, these findings suggest that a range of antimicrobial drugs that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria can be incorporated efficiently into dental GIC using CHX-loaded ZE NPs.

  6. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  7. Application of active power sensitivity to frequency and voltage variations on load shedding

    Girgis, Adly A. [Clemson University, 303 Riggs Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-0915 (United States); Mathure, Shruti [ITC Holdings, MI (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The occurrence of a large disturbance in a power system can lead to a decline in the system frequency and bus voltages due to a real and reactive power deficiency or due to the formation of islands with generation-load imbalance. Load shedding is an emergency control action that can prevent a blackout in the power system by relieving the overload in some parts of the system. This paper shows that rate of change of frequency can be utilized to determine the magnitude of generation-load imbalance, while the rate of change of voltage with respect to active power can be utilized to identify the sensitive bus for load shedding. The frequency, voltages and their rate of change can be obtained by means of measurements in real-time from various devices such as digital recorders or phasor measurement units or these parameters can be estimated from the voltage data by other means such as an optimal estimation method like Kalman filtering. The rate of change of system frequency, along with the equivalent system inertia may be used to estimate the magnitude of the disturbance prior to each load shedding step. The buses with a higher rate of change of voltage may be identified as the critical ones for load shedding and load can be first shed at these buses, depending on the change in the power flow at each bus. This application is tested on the IEEE 30 bus system and the preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to be used in load shedding to restore system voltage and frequency. (author)

  8. E. coli-Derived L-Asparaginase Retains Enzymatic and Cytotoxic Activity In Vitro for Canine and Feline Lymphoma after Cold Storage

    Jackie M. Wypij

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. L-asparaginase is effective in treating canine and feline lymphoma, however chemotherapy poses a significant financial cost to veterinary clients, limiting therapy for many pets. Single dose vials result in significant drug wastage, and drug shortages limit consistent availability for pets. Hypothesis. E. coli-derived asparaginase retains enzymatic and antineoplastic activity in canine and feline lymphoma cells after cold storage. Methods. E. coli-derived asparaginase was cold-stored: refrigeration (7–14 days and freezing (14 days–six months, one to three freeze/thaw cycles. Enzymatic activity of asparaginase was measured via a modified asparagine assay. Effects of cold-stored asparaginase on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured in feline (MYA-1, F1B and canine (17–71, OSW lymphoma cells. Results. Cold-stored E. coli-derived asparaginase retains antineoplastic activity in all four cell lines tested. Cold-stored E. coli-derived L-asparaginase depletes asparagine and retains enzymatic activity. Duration of refrigeration, duration of freezing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles have minimal effect on asparaginase enzyme activity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance. This study establishes a scientific basis for long-term cold storage of reconstituted E. coli-derived asparaginase that may result in better utilization of limited drug resources and improve financial feasibility of E. coli-derived asparaginase as a therapeutic option for pets with lymphoma.

  9. Active aerodynamic load control on wind turbines: Aeroservoelastic modeling and wind tunnel

    Barlas, A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates particular concepts and technologies that can alleviate fatigue loads on wind turbines by using distributed active aerodynamic devices on the blades, a concept briefly referred to as `smart blades'. Firstly, published research work on smart control devices is reviewed, and t

  10. 77 FR 42949 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    2012-07-23

    ..., four-passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases... design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation system (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by effectively aerodynamically...

  11. 77 FR 28530 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    2012-05-15

    ..., composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases aerodynamic efficiency... Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by...

  12. 78 FR 10055 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    2013-02-13

    ... engine, four- passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack... Aerospace Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets...

  13. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to simul

  14. Optimization of piezoelectric bimorph actuators with active damping for static and dynamic loads

    Donoso, Alberto; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers optimal design problems in the context of active damping. More specifically, we are interested in controlling the tip-deflection of a cantilever beam subjected to static and time-harmonic loading on its free extreme. First, the thickness profile of a piezoelectric bimorph...

  15. Determination of hydrogen in niobium by cold neutron prompt gamma ray activation analysis and neutron incoherent scattering

    R.L. Paul; H.H. Cheu-Maya; G.R. Myneni

    2002-11-01

    The presence of trace amounts of hydrogen in niobium is believed to have a detrimental effect on the mechanical and superconducting properties. Unfortunately, few techniques are capable of measuring hydrogen at these levels. We have developed two techniques for measuring hydrogen in materials. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has proven useful for the determination of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. Neutron incoherent scattering (NIS), a complementary tool to PGAA, has been used to measure trace hydrogen in titanium. Both techniques were used to study the effects of vacuum heating and chemical polishing on the hydrogen content of superconducting niobium.

  16. Metal-loaded polystyrene-based activated carbons as DBT removal media via reactive adsorption

    2006-01-01

    [EN] To improve the desulfurization capability of activated carbons, new metal-loaded carbon-based sorbents containing sodium, cobalt, copper, and silver highly dispersed within the carbon matrix were prepared and tested at room temperature for dibenzothiophene (DBT) adsorption. The content of metals can be controlled by selective washing. The new adsorbents showed good adsorption capacities and selectivity towards DBT. The metals incorporated to the surface act not only as active sites for s...

  17. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Athanasios; Gertz, Drew Patrick;

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2...... the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple...

  18. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao;

    2016-01-01

    , while the wind farm is following certain power references given by the network operator. The damage equivalent loads are included in the objective function by means of lookup tables generated under a series of working conditions. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used to solve......One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines...

  19. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...... shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power...

  20. Rhinovirus contamination of surfaces in homes of adults with natural colds: transfer of virus to fingertips during normal daily activities.

    Winther, B; McCue, K; Ashe, K; Rubino, J; Hendley, J O

    2011-05-01

    Multiple surfaces contaminated with rhinovirus were detected in hotel rooms by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) following occupancy by a cold sufferer. Whether infectious rhinovirus contaminates surfaces in homes and is transferred from surfaces to fingertips through normal activities is not known. Nasal secretions from 30 subjects with new colds were tested for rhinovirus genome by RT-PCR; infectious rhinovirus was sought with tissue cultures. Each subject identified 10 sites in their home touched during the preceding 24 hr. Samples from sites were tested for rhinovirus by RT-PCR and cell culture. Later, each subject's mucus (stored at -70°C) was deposited on surfaces for testing transfer to fingertips through daily life activities such as flipping a light switch, touching the telephone keypad, and holding the telephone handset. Nasal secretions from 16/30 subjects were positive for rhinovirus by RT-PCR; 66 (41%) of 160 surfaces in homes were positive. Contaminated surfaces included doorknobs (6 positive/18 tested), refrigerator door handles (8/14), TV remote controls (5/10), and bathroom faucets (8/10). Five (19%) of 26 RT-PCR positive sites from culture positive subjects were positive in cell culture. Nasal mucus from six culture positive subjects was deposited on objects. Infectious rhinovirus was detected on 22% of fingertips following contact with objects contaminated for 1 hr; transfer dropped to 3% after 24 hr of contamination, and 0% after 48 hr. Infectious rhinovirus found on surfaces in homes of people with colds can be transferred to fingertips, but infectivity of virus in mucus declines by 24 hr after deposition.

  1. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  2. Comparison of load-based and queue-based active queue management algorithms

    Kwon, Minseok; Fahmy, Sonia

    2002-07-01

    A number of active queue management algorithms have been studied since Random Early Detection (RED) was first introduced in 1993. While analytical and experimental studies have debated whether dropping/marking should be based on average or instantaneous queue length or, alternatively, based on input and output rates (or queue length slope), the merits and drawbacks of the proposed algorithms, and the effect of load-based versus queue-based control have not been adequately examined. In particular, only RED has been tested in realistic configurations and in terms of user metrics, such as response times and average delays. In this paper, we examine active queue management (AQM) that uses both load and queuing delay to determine its packet drop/mark probabilities. This class of algorithms, which we call load/delay controllers (LDC), has the advantage of controlling the queuing delay as well as accurately anticipating incipient congestion. We compare LDC to a number of well-known active queue management algorithms including RED, BLUE, FRED, SRED, and REM in configurations with multiple bottlenecks, round trip times and bursty Web traffic. We evaluate each algorithm in terms of Web response time, delay, packet loss, and throughput, in addition to examining algorithm complexity and ease of configuration. Our results demonstrate that load information, along with queue length, can aid in making more accurate packet drop/mark decisions that reduce the Web response time.

  3. A novel cold-active β-D-galactosidase from the Paracoccus sp. 32d - gene cloning, purification and characterization

    Wierzbicka-Woś Anna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-D-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23 catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides. Cold-active β-D-galactosidases have recently become a focus of attention of researchers and dairy product manufactures owing to theirs ability to: (i eliminate of lactose from refrigerated milk for people afflicted with lactose intolerance, (ii convert lactose to glucose and galactose which increase the sweetness of milk and decreases its hydroscopicity, and (iii eliminate lactose from dairy industry pollutants associated with environmental problems. Moreover, in contrast to commercially available mesophilic β-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis the cold-active counterparts could make it possible both to reduce the risk of mesophiles contamination and save energy during the industrial process connected with lactose hydrolysis. Results A genomic DNA library was constructed from soil bacterium Paracoccus sp. 32d. Through screening of the genomic DNA library on LB agar plates supplemented with X-Gal, a novel gene encoding a cold-active β-D-galactosidase was isolated. The in silico analysis of the enzyme amino acid sequence revealed that the β-D-galactosidase Paracoccus sp. 32d is a novel member of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 2. However, owing to the lack of a BGal_small_N domain, the domain characteristic for the LacZ enzymes of the GH2 family, it was decided to call the enzyme under study 'BgaL'. The bgaL gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pBAD Expression System. The purified recombinant BgaL consists of two identical subunits with a combined molecular weight of about 160 kDa. The BgaL was optimally active at 40°C and pH 7.5. Moreover, BgaL was able to hydrolyze both lactose and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside at 10°C with Km values of 2.94 and 1.17 mM and kcat values 43.23 and 71.81 s-1, respectively. One U of the recombinant BgaL would thus be capable

  4. Isolation and characterization of glacier VMY22, a novel lytic cold-active bacteriophage of Bacillus cereus

    Xiuling; Ji; Chunjing; Zhang; Yuan; Fang; Qi; Zhang; Lianbing; Lin; Bing; Tang; Yunlin; Wei

    2015-01-01

    As a unique ecological system with low temperature and low nutrient levels, glaciers are considered a "living fossil" for the research of evolution. In this work, a lytic cold-active bacteriophage designated VMY22 against Bacillus cereus MYB41-22 was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China, and its characteristics were studied. Electron microscopy revealed that VMY22 has an icosahedral head(59.2 nm in length, 31.9 nm in width) and a tail(43.2 nm in length). Bacteriophage VMY22 was classified as a Podoviridae with an approximate genome size of 18 to 20 kb. A one-step growth curve revealed that the latent and the burst periods were 70 and 70 min, respectively, with an average burst size of 78 bacteriophage particles per infected cell. The pH and thermal stability of bacteriophage VMY22 were also investigated. The maximum stability of the bacteriophage was observed to be at pH 8.0 and it was comparatively stable at p H 5.0–9.0. As VMY22 is a cold-active bacteriophage with low production temperature, its characterization and the relationship between MYB41-22 and Bacillus cereus bacteriophage deserve further study.

  5. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system.

  6. Effects of loading different metal ions on an activated carbon on the desorption activation energy of dichloromethane/trichloromethane

    Xia Qibin, E-mail: qbxia@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Li Zhong; Xiao Limin; Zhang Zhijuan; Xi Hongxia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The effects of loading Fe{sup 3+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Ag{sup +} on activated carbons (ACs) on interaction of the carbon surfaces with dichloromethane (DCM) and trichloromethane (TCM) were investigated. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the desorption activation energy of DCM/TCM on the ACs separately doped with ions Fe{sup 3+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}. The absolute hardness and electronegativity of DCM and TCM were estimated on the basis of density functional theory. The influence of loading the metal ions on the ACs on the interaction of its surfaces with DCM/TCM was discussed. Results showed that the desorption activation energy of DCM and TCM on the modified ACs followed the order: Fe(III)/AC > Mg(II)/AC > Cu(II)/AC > AC > Ag(I)/AC. Both DCM and TCM were hard base. The loading of ion Fe{sup 3+} or Mg{sup 2+} on the surface of the ACs enhanced the interaction between DCM/TCM and the surfaces due to Fe{sup 3+} and Mg{sup 2+} being hard acid, while the loading of ion Ag{sup +} on the surface of the AC weakened the interaction between DCM/TCM and the carbon surfaces due to Ag{sup +} being soft acid.

  7. Effects of loading different metal ions on an activated carbon on the desorption activation energy of dichloromethane/trichloromethane.

    Xia, Qibin; Li, Zhong; Xiao, Limin; Zhang, Zhijuan; Xi, Hongxia

    2010-07-15

    The effects of loading Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+) or Ag(+) on activated carbons (ACs) on interaction of the carbon surfaces with dichloromethane (DCM) and trichloromethane (TCM) were investigated. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the desorption activation energy of DCM/TCM on the ACs separately doped with ions Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+). The absolute hardness and electronegativity of DCM and TCM were estimated on the basis of density functional theory. The influence of loading the metal ions on the ACs on the interaction of its surfaces with DCM/TCM was discussed. Results showed that the desorption activation energy of DCM and TCM on the modified ACs followed the order: Fe(III)/AC>Mg(II)/AC>Cu(II)/AC>AC>Ag(I)/AC. Both DCM and TCM were hard base. The loading of ion Fe(3+) or Mg(2+) on the surface of the ACs enhanced the interaction between DCM/TCM and the surfaces due to Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) being hard acid, while the loading of ion Ag(+) on the surface of the AC weakened the interaction between DCM/TCM and the carbon surfaces due to Ag(+) being soft acid.

  8. Silver nanoparticles-loaded activated carbon fibers using chitosan as binding agent: Preparation, mechanism, and their antibacterial activity

    Tang, Chengli; Hu, Dongmei; Cao, Qianqian; Yan, Wei; Xing, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The effective and strong adherence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the substrate surface is pivotal to the practical application of those AgNPs-modified materials. In this work, AgNPs were synthesized through a green and facile hydrothermal method. Chitosan was introduced as the binding agent for the effective loading of AgNPs on activated carbon fibers (ACF) surface to fabricate the antibacterial material. Apart from conventional instrumental characterizations, i. e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement, molecular dynamics simulation method was also applied to explore the loading mechanism of AgNPs on the ACF surface. The AgNPs-loaded ACF material showed outstanding antibacterial activity for S. aureus and E. coli. The combination of experimental and theoretical calculation results proved chitosan to be a promising binding agent for the fabrication of AgNPs-loaded ACF material with excellent antibacterial activity.

  9. Power output in vertical jumps: Does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?

    Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    The previously proposed Maximum Dynamic Output hypothesis (MDO; i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 10–30%. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects’ own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group × load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis. PMID:22864398

  10. Oridonin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    Lu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oridonin (ORI, a famous diterpenoid from Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis and autophagy-inducing activity in human cancer therapy, while clinical application of ORI is limited by its strong hydrophobicity and rapid plasma clearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of ORI could be enhanced by loading into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. ORI-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization with narrow size distribution and good entrapment efficacy. MTT assay indicated that ORI-loaded SLNs enhanced the inhibition of proliferation against several human cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF-7 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG 2 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells compared with free ORI, while no significant enhancement of toxicity to human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown. Meanwhile, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that ORI-SLNs induced more significant cell cycle arrest at S and decreased cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells than bulk ORI solution. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI assay indicated that apoptotic rates of cells treated with ORI-loaded SLNs were higher compared with free ORI. In summary, our data indicated that SLNs may be a potential carrier for enhancing the antitumor effect of hydrophobic drug ORI.

  11. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability.

  12. Cold-active halophilic bacteria from the ice-sealed Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    Mondino, Lindsay J; Asao, Marie; Madigan, Michael T

    2009-10-01

    Lake Vida is a large, permanently ice-covered lake in the Victoria Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica and is unique among Dry Valley lakes because it is ice-sealed, with an ice-cover of nearly 19 m. Enrichment cultures of melt-water from Lake Vida 15.9 m ice yielded five pure cultures of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria. Of these, one strain grew at -8 degrees C and the four others at -4 degrees C. All isolates were either halotolerant or halophilic, with two strains capable of growth at 15% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Lake Vida isolates to be Gammaproteobacteria, related to species of Psychrobacter and Marinobacter. This is the first report of pure cultures of bacteria from Lake Vida, and the isolates displayed a phenotype consistent with life in a cold hypersaline environment.

  13. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  14. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  15. Active control of spectral detail radiated by an air-loaded impacted membrane

    Rollow, J. Douglas, IV

    An active control system is developed to independently operate on the vibration of individual modes of an air-loaded drum head, resulting in changes in the acoustic field radiated from the structure. The timbre of the system is investigated, and techniques for changing the characteristic frequencies by means of the control system are proposed. A feedforward control system is constructed for empirical investigation of this approach, creating a musical instrument which can produce a variety of sounds not available with strictly mechanical systems. The work is motivated by applications for actively controlled structures, active control of sound quality, and musical acoustics. The instrument consists of a Mylar timpano head stretched over an enclosure which has been outfitted with electroacoustic drivers. Sensors are arranged on the surface of the drum head and combined to measure modal vibration, and the array of drivers allows independent control of these modes. A signal processor is used to form modal control filters which can modify the loading of each mode, changing the time-dependent and spectral characteristics, and therefore the timbre, of the radiated sound. A theoretical formulation of active control of structural vibration by means of fluid-coupled actuators is expressed, and computational solutions show the effects of fluid loading and the radiated field. Experimental results with the new instrument are shown, with implementations of the control system providing a demonstrated degree of control, and illustrating several limitations of such systems.

  16. Characterization of a cold-active lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) and its deletion mutants.

    Novototskaya-Vlasova, K A; Petrovskaya, L E; Rivkina, E M; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2013-04-01

    A gene coding for cold-active lipase from the psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacterium Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) isolated from a Siberian cryopeg has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein Lip1Pc with a 6× histidine tag at its C-terminus was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. With p-nitrophenyl dodecanoate (C12) as a substrate, the purified recombinant protein displayed maximum lipolytic activity at 25°C and pH 8.0. Increasing the temperature above 40°C and addition of various metal ions and organic solvents inhibited the enzymatic activity of Lip1Pc. Most nonionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20, slightly increased the lipase activity, while SDS completely inhibited it. To investigate the functional significance of the Lip1Pc N-terminal domain, we constructed five deletion mutants of this protein. The ND1 and ND2 mutants displayed specific activity reduced by 30-35%, while other truncated proteins were completely inactive. Both mutants demonstrated increased activity towards p-nitrophenyl decanoate (C10) and impaired utilization of C16 substrate. Although optimum reaction temperature of ND2 lowered to 20°C, it displayed enhanced stability by 44% after incubation at 40°C. The results prove that the N-terminal domain of Lip1Pc has a fundamental impact on the activity and stability of the protein.

  17. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  18. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  19. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  20. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); He, Shui Zhong [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  1. Cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis, a non-destructive technique for hydrogen level assessment in zirconium alloys

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert J.; Paul, Rick L.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a novel use of a non-destructive technique to quantitatively assess hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The technique, called Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (CNPGAA), is based on measuring prompt gamma rays following the absorption of cold neutrons, and comparing the rate of detection of characteristic hydrogen gamma rays to that of gamma rays from matrix atoms. Because the emission is prompt, this method has to be performed in close proximity to a neutron source such as the one at the National Institute of Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research. Determination shown here to be simple and accurate, matching the results given by usual destructive techniques such as Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE), with a precision of ±2 mg kg-1 (or wt ppm). Very low levels of hydrogen (as low as 5 mg kg-1 (wt ppm)) can be detected. Also, it is demonstrated that CNPGAA can be applied sequentially on an individual corrosion coupon during autoclave testing, to measure a gradually increasing hydrogen concentration. Thus, this technique can replace destructive techniques performed on "sister" samples thereby reducing experimental uncertainties.

  2. Science Letters: Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 and activity in carbon-nitric oxide reaction

    WAN Xian-kai; ZOU Xue-quan; SHI Hui-xiang; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 was performed by annealing in ammonia, and the activity of the modified carbon for NO reduction was studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that Fe2O3 enhances the amount of surface oxygen complexes and facilitates nitrogen incorporation in the carbon, especially in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. The modified carbon shows excellent activity for NO reduction in the low temperature regime (<500 ℃) because of the cooperative effect of Fe2O3 and the surface nitrogen species.

  3. Coupling and elastic loading affect the active response by the inner ear hair cell bundles.

    Clark Elliott Strimbu

    Full Text Available Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the effects of elastic mechanical loading on both natively coupled and freely oscillating hair bundles. For the latter, we attached glass fibers of different stiffness to the stereocilia and observed the induced changes in the spontaneous bundle movement. When driven with sinusoidal deflections, hair bundles displayed phase-locked response indicative of an Arnold Tongue, with the frequency selectivity highest at low amplitudes and decreasing under stronger stimulation. A striking broadening of the mode-locked response was seen with increasing stiffness of the load, until approximate impedance matching, where the phase-locked response remained flat over the physiological range of frequencies. When the otolithic membrane was left intact atop the preparation, the natural loading of the bundles likewise decreased their frequency selectivity with respect to that observed in freely oscillating bundles. To probe for signatures of the active process under natural loading and coupling conditions, we applied transient mechanical stimuli to the otolithic membrane. Following the pulses, the underlying bundles displayed active movement in the opposite direction, analogous to the twitches observed in individual cells. Tracking features in the otolithic membrane indicated that it moved in phase with the bundles. Hence, synchronous active motility evoked in the system of coupled hair bundles by external input is sufficient to displace large overlying structures.

  4. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    Hong-zhi Qiu; Ji-ming Kong; Ren-chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of ...

  5. Production, purification, and characterization of a novel cold-active superoxide dismutase from the Antarctic strain Aspergillus glaucus 363.

    Abrashev, Radoslav; Feller, Georges; Kostadinova, Nedelina; Krumova, Ekaterina; Alexieva, Zlatka; Gerginova, Maria; Spasova, Boryana; Miteva-Staleva, Jeni; Vassilev, Spassen; Angelova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The Antarctic fungal strain Aspergillus glaucus 363 produces cold-active (CA) Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). The strain contains at least one gene encoding Cu/Zn-SOD that exhibited high homology with the corresponding gene of other Aspergillus species. To our knowledge, this is the first nucleotide sequence of a CA Cu/Zn-SOD gene in fungi. An effective laboratory technology for A. glaucus SOD production in 3 L bioreactors was developed on the basis of transient cold-shock treatment. The temperature downshift to 10 °C caused 1.4-fold increase of specific SOD activity compared to unstressed culture. Maximum enzyme productivity was 64 × 10(3) U kg(-1) h(-1). Two SOD isoenzymes (Cu/Zn-SODI and Cu/Zn-SODII) were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The specific activity of the major isoenzyme, Cu/Zn-SODII, after Q-Sepharose chromatography was 4000 U mg(-1). The molecular mass of SODI (38 159 Da) and of SODII (15 835 Da) was determined by electrospray quadropole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The presence of Cu and Zn were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cu/Zn-SODII revealed a high degree of structural homology with Cu/Zn-SOD from other fungi, including Aspergillus species.

  6. Definition of two agonist types at the mammalian cold-activated channel TRPM8

    Janssens, Annelies; Gees, Maarten; Toth, Balazs Istvan; Ghosh, Debapriya; Mulier, Marie; Vennekens, Rudi; Vriens, Joris; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Various TRP channels act as polymodal sensors of thermal and chemical stimuli, but the mechanisms whereby chemical ligands impact on TRP channel gating are poorly understood. Here we show that AITC (allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil) and menthol represent two distinct types of ligands at the mammalian cold sensor TRPM8. Kinetic analysis of channel gating revealed that AITC acts by destabilizing the closed channel, whereas menthol stabilizes the open channel, relative to the transition state. Based on these differences, we classify agonists as either type I (menthol-like) or type II (AITC-like), and provide a kinetic model that faithfully reproduces their differential effects. We further demonstrate that type I and type II agonists have a distinct impact on TRPM8 currents and TRPM8-mediated calcium signals in excitable cells. These findings provide a theoretical framework for understanding the differential actions of TRP channel ligands, with important ramifications for TRP channel structure-function analysis and pharmacology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17240.001 PMID:27449282

  7. The Characterization of Psychrophilic Microorganisms and their potentially useful Cold-Active Glycosidases Final Progress Report

    Brenchly, Jean E.

    2008-06-30

    Our studies of novel, cold-loving microorganisms have focused on two distinct extreme environments. The first is an ice core sample from a 120,000 year old Greenland glacier. The results of this study are particularly exciting and have been highlighted with press releases and additional coverage. The first press release in 2004 was based on our presentation at the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology and was augmented by coverage of our publication (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 71:7806) in the Current Topics section of the ASM news journal, “Microbe.” Of special interest for this report was the isolation of numerous, phylogenetically distinct and potentially novel ultrasmall microorganisms. The detection and isolation of members of the ultrasmall population is significant because these cells pass through 0.2 micron pore filters that are generally used to trap microorganisms from environmental samples. Thus, analyses by other investigators that examined only cells captured on the filters would have missed a significant portion of this population. Only a few ultrasmall isolates had been obtained prior to our examination of the ice core samples. Our development of a filtration enrichment and subsequent cultivation of these organisms has added extensively to the collection of, and knowledge about, this important population in the microbial world.

  8. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice.

  9. Load-specific physical activity scores are related to tibia bone architecture.

    Kindler, Joseph M; Ross, Hannah L; Laing, Emma M; Modlesky, Christopher M; Pollock, Norman K; Baile, Clifton A; Lewis, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of physical activity in clinical bone studies is essential. Two bone-specific physical activity scoring methods, the Bone Loading History Questionnaire (BLHQ) and Bone-Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ), have shown correlations with bone density and geometry, but not architecture. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between physical activity scoring methods and bone architecture in non-Hispanic white adolescent females (N = 24; 18-19 years of age). Bone loading scores (BLHQ [hip and spine] and past BPAQ) and energy expenditure (7-day physical activity recall) were determined from respective questionnaires. Estimates of trabecular and cortical bone architecture at the nondominant radius and tibia were assessed via magnetic resonance imaging. Total body and regional areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as well as total body fat mass and fat-free soft tissue (FFST) mass were assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations adjusting for height, total body fat mass, and FFST were performed. Hip BLHQ scores were correlated with midtibia cortical volume (r = .43; p = .03). Adjusted hip and spine BLHQ scores were correlated with all midtibia cortical measures (r = .50-0.58; p < .05) and distal radius apparent trabecular number (r = .46-0.53; p < .05). BPAQ scores were correlated with all midtibia cortical (r = .41-0.51; p < .05) and most aBMD (r = .47-0.53; p < .05) measures. Energy expenditure was inversely associated with femoral neck aBMD only after statistical adjustment (r = .49, p < .05). These data show that greater load-specific physical activity scores, but not energy expenditure, are indicative of greater midtibia cortical bone quality, thus supporting the utility of these instruments in musculoskeletal research.

  10. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Preparation of red mud loaded Co catalysts: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) and activity evaluation].

    Li, Hua-Nan; Xu, Bing-Bing; Qi, Fei; Sun, De-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The removal efficiency of catalytic ozonation of bezafibrate (BZF) by red mud loaded Co catalysts (Co/RM) was used as the index value in statistical experimental designs. The most important factors influencing BZF degradation (P red mud, enhanced the catalytic activity. Moreover, the dissolved metal concentration in the solution for catalytic ozonation of BZF degradation by RM or Co/RM was determined by ICP-OES. The results showed that for both catalysts there was no leaching of catalytic active components into the solution, which could suggest that the two catalysts were safe and could have certain application prospect.

  12. Investigation of the Hydroisomerization Activities of Ni-Mo Catalysts Loaded on HY and HUSY Zeolites

    2002-01-01

    A series of Ni-Mo/zeolite-A12O3 catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation andtheir catalytic experiments were carried out using an automated microflow apparatus. It is concluded that theNi-Mo catalyst loaded on the HUSY has larger BET surface areas and possesses more acid sites than thatloaded on the HY zeolite, and simultaneously the Ni-Mo/HUSY-A12O3 catalyst reveals higher catalytic activ-ity characterized by feedstock conversion and isomer yield which is about two or three times higher than thatof the Ni-Mo/HY-A12O3 catalyst.

  13. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  14. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  15. Uncertainty in Loading and Control of an Active Column Critical to Buckling

    G.C. Enss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckling of load-carrying column structures is an important design constraint in light-weight structures as it may result in the collapse of an entire structure. When a column is loaded by an axial compressive load equal to its individual critical buckling load, a critically stable equilibrium occurs. When loaded above its critical buckling load, the passive column may buckle. If the actual loading during usage is not fully known, stability becomes highly uncertain.

  16. Differential methane oxidation activity and microbial community composition at cold seeps in the Arctic off western Svalbard

    Gründger, Friederike; Svenning, Mette M.; Niemann, Helge; Silyakova, Anna; Serov, Pavel; Li Hong, Wei; Wegener, Gunter; Panieri, Giuliana; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Most models considering climate change related bottom water warming suggest that gas hydrates may become destabilized, leading to the mobilization of methane into seabed and water column ecosystems, and, eventually, into the atmosphere. However, the capacity of methanotrophic microbes retaining methane in sediments and the hydrosphere is not well constrained. Here, we investigate the microbial utilization of methane in sediments and the water column, focusing on cold seeps discovered at the arctic continental margin of western Svalbard. We measured ex situ rates of methane oxidation and sulfate reduction in two active gas flare sites with different geological settings at the Vestnesa Ridge (1204 m water depth) and within a pingolike feature area southwest off Svalbard (PLF; 380 m water depth). Our results show contrarily situations at our two sampling sites: At Vestnesa Ridge we find high methane oxidation rates with values up to 2055 nmol cm-3 d-1 at the sediment surface where the sediments are oversaturated with methane. Whereas, methane concentration and oxidation rates are low in the overlying water column (2 pmol cm-3 d-1). In contrast, at the sediment surface at PLF methane concentration and oxidation rates are considerably lower (up to 1.8 nmol cm-3 d-1). While the overlying bottom water contains high concentration of methane and shows oxidation rates with values of up to 3.8 nmol cm-3 d-1. The data on methane oxidation and sulfate reduction activity are compared to the sediment geochemistry and to data from metagenomic analysis identifying the methanotrophic community composition. These results provide unique insight into the dynamic responses of the seabed biological filter at cold seeps in the Arctic off western Svalbard. This study is part of the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate and was supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme grant No. 223259.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of fish scale loaded TiO2 composites under solar light irradiation

    Li-Ngee Ho; Soon-An Ong; Hakimah Osman; Fong-Mun Chong

    2012-01-01

    Fish scale (FS) loaded TiO2 composites were investigated as photocatalysts in degradation of Methyl Orange under solar light irradiation.Composites were prepared through sol-gel method by varying mass ratio of TiO2/FS at 90:10,70:30 and 50:50,respectively.The catalysts prepared in this study were characterized by using XRD,SEM,FT-IR and nitrogen sorption.The effects of solar irradiation,mass ratio of TiO2/FS composites,irradiation time and catalyst loadings were studied.Synergistic effect was found in TiO2/FS of 90:10 composite which performed higher photocatalytic degradation than synthesized TiO2 under solar light irradiation.However,further increasing fish scale content in the composites reduced the photocatalytic activity drastically.Under solar light irradiation,all the catalysts in this study exhibited photocatalytic activity,except TiO2/FS of 50:50 composite that only acted as a weak biosorbent without performing any photocatalytic property.Photocatalytic degradation increased with increasing catalyst loading and irradiation time but decreased with increased of initial dye concentration.

  18. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-06-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer.

  19. Cold Sores

    ... Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores Canker Sore or Cold Sore? Mouth Sores: Caused By Student Stress? games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  20. Web interactive non intrusive load disaggregation system for active demand in smart grids

    G.M. Tina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Smart Grid combines the use of traditional technology with innovative digital solutions, making the management of the electricity grid more flexible. It allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The optimization of energy consumption in Smart Grids is possible by using an innovative system based on Non Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NIALM algorithms, in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements, that provide a feedback in such a way to make energy more visible and more amenable to understanding and control. We contribute with an approach for monitoring consumption of electric power in households based on both a NILM algorithm, that uses a simple load signatures, and a web interactive systems that allows an active role played by users.

  1. Extracellular cold active lipase from the psychrotrophic Halomonas sp. BRI 8 isolated from the Antarctic sea water

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular cold active lipase-producing psychrotrophic bacterium (BRI 8 was isolated from the Antarctic sea water sample. The 16s rRNA sequence study revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas (929 bp. The present paper reports optimization of fermentation conditions for production of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 from Halomonas sp. BRI 8. Highest lipase production was observed in the medium containing olive oil and peptone. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme catalysis were 7.0 and 10°C respectively. The enzyme was relatively more stable in acidic pH range and retained 50% activity when incubated at 30°C for 1 h. The enzyme was stable in various organic solvents and showed more than 100% activity in presence of isoamyl alcohol. Significant enzyme activity was also observed in the presence of metal ions and detergents. The molecular mass of partially purified lipase was found to be around 66 kD.

  2. Expression and chaperone-assisted refolding of a new cold-active lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T).

    Novototskaya-Vlasova, Ksenia; Petrovskaya, Lada; Kryukova, Elena; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Dolgikh, Dmitry; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    We describe cloning and expression of genes coding for lipase Lip2Pc and lipase-specific foldase LifPc from a psychrotrophic microorganism Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) isolated from a Siberian cryopeg (the lense of overcooled brine within permafrost). Upon expression in Escherichiacoli Lip2Pc accumulated in inclusion bodies while chaperone was synthesized in a soluble form. An efficient protocol for solubilization and subsequent refolding of the recombinant lipase in the presence of the truncated chaperone was developed. Using this procedure Lip2Pc with specific activity of 6900U/mg was obtained. Contrary to published data on other lipase-chaperone complexes, refolded Lip2Pc was mostly recovered from the complex with chaperone by metal-affinity chromatography. Recombinant Lip2Pc displayed maximum lipolytic activity at 25°C and pH 8.0 with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16) as a substrate. Activity assays conducted at different temperatures revealed that the recombinant Lip2Pc is a cold-adapted lipase with ability to utilize substrates with long (C10-C16) hydrocarbon chains in the temperature range from +5 to +65°C. It demonstrated relatively high stability at temperatures above 60°C and in the presence of various metal ions or organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, etc.). Non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20 decreased Lip2Pc activity and SDS completely inhibited it.

  3. Influence of Fe loadings on desulfurization performance of activated carbon treated by nitric acid.

    Guo, Jia-Xiu; Shu, Song; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A series of Fe supported on activated carbon treated by nitric acid are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic assistance and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has shown that Fe loadings significantly influence the desulfurization activity. Fe/NAC5 exhibits an excellent removal ability of SO2, corresponding to breakthrough sulfur capacity of 323 mg/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, the generated Fe3O4 and Fe2SiO4 increase, but Fe2(SO4)3 is observed after desulfurization. Fe/NAC1 has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 925 m(2)/g with micropore surface area of 843 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.562 cm(3)/g including a micropore volume of 0.300 cm(3)/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, BET surface area and micropore volume decrease, and those of Fe/NAC10 decrease to 706 m(2)/g and 0.249 cm(3)/g. The Fe loadings influence the pore-size distribution, and SO2 adsorption mainly reacts in micropores at about 0.70 nm. C=O and C-O are observed for all samples before SO2 removal. After desulfurization, the C-O stretching is still detected, but the C=O stretching vibration of carbonyl groups disappears. The stretching of S-O or S=O in sulfate is observed at 592 cm(-1) for the used sample, proving that the existence of [Formula: see text].

  4. In vitro thrombolytic efficacy of echogenic liposomes loaded with tissue plasminogen activator and octafluoropropane gas

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Bader, Kenneth B.; Huang, Shenwen; Peng, Tao; Huang, Shaoling; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2017-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes loaded with the thrombolytic recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are under development for the treatment of ischemic stroke. These agents are designed to co-encapsulate cavitation nuclei to promote bubble activity in response to ultrasound exposure, and to enable localized delivery of thrombolytic. Stable cavitation improves the efficacy of the thrombolytic through enhanced fluid mixing. Echogenic liposomes that encapsulate air-filled microbubbles nucleate scant stable cavitation activity in response to 120 kHz intermittent ultrasound exposure, and have demonstrated thrombolytic efficacy equivalent to rt-PA alone. It was hypothesized that encapsulating octafluoropropane (OFP) gas within rt-PA-loaded liposomes instead of air will enhance ultrasound-mediated stable cavitation activity and increase thrombolytic efficacy compared to previous studies. The thrombolytic efficacy and cavitation activity nucleated from liposomes that encapsulate OFP microbubbles and rt-PA (OFP t-ELIP) was evaluated in vitro. Human whole blood clots were exposed to human fresh-frozen plasma alone, rt-PA (0, 0.32, 1.58, and 3.15 µg ml-1), or OFP t-ELIP at equivalent enzymatic activity, with and without exposure to intermittent ultrasound. Further, numerical simulations were performed to gain insight into the mechanisms of cavitation nucleation. Sustained ultraharmonic activity was nucleated from OFP t-ELIP when exposed to ultrasound. Furthermore, the thrombolytic efficacy was enhanced compared to rt-PA alone at concentrations of 1.58 µg ml-1 and 3.15 µg ml-1 (p  cavitation activity and enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis.

  5. Effect of cold-ischemia time on nuclear factor-κB activation and inflammatory response in graft after orthotopic liver transplantation in rats

    Xiao-Ping Gu; Yong Jiang; Fu-Tao Xu; Yu-Dong Qiu; Yi-Tao Ding

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism and effect of nuclear factorκB (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory response on the extended cold-preserved graft injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).METHODS: OLT was performed in rats with varying time of cold ischemia grafts (6, 18 and 24 h in University Wisconsin solution at 4 ℃). We determined the time of NF-κB activation and expression of tumor necrosisfactor-α (TNF-α), cytokineinducible neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) within 6 h after reperfusion.Serum alarming aminotransferase (ALT), neutrophil sequestration, circulating neutrophil CD11b and L- selectin expression were also evaluated.RESULTS: The accumulation of neutrophils in the graft was significantly increased in the 18 h and 24 h cold-ischemia groups within 0.5 h after reperfusion, compared with the 6 h group. But the strongly activated neutrophils was slightly increased at 2 h after reperfusion and remained at high levels 4 h after reperfusion, which was synchronized with the common situation of recipients after transplantation.Prolonged cold-preservation did not affect neutrophil accumulation and activation. NF-κB activation preceded the expression of TNF-α, CINC, and ICAM-1 in the liver, which was significantly increased with prolonged cold preservation.In prolonged cold preserved grafts, prominently elevated NF-κB activation occurred at 0.5 h and 1 h, compared with that at 2 h after reperfusion, which was consistent with greatly increased intrahepatic TNF-α response.CONCLUSION: NF-κB activation is correlated with the expression of TNF-α, CINC, and ICAM-1 in vivo in OLT rats.Extended cold preservation of grafts might up-regulate TNF-α,CINC, and ICAM-1 expression in the grafts, most probably through elevated NF-κB activation, and might contribute to neutrophil infiltration in the grafts after reperfusion. Elevated NF-κB activity is harmful to inflammatory response in the grafts, and inhibited

  6. A novel cold-active lipase from Candida albicans: cloning, expression and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    Lan, Dong-Ming; Yang, Ning; Wang, Wen-Kai; Shen, Yan-Fei; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86-34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM, which has double mutations that revert 154 and 293 to serine residues, showed good lipase activity, and was overexpressed and purified by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The pure Lip5-DM was stable at low temperatures ranging from 15-35 °C and pH 5-9, with the optimal conditions being 15-25 °C and pH 5-6. The activation energy of recombinant lipase was 8.5 Kcal/mol between 5 and 25 °C, suggesting that Lip5-DM was a cold-active lipase. Its activity was found to increase in the presence of Zn(2+), but it was strongly inhibited by Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+) and some surfactants. In addition, the Lip5-DM could not tolerate water-miscible organic solvents. Lip5-DM exhibited a preference for the short-and medium-chain length p-nitrophenyl (C4 and C8 acyl group) esters rather than the long chain length p-nitrophenyl esters (C12, C16 and C18 acyl group) with highest activity observed with the C8 derivatives. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity toward triacylglycerols, such as olive oil and safflower oil.

  7. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  8. Extracellular enzymatic activities of cold-adapted bacteria from polar oceans and effect of temperature and salinity on cell growth

    Zeng Yinxin; Yu Yong; Chen Bo; Li Huirong

    2004-01-01

    The potential of 324 bacteria isolated from different habitats in polar oceans to produce a variety of extracellular enzymatic activities at low temperature was investigated. By plate assay, lipase, protease, amylase, gelatinase, agarase, chitinase or cellulase were detected. Lipases were generally present by bacteria living in polar oceans. Protease-producing bacteria held the second highest proportion in culturable isolates. Strains producing amylase kept a relative stable proportion of around 30% in different polar marine habitats. All 50 Arctic sea-ice bacteria producing proteases were cold-adapted strains, however, only 20% were psychrophilic. 98% of them could grow at 3% NaCl, and 56% could grow without NaCl. On the other hand, 98% of these sea-ice bacteria produced extracellular proteases with optimum temperature at or higher than 35℃, well above the upper temperature limit of cell growth. Extracellular enzymes including amylase, agarase, cellulase and lipase released by bacteria from seawater or sediment in polar oceans, most expressed maximum activities between 25 and 35℃. Among extracellular enzymes released by bacterial strain BSw20308, protease expressed maximum activity at 40℃, higher than 35℃ of polysaccharide hydrolases and 25℃ of lipase.

  9. Effects of different single loading on cold resistance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in Helan mountain east region%负载量对贺兰山东麓赤霞珠葡萄抗寒性的影响研究

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 王金涛

    2015-01-01

    为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄枝条抗寒性的影响,以宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙土和灌淤土6年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,测定了单株5穗、10穗、15穗、20穗、25穗负载量水平下一年生葡萄枝条的相对电导率、半致死温度、可溶性糖、脯氨酸及翌年葡萄枝条萌芽率及果枝比等指标。结果表明:两地6年生赤霞珠葡萄枝条的抗寒性随着单株负载量的增加有先增加后降低的趋势。灌淤土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理10穗的半致死温度最低为-16.15℃,砾质沙土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理15穗半致死温度最低为-22.18℃,因此控制合适的负载量有利于酿酒葡萄安全越冬。在相同低温、相同负载处理条件下,砾质沙土上赤霞珠枝条可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量高于灌淤土上赤霞珠枝条。%In order to explor different single loading on cold resistance of wine grapes, six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of different single loading including the sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil in Helan mountain east region, and the electrical conductivity, semi-lethal temperatures(LT50), soluble sugar, proline, as well as the bud germination rate and fruit-shoot ratio of annual branches were measured. The results showed that the annual branches of different region had a tendency with increase single loading, cold resistance increase first and then decrease. Under the condition of single loading 10 clusters treatment, the semi-lethal temperatures(LT50) of annual branches in irrigation-silting soil was as low as-16.5℃, which the other was minimum-22.18℃in the sandy soil with the single loading 15 clusters, so controling the appropriate single loading could improve the safety of wine grapes during its living through the winter. Under the condition of same temperature and loading treatment, the content of soluble sugar and proline of

  10. α-Tocopherol succinate improves encapsulation and anticancer activity of doxorubicin loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Oliveira, Mariana S; Mussi, Samuel V; Gomes, Dawidson A; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Frezard, Frederic; Carregal, Virgínia M; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) co-loaded with doxorubicin and α-tocopheryl succinate (TS), a succinic acid ester of α-tocopherol that exhibits anticancer actions, evaluating the influence of TS on drug encapsulation efficiency. The SLN were characterized for size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug release. Studies of in vitro anticancer activity were also conducted. The EE was significantly improved from 30 ± 1% to 96 ± 2% for SLN without and with TS at 0.4%, respectively. In contrast, a reduction in particle size from 298 ± 1 to 79 ± 1 nm was observed for SLN without and with TS respectively. The doxorubicin release data show that SLN provide a controlled drug release. The in vitro studies showed higher cytotoxicity for doxorubicin-TS-loaded SLN than for free doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that TS-doxorubicin-loaded SLN is a promising alternative for the treatment of cancer.

  11. Approach to unbalance power active compensation under linear load unbalances and fundamental voltage asymmetries

    Segui-Chilet, S.; Gimeno-Sales, F.J.; Orts, S.; Alcaniz, M.; Masot, R. [Instituto de Tecnologia Electrica - Grupo de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcera, G.; Figueres, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper proposes a new definition of the unbalance power that allows the selective compensation of inefficiencies caused by linear loads by means of a three-phase shunt active power compensator (APC). Symmetrical components of current and voltage are used to evaluate the unbalance power in these systems and to define the compensating currents. The instantaneous power flows with unbalanced linear loads connected to a three-phase electrical system are analyzed following the normal procedure used for the quantification of the reactive power. Equations to calculate the unbalance power and the effective apparent power are obtained from the analysis of the instantaneous power flows. The output currents of the selective APC are defined using the instantaneous unbalance power approach. Power quantities and APC compensating current are defined for IEEE Std. 1459 and for the instantaneous unbalance power approach. Two examples are used to compare the power quantities and the APC operation. The main effects of unbalanced linear load and of fundamental voltage asymmetries are analyzed. Simulations of a shunt APC emphasize the advantages of the calculation of the compensating currents based on the proposed instantaneous unbalance power approach. A comparison with the results obtained by calculation of the compensating currents based on IEEE Std. 1459 is carried out. A new power factor is also defined and compared with other conventional definitions. (author)

  12. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  13. Kinetics Study of Photocatalytic Activity of Flame-Made Unloaded and Fe-Loaded CeO2 Nanoparticles

    D. Channei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unloaded CeO2 and nominal 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 5.00, and 10.00 mol% Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP. The samples were characterized to obtain structure-activity relation by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (UV-vis DRS. XRD results indicated that phase structures of Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were the mixture of CeO2 and Fe2O3 phases at high iron loading concentrations. HRTEM images showed the significant change in morphology from cubic to almost-spherical shape observed at high iron loading concentration. Increased specific surface area with increasing iron content was also observed. The results from UV-visible reflectance spectra clearly showed the shift of absorption edge towards longer visible region upon loading CeO2 with iron. Photocatalytic studies showed that Fe-loaded CeO2 sample exhibited higher activity than unloaded CeO2, with optimal 2.00 mol% of iron loading concentration being the most active catalyst. Results from XPS analysis suggested that iron in the Fe3+ state might be an active species responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activities observed in this study.

  14. Load rather than length sensitive feedback contributes to soleus muscle activity during human treadmill walking

    af Klint, Richard; Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    .045), but no significant difference was observed for the SLR (P = 0.13). Similarly, the effect of the BWS was measured on the unload response, i.e., the depression in soleus activity following a plantar-flexion perturbation ( approximately 5.6 degrees, 203-247 degrees/s), quantified over a 50 ms analysis window....... The unload response decreased with decreased load (P > 0.001), but was not significantly affected (P = 0.45) by tizanidine induced depression of the MLR (P = 0.039, n = 6). Since tizanidine is believed to depress the group II afferent pathway, these results are consistent with the idea that force...

  15. Active Control of Thermostatic Loads for Economic and Technical Support to Distribution Grids

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Active control of electric water heaters (EWHs) is presented in this paper as a means of exploiting demand flexibility for supporting low-voltage (LV) distribution grids. A single-node model of an EWH is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory using a thermal energy balancing equation and three...... of the energy band is done based on feeder loading to respect thermal grid constraints. Finally, a voltage-based control is implemented to provide real-time voltage support to the LV grids. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the presented method to realize both economic and technical advantages...

  16. Neutrophils accentuate renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dose-dependent protective effect of a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist.

    Riera, M; Torras, J; Herrero, I; Valles, J; Paubert-Braquet, M; Cruzado, J M; Alsina, J; Grinyo, J M

    1997-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the renal damage induced by cold ischemia-reperfusion was worsened by neutrophils (PMN), and if blockade of platelet-activating factor (PAF) could effectively decrease this injury. After flushing with EuroCollins, 85 kidneys from Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either no cold ischemia or a 4-h cold ischemia, and then were reperfused for 75 min at 37 degrees C and 100 mm Hg in an isolated perfusion circuit. Reperfusion was performed with a Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 4.5% albumin, with and without human PMN (7.5 x 10(5) cells/ml) and with and without addition of a PAF receptor antagonist (BN 52021). Hemodynamic and functional parameters were continuously assessed during reperfusion. At end of the study, PAF production was evaluated. Presence of PMN during reperfusion of nonischemic kidneys produced no alteration of functional parameters or PAF production. After 4-h cold ischemia, the presence of PMN during reperfusion produced a significant worsening of plasma flow rate, glomerular filtration rate and sodium reabsorption in comparison with kidneys reperfused without PMN. Also, higher production of PAF was observed in the kidneys reperfused with PMN than in the kidneys reperfused without PMN. After 4-h cold ischemia, addition of BN 52021 during reperfusion in the presence of PMN significantly increased the plasma flow rate, glomerular filtration rate and sodium reabsorption in comparison with kidneys reperfused without this PAF antagonist. This effect was dose dependent. After 4-h cold ischemia, addition of BN 52021 during reperfusion in the absence of PMN produced no significant effect on functional parameters in comparison with kidneys reperfused without this PAF antagonist. These results indicate that PMN contribute to renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury evaluated in the isolated perfused kidney. Treatment with a PAF receptor antagonist attenuated this injury in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that it

  17. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from Monascus ruber M7.

    Guo, Hailun; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Mu

    2016-07-01

    Cold active esterases are a class of important biocatalysts that exhibit high activity at low temperatures. In this study, a search for putative cold-active esterase encoding genes from Monascus ruber M7 was performed. A cold-active esterase, named Lip10, was isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals that Lip10 contained a conserved sequence motif Gly(173)-Xaa-Ser(175)-Xaa-Gly(177) that is also present in the majority of esterases and lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Lip10 was a novel microbial esterase. The lip10 gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), resulting in the expression of an active and soluble protein that constituted 40 % of the total cell protein content. Lip10 maintained almost 50 % of its maximal activity at 4-10 °C, with optimal activity at 40 °C. Furthermore, Lip10 retained 184-216 % of its original activity, after incubation in 50 % (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents for 24 h. The enzyme also exhibited high activity under alkaline conditions and good tolerance to metal ions in the reaction mixture. These results indicate that Lip10 may have potential uses in chemical synthesis and food processing industrial applications as an esterase.

  18. CVC冷轧机承载辊缝凸度调节域计算模型%Model of CVC Cold Rolling Mill Loaded Roll Gap Crown Control Room

    李勇华; 邸洪双; 刘光明; 郝亮

    2011-01-01

    The crown control room prediction model of loaded roll gap of 4-high CVC cold rolling mill was developed.The loaded roll gap was divided into two parts, unloaded roll gap crown and deformation roll gap crown.Taking a CVC mill as an example, the model calculated result was consistent with the result that calculated by influence function method.It could be used to preset the shape crown of different actual production conditions on line.%开发了四辊CVC冷轧机承载辊缝凸度调节域预报模型,其将承载辊缝分为空载辊缝凸度与变形辊缝凸度两部分.以某厂CVC轧机为例,计算的凸度调节域与影响函数法计算的凸度调节域相吻合,可在线对不同工况下的轧机进行板凸度的预设定.

  19. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  20. Screening and Characterization of Cold-Active β-Galactosidase Producing Psychrotrophic Enterobacter ludwigii from the Sediments of Arctic Fjord.

    Alikkunju, Aneesa P; Sainjan, Neethu; Silvester, Reshma; Joseph, Ajith; Rahiman, Mujeeb; Antony, Ally C; Kumaran, Radhakrishnan C; Hatha, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature-tolerant microorganisms and their cold-active enzymes could be an innovative and invaluable tool in various industrial applications. In the present study, bacterial isolates from the sediment samples of Kongsfjord, Norwegian Arctic, were screened for β-galactosidase production. Among the isolates, KS25, KS85, KS60, and KS92 have shown good potential in β-galactosidase production at 20 °C. 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the relatedness of the isolates to Enterobacter ludwigii. The optimum growth temperature of the isolate was 25 °C. The isolate exhibited good growth and enzyme production at a temperature range of 15-35 °C, pH 5-10. The isolate preferred yeast extract and lactose for the maximum growth and enzyme production at conditions of pH 7.0, temperature of 25 °C, and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The growth and enzyme production was stimulated by Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) and strongly inhibited by Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(+). β-Galactosidases with high specific activity at low temperatures are very beneficial in food industry to compensate the nutritional problem associated with lactose intolerance. The isolate exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize clarified whey, an industrial pollutant, for good biomass and enzyme yield and hence could be well employed in whey bioremediation.

  1. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  2. Time-dependent combinatory effects of active mechanical loading and passive topographical cues on cell orientation.

    Wang, Qian; Huang, Hanyang; Wei, Kang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stretching and topographical cues are both effective mechanical stimulations for regulating cell morphology, orientation, and behaviors. The competition of these two mechanical stimulations remains largely underexplored. Previous studies have suggested that a small cyclic mechanical strain is not able to reorient cells that have been pre-aligned by relatively large linear microstructures, but can reorient those pre-aligned by small linear micro/nanostructures if the characteristic dimension of these structures is below a certain threshold. Likewise, for micro/nanostructures with a given characteristic dimension, the strain must exceed a certain magnitude to overrule the topographic cues. There are however no in-depth investigations of such "thresholds" due to the lack of close examination of dynamic cell orientation during and shortly after the mechanical loading. In this study, the time-dependent combinatory effects of active and passive mechanical stimulations on cell orientation are investigated by developing a micromechanical stimulator. The results show that the cells pre-aligned by linear micro/nanostructures can be altered by cyclic in-plane strain, regardless of the structure size. During the loading, the micro/nanostructures can resist the reorientation effects by cyclic in-plane strain while the resistive capability (measured by the mean orientation angle change and the reorientation speed) increases with the increasing characteristic dimension. The micro/nanostructures also can recover the cell orientation after the cessation of cyclic in-plane strain, while the recovering capability increases with the characteristic dimension. The previously observed thresholds are largely dependent on the observation time points. In order to accurately evaluate the combinatory effects of the two mechanical stimulations, observations during the active loading with a short time interval or endpoint observations shortly after the loading are preferred. This

  3. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Santos Ferreira I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  4. Experimental study of the shearing behavior of cold-formed steel wall panels under cyclic load%冷弯薄壁型钢组合墙体循环荷载下抗剪性能试验研究

    苏明周; 黄智光; 孙健; 齐岩; 申林

    2011-01-01

    为考察冷弯薄壁型钢组合墙体在循环荷载下的抗剪性能,进行10片足尺墙体试件水平低周反复加载试验,得到不同构造墙体的屈服荷载、最大荷载、破坏荷载、耗能系数和延性系数等性能指标。试验结果表明:组合墙体的耗能能力较好;墙体的抗剪承载力主要来源于墙板的蒙皮作用;斜撑对提高单柱墙体抗剪承载力起一定作用,但对双柱墙体的作用很小;当忽略墙体开洞部分的抗剪承载力后,单位长度开洞墙体的抗剪承载力比普通墙体稍高,表明墙体开洞部分承担了一定剪力;双柱墙体比单柱墙体的抗剪承载力显著提高;试验过程中各试件立柱的应变反应普遍较大、横撑%In order to study the shearing behavior of cold-formed steel wall panels, full scale model test was carried out for 10 pieces of wall panels under cyclic horizontal load. The shearing performance indexes of wall panels such as yield load, maximum load, failure load, energy dissipation coefficient, and ductility factor were calculated using the test results. Based on the analysis, the following conclusions are obtained. The wall panels had good energy dissipation capacity. The shear resistance of the wall panels mainly derived from skin action. The diagonal bracings were helpful to improve the shear resistance of single-column wall panel while nearly useless to double-column wall panel. The per unit shear resistance of wall panel with openings was higher than that of ordinary wall panel when the shear load carrying capacity of openings was ignored. The shear load carrying capacities of double-column wall panels were obviously higher than that of single-column ones. The strain response was largest for the column, smaller for the transverse bracing, and smallest for the diagonal bracing. The interface slip between the upper and lower wallboards was obvious, thus the seams between wallboards should be as small as possible

  5. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Use of Active Ingredient Information for Low Socioeconomic Status Parents’ Decision-making Regarding Cough and Cold Medications: Role of Health Literacy

    Yin, H. Shonna; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Nagin, Perry; van Schaick, Linda; Cerra, Maria E.; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Parent administration of multiple medications with overlapping active ingredients places children at risk for overdose. We sought to examine how parents use active ingredient information as part of the process of selecting a cough/cold medication for their child, and how health literacy plays a role. METHODS Experimental study of parents of children presenting for care in an urban public hospital pediatric clinic. Parents were asked to determine which of 3 cough/cold medications could be given to relieve a child’s cold symptoms, as part of a scenario in which they had already given a dose of acetaminophen; only 1 did not contain acetaminophen. Primary dependent variable: correct selection of cough/cold medication, using active ingredient as the rationale for choice. Primary independent variable: parent health literacy (Newest Vital Sign (NVS)). RESULTS Of 297 parents, 79.2% had low health literacy (NVS score 0–3). 35.4% correctly chose the cough/cold medication which did not contain acetaminophen. The proportion of those who made the correct choice was no different than expected from chance alone (Goodness of fit test; χ2=2.1, p=0.3). Only 7.7% chose the correct medication and used active ingredient as the rationale. Those with adequate literacy skills were more likely to have selected the correct medication and rationale (25.8% vs. 3.0% (p=0.001); AOR=11.1 [95%CI: 3.6–33.7], adjusting for sociodemographics, including English proficiency and education). CONCLUSIONS Many parents, especially those with low health literacy, do not use active ingredient information as part of decision-making related to administering multiple medications. PMID:23680341

  7. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract

    YANG Meng-Qi; YE Lin-Lan; LIU Xiao-Ling; QI Xiao-Ming; LV Jia-Di; WANG Gang; FARHAN Ulah-Khan

    2016-01-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products,including gingerol,a main active constituent of ginger.Ginger could improve the digestive function;however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated.In the present study,gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium.TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPAl-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies.The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA.Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion.The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red,EGTA,and TRPAl-specific siRNA.In summary,our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx.

  8. Inhomogeneous response of expiratory muscle activity to cold block of the ventral medullary surface.

    Chonan, T; Okabe, S; Hida, W; Izumiyama, T; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1991-11-01

    We assessed the effects of cooling the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on the activity of chest wall and abdominal expiratory muscles in eight anesthetized artificially ventilated dogs after vagotomy and denervation of the carotid sinus nerves. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the triangularis sterni, internal intercostal, abdominal external oblique, abdominal internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured with EMG of the diaphragm as an index of inspiratory activity. Bilateral localized cooling (2 x 2 mm) in the thermosensitive intermediate part of the VMS produced temperature-dependent reduction in the EMG of diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The rib cage expiratory EMGs were little affected at 25 degrees C; their amplitudes decreased at lower VMS temperatures (less than 20 degrees C) but by significantly fewer degrees than the diaphragmatic and abdominal expiratory EMGs at a constant VMS temperature. With moderate to severe cooling (less than 20 degrees C) diaphragmatic EMG disappeared, but rib cage expiratory EMGs became tonic and resumed a phasic pattern shortly before the recovery of diaphragmatic EMG during rewarming of the VMS. These results indicate that the effects of cooling the VMS differ between the activity of rib cage and abdominal expiratory muscles. This variability may be due to inhomogeneous inputs from the VMS to expiratory motoneurons or to a different responsiveness of various expiratory motoneurons to the same input either from the VMS or the inspiratory neurons.

  9. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-06-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy.

  10. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis.

  11. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    Hong-zhi Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of parameters like rupture angle, vibration acceleration coefficient, wall friction angle, and soil friction angle on active earth pressure have been studied. Results are presented in terms of coefficients in the figures and comparison of the test data and the earth pressure calculated by M-O method and present study. The result shows that the measured earth pressure is accordant with the theoretical analysis, so the method in this paper is an effective basis for the calculation of earth pressure on piles under vehicle loads.

  12. Synthesis of nanosize MCM-41 loaded with TiO 2 and study of its photocatalytic activity

    Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.; Zare, K.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, nanosized mesoporous materials have received significant attention due to their impact in different processes. Several diverse applications of these materials, e.g. high density magnetic recording, magnetic fluids, magnetic refrigeration as well as in photocatalysis, solar cells, photosensors, have triggered considerable research activities in the area of nanotechnology. In this work, nanosize MCM-41 was synthesized and loaded then with TiO 2 using tetra butoxy titanium (TBT). As prepared TiO 2 loaded materials was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO 2 loaded MCM-41 was finally evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under irradiation of UV light. The result showed that TiO 2 loaded on nanosize MCM-41 has higher photocatalytic activity than that of TiO 2.

  13. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements.

  14. Muscle electrical activity during exercises with and without load executed on dry land and in an aquatic environment

    Indira Nayra Paz Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Muscle activity in the aquatic environment was investigated using electromyographic analyses. The physical properties of water and the resistance used may influence the response of the muscle during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrical activity in water and on the floor during flexion and knee extension exercises with and without load and aimed at understanding the muscular response while performing resistance exercises in water. Methods The sample consisted of 14 volunteers between 18 and 35 years old who were subjected to active exercises involving knee flexion and extension with and without load on the floor and in water. Electromyography was performed during the movement. Results A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle during exercises on the floor. The biceps femoris muscle showed increased electromyographic activity when resistance was used. A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle compared with exercises with and without load and the moment of rest in immersion. The electrical activity of the rectus and biceps femoris muscles was reduced in exercises with load and without load in a therapy pool compared with on the floor. Conclusion There was a reduction of the electromyographic activity in the aquatic environment compared with that on the ground, which could be attributed to the effects from hot water. Therefore, it is believed that resistance exercises can be performed early in a therapy pool, which will facilitate the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. The effect of backpack load on muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot.

    Son, Hohee

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot.

  16. Effects of Cold Acclimation on Several Enzyme Activities in Euonymus radicans 'Emorald & Gold' and Its Relation to Semi-lethal Temperature

    Guo Huihong; Gao Shumin; Zhao Fengjun; Li Fenglan

    2004-01-01

    The changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ATPase in the leaves of Euonymus radicans were studied when seedlings were cold-acclimated (at 4 ℃) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and then treated for 1 d under low temperature stress (at -5 ℃). The semi-lethal temperatures of acclimated and unacclimated seedlings were also investigated. The results indicated that the activities of the three enzymes in the leaves of the seedlings treated at 4 ℃ for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were all higher than those of unacclimated seedings (treated at 22 ℃ as controls). The activities of SOD and POD increased continuously with the prolongation of the time of cold acclimation, but stepped up to summits then down to the levels of the controls. The activities of SOD culminated at the first week, and the activities of POD at the second week. When acclimated and unacclimated seedlings were both treated at -5 ℃ for 1 d, the activities of the three enzymes in the leaves of acclimated seedlings were a little lower than those before stress, but higher than those of the controls. Moreover, the decrease rate of enzyme activities was greatly lower than that of the controls. The results showed that cold acclimation could enhance the stability of the three enzymes in the leaves of seedlings under low temperature stress; the semi-lethal temperature was -19.1 ℃ when the seedlings were treated at 4 ℃ for 3 weeks, but it was -5.4 ℃ when the seedlings were treated at 22 ℃. The decline of the semi-lethal temperature caused by the adaptive changes of enzyme activities was one of the foundations of enhancing the cold tolerance.

  17. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications.

  18. A Case Study of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Activities in Hailstorms under Cold Eddy Synoptic Situation

    FENG Guili; QIE Xiushu; YUAN Tie; ZHOU Yunjun

    2006-01-01

    There were three hailstorms in Shandong Province, caused by a same northeast cold eddy situation on 1 June 2002. Cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes occurring in the weather event were observed by Shandong Lightning Detection Network (SLDN), which consists of 10 sensors covering all over Shandong Province. The temporal and spatial distributions of CG lightning are nvestigated for the three hailstorms by using the data from SLDN, Doppler radar and satellite. The results show that different thunderstorms present different lightning features even if under the same synoptic situation. The percentage of positive CG lightning is very high during the period of hail falling. CG flashes mainly occurred in the region with a cloud top brightness temperature lower than -50℃. Negative CG flashes usually clustered in the lower temperature region and tended to occur in the region with maximum temperature gradient, while the positive ones usually spread discretely. Negative CG flashes usually occurred in intense echo regions with reflectivity greater than 50dBz, while the positive CG flashes often occurred in weak and stable echo regions (10-30 dBz) or cloud anvils, although they can be observed in strong convective regions sometimes. Almost all hail falling took place in the stage with active positive flashes, and the peak positive flash rate is a little prior to the hail events. The thunderstorm could lead to disastrous weather when positive CG lightning activities occur in cluster. Severe thunderstorms sometimes present a low flash rate at its vigorous stage, which is probably caused by the "mechanism of chargeregion lift" through investigating the reflectivity evolution. Combined with the total lightning (intracloud and CG) data obtained by LIS onboard TRMM, the phenomenon of high ratio of intracloud flash to CG flash in severe hailstorm has been discussed. The competition of the same charge sources between different lightning types can also be helpful for explaining the cause of

  19. The 1.4 A crystal structure of the large and cold-active Vibrio sp. alkaline phosphatase.

    Helland, Ronny; Larsen, Renate Lie; Asgeirsson, Bjarni

    2009-02-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the cold-adapted Vibrio strain G15-21 is among the AP variants with the highest known k(cat) value. Here the structure of the enzyme at 1.4 A resolution is reported and compared to APs from E. coli, human placenta, shrimp and the Antarctic bacterium strain TAB5. The Vibrio AP is a dimer although its monomers are without the long N-terminal helix that embraces the other subunit in many other APs. The long insertion loop, previously noted as a special feature of the Vibrio AP, serves a similar function. The surface does not have the high negative charge density as observed in shrimp AP, but a positively charged patch is observed around the active site that may be favourable for substrate binding. The dimer interface has a similar number of non-covalent interactions as other APs and the "crown"-domain is the largest observed in known APs. Part of it slopes over the catalytic site suggesting that the substrates may be small molecules. The catalytic serines are refined with multiple conformations in both monomers. One of the ligands to the catalytic zinc ion in binding site M1 is directly connected to the crown-domain and is closest to the dimer interface. Subtle movements in metal ligands may help in the release of the product and/or facilitate prior dephosphorylation of the covalent intermediate. Intersubunit interactions may be a major factor for promoting active site geometries that lead to the high catalytic activity of Vibrio AP at low temperatures.

  20. Cold-active bacteriophages from the Baltic Sea ice have diverse genomes and virus-host interactions.

    Senčilo, Ana; Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Saarijärvi, Mikko; Bamford, Dennis H; Roine, Elina

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are the major prokaryotic component of the Baltic Sea ice microbiome, and it is postulated that phages are among their major parasites. In this study, we sequenced the complete genomes of six earlier reported phage isolates from the Baltic Sea ice infecting Shewanella sp. and Flavobacterium sp. hosts as well as characterized the phage-host interactions. Based on the genome sequences, the six phages were classified into five new genera. Only two phages, 1/4 and 1/40, both infecting Shewanella sp. strains, showed significant nucleotide sequence similarity to each other and could be grouped into the same genus. These two phages are also related to Vibrio-specific phages sharing approximately 25% of the predicted gene products. Nevertheless, cross-titrations showed that the cold-active phages studied are host specific: none of the seven additionally tested, closely related Shewanella strains served as hosts for the phages. Adsorption experiments of two Shewanella phages, 1/4 and 3/49, conducted at 4 °C and at 15 °C revealed relatively fast adsorption rates that are, for example, comparable with those of phages infective in mesophilic conditions. Despite the small number of Shewanella phages characterized here, we could already find different types of phage-host interactions including a putative abortive infection.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Bradbury, Mark; Ostrikov, Kostya; Murphy, Anthony B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med), with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min) may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  2. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase from the Cold Adapted Microorganism Psychromonas ingrahamii: A Low Temperature Active Enzyme with Broad Substrate Specificity

    Stefano Pascarella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine hydroxymethyltransferase from the psychrophilic microorganism Psychromonas ingrahamii was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a His-tag fusion protein. The enzyme was characterized with respect to its spectroscopic, catalytic, and thermodynamic properties. The properties of the psychrophilic enzyme have been contrasted with the characteristics of the homologous counterpart from E. coli, which has been structurally and functionally characterized in depth and with which it shares 75% sequence identity. Spectroscopic measures confirmed that the psychrophilic enzyme displays structural properties almost identical to those of the mesophilic counterpart. At variance, the P. ingrahamii enzyme showed decreased thermostability and high specific activity at low temperature, both of which are typical features of cold adapted enzymes. Furthermore, it was a more efficient biocatalyst compared to E. coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT particularly for side reactions. Many β-hydroxy-α-amino acids are SHMT substrates and represent important compounds in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and food additives. Thanks to these attractive properties, this enzyme could have a significant potential for biotechnological applications.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Anne Mai-Prochnow

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med, with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  4. Microbiological Aspects of Geothermal Energy: Influence of Microbial Activity on Scaling and Clogging in a Cold Storage

    Lerm, Stephanie; Alawi, Mashal; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Vieth, Andrea; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    that bacteria and their metabolic activities were involved in the decrease of filter endurances. A strong biofilm formation of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria related to Thiothrix was observed. In the course of the disinfection measure the microbial composition in the process water changed significantly. Thiothrix could not be detected any longer and the biocoenosis in the fluid was dominated now by Flavobacterium, Acidovorax as well as Alcaligenaceae related organisms. In contrast, SRB analyzed by specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes were hardly affected by the disinfection measures. However, even if especially SRB are considered as the most important taxonomic group for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), present operational results indicate that scaling and clogging were the predominant processes for the operation of the shallow cold storage in Berlin.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin organic films on PTFE activated by cold atmospheric plasma

    Tóth András

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An air diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge is used to activate the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE samples, which are subsequently coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and tannic acid (TAN single, bi- and multilayers, respectively, using the dip-coating method. The surfaces are characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The XPS measurements show that with plasma treatment the F/C atomic ratio in the PTFE surface decreases, due to the diminution of the concentration of CF2 moieties, and also oxygen incorporation through formation of new C–O, C=O and O=C–O bonds can be observed. In the case of coated samples, the new bonds indicated by XPS show the bonding between the organic layer and the surface, and thus the stability of layers, while the gradual decrease of the concentration of F atoms with the number of deposited layers proves the creation of PVP/TAN bi- and multi-layers. According to the ATR-FTIR spectra, in the case of PVP/TAN multilayer hydrogen bonding develops between the PVP and TAN, which assures the stability of the multilayer. The AFM lateral friction measurements show that the macromolecular layers homogeneously coat the plasma treated PTFE surface.

  6. MaJAZ1 Attenuates the MaLBD5-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Gene MaAOC2 in Regulating Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Ba, Liang-jie; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment could effectively reduce the chilling injury of many fruits, including banana, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, one lateral organ boundaries (LOB) domain (LBD) gene, designated as MaLBD5, was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that accumulation of MaLBD5 was induced by cold temperature and MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that MaLBD5 was localized to the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MaLBD5 physically interacted with MaJAZ1, a potential repressor of jasmonate signaling. Furthermore, transient expression assays indicated that MaLBD5 transactivated a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, termed MaAOC2, which was also induced by cold and MeJA. More interestingly, MaJAZ1 attenuated the MaLBD5-mediated transactivation of MaAOC2. These results suggest that MaLBD5 and MaJAZ1 might act antagonistically in relation to MeJA-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit, at least partially via affecting jasmonate biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings expand the knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network of MeJA-mediated cold tolerance of banana fruit.

  7. Cold energy

    Wallace, John P., E-mail: jpw@castinganalysis.com [Casting Analysis Corp., PO Box 52, Weyers Cave, VA 24486 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  8. 不锈钢冷成型管截面轴心受压构件的有限元分析%FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STAINLESS STEEL COLD-FORMED TUBULAR COLUMNS UNDER AXIAL LOAD

    郑宝锋; 舒赣平; 沈晓明

    2012-01-01

    ANSYS is employed to study the overall buckling properties of stainless steel cold formed tubular columns under axial load. Non-linear property of material, the effect of cold-formed, local and overall imperfection as well as the residual stress are considered in this model. The comparisons between test results and the calculated results are performed in order to verify the FEM model. Comparisons indicate that the developed FEM model could represent the test exactly and the deviations in average are limited in 5%. Then the influences of varieties of factor are valued. The results of parameterized analysis conclude that: the influence of the increase strength in the corner region, the parameters variation of the material property and the amplitude of the overall imperfection could cause considerable changes in the buckling strength of stainless columns; shifts in section types almost do not influence the buckling strength. The conclusion could be regarded as the foundation of the design method for cold-formed stainless steel columns.%采用有限元软件ANSYS对不锈钢冷成型管截面轴心受压长柱进行模拟,有限元模型中考虑不锈钢材料的非线性本构关系、冷加工效应、构件的初始缺陷以及构件中的残余应力。将模拟结果与国内外的试验数据进行对比。对比表明:有限元模型能够准确地模拟不锈钢构件的受力全过程,模拟平均误差小于5%;对影响不锈钢轴心受压构件受力性能的因素进行分析,分析表明:方矩管截面的转角区冷加工效应,不锈钢材料力学性能参数变化以及构件的整体缺陷取值对构件的整体稳定性能影响较大,而不锈钢构件的截面对稳定系数影响很小。分析结论可作为建立不锈钢轴心受压构件稳定承载力设计公式的参考。

  9. 开口冷弯厚壁型钢轴压构件抗震性能研究%Research on the seismic behaviors of opening cold-formed thick-walled steel under the axial cyclic loading

    付小超; 李元齐; 沈祖炎

    2016-01-01

    为研究开口冷弯厚壁型钢构件在轴向滞回荷载作用下的抗震性能,首先选取了3根壁厚t>6 mm的冷弯内卷边槽钢进行轴向滞回试验,然后建立相关的ANSYS有限元模型进行模拟计算,在与试验结果对比的基础上,选取了不同的腹板宽厚比(h/t=25~90)、绕弱轴长细比(λy=30~90)的构件进行参数化分析计算.研究结果表明:宽厚比、长细比是影响冷弯型钢抗震性能的两个主要因素,宽厚比(h/t)越大抗震性能越差,长细比(λy)越大抗震性能同样也越差,设计时应尽量避免选择长细比和宽厚比均较大的构件.%In order to investigate the hysteretic behaviors of opening cold-formed thick-walled steel members under the axial cyclic loading, three cold-formed steel columns were tested. On the basis of compared with the test results, a finite element method ( FEM) in ANSYS was established. The in-fluence of width-thickness ratio ( h/t) rang from 25 to 90 for web and slenderness ratio about the weak axis y (λy ) rang from 30 to 90 of such members were investigated by FEM. Analysis results in-dicated that the width-thickness ratio and the slenderness ratio about the weak axis y are the most important factors to affect the hysteretic behaviors. So, the cold-formed steels which with great width-thickness ratio ( h/t) and great slenderness ratio (λy ) should be avoided in designing, because they will lead to poor seismic performance.

  10. The response of the temperature of cold-point mesopause to solar activity based on SABER data set

    Tang, Chaoli; Liu, Dong; Wei, Heli; Wang, Yingjian; Dai, Congming; Wu, Pengfei; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-07-01

    The thermal structure and energy balance of upper atmosphere are dominated by solar activity. The response of cold-point mesopause (CPM) to solar activity is an important form. This article presents the response of the temperature of CPM (T-CPM) to solar activity using 14 year Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry data series over 80°S-80°N regions. These regions are divided into 16 latitude zones with 10° interval, and the spatial areas of 80°S-80°N, 180°W-180°E are divided into 96 lattices with 10°(latitude) × 60°(longitude) grid. The annual-mean values of T-CPM and F10.7 are calculated. The least squares regression method and correlation analysis are applied to these annual-mean series. First, the results show that the global T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance with correlation coefficient of 0.90. The global solar response of T-CPM is 4.89 ± 0.67 K/100 solar flux unit. Then, for each latitude zone, the solar response of T-CPM and its fluctuation are obtained. The solar response of T-CPM becomes stronger with increasing latitude. The fluctuation ranges of solar response at middle-latitude regions are smaller than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on W shape. The corelationship analysis shows that the T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance for each latitude zone. The correlation coefficients at middle-latitude regions are higher than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on M shape. At last, for each grid cell, the response of T-CPM to solar activity and their correlation coefficient are presented.

  11. Pegylated dendrimer and its effect in fluorouracil loading and release for enhancing antitumor activity.

    Ly, Tu Uyen; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Hoang, Thi Kim Dung; Phan, Kim Ngoc; Truong, Hai Nhung; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa

    2013-02-01

    Dendrimer, a new class of hyper-branched polymer with predetermined molecular weight, is being received much attention in nano biomedical applications such as anticancer drug delivery, gene therapy, disease diagnosis and etc. In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-based dendrimer generation 3.0 (G 3.0) was synthesized and subsequently pegylated. Obtained results showed that pegylation degree of the dendrimer was around 31% for its external amine groups. TEM image of the pegylated dendrimer exhibited spherical shape and nano sizes ranging from 30 to 40 nm. The fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded pegylated dendrimer showed a slow release profile of the drug. In vitro study, at the primary screening concentration of 100 microg/mL, the PAMAM dendrimer presented higher toxicity in MCF-7 cells as compared to its pegylated counterpart. Meanwhile, the (5-FU)-loaded pegylated dendrimer exhibited the antiproliferative activity against the cell line with the IC50 of 9.92 +/- 0.19 microg/mL. In vivo tumor xenograft study, we succeeded in generating MCF-7 cells-derived cancer tumors on mice that was well-confirmed by using flow cytometer assay. The 5-FU encapsulated pegylated dendrimer exhibited a significant decrement in volume of the tumors which was generated by MCF-7 cancer cells.

  12. Characterization of TiO2 Loaded on Activated Carbon Fibers and Its Photocatalytic Reactivity

    JIA,Bing-Yu; DUAN,Li-Yan; MA,Chuan-Li; WANG,Chun-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,TiO2 loaded on activated carbon fibers(ACF)was prepared by a coating treatment,followed by calcination at different temperatures in air atmosphere.The photocatalyst developed was characterized by SEM,XRD,XPS and UV-Vis adsorption spectroscopy.It was observed from SEM images that TiO2 loaded on ACF was in the form of small clusters with nanometer size.As confirmed by XRD and XPS determinations,the crystalline pattern of immobilized TiO2 was still anatase-form after calcination,and the micrographic structure and surface properties of ACF have not been damaged by the deposition process and calcination at different temperatures.Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue(MB)in aqueous solution was investigated using TiO2/ACF as photocatalyst.The comparison of photolysis,absorption and photocatalysis was carried out.The results indicated that the photocatalysis process of combined photocatalyst showed much higher degradation rate than that of photolysis and absorption processes.In addition,the possibility of cyclic usage of the photocatalyst was also confirmed.

  13. 5-Fluorouracil Loaded Chitosan-PVA/Na+MMT Nanocomposite Films for Drug Release and Antimicrobial Activity

    A Babul Reddy; B Manjula; T Jayaramudu; E R Sadiku; P Anand Babu; S Periyar Selvam

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were blended with different concentrations of sodium montmorillonite (Na?MMT) clay solution by a solvent casting method. X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscope results show that the film properties are related to the co-existence of Na?MMT intercalation/exfoliation in the blend and the interaction between chitosan–PVA and Na?MMT. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded with chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT nanocomposite films for in vitro drug delivery study. The antimicrobial activity of the chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT films showed significant effect against Salmonella (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), whereas 5-FU encapsulated chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT bio-nanocomposite films did not show any inhibition against bacteria. Our results indicate that combination of a flexible and soft polymeric material with high drug loading ability of a hard inorganic porous material can produce improved control over degradation and drug release. It will be an economically viable method for preparation of advanced drug delivery vehicles and biodegradable implants or scaffolds.

  14. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Thanasis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. In an industrial-oriented manner the baseline rotor is upscaled by 5% and the ATEFs are implemented in the outer 30% of the blades. The flap system is kept simple and robust with a single flap section and control with wind speed, rotor azimuth, root bending moments and angle of attack in flap's mid-section being the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple and applicable method that can be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling and lowering cost of energy.

  15. Plasmonic silver nanoparticles loaded titania nanotube arrays exhibiting enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities

    Nishanthi, S. T.; Iyyapushpam, S.; Sundarakannan, B.; Subramanian, E.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical anodization and photochemical reduction is employed to fabricate highly ordered silver loaded titania nanotubes (Ag/TNT) arrays. The Ag/TNT samples show an extended optical absorbance from UV to visible region owing to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag. The photoluminescence intensity of Ag/TNT is significantly lower than that of pure titania revealing a decrease in charge carrier recombination. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared samples are studied using linear sweep and transient photocurrent measurements. Compared with pure TNT, the Ag loaded samples show a higher photoelectrochemical activity. The results demonstrate an efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the consequent increase in lifetime of charge carriers by Ag/TNT. The photocatalytic results of methyl orange dye degradation show that the Ag/TNT-3-05 sample exhibits the maximum degradation efficiency of 98.85% with kinetic rate constant of 0.0236(5) min-1 for 180 min light illumination.

  16. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    De Maria Ruggero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w had a mean size Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies.

  17. Preparation of manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents and their desulfurization performance

    Zhang, Jiaojing; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Wenyi; Song, Hua; Wang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents (MnO2/AC) were prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, BET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of preparation conditions and adsorption conditions on desulfurization performance of the adsorbents were studied in a fixed-bed adsorption apparatus. Experimental results show that the surface area and pore volume of MnO2/AC decreased compared with the unmodified activated carbon, but the adsorption capacity to H2S was improved greatly. A suitable H2S removal activity was obtained with manganese dioxide to activated carbon ratio of 1.1: 1 and the calcination temperature of 250°C. At the adsorption temperature of 40°C and gas flow rate of 20 mL/min, the H2S saturation capacity and H2S removal rate reached up to 713.25 mg/g and 89.9%, respectively.

  18. Corrective sitting strategies: An examination of muscle activity and spine loading.

    Castanharo, Raquel; Duarte, Marcos; McGill, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the load on the lumbar spine of subjects when they are asked to adjust from a slouched sitting posture into an upright posture with one of three different strategies: "free" (no instruction) and two coached patterns: "lumbopelvic" dominant and "thoracic" dominant. The activity of selected muscles and kinematic data was recorded from 20 volunteers while performing the three movement patterns to adjust sitting posture. Moments and forces at the lumbar spine were computed from an anatomically detailed model that uses kinematics and muscle activation as input variables. The lumbopelvic pattern produces less joint moment on the lumbar spine (on average 31.2±3.9Nm) when compared to the thoracic pattern (43.8±5.8Nm). However, the joint compression force was similar for these two patterns, but it was smaller in the free pattern, when no coaching was given (lumbopelvic: 1279±112N, thoracic: 1367±(125N, free: 1181±118N). Lower thoracic erector muscle activity and higher lumbar erector activity were measured in the lumbopelvic pattern in comparison with the other two. In summary the lumbopelvic pattern strategy using predominantly the movement of anterior pelvic tilt results in smaller joint moments on the lumbar spine and also positions the lumbar spine closest to the neutral posture minimizing passive tissue stress. This may be the strategy of choice for people with low back flexion intolerance.

  19. Improved antifungal activity of itraconazole-loaded PEG/PLA nanoparticles.

    Essa, Sherief; Louhichi, Fatiha; Raymond, Martine; Hildgen, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)/polylactic acid (PEG/PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing the hydrophobic antifungal itraconazole (ITZ) were developed to provide a controlled release pattern of ITZ as well as to improve its aqueous dispersibility and hence enhance its antifungal action. Two PEG/PLA copolymers (PEGylated PLA polymers) were used in this study; branched PEGylated polymer in which PEG was grafted on PLA backbone at 7% (mol/mol of lactic acid monomer), PEG7%-g-PLA, and multiblock copolymer of PLA and PEG, (PLA-PEG-PLA)n with nearly similar PEG insertion ratio and similar PEG chain length. ITZ-loaded PLA NPs were also prepared and included in this study as a control. ITZ-NPs were prepared from a 1 : 1 w/w blend of PLA and each PEGylated polymer either PEG7%-g-PLA or (PLA-PEG-PLA)n using an oil-in-water emulsion evaporation method. The NPs morphology, size and size distribution, zeta potential, loading efficiency, release profile and antifungal activity were characterized. All ITZ-NPs were nearly spherical with smooth surface and showed less aggregating tendency with a size range of 185-285 nm. All ITZ-NPs measured nearly neutral zeta potential values close to 0 mV. The % LE of ITZ was ∼94% for PEG7%-g-PLA NPs and ∼83% for (PLA-PEG-PLA)n at 15.3% w/w theoretical loading. PEG/PLA NPs were stable over time regarding size and size distribution and % ITZ loading efficiency (% LE). ITZ release showed an initial burst followed by a gradual release profile for ITZ-NPs over 5 days. (PLA-PEG-PLA)n NPs exhibited faster release rates than PEG7%-g-PLA NPs particularly at the last 2 days. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry data confirmed that ITZ exists in an amorphous state or a solid solution state into the NPs matrix. Fourier transform infrared revealed the possibility of chemical interaction between ITZ and the NPs matrix polymer indicating the successful entrapment of ITZ inside the particles. In haemolysis test, ITZ-NPs caused

  20. Nonthermal activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels in abdominal viscera tonically inhibits autonomic cold-defense effectors.

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Turek, Victoria F; Almeida, Maria C; Burmeister, Jeffrey J; Oliveira, Daniela L; Roberts, Jennifer L; Bannon, Anthony W; Norman, Mark H; Louis, Jean-Claude; Treanor, James J S; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2007-07-11

    An involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channel in the regulation of body temperature (T(b)) has not been established decisively. To provide decisive evidence for such an involvement and determine its mechanisms were the aims of the present study. We synthesized a new TRPV1 antagonist, AMG0347 [(E)-N-(7-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-3-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide], and characterized it in vitro. We then found that this drug is the most potent TRPV1 antagonist known to increase T(b) of rats and mice and showed (by using knock-out mice) that the entire hyperthermic effect of AMG0347 is TRPV1 dependent. AMG0347-induced hyperthermia was brought about by one or both of the two major autonomic cold-defense effector mechanisms (tail-skin vasoconstriction and/or thermogenesis), but it did not involve warmth-seeking behavior. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response depended on neither T(b) nor tail-skin temperature at the time of AMG0347 administration, thus indicating that AMG0347-induced hyperthermia results from blockade of tonic TRPV1 activation by nonthermal factors. AMG0347 was no more effective in causing hyperthermia when administered into the brain (intracerebroventricularly) or spinal cord (intrathecally) than when given systemically (intravenously), which indicates a peripheral site of action. We then established that localized intra-abdominal desensitization of TRPV1 channels with intraperitoneal resiniferatoxin blocks the T(b) response to systemic AMG0347; the extent of desensitization was determined by using a comprehensive battery of functional tests. We conclude that tonic activation of TRPV1 channels in the abdominal viscera by yet unidentified nonthermal factors inhibits skin vasoconstriction and thermogenesis, thus having a suppressive effect on T(b).

  1. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  2. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  3. LED-activated methylene blue-loaded Pluronic-nanogold hybrids for in vitro photodynamic therapy.

    Simon, Timea; Boca-Farcau, Sanda; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Baldeck, Patrice; Astilean, Simion

    2013-12-01

    In this work we introduce a new class of multifunctional photodynamic agents based on the coupling of photosensitizer molecules with noble metal nanoparticles, which can be efficiently activated under low light intensity. The favourable modification of the photophysical properties of methylene blue (MB) in MB-loaded Pluronic-nanogold hybrids (Au-PF127-MB) increases the probability of singlet oxygen generation, which in turn allows the use of a light emitting diode (LED) irradiation source instead of commonly used, more invasive lasers. In this regard, Au-PF127-MB treated human lung carcinoma cells (HTB 177) were irradiated at different light doses, using a 660 nm LED source, the results indicating a dose dependent therapeutic effect, decreasing the cell viability down to 13%. Owing to their effectiveness, biocompatibility and integrated imaging and therapeutic functionalities, Au-PF127-MB could represent an important development in the field of biophotonic applications.

  4. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of metformin using copper-loaded activated charcoal modified electrode.

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbon paste electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of metformin (MET). This sensor was designed by Copper(II)-loaded activated charcoal (Cu-AC) in the carbon paste electrode (CPE), which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of MET. The drug was accumulated on the surface of the electrode through formation of a coordination complex with copper ions, which enhanced the sensitivity of the method. The effects of various copper(II) salts and oxidation states of copper (within the carbon paste electrode) on MET oxidation behavior were also investigated. The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range of 50 nM to 60 μM MET, and the detection limit was calculated as 9 nM. The proposed electrode was used successfully for MET determination in real matrices.

  5. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  6. Study of removal of Direct Yellow 12 by cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Batuol [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri, E-mail: syamak.nasiri@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pebdani, Arezou Amiri [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali; Mihandoost, Asma [Department of Chemistry, University of Ilam, P.O. Box: 65315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    In this research, cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon (CdO-NW-AC) has been synthesized by a simple procedure and characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and UV–vis spectrometry. This new adsorbent has been efficiently utilized for the removal of the Direct Yellow 12 (DY-12) from wastewater. To obtain maximum DY-12 removal efficiency, the influences of variables such as pH, DY-12 concentration, amount of CdO-NW-AC, contact time, and temperature have been examined and optimized in a batch method. Following the variable optimization, the experimental equilibrium data (at different concentration of DY-12) was fitted to conventional isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The applicability of each method is based on the R{sup 2} and error analysis for each model. It was found that the experimental equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The dependency of removal process to time and the experimental data follow second order kinetic model with involvement of intraparticle diffusion model. The negative value of Gibbs's free energy and positive value of adsorption enthalpy show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption process. - Graphical abstract: Typical FE-SEM image of the CdO nanowires. Highlights: ► Cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon was utilized as an adsorbent. ► It was used for the removal of Direct Yellow 12 from aqueous solutions. ► The adsorption of Direct Yellow 12 on this adsorbent is endothermic in nature. ► The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  7. Changes in mechanical load and extensor muscle activity in the cervico-thoracic spine induced by sitting posture modification.

    Edmondston, Stephen J; Sharp, Michael; Symes, Andew; Alhabib, Nawaf; Allison, Garry T

    2011-02-01

    The influence of whole body sitting posture on cervico-thoracic posture, mechanical load and extensor muscle activity was examined in 23 asymptomatic adults. Cervical and upper thoracic extensor muscle activity measured in guided slouched and lumbo-pelvic neutral postures was normalised to that measured in a self-selected habitual posture. Head and neck posture and gravitational load moment measurements were obtained in each posture. Sagittal head translation, upper cervical extension and load moment were significantly greater in the slouched posture (p postures, with cervical extensor activity 40% higher in the slouched posture (p posture than the habitual posture (p = 0.002). The significant changes in extensor muscle activity with postural modification appear to be induced by the associated change in mechanical load moment of the head. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: More neutral sitting postures reduce the demand on the cervical extensor muscles and modify the relative contribution of cervical and thoracic extensors to the control of head and neck posture. Postures that promote these patterns of muscular activity may reduce cervical spine loading and the development of posture-related neck pain.

  8. Experimental analysis of flexibility change with different levels of power reduction by demand response activation on thermostat controlled loads

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the flexibility available with thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power system services by demand response (DR) activation. Although the DR activation on TCLs can provide power system ancillary services, it is important to know how long such services can...

  9. Different phenotypes of CD8+ T cells associated with bacterial load in active tuberculosis.

    Silva, Bruna Daniella de Souza; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Kipnis, Andre; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide with an annual mortality rate of 1.3 million. The mechanisms contributing to the loss of balance of immune responses and progression to active tuberculosis disease are unknown. Although CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the cytokines they produce are crucial for protection against tuberculosis they have different roles in tuberculosis immunology. The function of CD4+ T cells has been extensively studied; however, less is known about the phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells. This study evaluated the specific expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, and TGF-β and ex vivo expression of perforin and granzyme-B by CD8+ T cells from active tuberculosis individuals compared with latent infected individuals and non-latent infected individuals. Tuberculosis responses were correlated with the baciloscopy score. We observed that the presence of IL-10 and TGF-β expression and down-expression of granzyme-B in CD8+ T cells correlated with increased sputum bacillary load in active tuberculosis individuals. These findings provide new insights into the role of CD8+ T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease.

  10. Atmospheric-Pressure DBD Cold Plasma for Preparation of High Active Au/P25 Catalysts for Low-Temperature CO Oxidation

    DI Lanbo; ZHAN Zhibin; ZHANG Xiuling; QI Bin; XU Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure was adopted for preparation of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 supported Au catalysts (Au/P25-P) with the assistance of the deposition-precipitation procedure.The influences of the plasma reduction time and calcination on the performance of the Au/P25-P catalysts were investigated.CO oxidation was performed to investigate the catalytic activity of thc Au/P25 catalysts.The results show that DBD cold plasma for the fabrication of Au/P25-P catalysts is a fast process,and Au/P25-P (4 min) exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity due to the complete reduction of Au compounds and less consumption of oxygen vacancies.In order to form more oxygen vacancies active species,Au/P25-P was calcined to obtain Au/P25-PC catalysts.Interestingly,Au/P25-PC exhibited the highest activity for CO oxidation among the Au/P25 samples.The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the smaller size and high distribution of Au nanoparticles are the mean reasons for a high performance of Au/P25-PC.Atmospheric-pressure DBD cold plasma was proved to be of great efficiency in preparing high performance supported Au catalysts.

  11. Common cold

    ... have a low fever or no fever. Young children often run a fever around 100 to 102°F (37.7 to 38.8°C). Depending on which virus caused your cold, you may also have: Cough Decreased appetite Headache Muscle aches Postnasal drip Sore throat

  12. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  13. Identification and characterization of a cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase by screening a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant.

    Yiying Jiao

    Full Text Available A cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase gene (designated dphB was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant. The enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and dipentyl phthalate to the corresponding monoalkyl phthalate esters at low temperatures. The catalytic triad residues of DphB were proposed to be Ser159, Asp251, and His281.

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Cold-Active Phthalate Esters Hydrolase by Screening a Metagenomic Library Derived from Biofilms of a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Jiao, Yiying; CHEN Xu; Wang, Xin; Liao, Xuewei; Xiao, Lin; Miao, Aijun; Wu, Jun; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-01-01

    A cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase gene (designated dphB) was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant. The enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and dipentyl phthalate to the corresponding monoalkyl phthalate esters at low temperatures. The catalytic triad residues of DphB were proposed to be Ser159, Asp251, and His281.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a putative novel bacterium with prospective cold active industrial enzymes, isolated from East Rathong glacier in India.

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-11-20

    We report the complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a novel bacterium which produces industrial enzymes at low temperature. East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalayas is untouched and unexplored for microbial diversity though it has a rich source of glaciers, alpine and meadows. Genome sequence has provided the basis for understanding its adaptation under harsh condition of Himalayan glacier, its ability to produce cold active industrial enzymes and has unlocked opportunities for microbial bioprospection from East Rathong glacier.

  16. Nanostructured AgBr loaded TiO2: An efficient sunlight active photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 120

    Sreedhar Bojja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AgBr loaded TiO2 catalyst was prepared by a feasible approach with AgBr and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and characterized by BET surface area measurement, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectra (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and atomic force microscope (AFM analysis. The results of characterization reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a nanostructure. Formation of the nanostructure in AgBr loaded TiO2 results in substantial shifting of the absorption edge of TiO2 to red and enhancement of visible light absorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a higher photoconductivity than prepared TiO2 due to higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal enhanced conductivity in AgBr loaded TiO2, which causes an increase in its photocatalytic activity. AgBr loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2-P25 and prepared TiO2 in the photodegradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120.

  17. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures.

  18. Improvement of the antibacterial activity of daptomycin-loaded polymeric microparticles by Eudragit RL 100: an assessment by isothermal microcalorimetry.

    Ferreira, Inês Santos; Bettencourt, Ana; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Gonçalves, Lídia M D; Trampuz, Andrej; Almeida, António J

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded acrylic microparticles with improved release profiles and antibacterial activity against two clinically relevant methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MSSA and MRSA, respectively). Daptomycin was encapsulated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PMMA-Eudragit RL 100 (EUD) microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes similar formulations were prepared with vancomycin. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, physicochemical properties, in vitro release and biocompatibility were assessed. Particles exhibited a micrometer size and a spherical morphology. The addition of EUD to the formulation caused a shift in the surface charge of the particles from negative zeta potential values (100% PMMA formulations) to strongly positive. It also improved daptomycin encapsulation efficiency and release, whereas vancomycin encapsulation and release were strongly hindered. Plain and antibiotic-loaded particles presented comparable biocompatibility profiles. The antibacterial activity of the particles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against both MSSA and MRSA. Daptomycin-loaded PMMA-EUD particles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. The addition of 30% EUD to the daptomycin-loaded PMMA particles caused a 40- and 20-fold decrease in the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentration (MBC) values, respectively, when compared to the 100% PMMA formulations. On the other hand, vancomycin-loaded microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity in PMMA particles. Unlike conventional methods, isothermal microcalorimetry proved to be a real-time, sensitive and accurate method for assessment of antibacterial activity of antibiotic-loaded polymeric microparticles. Finally, the addition of EUD to formulations proved to be a powerful

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Nimesulide-Loaded Nanoparticles for Anticancer Activity Against Breast Cancer Cells.

    Sengel-Turk, Ceyda Tuba; Hascicek, Canan; Bakar, Filiz; Simsek, Elif

    2017-02-01

    Recent clinical and epidemiological researches have declared that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may display as antineoplastic agents and indicate pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The major purpose of this research was to develop a novel poly(ethyleneglycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) nano-sized particles encapsulated with nimesulide (NMS), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and to evaluate its anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. NMS-encapsulated PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles were fabricated using three different production techniques: (i) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using a high shear homogenizer, (ii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using an ultrasonicator, and (iii) by nanoprecipitation. Nanoparticles were evaluated with respect to the entrapment efficiency, size characteristics, drug release rates, thermal behavior, cell viability assays, and apoptosis. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be spherical shapes with negative surface charges. The average diameter of all nanoparticles ranged between 148.5 and 307.2 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that all nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release pattern. NMS-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles demonstrated significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the effects of nanoparticles on cell proliferation were significantly affected by the preparation techniques. The nanoparticles developed in this work displayed higher potential for the NMS delivery against breast cancer treatment for the future.

  20. Mangiferin loaded magnetic PCEC microspheres: preparation, characterization and antitumor activity studies in vitro.

    Xiao, WenJing; Hou, Jun; Ma, Jie; Yu, BoTao; Ren, JianDong; Jin, WeiHua; Wu, Juan; Zheng, DeZhi; Fan, KaiHua

    2014-09-30

    Mangiferin is a promising effective chemopreventive agent against various tumors. However, its clinical use is limited by poor water solubility and low bioavailability. In this article, mangiferin loaded magnetic PCEC microspheres (MG-MS) were designed, characterized and the antitumor activity of MG-MS was evaluated in vitro. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were synthesized via the high-temperature reaction of iron acetylacetonate in phenyl ether in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Poly (ε-caprolactone)-poly (ethyleneglycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) copolymers were formed by ring-opening copolymerization of ε-CL initiated by PEG-diol using Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst and MG-MS were prepared by solvent diffusion method. MNP, PCEC copolymer, and MG-MS were characterized by GPC, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, (1)H-NMP and Malvern Laser Particle Sizer. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activity in vitro and in vitro release behavior of this microspheres were studied in detail. The results indicate that the obtained magnetic microspheres might have great potential as an effective carrier for mangiferin used in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Enhanced Copper-Silica-Loaded Titania Prepared via Hydrothermal Method

    Ramarao Poliah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanopowder, loaded with SiO2 and Cu-SiO2, was prepared under both acidic and basic environments via the hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of TiO2 were studied by XRD, TEM, and FT-IR. The photocatalytic activity of samples was studied by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange, using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The effect of Ti/Si ratio, pH, and Cu2+ addition on the formation of TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity was investigated in detail. The results show that a large surface area and a high surface acidity were important factors to achieve good TiO2 performance. The presence of Ti-O-Si bonding enhanced surface acidity, which improved its ability to adsorb more hydroxyl radicals and increased its surface area. The addition of 0.1 mol% concentration of Cu2+ and 25 mol% SiO2 in TiO2 induced the formation of new states close to the conduction band, which narrowed the band gap energy and enhanced the photodegradation efficiency.

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon.

    Huang, Yuanxing; Cui, Chenchen; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang; Pan, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10 mg L(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2 mg L(-1)) removal in 60 min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100 mg L(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

  3. Provision of secondary frequency control via demand response activation on thermostatically controlled loads: Solutions and experiences from Denmark

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie;

    2016-01-01

    of household fridge performance in terms of response time and ramp-up rate, as well as the impact on fridge temperature and behaviour after the control period. The experimental results show that TCLs are fast responsive loads for DR activation, with the average control signal response time of 24 s......This paper studies the provision of secondary frequency control in electric power systems based on demand response (DR) activation on thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) and quantifies the computation resource constraints for the control of large TCL population. Since TCLs are fast responsive...

  4. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ....... The effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved...

  5. Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.

    Toh, Run-Hong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration.

  6. Cold fusion

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  7. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Zak, Megan A; Regish, Amy M; McCormick, Stephen D; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-02-14

    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation.

  8. Facile synthesis of Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Zhang, Fengjun; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Tianye; Jia, Liwei; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge composite photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a facile two-step approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance, and scanning electron microscopy. The Bi2WO6/Bi2O3 photocatalyst was successfully loaded on polyurethane sponge and the composite displayed enhanced absorption in the ultraviolet-to-visible light region. Furthermore, the composite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity and reusability towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. This work demonstrates a facile method for synthesizing Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge with enhanced photocatalytic activity and easy immobilization of the photocatalyst for application in environmental purification.

  9. Trunk response to sudden forward perturbations - effects of preload and sudden load magnitudes, posture and abdominal antagonistic activation.

    Shahvarpour, Ali; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Mecheri, Hakim; Larivière, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Unexpected loading of the spine is a risk factor for low back pain. The trunk neuromuscular and kinematics responses are likely influenced by the perturbation itself as well as initial trunk conditions. The effect of four parameters (preload, sudden load, initial trunk flexed posture, initial abdominal antagonistic activity) on trunk kinematics and back muscles reflex response were evaluated. Twelve asymptomatic subjects participated in sudden forward perturbation tests under six distinct conditions. Preload did not change the reflexive response of back muscles and the trunk displacement; while peak trunk velocity and acceleration as well as the relative load peak decreased. Sudden load increased reflex response of muscles, trunk kinematics and loading variables. When the trunk was initially flexed, back muscles latency was delayed, trunk velocity and acceleration increased; however, reflex amplitude and relative trunk displacement remained unchanged. Abdominal antagonistic preactivation increased reflexive response of muscles but kinematics variables were not affected. Preload, initial flexed posture and abdominal muscles preactivation increased back muscles preactivity. Both velocity and acceleration peaks of the trunk movement decreased with preload despite greater total load. In contrast, they increased in the initial flexed posture and to some extent when abdominal muscles were preactivated demonstrating the distinct effects of pre-perturbation variables on trunk kinematics and risk of injury.

  10. Dynamic fracturing by successive coseismic loadings leads to pulverization in active fault zones

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Fondriest, M.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies show that pulverized rocks observed along large faults can be created by single high-strain rate loadings in the laboratory, provided that the strain rate is higher than a certain pulverization threshold. Such loadings are analogous to large seismic events. In reality, pulverized rocks have been subject to numerous seismic events rather than one single event. Therefore, the effect of successive "milder" high-strain rate loadings on the pulverization threshold is investigated by applying loading conditions below the initial pulverization threshold. Single and successive loading experiments were performed on quartz-monzonite using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Damage-dependent petrophysical properties and elastic moduli were monitored by applying incremental strains. Furthermore, it is shown that the pulverization threshold can be reduced by successive "milder" dynamic loadings from strain rates of ~180 s-1 to ~90 s-1. To do so, it is imperative that the rock experiences dynamic fracturing during the successive loadings prior to pulverization. Combined with loading conditions during an earthquake rupture event, the following generalized fault damage zone structure perpendicular to the fault will develop: furthest from the fault plane, there is a stationary outer boundary that bounds a zone of dynamically fractured rocks. Closer to the fault, a pulverization boundary delimits a band of pulverized rock. Consecutive seismic events will cause progressive broadening of the band of pulverized rocks, eventually creating a wider damage zone observed in mature faults.

  11. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  12. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  13. Preparation, characterisation and antibacterial activity of a florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle suspension.

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiaojin; Lu, Mengmeng; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2015-12-01

    A florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (FFC-SLN) suspension was prepared by hot homogenisation and ultrasonic technique. The suspension was characterised for its release profile, stability, toxicity, and the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the suspension was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the mean diameter, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were 253 ± 3 nm, 0.409 ± 0.022 and 47.5 ± 0.21 mV, respectively. In vitro release profile showed the FFC-SLN suspension had sustained release effect. The minimum inhibition concentration values of the FFC-SLN suspension were 6 and 3 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively, compared with 3.5 and 2 µg/mL of native florfenicol. The suspension was relatively stable at 4°C and less stable at room temperature during 9 months storage. Although the nanoparticle carriers exhibited cytotoxicity in cell cultures, the LD50 of the lyophilised dry power of the suspension was higher than 5 g/kg body weight. Mortality protection against E. coli lethal infection in mice showed that the nanoparticle suspension had much better efficacy (6/10) than native drug (1/10). These results indicate that FFC-SLN suspension could be a promising formulation in veterinary medicine.

  14. Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent

    Muhammad Ishaq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on a novel ultraclean desulfurization process of model oil by the adsorption method using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent. The parameters investigated are effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dibenzothiophene (DBT concentration and temperature. Experimental tests were conducted in batch process. Pseudo first and second order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic equation described the data of the DBT adsorption onto all types of adsorbents very well. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the data very well for the adsorption of DBT onto all three forms of adsorbents. The adsorption of DBT was also investigated at different adsorbent doses and was found that the percentage adsorption of DBT was increased with increasing the adsorbent dose, while the adsorption in mg/g was decreased with increasing the adsorbent dose. The prepared adsorbents were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  15. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  16. Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of phenol

    Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Nan; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient photocatalyst of visible-light-driven Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by the reduction of Ag ions on porous g-C3N4. The obtained Ag/porous g-C3N4 composite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that a homogeneous distribution of Ag NPs of 10 nm was attached onto the surface of the porous g-C3N4. The prepared Ag/porous g-C3N4 samples were applied for catalyzing the degradation of phenol in water under visible light irradiation. Porous g-C3N4 demonstrated an excellent support for the formation and dispersion of small uniform Ag NPs. When the weight percentage of Ag reaches 5%, the nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activities compared to bulk g-C3N4, porous g-C3N4, and 2% Ag/porous g-C3N4 hybrids. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is due to the synergic effect between Ag and porous g-C3N4, which suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  17. Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of carbopol loaded meloxicam nanoethosomes gel.

    Ahad, Abdul; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alam, Mohd Aftab

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to develop nanoethosomes for transdermal meloxicam delivery. The ethosomes were prepared by varying the variables such as concentrations of phospholipids 90G, ethanol, and sonication time while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and transdermal flux were the chosen responses. Results indicate that the nanoethosomes of meloxicam provides lesser vesicles size, better entrapment efficiency and improved flux for transdermal delivery as compared to rigid liposomes. The optimized formulation (MCEF-OPT) obtained was further evaluated for an in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Optimized nanoethosomal formulation with vesicles size of 142.3nm showed 78.25% entrapment efficiency and achieved transdermal flux of 10.42μg/cm(2)/h. Nanoethosomes proved to be significantly superior in terms of, amount of drug permeated into the skin, with an enhancement ratio of 3.77 when compared to rigid liposomes. In vivo pharmacodynamic study of carbopol(®) loaded nanoethosomal gel showed significant higher percent inhibition of rat paw edema compared with oral administration of meloxicam. Our results suggest that nanoethosomes are an efficient carrier for transdermal delivery of meloxicam.

  18. Application of a load-bearing passive and active vibration isolation system in hydraulic drives

    Unruh, Oliver; Haase, Thomas; Pohl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Hydraulic drives are widely used in many engineering applications due to their high power to weight ratio. The high power output of the hydraulic drives produces high static and dynamic reaction forces and moments which must be carried by the mounts and the surrounding structure. A drawback of hydraulic drives based on rotating pistons consists in multi-tonal disturbances which propagate through the mounts and the load bearing structure and produce structure borne sound at the surrounding structures and cavities. One possible approach to overcome this drawback is to use an optimised mounting, which combines vibration isolation in the main disturbance direction with the capability to carry the reaction forces and moments. This paper presents an experimental study, which addresses the vibration isolation performance of an optimised mounting. A dummy hydraulic drive is attached to a generic surrounding structure with optimised mounting and excited by multiple shakers. In order to improve the performance of the passive vibration isolation system, piezoelectric transducers are applied on the mounting and integrated into a feed-forward control loop. It is shown that the optimised mounting of the hydraulic drive decreases the vibration transmission to the surrounding structure by 8 dB. The presented study also reveals that the use of the active control system leads to a further decrease of vibration transmission of up to 14 dB and also allows an improvement of the vibration isolation in an additional degree of freedom and higher harmonic frequencies.

  19. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  20. The antimicrobial activity of honey, bee pollen loads and beeswax from Slovakia

    Kacániová Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of propolis, bee pollen loads and beeswax samples collected in the year 2009 from two locations in Slovakia to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 99.9% and 70% methanol (aqueous, v/v and 96% and 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v were used. Five different strains of bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes ccM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ccM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus ccM 3953; Salmonella enterica ccM 4420, Escherichia coli ccM 3988, three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and seven different strains of yeasts Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were tested. After 48 hours S. aureus was the bacterium most sensitive to the 70% ethanol extract of pollen, A. fumigatus was the most sensitive microscopic fungus (70% ethanol and C. glabrata the most sensitive yeast (70% methanol. Microorganisms most sensitive to propolis extracts were L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus (70% ethanol and G. candidum (70% methanol. Most sensitive to beeswax extracts were E. coli, A. niger and C. tropicalis.

  1. Antioxidant activity of idebenone-loaded neutral and cationic solid-lipid nanoparticles.

    Leonardi, Antonio; Crasci', Lucia; Panico, Annamaria; Pignatello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Idebenone (IDE) is a lipophilic benzoquinone electron carrier synthetic analogue of coenzyme Q10, which behaves as an antioxidant and free radical scavenging molecule. Recently, the therapeutic application of IDE in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy has been discussed. This work was aimed at evaluating the encapsulation of IDE in solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In particular, we tested the possibility of adapting the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique, already proposed to produce polymeric nanoparticles, to prepare positively charged SLN with different compositions. Such a charge, due to the addition of a cationic lipid, would facilitate the interaction with the negatively charged eye surface epithelium, with a consequent longer pre-corneal residence time of the colloidal systems. In a preliminary evaluation of the produced IDE-loaded SLN, the antioxidant activity of the drug was demonstrated using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Encapsulation of the drug in the nanocarrier systems seems able to protect IDE from degradation and prolong its antioxidant potential.

  2. Sustained wound healing activity of curcumin loaded oleic acid based polymeric bandage in a rat model.

    Mohanty, Chandana; Das, Manasi; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-10-01

    Wound healing is an intricate multistage process that includes inflammation, cell proliferation, matrix deposition and remodeling phases. It is often associated with oxidative stress and consequent prolonged inflammation, resulting in impaired wound healing. Curcumin has been reported to improve wound healing in different animal models. In order to increase the efficacy of curcumin in the healing arena a curcumin loaded oleic acid based polymeric (COP) bandage was formulated. The in vivo wound healing potency was compared with void bandage and control (cotton gauze treatment) in a rat model. Biochemical parameters and histological analysis revealed increased wound reduction and enhanced cell proliferation in COP bandage treated groups due to its efficient free radical scavenging properties. Comparative acceleration in wound healing was due to early implementation of fibroblasts and its differentiation (increased level of α-smooth muscle actin). Western blotting and semiquantitative PCR analysis clearly indicate that COP bandage can efficiently quench free radicals leading to reduced antioxidative enzyme activity. Further evidence at mRNA and protein level indicates that our system is potent enough to reduce the inflammatory response mediated by the NFκB pathway during wound healing. With this background, we anticipate that such a versatile approach may seed new arena for topical wound healing in the near future.

  3. Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control

    Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.

  4. Cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbent for removal of Bromocresol Green.

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Khajesharifi, Habibollah; Hemmati Yadkuri, Amin; Roosta, Mostafa; Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In the present research, cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon (Cd(OH)(2)-NW-AC) was synthesized and characterized. This new adsorbent was applied for the removal of Bromocresol Green (BCG) molecules from aqueous solutions. The influence of effective variables such as solution pH, contact time, initial BCG concentration, amount of Cd(OH)(2)-NW-AC and temperature on the adsorption efficiency of BCG in batch system was examined. During all experiments BCG contents were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Fitting the experimental data to different kinetic models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models show the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model to interpret in the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherm studies were examined by application of different conventional models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin models to explain the experimental data. Based on considering R(2) value as criterion the adsorption data well fitted to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 108.7 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters (Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy) of adsorption were calculated according to general procedure to take some information about the on-going adsorption process. The high negative value of Gibb's free energy and positive value of enthalpy show the feasibility and endothermic nature of adsorption process.

  5. Novel microstructural findings in M. plantaris and their impact during active and passive loading at the macro level.

    Böl, Markus; Leichsenring, Kay; Ernst, Michael; Wick, Carolin; Blickhan, Reinhard; Siebert, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    There are several studies dealing with experimental and structural analyses of skeletal muscles that are aimed at gaining a better understanding of three-dimensional muscle deformation and force generation. A variety of these contributions have performed structural or mechanical analyses, but very few have combined these approaches at different levels. To fill this gap, the present study aims to bring together three-dimensional micro-structural and mechanical findings in rabbit M. plantaris to study load transfer mechanisms inside the muscle during passive loading and active muscle contraction. During these two deformation states, the three-dimensional surface of the aponeurosis-tendon complex was recorded using optical measurement systems. In this way, the strain distribution on the muscle can be calculated to interpret the load transfer mechanisms inside the muscle. The results show that the three-dimensional strain distribution during muscle activation is completely different from the distribution during passive loading. Under both loading conditions, the strain distribution is irregular. To interpret these findings, the gross try and the fascicle architecture of the M. plantaris were determined. In doing so, a highly complex microstructure featuring tube- and sail-like structure was identified. Moreover, a compartmentalisation of the muscle into two compartments was detected. The smaller, bipennated muscle compartment was embedded into the larger, unipennated compartment. To the authors' knowledge, this type of inner structure has never been previously documented in single-headed muscles.

  6. [Anti-tumor activity of folate receptor targeting docetaxel-loaded membrane-modified liposomes].

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Dong-Kai; Pan, Wei-San

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tumor activity of folate receptor targeting docetaxel-loaded membrane-modified liposomes (FA-PDCT-L) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. FA-PDCT-L was prepared by organic solvent injection method. Transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic light scattering were employed to study the physicochemical parameters of FA-PDCT-L. The inhibitory effects of docetaxel injection (DCT-I), non-modified DCT liposomes (DCT-L) and FA-PDCT-L on the growth of MCF-7 and A-549 cells at different incubation times were detected by CCK-8 assay; and the hemolytic test was employed in vitro. Tumor mice were randomized into 4 groups: DCT-I, DCT-L, FA-PDCT-L and control group (normal saline), and given drugs at 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) through tail vein. The tumor volume, mice weight, inhibition rate of tumor and life span were measured at the end of experiments. The IC50 of the FA-PDCT-L for MCF-7 and A549 cell lines were significantly lower than that of DCT-I and DCT-L, without hemolysis reaction observed. Compared with control group, the weights of tumor in DCT-I, DCT-L and FA-PDCT-L were decreased, especially for FA-PDCT-L, with inhibitory rates at 79.03 % (P DCT-I and DCT-L. In conclusion, FA-PDCT-L shows a good anti-tumor activity, indicating that it is potential carriers for DCT in the treatment of tumor.

  7. Using Pulse Rate in Estimating Workload Evaluating a Load Mobilizing Activity

    Juan Alberto Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pulse rate is a direct indicator of the state of the cardiovascular system, in ad-dition to being an indirect indicator of the energy expended in performing a task. The pulse of a person is the number of pulses recorded in a peripheral artery per unit time; the pulse appears as a pressure wave moving along the blood vessels, which are flexible, “in large arterial branches, speed of 7-10 m/s in the small arteries, 15 to 35 m/s”. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to assess heart rate, using the technique of recording the frequency of the pulse, oxy-gen consumption and observation of work activity in the estimation of the workload in a load handling task for three situations: lift/transfer/deposit; before, during and after the task the pulse rate is recorded for 24 young volunteers (10 women and 14 men under laboratory conditions. We performed a gesture analysis of work activity and lifting and handling strategies. Results: We observed an increase between initial and final fp in both groups and for the two tasks, a dif¬ference is also recorded in the increase in heart rate of 17.5 for charging 75 % of the participants experienced an increase in fp above 100 lat./min. Par 25 kg, registered values indicate greater than 114 lat./min and 17.5 kg than 128 lat./min values. Discussion: The pulse rate method is recommended for its simplicity of use for operational staff, supervisors and managers and indus¬trial engineers not trained in the physiology method can also be used by industrial hygienists.

  8. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.0

  9. The effects of precision demands during a low intensity pinching task on muscle activation and load sharing of the fingers

    Visser, B.; Looze, M.P. de; Veeger, D.; Douwes, M.; Groenesteijn, L.; Korte, E. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2003-01-01

    High precision demands in manual tasks can be expected to cause more selective use of a part of the muscular synergy involved. To test this expectation, load sharing of the index finger and middle finger was investigated during a pinching task. Myoelectric activation of lower arm and neck-shoulder m

  10. The effects of surface-induced loads on forearm muscle activity during steering a bicycle.

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Onder C; Soylu, Abdullah R

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s(-2) when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s(-2). The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  11. SCIENCES IN COLD AND ARID REGIONS

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Scope Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, an international Engiish-language journal, is devoted to publishing the latest research achievements on the process and the pattern of Earth surface system in cold and arid regions. Researches in cold regions 1) emphasize particularly on the cold-region-characterized physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions, and on the response of Cryosphere to Global change and Human activities as well as its effect to environment and the acclimatizable

  12. Application of winglets and/or wing tip extensions with active load control on the Boeing 747

    Allison, R. L.; Perkin, B. R.; Schoenman, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of wing tip modifications and active control technology to the Boeing 747 airplane for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency is considered. Wing tip extensions, wing tip winglets, and the use of the outboard ailerons for active wing load alleviation are described. Modest performance improvements are indicated. A costs versus benefits approach is taken to decide which, if any, of the concepts warrant further development and flight test leading to possible incorporation into production airplanes.

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure DBD Cold Plasma for Preparation of High Active Au/P25 Catalysts for Low-Temperature CO Oxidation

    Di, Lanbo; Zhan, Zhibin; Zhang, Xiuling; Qi, Bin; Xu, Weijie

    2016-05-01

    Cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure was adopted for preparation of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 supported Au catalysts (Au/P25-P) with the assistance of the deposition-precipitation procedure. The influences of the plasma reduction time and calcination on the performance of the Au/P25-P catalysts were investigated. CO oxidation was performed to investigate the catalytic activity of the Au/P25 catalysts. The results show that DBD cold plasma for the fabrication of Au/P25-P catalysts is a fast process, and Au/P25-P (4 min) exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity due to the complete reduction of Au compounds and less consumption of oxygen vacancies. In order to form more oxygen vacancies active species, Au/P25-P was calcined to obtain Au/P25-PC catalysts. Interestingly, Au/P25-PC exhibited the highest activity for CO oxidation among the Au/P25 samples. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the smaller size and high distribution of Au nanoparticles are the mean reasons for a high performance of Au/P25-PC. Atmospheric-pressure DBD cold plasma was proved to be of great efficiency in preparing high performance supported Au catalysts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505019, 21173028), the Science and Technology Research Project of Liaoning Provincial Education Department (No. L2013464), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Doctor of Liaoning Province (No. 20131004), and the Dalian Jinzhou New District Science and Technology Plan Project (No. KJCX-ZTPY-2014-0001)

  14. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress

    Areum Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1 transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays, although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1.

  15. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress

    CHENCUI HUANG; KUN YU; HUIYANG HUANG; HAIHUI YE

    2016-12-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important energy sensor, is crucial for organism survival under adverse conditions. In this study, the roles of this gene under cold stress in a warm-water mud crab, Scylla paramamosain was investigated. The full-length cDNA (SpAMPK) was 1884 bp and its open reading frame of 1566 bp was isolated and characterized. The expressions of SpAMPK detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in various tissues revealed that the highest expression was in the hepatopancreas. The profiles of SpAMPK gene in the hepatopancreas, chela muscleand gill were detected when the subadult crabs were exposed to the four temperature conditions of 10, 15, 20 and 25◦C. The results showed that the expression patterns of SpAMPK mRNA in the three tissues were significantly higher when crabs were exposed to 15◦C than the other three temperature treatments, while at 10◦C treatment, the SpAMPK mRNA was lowestamong the four temperature treatments. These findings suggested that the high expression of SpAMPK mRNA might initiate ATP-producing pathways to generate energy to cope with cold stress at 15◦C treatment, which was slightly below the range of optimum temperatures; while treatment at 10◦C, far lower than optima, the low expression of SpAMPK mRNA could reduce the energy expenditure and thus induce the crabs into cold anesthesia. The results of SpAMPK in this study might contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. paramamosain.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE-INDUCED LOADS ON FOREARM MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING STEERING A BICYCLE

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB and Mountain Bike (MTB are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction. During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider

  17. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  18. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  19. Characterization of EstB, a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T).

    Zhang, Shanshan; Wu, Guojie; Liu, Zhixiang; Shao, Zongze; Liu, Ziduo

    2014-03-01

    A novel esterase gene, estB, was cloned from the marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T) and overexpressed in E. coli DE3 (BL21). The expressed protein EstB with a predicted molecular weight of 45.1 kDa had a distinct catalytic triad (Ser(211)-Trp(353)-Gln(385)) and the classical consensus motif conserved in most lipases and esterases Gly(209)-X-Ser(211)-X-Gly(213). EstB showed very low similarity to any known proteins and displayed the highest similarity to the hypothetical protein (46%) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. EstB showed the optimal activity around pH 8.5 and 20 °C and was identified to be extremely cold-adaptative retaining more than 95% activity between 0 and 10 °C. The values of kinetic parameters on p-NP caproate (K m, K cat and K cat/K m) were 0.15 mM, 0.54 × 10(3) s(-1) and 3.6 × 10(3) s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. In addition, EstB showed remarkable stability in several studied organic solvents and detergents of high concentrations with the retention of more than 70% activity after treatment for 30 min. The cold activity and its tolerance towards organic solvents made it a promising biocatalyst for industrial applications under extreme conditions.

  20. Initial thermal characterization of the Cornell cold neutron source

    Spern, S.A.; Atwood, A.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The completed full-scale Cornell cold neutron source, an integral component of the Cornell cold neutron beam facility, has undergone testing prior to its insertion (and consequent activation) in the Cornell 500-kW TRIGA reactor. The source consists of an organic moderator (mesitylene) contained within an aluminum chamber, which is cooled by conduction through a 99.999+ pure 1.90-cm-diam copper rod 267 cm long, coupled to the second (4-W capacity), cooler stage of a helium cryorefrigerator. Approximately 18 h is required to achieve equilibrium chamber temperatures. To lower the radiational T 4 load on the second stage, the chamber and rod are surrounded by an active heat shield, consisting of 99.99+ pure copper (oxygen-free high conductivity) coupled to the first 60-W capacity stage of the cryorefrigerator. Other components include the associated mesitylene handling system (MHS) and vacuum system.

  1. Hydrogen content in doped and undoped BaPrO3 and BaCeO3 by cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis

    Jones, Camille Y.; WU, Jian; Li, Liping; Haile, Sossina M.

    2005-01-01

    Proton uptake in undoped and Y-doped BaPrO3 has been measured by cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis, and compared to the proton uptake in Gd-doped BaCeO3, as determined by the same technique. The conventional proton incorporation model of perovskites in which oxygen ion vacancies, generated by the introduction of the trivalent dopant onto the tetravalent perovskite site, are filled with hydroxyl groups upon exposure of the sample to H2O containing atmospheres, predicts that the pro...

  2. Assessment of Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc, from the Commissioning of Sector 7-8

    Maglioni, C

    2008-01-01

    This note presents first estimates of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, evaluated experimentally during the commissioning of sector 7-8 in April 2007. Heat loads to the thermal shielding are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E, while heat loads to the 1.9K level of the cold masses are estimated from the internal energy balance during a natural warm-up of the sector in the absence of active cooling. A comparison of the measured heat loads with the budgeted heat loads is then presented and discussed.

  3. Experimental modes of recovery loading for the first stage of recovery after intense impellent activity in the modern pentathlon

    Efremenko A.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of training activity for sensitivity restoration cardio respiratory systems of the qualified athletes in modern pentathlon are presented. More high degree of activation and optimization of reactions of the cardio respiratory system is rotined. Kinetics and stability of reactions of frequency of heart-throbs and pulmonary ventilation was increased. Decline of «drift» of frequency of heart-throbs in the conditions of the standard loadings of middle intensity testify to the decline of tension of functions, optimization of activity of the cardio respiratory system.

  4. The effects of shoulder load and pinch force on electromyographic activity and blood flow in the forearm during a pinch task

    Visser, Bart; Kofoed Nielsen, Pernille; de Kraker, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    loaded with 4.95 kg each) were combined with intermittent pinch forces at 0, 10 and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Blood flow to the forearm was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Myoelectric activity of the forearm and neck-shoulder muscles was recorded to check for the workload levels....... Across all levels of shoulder load, blood flow increased significantly with increasing pinch force (21% at 10% MVC and by 44% at 25% MVC). Blood flow was significantly affected by shoulder load, with the lowest blood flow at the highest shoulder load. Interactions of pinch force and shoulder load were...

  5. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a cold-active GDSL-esterase of a Pseudomonas sp. S9 isolated from Spitsbergen island soil.

    Wicka, Monika; Wanarska, Marta; Krajewska, Ewelina; Pawlak-Szukalska, Anna; Kur, Józef; Cieśliński, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    An estS9 gene, encoding an esterase of the psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. S9 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced sequence revealed a protein of 636 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 69 kDa. Further amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the EstS9 enzyme contained a G-D-S-L motif centered at a catalytic serine, an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal autotransporter domain. Two recombinant E. coli strains for production of EstS9N (a two domain enzyme) and EstS9Δ (a one domain enzyme) proteins were constructed, respectively. Both recombinant proteins were successfully produced as inclusion bodies and then purified under denaturing conditions. However, because of the low enzymatic activity of the refolded EstS9Δ protein, only the EstS9N protein was further characterized. The purified and refolded EstS9N protein was active towards short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C8), with optimal activity for the butyrate (C4) ester. With p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at 35°C and pH 9.0. Additionally, the EstS9N esterase retained ~90% of its activity from 25-40°C and ~40% of its activity at 10°C. Moreover, analysis of its kinetic parameters (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate determined at 15°C and 25°C confirmed that the EstS9 enzyme is cold-adapted. To the best of our knowledge, EstS9 is the third characterized cold-active GDSL-esterase and the first one confirmed to contain an autotransporter domain characteristic for enzymes secreted by the type V secretion system.

  6. Active control of tiltrotor blade in-plane loads during maneuvers

    Miller, David G.; Ham, Norman D.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of one/rev rotor aerodynamic loads which arise in tiltrotor aircraft during airplane-mode high speed pull-up and push-over maneuvers is examined using a coupled rotor/fuselage dynamic simulation. A modified eigenstructure assignment technique is used to design a controller which alleviates the in-plane loads during high pitch rate maneuvers. The controller utilizes rotor cyclic pitch inputs to restructure the aircraft short period and phugoid responses in order to achieve the coupling between pitch rate and rotor flapping responses which minimizes the rotor aerodynamic loading. Realistic time delays in the feedback path are considered during the controller design. Stability robustness in the presence of high frequency modeling errors is ensured through the use of singular value analysis.

  7. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  8. Size-Dependence of the Activity of Gold Nanoparticle-Loaded Titanium(IV) Oxide Plasmonic Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation.

    Teranishi, Miwako; Wada, Masataka; Naya, Shin-Ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-09-19

    Mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline film was formed on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (TiO2 /FTO) and gold nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes were loaded onto the surface with the loading amount kept constant (Au/TiO2 /FTO). Visible-light irradiation (λ>430 nm) of the Au/TiO2 /FTO photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell with the structure of photoanode|0.1 m NaClO4 aqueous solution|Ag/AgCl (reference electrode)|glassy carbon (cathode) leads to the oxidation of water to oxygen (O2 ). We show that the visible-light activity of the Au/TiO2 /FTO anode increases with a decrease in Au particle size (d) at 2.9≤d≤11.9 nm due to the enhancement of the charge separation and increasing photoelectrocatalytic activity.

  9. Preparation and antibacterial activity of titanium nanotubes loaded with Ag nanoparticles in the dark and under the UV light

    Zhao, Chanjuan; Feng, Bo; Li, Yiting; Tan, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Highly ordered anatase-type titanium nanotubes (TNTs) arrays were prepared on the surface of titanium by anodization and subsequently heat treatment at 450 °C for 5 h. Three different diameters of TNTs (50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm) were fabricated via the voltage changed. Then Ag was loaded on these TNTs through a photo-reduction method of AgNO3 solution. Ag particles with the size of approximately 10 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of TNTs. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and contact angle test. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of Ag-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs-Ag) were evaluated through antibacterial experiment against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under the UV light (λ = 365 nm) irradiation respectively. The results indicated that under the UV light TNTs-Ag had higher antibacterial activities to the two bacteria than TNTs, though the later also showed antibacterial ability. While in the dark environment, the loading of Ag nanoparticles largely enhanced the antibacterial activities of the titanium nanotubes. In addition, the antibacterial efficiencies of all samples increased with increase of nanotube diameters both in the dark and under the UV light. Therefore, TNTs loaded with Ag nanoparticles are expected to be well suited for endo-prosthetic applications due to their excellent antibacterial activities in the dark. And their antibacterial efficiencies can be controlled by adjusting diameters of TNTs, distribution and size of Ag nanoparticles.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activity of titanium nanotubes loaded with Ag nanoparticles in the dark and under the UV light

    Zhao, Chanjuan; Feng, Bo, E-mail: fengbo@swjtu.edu.cn; Li, Yiting; Tan, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Highly ordered anatase-type titanium nanotubes (TNTs) arrays were prepared on the surface of titanium by anodization and subsequently heat treatment at 450 °C for 5 h. Three different diameters of TNTs (50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm) were fabricated via the voltage changed. Then Ag was loaded on these TNTs through a photo-reduction method of AgNO{sub 3} solution. Ag particles with the size of approximately 10 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of TNTs. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and contact angle test. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of Ag-loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs-Ag) were evaluated through antibacterial experiment against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under the UV light (λ = 365 nm) irradiation respectively. The results indicated that under the UV light TNTs-Ag had higher antibacterial activities to the two bacteria than TNTs, though the later also showed antibacterial ability. While in the dark environment, the loading of Ag nanoparticles largely enhanced the antibacterial activities of the titanium nanotubes. In addition, the antibacterial efficiencies of all samples increased with increase of nanotube diameters both in the dark and under the UV light. Therefore, TNTs loaded with Ag nanoparticles are expected to be well suited for endo-prosthetic applications due to their excellent antibacterial activities in the dark. And their antibacterial efficiencies can be controlled by adjusting diameters of TNTs, distribution and size of Ag nanoparticles.

  11. Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD.

  12. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities

    Hoozemans, Marco J M; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe H K; van der Woude, Luc H V; Veeger, Dirk Jan H E J; van der Beek, Allard J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the i

  13. [Covariance of the level of activation and work performance as a method of evaluating the work load].

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Makowska, Z

    1978-01-01

    Assuming as proved the claim that there is a relation between the activation level and the results of work performed, which may be presented by means of a curve bearing a reversed "U" shape, it has been assumed that we can think of a work load when there is a negative correlation between these parameters. This assumption has been checked by comparying work load of weaving women operating two different types of looms. As an index of activation level, the frequency heart rate has been taken, whereas the rapidity of work performance and results of interpolated tests (reaction time, centre-punching, dotting, drawing a line and accuracy of observation) have been treated as the indices of capability for work. Differences in the trend of interdependence between these groups of parameters, depending on the type of activity performed and the type of loom under description, have been found, which indicates that this method may possibly be used when evaluating the load as well as pointing out its sources.

  14. In vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded nanoemulsion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Alkhatib, Mayson H., E-mail: mhalkhatib@kau.edu.sa; AlBishi, Hayat M. [College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Biochemistry (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used to treat several cancer diseases. However, it has several dose limitation aspects because of its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and cytotoxicity. In this study, five nanoemulsion (NE) formulations, containing soya phosphatidylcholine/polyoxyethylenglycerol trihydroxy-stearate 40 (EU)/sodium oleate as surfactant, cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.22), were produced. The NE droplets morphologies of the entire blank and DOX-loaded formulations, revealed by the transmission electron microscope, were spherical. The droplet sizes of blank NEs, obtained between 2.9 and 6.4 nm, decreased significantly with the increase in the ratio of surfactant-to-oil, whereas the droplets sizes of DOX-loaded NE formulations were significantly higher and found in the range of 7.7-15.9 nm. The evaluation for both blank and DOX-loaded NE formulations proved that the NE carrier had improved the DOX efficacy and reduced its cytotoxicity. It showed that the cell growth inhibition of the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have exceeded the commercial DOX by a factor of 1.7 with increased apoptosis activity and minimal cytotoxicity against the normal human foreskin cells (HFS). In contrast, commercial DOX was found to exhibit a significant non-selective toxicity against both MCF-7 and HFS cells. In conclusion, we have developed DOX-loaded NE formulations which selectively and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells and increased apoptosis.

  15. CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF HYDROQUINONE WITH Co(Ⅱ)/ACTIVE CARBON CATALYST LOADED IN STATIC BED

    LI Chunxiang; YAN Yongsheng; XU Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts based on Co(Ⅱ) supported on active carbon were prepared and loaded in static bed.The hydroquinone wouid be degraded completely after treated by Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation method with Co(Ⅱ)/active carbon catalyst.After activate treatment, the active carbon was immerged in cobaltoas nitrate solution, then put into a drying oven, Co(Ⅱ) could be loaded on the micro-surface of carbon.Taking the static bed as the equipment, the absorption of active carbon and catalysis of Co(Ⅱ) was used to reduce activation energy of hydroquinone.Thus hydroquinone could be drastically degraded and the effluent can be drained under the standard.Referring to Fenton reaction mechanism, experiment had been done to study the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidation mechanism of Co(Ⅱ).The degradation rate of hydroquinone effluent could be achieved to 92% when treated in four columns at H2O2 concentration 10%, reaction temperature 40℃, pH 5 and reaction time 2.5h.

  16. CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF HYDROQUINONE WITH Co(II)/ACTIVE CARBON CATALYST LOADED IN STATIC BED

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts based on Co(II) supported on active carbon were prepared and loaded in static bed. The hydroquinone would be degraded completely after treated by Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation method with Co(II)/active carbon catalyst. After activate treatment, the active carbon was immerged in cobaltous nitrate solution, then put into a drying oven, Co(II) could be loaded on the micro-surface of carbon. Taking the static bed as the equipment, the absorption of active carbon and catalysis of Co(II) was used to reduce activation energy of hydroquinone. Thus hydroquinone could be drastically degraded and the effluent can be drained under the standard. Referring to Fenton reaction mechanism, experiment had been done to study the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidation mechanism of Co(II). The degradation rate of hydroquinone effluent could be achieved to 92% when treated in four columns at H2O2 concentration 10%, reaction temperature 40℃ , pH 5 and reaction time 2.5h.

  17. Cold confusion

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  18. Peptide-loaded dendritic cells prime and activate MHC-class I-restricted T cells more efficiently than protein-loaded cross-presenting DC

    Met, Ozcan; Buus, Søren; Claesson, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    -pulsed DC. Moreover, SIINFEKL-loaded DC were up to 50 times more efficient than DC-pulsed with OVA-protein for generation of an H-2K(b)-restricted response. Immunization of mice with SIINFEKL-loaded DC resulted in a much stronger H-2K(b)-restricted response than immunization with OVA-pulsed DC. These data...

  19. Biomechanical effects of sitting with adjustable ischial and lumbar support on occupational low back pain: evaluation of sitting load and back muscle activity

    Lin Fang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to standing posture, sitting decreases lumbar lordosis, increases low back muscle activity, disc pressure, and pressure on the ischium, which are associated with occupational LBP. A sitting device that reduces spinal load and low back muscle activities may help increase sitting comfort and reduce LBP risk. The objective of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effect of sitting with a reduced ischial support and an enhanced lumbar support (Off-Loading on load, interface pressure and muscle activities. Methods A laboratory test in low back pain (LBP and asymptomatic subjects was designed to test the biomechanical effect of using the Off-Loading sitting posture. The load and interface pressure on seat and the backrest, and back muscle activities associated with usual and this Off-Loading posture were recorded and compared between the two postures. Results Compared with Normal (sitting upright with full support of the seat and flat backrest posture, sitting in Off-Loading posture significantly shifted the center of the force and the peak pressure on the seat anteriorly towards the thighs. It also significantly decreased the contact area on the seat and increased that on the backrest. It decreased the lumbar muscle activities significantly. These effects are similar in individuals with and without LBP. Conclusion Sitting with reduced ischial support and enhanced lumbar support resulted in reduced sitting load on the lumbar spine and reduced the lumbar muscular activity, which may potentially reduce sitting-related LBP.

  20. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity.

  1. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Argon Plasma against 78 Genetically Different (mecA, luk-P, agr or Capsular Polysaccharide Type) Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    Matthes, Rutger; Lührman, Anne; Holtfreter, Silva; Kolata, Julia; Radke, Dörte; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma showed varying effects against mecA+ or mecA-Staphylococcus aureus strains. This observation may have important clinical and epidemiological implications. Here, the antibacterial activity of argon plasma was investigated against 78 genetically different S. aureus strains, stratified by mecA, luk-P, agr1-4, or the cell wall capsule polysaccharide types 5 and 8. kINPen09® served as the plasma source for all experiments. On agar plates, mecA+luk-P-S. aureus strains showed a decreased susceptibility against plasma compared to other S. aureus strains. This study underlines the high complexity of microbial defence against antimicrobial treatment and confirms a previously reported strain-dependent susceptibility of S. aureus to plasma treatment.

  3. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...... and residential sectors, based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. Some field tests were carried out on a facility for intelligent, active and distributed power systems, which...... is built around a small power grid with renewable power generations (two wind turbines and solar panels), a vanadium battery for storage, EV-charging infrastructure for EVs, and an intelligent office building. The simulation and field tests demonstrated that GA-based and MPC-based predictive control...

  4. Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Runoff and Sediment Load of the Xiliugou Basin in the Upper Yellow River

    Haifang Yao; Changxing Shi; Wenwei Shao; Jianbin Bai; Hui Yang

    2015-01-01

    Using data of temperature, wind, precipitation, water discharge, and sediment load, the changes in runoff and sediment load of the Xiliugou basin in the upper Yellow River were investigated and the contributions of climate change and human activities to these changes were quantitatively estimated. Results show that the runoff and sediment load of the stream declined gradually in 1960–2012. According to the abrupt change point detected, the runoff and sediment series were divided into two peri...

  5. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  6. Acute cold exposure-induced down-regulation of CIDEA, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A, in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue by sympathetically activated beta3-adrenoreceptors.

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2009-09-18

    The thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) largely depends on the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is up-regulated by environmental alterations such as cold. Recently, CIDEA (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A) has also been shown to be expressed at high levels in the mitochondria of BAT. Here we examined the effect of cold on the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in interscapular BAT of conscious rats with regard to the sympathetic nervous system. Cold exposure (4 degrees C for 3h) elevated the plasma norepinephrine level and increased norepinephrine turnover in BAT. Cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in BAT, accompanied by up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of UCP1. The cold exposure-induced changes of CIDEA and UCP1 were attenuated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with propranolol (a non-selective beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal) or SR59230A (a selective beta(3)-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal), respectively. These results suggest that acute cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of CIDEA in interscapular BAT by sympathetically activated beta(3)-adrenoreceptor-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  7. In vitro anti-telomerase activity of novel lycopene-loaded nanospheres in the human leukemia cell line K562

    Gharib, Amir; Faezizadeh, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lycopene, a plant carotenoid, has potent effects against the various types of cancer cells. To date, the effect of lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms on the telomerase activity in human leukemia cell line K562 have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to prepare a novel lycopene-loaded nanosphere and compare its anti-telomearse activity in K562 cell line with those of free lycopene. Materials and Methods: The lycopene-loaded nanospheres were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The lycopene entrapment efficacy was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The anti-proliferation effect of the lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms in the different times (0-72 h) and the different doses (0-100 μg/ml) on K562 cell line was studied using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The changes of telomerase activity, following treatment with the lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms, were detected using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The entrapment efficacy of lycopene was 78.5% ± 2. Treatment of the K562 cell line with lycopene, in particular in encapsulated form, resulted in a significant inhibition of the cell growth and increasing of percentage of apoptotic cells. It has also been observed that the telomerase activity in the lycopene-loaded nanospheres-treated cells was significantly inhibited in a dose and time-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our data suggest a novel mechanism in the anti-cancer activity of the lycopene, in particular in encapsulated form, and could be provided a basis for the future development of anti-telomerase therapies. PMID:24914298

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    Dongna Li; Xiaojun Ma; Xinyan Liu; Lili Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs) were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance pe...

  9. Preparation and Solar Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to prepare N-doped TiO2-loaded halloysite nanotubes (N-TiO2/HNTs) nanocomposites was achieved by using the chemical vapor deposition in autoclave. The N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites obtained by the different form of the doping N source were studied through a series of characterizations. The XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations verified the anatase structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca.20nm loaded on the outer surface of HNTs. The UV-vis characterization of the N-TiO2/HNTs presented a further red-shift compared to the pure N-TiO2 nanoparticles.. The XPS characterizations confirmed the N element doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites prepared were evaluated by degradation of phenol at room temperature under simulated solar light irradiation.

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of an airfoil with load control in the wake of an active grid

    Fischer, A.; Lutz, T.; Kramer, E.; Cordes, U.; Hufnagel, K.; Tropea, C.; Kampers, G.; Hölling, M.; Peinke, J.

    2016-09-01

    A new passive load reduction system, using coupled leading and trailing edge flaps, was developed at TU Darmstadt and investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the University of Oldenburg, where sinusoidal inflow conditions, representing for example the tower blockage effect, were created by means of an active grid. The numerical investigations were performed at the University of Stuttgart, using a quasi two-dimensional setup and a block structured CFD solver. In the present paper, a brief description of the experimental setup is given, whereas the numerical setup, in particular the realisation of the wind tunnel conditions, is presented in more detail. Moreover, a comparison between the measured and simulated loads for an airfoil with and without adaptive camber concept is discussed.

  11. Load kick-back effects due to activation of demand response in view of distribution grid operation

    Han, Xue; Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing potentials to utilize the flexibilities from demand side resource (DSR) units. They can provide grid operation services by shifting or curtailing their energy consumption. The service provision can be achieved by aggregating a large quantity of DSR units in the network....... The paper has shown how aggregated consumption dynamics introduce new peaks in the system due to the synchronous behaviors of a portfolio of homogeneous DSRs, which is instructed by the flexibility management system. This dynamic effect is recognized as load kick-back effect. The impact of load kick......-back effects onto the distribution grid is analysed in this paper by establishing scenarios based on the estimation of DSR penetration levels from the system operator. The results indicate some risks that the activation of demand response may create critical peaks in the local grid due to kick-back effects....

  12. Experimental Testing and Model Validation of a Decoupled-Phase On-Load Tap Changer Transformer in an Active Network

    Zecchino, Antonio; Hu, Junjie; Coppo, Massimiliano;

    2016-01-01

    to reproduce the main feature of an unbalanced grid. The experimental activities are recreated in by carrying out dynamics simulation studies, aiming at validating the implemented models of both the transformer as well as the other grid components. Phase-neutral voltages’ deviations are limited, proving......Due to the increasing penetration of single-phase small generation units and electric vehicles connected to distribution grids, system operators are facing challenges related to local unbalanced voltage rise or drop issues, which may lead to a violation of the allowed voltage band. To address...... this problem, distribution transformers with on-load tapping capability are under development. This paper presents model and experimental validation of a 35 kVA three-phase power distribution transformer with independent on-load tap changer control capability on each phase. With the purpose of investigating...

  13. Position of the pelvis, lower extremities load and the arch of the feet in young adults who are physically active

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body posture is an individual motion habit. It is variable and depends on the gender, age, structure of the body but also on mental and physical state. Although it is difficult to formulate a universal definition of correct body posture, the opinion that its elementary feature is symmetry is beyond any doubt. Such symmetry is related to the position of particular anatomical points and effects of static and dynamic forces. Aim of the research: To assess the relations between the pelvis position in the frontal plane, the static load on the lower limbs and architecture of the feet. The following features were analysed in a group of young, healthy and particularly physically active women and men: the frequency of asymmetry related to pelvis position, the load on the lower limbs related to body weight and foot architecture. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 100 students of physical education. To assess the position of the pelvis a palpable-visual method was used. Clarke’s method was applied to characterize the foot architecture determined by the position of standing with one leg on the CQ Elektronik podoscope. The static load on the lower limbs was assessed using the stabilographic platform EMILDUE from Technomex. Results : Collected data and observations show frequent asymmetric changes of pelvis position in the frontal plane and incorrect balance of the body in the standing position. The change of static load on the lower limbs influences the longitudinal architecture of the feet and this influence is statistically significant. Increased asymmetry of the pelvis in the frontal plane is related to profound disorder of body balance. Conclusions : Asymmetric position of the pelvis is associated with asymmetric arching of the feet and asymmetric body weight distribution. Full symmetric position of the pelvis is rare even among young people who are physically active.

  14. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO2/Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO2/Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO2/Ag, TiO2/rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO2/Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO2/Ag, 93% for TiO2/rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  15. Determination of ATP-activity as a useful tool for monitoring microbial load in aqueous humidifier samples.

    Liebers, Verena; Bachmann, Dieter; Franke, Gabriele; Freundt, Susanne; Stubel, Heike; Düser, Maria; Kendzia, Benjamin; Böckler, Margret; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Air humidifier water tanks are potential sources of microbial contaminants. Aerosolization of these contaminants is associated with the development of airway and lung diseases; therefore, implementation of preventive strategies including monitoring of the microbial contamination is recommended. So far, culture-based methods that include measuring colony forming units (CFU) are widely used to monitor microbial load. However, these methods are time consuming and have considerable drawbacks. As a result, alternative methods are needed which provide not only clear and accurate results concerning microbial load in water samples, but are also rapid and easy to use in the field. This paper reports on a rapid test for ATP quantification as an alternative method for microbial monitoring, including its implementation, validation and application in the field. For this purpose, 186 water samples were characterized with different methods, which included ATP analysis, culture-based methods, endotoxin activity (common and rapid test), pyrogenic activity and number of particles. Half of the samples was measured directly in the field and the other half one day later in the laboratory. The results of both tests are highly correlated. Furthermore, to check how representative the result from one sample of a water source is, a second sample of the same water tank were collected and measured. Bioluminescence results of the undiluted samples covered a range between 20 and 25,000 relative light units (RLU) and correlated with the results obtained using the other methods. The highest correlation was found between bioluminescence and endotoxin activity (rs=0.79) as well as pyrogenic activity (rs=0.75). Overall, the results of this study indicate that ATP measurement using bioluminescence is a suitable tool to obtain rapid, reproducible and sensitive information on the microbial load of water samples, and is suitable to use in the field. However, to use ATP measurement as an indicator of

  16. Efficient induction of antimicrobial activity with vancomycin nanoparticle-loaded poly(trimethylene carbonate) localized drug delivery system

    Zhang, Yang; Liang, Ruo-jia; Xu, Jiao-jiao; Shen, Li-feng; Gao, Jian-qing; Wang, Xu-ping; Wang, Na-ni; Shou, Dan; Hu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Surgery and the local placement of an antibiotic are the predominant therapies to treat chronic osteomyelitis. Vancomycin-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (VCM/TMC NPs) as a potential drug delivery system have high intracellular penetration and effective intracellular antibacterial activity. This study investigated the effects of a biocompatible material, poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), to increase the sustained effectiveness of an intracellular antibiotic and its potential application in antibiotic delivery. VCM/TMC NP-PTMC was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, the biodegradation, antibacterial activity, protein adsorption, cell proliferation and drug release characteristics were evaluated. In addition, a Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis rabbit model was used to investigate the antibiotic activity and bone repair capability of VCM/TMC NP-PTMC. The results showed that the composite beads of VCM/TMC NPs followed a sustained and slow release pattern and had excellent antibacterial activity and a higher protein adsorption and cell proliferation rate than the VCM-PTMC in vitro. Furthermore, VCM/TMC NP-PTMC inhibits bacteria and promotes bone repair in vivo. Thus, VCM/TMC NP-PTMC might be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site and promote bone repair.

  17. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Min, Booki; Choi, Ki Hong; Hong, Young June; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future.

  18. Characterization of a cold-active β-glucosidase from Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 capable of hydrolyzing isoflavones daidzin and genistin.

    Park, Dong-Ju; Lee, Yong-Suk; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2013-10-01

    Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 isolated from konjac field, showed β-glucosidase activity on tryptic soy agar plate supplemented with 0.1 % esculin and 0.25 % ferric ammonium citrate. A genome library was constructed to obtain the β-glucosidase gene and a recombinant clone, pGlc2-3 was selected. The 2,247 bp gene encoding KJ-03 β-glucosidase consisted of 749 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of BglA were 61 % homologous with that of the β-glucosidase from Bacillus cereus AH1272, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 3. His-tagged β-glucosidase was purified by using His-Trap column and characterized. KJ-03 β-glucosidase was showed as a single band with about 82 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme has optimal activity at 20 °C and pH 7.0 using p-NPβG and 72 % of the maximal activity was still remaining at 10 °C. The β-glucosidase has optimal activity at low temperatures indicating that it is a cold-active enzyme. The substrate specificity showed that the purified enzyme hydrolyzed aryl β-glucoside substrates and isoflavones such as daidzin and genistin.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  20. A Cyber Physical Model Based on a Hybrid System for Flexible Load Control in an Active Distribution Network

    Yun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS. The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study.

  1. Effects of Shoe Heel Height on Loading and Muscle Activity for Trans-Tibial Amputees During Standing

    JIA Xiaohong; WANG Rencheng; Winson Lee

    2009-01-01

    This study accesses the effects of shoe heel heights on loading, muscle activity, and plantar foot pressure of trans-tibial amputees during standing. Five male subjects with unilateral trans-tibial amputation volunteered to participate in this study. Three pairs of shoes with zero, 20 mm, and 40 mm heel heights were used. The loading line of the prosthetic side, the plantar foot pressure, and the surface electromyography (EMG) of 10 muscles were simultaneously recorded. With increasing shoe heel heights during standing, the loading line of the prosthetic side shifted from the anterior to the posterior side of the knee center, the peak pressure was increased in the medial forefoot region, and the peak pressure was reduced in the heel region. The EMG of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius of the sound leg almost doubled and that of the rectus fomris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis of the prosthetic side increased to different extents with in-creasing heel heights from zero to 40 mm. These results show a high correlation with human physical be-havior. Changing of the heel heights for trans-tibial amputees during standing actually had similar effects to altering the prosthetic sagittal alignment. The results suggest that an alignment change is necessary to ac-commodate heel height changes and that prosthesis users should be cautious when choosing shoes.

  2. Fabrication and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 by loaded with Ag.

    Lin, Xiaoxia; Rong, Fei; Ji, Xiang; Fu, Degang; Yuan, Chunwei

    2011-11-01

    F-doped TiO2 loaded with Ag (Ag/F-TiO2) was prepared by sol-gel process combined with photoreduction method. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL). XPS analysis indicated Ag species existed as Ag0 in the structure of Ag/F-TiO2 samples. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the light absorption of Ag/F-TiO2 in the visible region had a significant enhancement compared with the F-doped TiO2 (F-TiO2). PL analysis indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate had been effectively inhibited when Ag loaded on the surface of F-TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated for the degradation of X-3B (Reactive Brilliant Red dye, C.I. reactive red 2) under visible light (lambda > 420 nm) irradiation. Compared with F-TiO2, the sample of 0.50 Ag/F-TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The interaction between F species and metallic Ag was responsible for improving the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Na Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm were much larger than control (p < 0.05. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of FEO were 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1 can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens

    Guo, Na; Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI) of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm) and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm) were much larger than control (p antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1) can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Invariant chain as a vehicle to load antigenic peptides on human MHC class I for cytotoxic T-cell activation.

    Wälchli, Sébastien; Kumari, Shraddha; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Sand, Kine M K; Yang, Weiwen; Landsverk, Ole J B; Bakke, Oddmund; Olweus, Johanna; Gregers, Tone F

    2014-03-01

    Protective T-cell responses depend on efficient presentation of antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) and class II (MHCII) molecules. Invariant chain (Ii) serves as a chaperone for MHCII molecules and mediates trafficking to the endosomal pathway. The genetic exchange of the class II-associated Ii peptide (CLIP) with antigenic peptides has proven efficient for loading of MHCII and activation of specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we investigated if Ii could similarly activate human CD8(+) T cells when used as a vehicle for cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes. The results show that wild type Ii, and Ii in which CLIP was replaced by known CTL epitopes from the cancer targets MART-1 or CD20, coprecipitated with HLA-A*02:01 and mediated colocalization in the endosomal pathway. Furthermore, HLA-A*02:01-positive cells expressing CLIP-replaced Ii efficiently activated Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in a TAP- and proteasome-independent manner. Finally, dendritic cells transfected with mRNA encoding IiMART-1 or IiCD20 primed naïve CD8(+) T cells. The results show that Ii carrying antigenic peptides in the CLIP region can promote efficient presentation of the epitopes to CTLs independently of the classical MHCI peptide loading machinery, facilitating novel vaccination strategies against cancer.

  6. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  7. L-Tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles increase the antitumoral activity of direct electric current in a metastatic melanoma cell model

    Vânia Emerich Bucco de Campos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vânia Emerich Bucco de Campos1, Cesar Augusto Antunes Teixeira1, Venicio Feo da Veiga2, Eduardo Ricci Júnior1, Carla Holandino11Departamento de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Inhibition of tumor growth induced by treatment with direct electric current (DC has been reported in several models. One of the mechanisms responsible for the antitumoral activity of DC is the generation of oxidative species, known as chloramines. With the aim of increasing chloramine production in the electrolytic medium and optimizing the antitumoral effects of DC, poly(e-caprolactone (PCL nanoparticles (NPs loaded with the amino acid tyrosine were obtained. The physical–chemical characterization showed that the NPs presented size in nanometric range and monomodal distribution. A slightly negative electrokinetic potential was also found in both blank NPs and L-tyrosine-loaded PCL NPs. The yield of the loading process was approximately 50%. Within 3 h of dissolution assay, a burst release of about 80% L-tyrosine was obtained. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DC was significantly increased when associated with L-tyrosine-loaded NPs, using a murine multidrug-resistant melanoma cell line model. This study showed that the use of the combination of nanotechnology and DC has a promising antineoplastic potential and opens a new perspective in cancer therapy.Keywords: direct electric current, nanotechnology, cancer therapy, L-tyrosine, B16F10 cells

  8. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  9. Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads

    Eckner, James T.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Joshi, Monica S.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (DV) and peak angular velocity (Dv) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, DV and Dv will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head DV and Dv. Results Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head DV and Dv after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P\\.001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head DV and Dv presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. Conclusion In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation (“bracing for impact”) can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and

  10. Study on the distribution of active centers in novel low Ti-loading MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    王剑峰; 王立; 赵振荣; 王文钦; 陈涛

    2004-01-01

    Novel MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalysts prepared using a new one-pot ball milling method can effectively control the amounts of Ti-loading in the catalysts. Complex GPC data on polypropylene synthesized by these novel catalysts were analyzed using the method of fitting the molecular weight distribution (MWD) curves with a multiple Flory-Schulz function. It was found that multiple active centers exist in these novel catalysts. Detailed study of the effects of the Ti-loadings in the catalysts on the distribution of the active centers showed that the Ti-loadings in the novel MgCl2-supported Z-N catalysts might affect the proportion of each type of active centers; and might be the main factor responsible for the effect of the Ti-loadings on the microstructure, the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution width of the resultant polymer, the catalytic activity and polymerization kinetics.

  11. Methotrexate-loaded PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo antitumoral activity.

    Chen, Juan; Huang, Liuqing; Lai, Huixian; Lu, Chenghao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Qiqing; Luo, Xuetao

    2014-07-07

    Cancer nanotherapeutics are rapidly progressing and being implemented to solve several limitations of conventional drug delivery systems. In this paper, we report a novel strategy of preparing methotrexate (MTX) nanoparticles based on chitosan (CS) and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) used as nanocarriers to enhance their targeting and prolong blood circulation. MTX and mPEG-conjugated CS nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and evaluated for their targeting efficiency and toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The MTX-mPEG-CS NP size determined by dynamic light scattering was 213 ± 2.0 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, and its loading content (LC %) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) were 44.19 ± 0.64% and 87.65 ± 0.79%, respectively. In vitro release behavior of MTX was investigated. In vivo optical imaging in mice proved that MTX was released from particles subsequently and targeted to tumor tissue, showing significantly prolonged retention and specific selectivity. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay obviously indicated that the higher inhibition efficiency of MTX-mPEG-CS NPs meant that much more MTX was transferred into the tumor cells. A significant right-shift in the flow cytometry (FCM) assay demonstrated that MTX-loaded nanoparticles were far superior to a pure drug in the inhibition of growth and proliferation of Hela cells. These results suggest that MTX-mPEG-CS NPs could be a promising targeting anticancer chemotherapeutic agent, especially for cervical carcinoma.

  12. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  13. Purification and Properties of Cold-active Metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum and Effect of Culture Conditions on Production

    Mohammed Kuddus; Pramod W. Ramteke

    2008-01-01

    Curtobacterim luteum, a gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterium, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. The maximum enzyme production was achieved when isolate was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15℃ over 120 hour. The metal ions such as Zn and Cr enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of pudfied enzyme was 8090 u/mg after 34.1 fold purification. The 115 kD enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20℃ and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6-8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 hours at 4℃-20℃. However, lost 65% of activity at 30℃, and was almost inactivated at 50℃, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions.

  14. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity.

  15. Activity Profiles in International Female Team Handball Using PlayerLoad(TM).

    Wik, Eirik H; Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2016-12-14

    Team handball matches place diverse physical demands on players, which may result in fatigue and decreased activity levels. However, previous speed-based methods of quantifying player activity may not be sensitive for capturing short-lasting team handball-specific movements.

  16. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  17. Applied and engineering versions of the theory of elastoplastic processes of active complex loading part 2: Identification and verification

    Peleshko, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    The deviator constitutive relation of the proposed theory of plasticity has a three-term form (the stress, stress rate, and strain rate vectors formed from the deviators are collinear) and, in the specialized (applied) version, in addition to the simple loading function, contains four dimensionless constants of the material determined from experiments along a two-link strain trajectory with an orthogonal break. The proposed simple mechanism is used to calculate the constants of themodel for four metallic materials that significantly differ in the composition and in the mechanical properties; the obtained constants do not deviate much from their average values (over the four materials). The latter are taken as universal constants in the engineering version of the model, which thus requires only one basic experiment, i. e., a simple loading test. If the material exhibits the strengthening property in cyclic circular deformation, then the model contains an additional constant determined from the experiment along a strain trajectory of this type. (In the engineering version of the model, the cyclic strengthening effect is not taken into account, which imposes a certain upper bound on the difference between the length of the strain trajectory arc and the module of the strain vector.) We present the results of model verification using the experimental data available in the literature about the combined loading along two- and multi-link strain trajectories with various lengths of links and angles of breaks, with plane curvilinear segments of various constant and variable curvature, and with three-dimensional helical segments of various curvature and twist. (All in all, we use more than 80 strain programs; the materials are low- andmedium-carbon steels, brass, and stainless steel.) These results prove that the model can be used to describe the process of arbitrary active (in the sense of nonnegative capacity of the shear) combine loading and final unloading of originally

  18. Study on semi-active control of mega-sub controlled structure by MR damper subject to random wind loads

    Qin Xiangjun; Zhang Xun'an; Sheldon Cherry

    2008-01-01

    The recently proposed mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS), a new type of structure associated with the design and construction of super-tall buildings, has attracted the attention of designers for use in enhancing the control effectiveness in mega-fi'ame buildings. In this paper, a dynamic equation and method to assemble parameter matrixes for a mega-sub controlled structure under random wind loads is presented. Semi-active control using magnetorheological dampers for the MSCS under random wind loads is investigated, and is compared with a corresponding system without dampers. A parametric study of the relative stiffness ratio and relative mass ratio between the mega-frame and the substructures, as well as the additional column stiffness ratio that influences the response control effectiveness of the MSCS, is discussed. The studies reveal, for the first time, that different control mechanisms exist. The results indicate that the proposed structure employing semi-active control can offer an effective control mechanism. Guidelines for selecting parameters are provided based on the analytical study.

  19. Topical delivery and in vivo antileishmanial activity of paromomycin-loaded liposomes for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Carneiro, Guilherme; Santos, Delia C M; Oliveira, Monica C; Fernandes, Ana P; Ferreira, Luciana S; Ramaldes, Gilson A; Nunan, Elziria A; Ferreira, Lucas A M

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of liposomes loaded with paromomycin (PA), an aminoglycoside antibiotic associated with poor skin penetration, for the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Fluid liposomes were prepared and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment. Permeation studies were performed with two in vitro models: intact and stripped skin. The antileishmanial activity of free and liposomal PA was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected by Leishmania (L.) major. Drug entrapment ranged from 10 to 14%, and the type of vesicle had little influence on this parameter. Particle size and polydispersity index of the vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PC/cholesterol (Chol) ranged from of 516 to 362 nm and 0.7 to 0.4, respectively. PA permeation across intact skin was low, regardless of the formulation tested, while drug penetration into skin (percent of the applied dose) from PC (7.2 +/- 0.2%) and PC/Chol (4.8 +/- 0.2%) liposomes was higher than solution (1.9 +/- 0.1%). PA-loaded liposomes enhanced in vitro drug permeation across stripped skin and improved the in vivo antileishmanial activity in experimentally infected mice. Our findings suggest that the liposomes represent a promising alternative for the topical treatment of CL using PA.

  20. Platinum nanocatalysts loaded on graphene oxide-dispersed carbon nanotubes with greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities.

    Wang, Hua; Li, Shuai; Si, Yanmei; Zhang, Ning; Sun, Zongzhao; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-07-21

    A powerful enzymatic mimetic has been fabricated by employing graphene oxide (GO) nanocolloids to disperse conductive carbon supports of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before and after the loading of Pt nanocatalysts. The resulting GOCNT-Pt nanocomposites could present improved aqueous dispersion stability and Pt spatial distribution. Unexpectedly, they could show greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities in water, as evidenced in the colorimetric and electrochemical investigations in comparison to some inorganic nanocatalysts commonly used. Moreover, it is found that the new enzyme mimetics could exhibit peroxidase-like catalysis activity comparable to natural enzymes; yet, they might circumvent some of their inherent problems in terms of catalysis efficiency, electron transfer, environmental stability, and cost effectiveness. Also, sandwiched electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully conducted using GOCNT-Pt as enzymatic tags. Such a fabrication avenue of noble metal nanocatalysts loaded on well-dispersed conductive carbon supports should be tailored for the design of different enzyme mimics promising the extensive catalysis applications in environmental, medical, industrial, and particularly aqueous biosensing fields.

  1. Preparation of N-doped ZnO-loaded halloysite nanotubes catalysts with high solar-light photocatalytic activity.

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    N-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully assembled into hollow halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by using the impregnation method. The catalysts based on N-doped ZnO-loaded HNTs nanocomposites (N-doped ZnO/HNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The XRD pattern showed ZnO nanoparticles with hexagonal structure loaded on HNTs. The TEM-EDX analysis indicated ZnO particles with the crystal size of ca.10 nm scattered in hollow structure of HNTs, and furthermore the concentration of N atom in nanocomposites was up to 2.31%. The SEM-EDX verified most of N-ZnO nanoparticles existing in hollow nanotubes of HNTs. Besides containing an obvious ultraviolet absorbance band, the UV-vis spectra of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts showed an available visible absorbance band by comparing to HNTs and non-doped ZnO/HNTs. The photocatalytic activity of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution with the concentration of 20 mg/L under the simulated solar-light irradiation. The result showed that the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalyst exhibited a desirable solar-light photocatalytic activity.

  2. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates.

  3. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 ...... and stored energy distributions and thus on nucleation are discussed....

  4. GCMS Analysis and Anti-microbial Activity of Essential Oil of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. from Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert Region of North India

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. has been done for the first time from Trilokinath (3020m of Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert region of North Indian higher altitude Himalayas in the month of July, 2007. Essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation from the aerial parts of the plants collected from the wild sources. The extraction yield for the essential oil of A. minor Jacq. ex Bess. was 0.40%. The oil was analyzed by GCMS; the components of the essential oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The essential oil analysis led to the identification of 18 out of 22 constituents representing 65.37% of the composition of oil. The major constituents of the oil were: 1, 8- cineole (22.30%, camphor (12.64%, davanone (12.33%, ascaridole (11.11% and á-phellandrene (5.23%. The presence of artedouglasia oxide-C in A. minor has not been reported earlier in the same species and therefore acts as a new chemotype from this study area. The present study describes the phytochemical profile and anti-microbial activity of essential oil of A. minor. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains. These results permitted the conclusion to be made that, it is the first report of the GCMS analysis and anti-microbial activity on a new chemotype of A. minor Jacq

  5. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  6. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  7. In vitro release and biological activities of Carum copticum essential oil (CEO) loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Asgari, Azadeh

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the unparalleled and functional properties of essential oils have been extensively reported, but the sensitivity of essential oils to environmental factors and their poor aqueous solubility have limited their applications in industries. Hence, we encapsulated CEO in chitosan nanoparticles by an emulsion-ionic gelation with pantasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and sodium hexametaphosphte (HMP), separately, as crosslinkers. The nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles increased with the increase of initial CEO amount. The nanoparticles displayed an average size of 30-80nm with a spherical shape and regular distribution. In vitro release profiles exhibited an initial burst release and followed by a sustained CEO release at different pH conditions. The amount of CEO release from chitosan nanoparticles was higher in acidic pH to basic or neutral pH, respectively. The biological properties of CEO, before and after the encapsulation process were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and agar disk diffusion method, respectively. The results indicated the encapsulation of CEO in chitosan nanoparticles could be protected the quality.

  8. Influence of curcumin-loaded cationic liposome on anticancer activity for cervical cancer therapy.

    Saengkrit, Nattika; Saesoo, Somsak; Srinuanchai, Wanwisa; Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2014-02-01

    The delivery of curcumin has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat various cancer cells. Since curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in liposomes, which were modified with three components of DDAB, cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant. The purpose of this study was to establish a critical role of DDAB in liposomes containing curcumin at cellular response against two types of cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). Here, we demonstrate that DDAB is a potent inducer of cell uptake and cell death in both cell lines. The enhanced cell uptake was found on DDAB-containing liposome, but not on DDAB-free liposome. However, the cytotoxicity of DDAB-containing liposomes was high and needs to be optimized. The cytotoxicity of liposomal curcumin was more pronounced than free curcumin in both cells, suggesting the benefits of using nanocarrier. In addition, the anticancer efficiency and apoptosis effect of the liposomal curcumin formulations with DDAB was higher than those of DDAB-free liposomes. Therefore curcumin loaded liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cervical cancers.

  9. Active modulation of visible light with graphene-loaded ultrathin metal plasmonic antennas.

    Yu, Renwen; Pruneri, Valerio; García de Abajo, F Javier

    2016-08-26

    Electro-optical modulation of visible and near-infrared light is important for a wide variety of applications, ranging from communications to sensing and smart windows. However, currently available approaches result in rather bulky devices, suffer from low integrability, and can hardly operate at the low power consumption levels and fast switching rates required by microelectronic drivers. Here we show that planar nanostructures patterned in ultrathin metal-graphene hybrid films sustain highly tunable plasmons in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Strong variations in the reflection and absorption of incident light take place when the plasmons are tuned on- and off-resonance with respect to externally incident light. As a result, a remarkable modulation depth (i.e., the maximum relative variation with/without graphene doping) exceeding 90% in transmission and even more dramatic in reflection (>600%) is predicted for graphene-loaded silver films of 1-5 nm thickness and currently attainable lateral dimensions. These new structures hold great potential for fast low-power electro-optical modulation.

  10. Active modulation of visible light with graphene-loaded ultrathin metal plasmonic antennas

    Yu, Renwen; Pruneri, Valerio; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2016-08-01

    Electro-optical modulation of visible and near-infrared light is important for a wide variety of applications, ranging from communications to sensing and smart windows. However, currently available approaches result in rather bulky devices, suffer from low integrability, and can hardly operate at the low power consumption levels and fast switching rates required by microelectronic drivers. Here we show that planar nanostructures patterned in ultrathin metal-graphene hybrid films sustain highly tunable plasmons in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Strong variations in the reflection and absorption of incident light take place when the plasmons are tuned on- and off-resonance with respect to externally incident light. As a result, a remarkable modulation depth (i.e., the maximum relative variation with/without graphene doping) exceeding 90% in transmission and even more dramatic in reflection (>600%) is predicted for graphene-loaded silver films of 1-5 nm thickness and currently attainable lateral dimensions. These new structures hold great potential for fast low-power electro-optical modulation.

  11. Analysis of amino acid residues involved in cold activity of monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from psychrophilic bacteria, Colwellia maris and Colwellia psychrerythraea.

    Yasuda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases from psychrophilic bacteria, Colwellia maris and Colwellia psychrerythraea (CmIDH-II and CpIDH-M, respectively) are cold-adapted enzymes and show a high degree of amino acid sequential identity to each other (77%). However, maximum activity of CpIDH-M at optimum temperature is much less than that of CmIDH-II. In the C-terminal region 3 of these enzymes, which was suggested from previous study to be responsible for their distinct catalytic ability, several sequential differences of amino acid residue are present. Among them, ten amino acid residues were exchanged between them by site-directed mutagenesis and several properties of the mutated enzymes were examined in this study. The mutated enzymes of CmIDH-II substituted its Gln671, Leu724 and Phe735 residues with the corresponding residues of CpIDH-M (termed Q671K, L724Q and F735L, respectively) showed lower specific activity and thermostability for activity than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the decreased specific activity was also observed in L693F. In contrast, the corresponding mutants of CpIDH-M, F693L, Q724L and L735F, showed the increased specific activity and thermostability for activity. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) values of these mutated CmIDH-II and CpIDH-M were lower and higher than those of their wild-type IDHs, respectively. These results suggest that the Gln671, Leu693, Leu724 and Phe735 residues of CmIDH-II are important for exerting its high catalytic ability.

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum amendment on soil physico-chemical properties, microbial load and enzyme activities.

    Nayak, Soumya; Mishra, C S K; Guru, B C; Rath, Monalisa

    2011-09-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is produced as a solid waste from phosphatic fertilizer plants. The waste slurry is disposed off in settling ponds or in heaps. This solid waste is now increasingly being used as a calcium supplement in agriculture. This study reports the effectof PG amendmenton soil physico chemical properties, bacterial and fungal count and activities of soil enzymes such as invertase, cellulase and amylase over an incubation period of 28 days. The highest mean percent carbon loss (55.98%) was recorded in 15% PG amended soil followed by (55.28%) in 10% PG amended soil and the minimum (1.68%) in control soil. The highest number of bacterial colonies (47.4 CFU g(-1) soil), fungal count (17.8 CFU g(-1) soil), highest amylase activity (38.4 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) and cellulase activity (38.37 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) were recorded in 10% amended soil. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) has been recorded in the activities of amylase and cellulase over the period of incubation irrespective of amendments. Considering the bacterial and fungal growth and the activities of the three soil enzymes in the control and amended sets, it appears that 10% PG amendment is optimal for microbial growth and soil enzyme activities.

  13. Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward.

    Boehler, Carsten N; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Stoppel, Christian M; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Noesselt, Toemme

    2011-03-30

    Dopamine release in cortical and subcortical structures plays a central role in reward-related neural processes. Within this context, dopaminergic inputs are commonly assumed to play an activating role, facilitating behavioral and cognitive operations necessary to obtain a prospective reward. Here, we provide evidence from human fMRI that this activating role can also be mediated by task-demand-related processes and thus extends beyond situations that only entail extrinsic motivating factors. Using a visual discrimination task in which varying levels of task demands were precued, we found enhanced hemodynamic activity in the substantia nigra (SN) for high task demands in the absence of reward or similar extrinsic motivating factors. This observation thus indicates that the SN can also be activated in an endogenous fashion. In parallel to its role in reward-related processes, reward-independent activation likely serves to recruit the processing resources needed to meet enhanced task demands. Simultaneously, activity in a wide network of cortical and subcortical control regions was enhanced in response to high task demands, whereas areas of the default-mode network were deactivated more strongly. The present observations suggest that the SN represents a core node within a broader neural network that adjusts the amount of available neural and behavioral resources to changing situational opportunities and task requirements, which is often driven by extrinsic factors but can also be controlled endogenously.

  14. A Novel Cold-Active Lipase from Candida albicans: Cloning, Expression and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    Dong-Ming Lan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86–34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM, which has double mutations that revert 154 and 293 to serine residues, showed good lipase activity, and was overexpressed and purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The pure Lip5-DM was stable at low temperatures ranging from 15–35 °C and pH 5–9, with the optimal conditions being 15–25 °C and pH 5–6. The activation energy of recombinant lipase was 8.5 Kcal/mol between 5 and 25 °C, suggesting that Lip5-DM was a cold–active lipase. Its activity was found to increase in the presence of Zn2+, but it was strongly inhibited by Fe2+, Fe3+, Hg2+ and some surfactants. In addition, the Lip5-DM could not tolerate water-miscible organic solvents. Lip5-DM exhibited a preference for the short- and medium-chain length p-nitrophenyl (C4 and C8 acyl group esters rather than the long chain length p-nitrophenyl esters (C12, C16 and C18 acyl group with highest activity observed with the C8 derivatives. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity toward triacylglycerols, such as olive oil and safflower oil.

  15. Cold and Cough Medicines

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  16. Cold-induced metabolism

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesi

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity of Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules against neoplastic cell lines under AC magnetic field activation

    Falqueiro, A. M.; Siqueira-Moura, M. P.; Jardim, D. R.; Primo, F. L.; Morais, P. C.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Suchocki, P.; Tedesco, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The goals of this study are to evaluate invitro compatibility of magnetic nanomaterials and their therapeutic potential against cancer cells. Highly stable ionic magnetic fluid sample (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) and Selol were incorporated into polymeric nanocapsules by nanoprecipitation method. The cytotoxic effect of Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules was assessed on murine melanoma (B16-F10) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines following AC magnetic field application. The influence of different nanocapsules on cell viability was investigated by colorimetric MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. In the absence of AC magnetic field Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules, containing 100 µg/mL Selol plus 5 × 1012 particle/mL, showed antitumoral activity of about 50% on B16-F10 melanoma cells while OSCC carcinoma cells demonstrated drug resistance at all concentrations of Selol and magnetic fluid (range of 100-500 µg/mL Selol and 5 × 1012-2.5 × 1013 particle/mL). On the other hand, under AC applied fields (1 MHz and 40 Oe amplitude) B16-F10 cell viability was reduced down to 40.5% (±3.33) at the highest concentration of nanoencapsulated Selol. The major effect, however, was observed on OSCC cells since the cell viability drops down to about 33.3% (±0.38) under application of AC magnetic field. These findings clearly indicate that the Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules present different toxic effects on neoplastic cell lines. Further, the cytotoxic effect was maximized under AC magnetic field application on OSCC, which emphasizes the effectiveness of the magnetohyperthermia approach.

  18. Clinical application of radiation skin thermometer in cold water loading test%放射皮温计在冷水复温试验临床应用研究

    李聪; 郎丽; 陈思枝; 曹丹燕; 郑倩玲; 吴奇峰; 周洁婷; 王海兰

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究放射皮温计在冷水复温试验( CWLT)中的临床应用. 方法 采用随机抽样方法,以从事非手传振动作业的30名正常健康人员为对照组,以从事手传振动作业的30名人员为接振组. 2组人群均分别采用放射皮温计和数字皮温计测试CWLT前后8个不同时间点的手部皮温,对结果进行统计分析. 结果 在相同时间点及相同手别的条件下,对照组人群采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05 );接振组人群除CWLT前的时间点外,采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05). 无论是对照组还是接振组,采用2种皮温计进行CWLT的5和10 min复温率分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05 ). 分别采用数字皮温计和放射皮温计进行CWLT的5、10、30 min复温异常率,对照组人群分别为40.0%、43.3%、40.0%和50.0%、60.0%、33.3%,接振组人群分别为53.3%、60.0%、50.0%和53.3%、66.7%和60.0%;无论是对照组还是接振组,采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别判断5、10 和30 min 复温异常的结果均具有一致性( P>0.05 ).结论 放射皮温计可作为CWLT的检测工具.%Objective To study the clinical application of radiation thermometer in cold water loading test ( CWLT ) . Methods Using random sampling method , 30 healthy office personnel who were not engaged in hand-transmitted vibration operation were selected as control group , 30 workers engaged in hand-transmitted vibration operation were chosen as vibration group .Radiation skin thermometer and digital skin thermometer were used respectively to test the hand skin temperature at 8 time-points before and after CWLT .The results were analyzed statistically .Results In control group, using the same time points and same hands , the results of skin temperature tested by two kinds of skin thermometers showed no statistical difference ( P>0.05);the same results appeared in vibration group

  19. Characterization of a New Cold-Adapted and Salt-Activated Polysaccharide Lyase Family 7 Alginate Lyase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524

    Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dong, Sheng; Xu, Fei; Dong, Fang; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Xie, Bin-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Marine bacterial alginate lyases play a role in marine alginate degradation and carbon cycling. Although a large number of alginate lyases have been characterized, reports on alginate lyases with special characteristics are still rather less. Here, a gene alyPM encoding an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7) was cloned from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524 and expressed in Escherichia coli. AlyPM shows 41% sequence identity to characterized alginate lyases, indicating that AlyPM is a new PL7 enzyme. The optimal pH for AlyPM activity was 8.5. AlyPM showed the highest activity at 30°C and remained 19% of the highest activity at 5°C. AlyPM was unstable at temperatures above 30°C and had a low Tm of 37°C. These data indicate that AlyPM is a cold-adapted enzyme. Moreover, AlyPM is a salt-activated enzyme. AlyPM activity in 0.5–1.2 M NaCl was sixfolds higher than that in 0 M NaCl, probably caused by a significant increase in substrate affinity, because the Km of AlyPM in 0.5 M NaCl decreased more than 20-folds than that in 0 M NaCl. AlyPM preferably degraded polymannuronate and mainly released dimers and trimers. These data indicate that AlyPM is a new PL7 endo-alginate lyase with special characteristics. PMID:27486451

  20. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam......High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs...

  1. Muscle activation strategies during strength training with heavy loading versus repetitions to failure

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2012-01-01

    Going to failure - or not, have probably been one of the most debated issues during the history of strength training. However, few studies have directly compared the physiological effect of failure versus non-failure strength training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activation...

  2. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...

  3. Bacterial Diversity and Bioprospecting for Cold-Active Hydrolytic Enzymes from Culturable Bacteria Associated with Sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica

    Bo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22′6″ S, 76°21′45″ E was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, b-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting.

  4. Bacterial diversity and bioprospecting for cold-active hydrolytic enzymes from culturable bacteria associated with sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica.

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo

    2011-01-31

    The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22'6″ S, 76°21'45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, β-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting.

  5. Systemic activation of antigen-presenting cells via RNA-loaded nanoparticles

    Sayour, Elias J.; Pham, Christina; Grippin, Adam; Kemeny, Hanna; Chua, Joshua; Sampson, John H.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Flores, Catherine; Mitchell, Duane A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT While RNA-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have shown promise, the advancement of cellular therapeutics is fraught with developmental challenges. To circumvent the challenges of cellular immunotherapeutics, we developed clinically translatable nanoliposomes that can be combined with tumor-derived RNA to generate personalized tumor RNA-nanoparticles (NPs) with considerable scale-up capacity. RNA-NPs bypass MHC restriction, are amenable to central distribution, and can provide near immediate immune induction. We screened commercially available nanoliposomal preparations and identified the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as an efficient mRNA courier to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When administered intravenously, RNA-NPs mediate systemic activation of APCs in reticuloendothelial organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. RNA-NPs increase percent expression of MHC class I/II, B7 co-stimulatory molecules, and maturation markers on APCs (all vital for T-cell activation). RNA-NPs also increase activation markers on tumor APCs and elicit potent expansion of antigen-specific T-cells superior to peptide vaccines formulated in complete Freund's adjuvant. We demonstrate that both model antigen-encoding and physiologically-relevant tumor-derived RNA-NPs expand potent antitumor T-cell immunity. RNA-NPs were shown to induce antitumor efficacy in a vaccine model and functioned as a suitable alternative to DCs in a stringent cellular immunotherapy model for a radiation/temozolomide resistant invasive murine high-grade glioma. Although cancer vaccines have suffered from weak immunogenicity, we have advanced a RNA-NP formulation that systemically activates host APCs precipitating activated T-cell frequencies necessary to engender antitumor efficacy. RNA-NPs can thus be harnessed as a more feasible and effective immunotherapy to re-program host-immunity. PMID:28197373

  6. Improving photocatalytic water reduction activity for In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} by loading metal cocatalysts

    Song, Kai; Yang, Jia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sun, Yu; Wang, Ziyao; Wang, Ling [Bashu Secondary School, Chongqing 400013 (China); Cong, Rihong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Tao, E-mail: taoyang@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is the only ternary oxide in the In–Ti–O phase diagram. It was prepared by high temperature solid state reaction in this work and verified to be pure with high crystallinity by Le Bail fitting on the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Scanning electron microscopy show that the micrometer particles of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} was composed of submicron crystallites. UV–vis diffused reflectance spectra suggested a wide bandgap of 3.55 eV, which is consistent with the theoretical calculations. The bottom of the conduction band is composed of both In 6s and Ti 3d orbitals, however the low density of the states lead to a low density of the charge carriers excited by UV irradiation. Thus the photocatalytic H{sub 2} production rate of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is only 3.6 μmol/h/g in 20 vol% methanol aqueous solution. With the assistance of Ru- and Pt-cocatalyst, the activity is significantly increased and the optimal H{sub 2} evolution rate is 35.7 μmol/h/g when loading 1 wt% Ru and 1 wt% Pt, simultaneously. All the catalysts recovered after the photocatalytic reactions show no degradation according to powder XRD. - Highlights: • UV–Vis reflectance spectra suggest the bandgap energy of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is 3.55 eV. • The bottom of the conduction band is composed of both In 6s and Ti 3d orbitals. • As-prepared In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} has a photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution rate of 3.6 μmol/h/g. • 1 wt% Ru or 1 wt% Pt loaded In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} shows an improved photocatalytic activity. • The optimal activity is 35.7 μmol/h/g when loading both 1 wt% Ru and 1 wt% Pt.

  7. Fluctuation of microbial activities after influent load variations in a full-scale SBR. Recovery of the biomass after starvation

    Cabezas, Angela; Draper, Patricia; Etchebehere, Claudia [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Quimica y Facultad de Ciencias

    2009-10-15

    Due to variations in the production levels, a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for post-treatment of tannery wastewater was exposed to low and high ammonia load periods. In order to study how these changes affected the N-removal capacity, the microbiology of the reactor was studied by a diverse set of techniques including molecular tools, activity tests, and microbial counts in samples taken along 3 years. The recover capacity of the biomass was also studied in a lab-scale reactor operated with intermittent aeration without feeding for 36 days. The results showed that changes in the feeding negatively affected the nitrifying community, but the nitrogen removal efficiencies could be restored after the concentration stress. Species substitution was observed within the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter predominated initially, and after an ammonia overload period, Nitrosomonas nitrosa and Nitrospira became dominant. Some denitrifiers, with nirS related to Alicycliphilus, Azospirillum, and Marinobacter nirS, persisted during long-term reactor operation, but the community fluctuated both in composition and in abundance. This fluctuating community may better resist the continuous changes in the feeding regime. Our results showed that a nitrifying-denitrifying SBR could be operated with low loads or even without feeding during production shut down periods. (orig.)

  8. Estimating cognitive load during self-regulation of brain activity and neurofeedback with therapeutic brain-computer interfaces

    Robert eBauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback training with brain-computer interfaces is currently studied in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions to reduce disorder-specific symptoms. For this purpose, a variety of classification algorithms have been explored to distinguish different brain states. These neural states, e.g. self-regulated brain activity versus rest, are separated by setting a threshold parameter. Measures such as the maximum classification accuracy have been introduced to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Interestingly, the very same measures are often used to estimate the subject’s ability to perform brain self-regulation. This is surprising, as the goal of improving the tool that differentiates brain states is different from the aim of optimizing neurofeedback for the subject who performs brain self-regulation. For the latter, knowledge about mental resources and work load is essential to adapt the difficulty of the intervention.In this context, we apply an analytical method and provide empirical data to determine the zone of proximal development as a measure of a subject’s cognitive resources and the instructional efficacy of neurofeedback. This approach is based on a reconsideration of item-response theory and cognitive load theory for instructional design, and combines them with the classification accuracy curve as a measure of BCI performance.

  9. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  10. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Song, Cunfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Xiaoling, E-mail: tinachen0628@163.com [Department of Endodontics, Xiamen Stomatology Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Lizong, E-mail: lzdai@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. - Highlights: • A new type of antibacterial agent (PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites) was synthesized. • The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was studied. • Inhibition zone, MIC, MBC, and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. • PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity.

  11. Enhanced Antifungal Activity by Ab-Modified Amphotericin B-Loaded Nanoparticles Using a pH-Responsive Block Copolymer

    Tang, Xiaolong; Dai, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhi; Xie, Chunmei; Yao, Aixia; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Li; Jiang, Qinglin; Wang, Shulei; Liang, Yong; Xu, Congjing

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AMB), with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal drug, but its clinical toxicities mainly nephrotoxicity and poor solubility limit its wide application in clinical practice. The fungal metabolism along with the host immune response usually generates acidity at sites of infection, resulting in loss of AMB activity in a pH-dependent manner. Herein, we developed pH-responsive AMB-loaded and surface charge-switching poly( d, l-lactic- co-glycolic acid)- b-poly( l-histidine)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG) nanoparticles for resolving the localized acidity problem and enhance the antifungal efficacy of AMB. Moreover, we modified AMB-encapsulated PLGA-PLH-PEG nanoparticles with anti- Candida albicans antibody (CDA) (CDA-AMB-NPs) to increase the targetability. Then, CDA-AMB-NPs were characterized in terms of physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, stability, drug encapsulation efficiency, and toxicity. Finally, the targetability and antifungal activity of CDA-AMB-NPs were investigated in vitro /in vivo. The result demonstrated that CDA-AMB-NPs significantly improve the targetability and bioavailability of AMB and thus improve its antifungal activity and reduce its toxicity. These NPs may become a good drug carrier for antifungal treatment.

  12. Two non-destructive neutron inspection techniques: prompt gamma-ray activation analysis and cold neutron tomography

    Baechler, Sébastien; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Jolie, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Deux techniques d’inspection non-destructives utilisant des faisceaux de neutrons froids ont été développées à la source de neutrons SINQ de l’Institut Paul Scherrer : (1) l’analyse par activation neutronique prompte (PGAA) et (2) la tomographie neutronique. L’analyse par PGA (Prompt Gamma-ray Activation) est une méthode nucléaire qui permet de déterminer la concentration d’éléments présents dans un échantillon. Cette technique consiste à détecter les rayons gamma prompts émis par l’échantill...

  13. Gold-Loaded Polymeric Micelles with Temperature-Modulated Catalytic Activity

    HU Na; SHI Dongjian; LI Jihang; LI Junfeng; CHEN Mingqing

    2015-01-01

    Four-armed amphiphilic block copolymers, polystyrene-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PS-b-PNIPAM)4, were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). (PS-b-PNIPAM)4 self-assembled into micelles with PS block as core and thermoresponsive PNIPAM block as corona. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with average diameter about 5.8 nm were immobilized on the surfaces of the micelles by the reduction of the corresponding ions. The micelle-supported gold nanoparticles (Au-micelles) were applied to catalyze the reduction ofp-nitrophenol. Moreover, the activity of the Au-micelle catalyst could be modulated by the temperature and the Au-micelles could be easily recovered by changing the temperature and recycled four times with high catalytic activity.

  14. [Cold-induced urticaria and angioedema. Classification, diagnosis and therapy].

    Krause, K; Degener, F; Altrichter, S; Ardelean, E; Kalogeromitros, D; Magerl, M; Metz, M; Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Maurer, M

    2010-09-01

    The onset of wheals and/or angioedema following the exposure to cold may be associated with a number of different diseases. Most frequently this occurs in cold contact urticaria, a type of physical urticaria, which is characterized by a positive cold stimulation test. The clinical symptoms are based on cold-dependent mast cell activation with subsequent release of proinflammatory mediators. In cases of negative or atypical reaction to cold stimulation testing rare acquired atypical or familiar cold urticaria forms may be suspected. Strict avoidance of cold should be recommended as far as possible. As the underlying causes of cold contact urticaria are widely unknown, the symptomatic use of non-sedating antihistamines is the treatment of first choice. The very rare familiar cold auto-inflammatory syndrome (FCAS) is based on CIAS1/NLRP3 mutations and may be treated effectively by neutralization of pathogenic interleukin 1beta.

  15. Contributions of phosphatase and microbial activity to internal phosphorus loading and their relation to lake eutrophication

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatase may accelerate the process of lake eutrophication through improving phosphorus bioavailability. This mechanism was studied in three Chinese eutrophic shallow lakes (Lake Taihu, Lake Longyang and Lake Lianhua). Phosphatase activity was related to the concentration of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and chlorophyll a. Stability of dissolved phosphatase in reverse micelles may be attributed to molecular size, conformation and active residues of the enzyme.At the site with Microcystis bloomed in Lake Taihu, dissolved phosphatase activity was higher and more stable in micelles, SRP concentrations were lower in interstitial water, the contents of different forms of phosphorus and the amounts of aerobic bacteria were lower while respiration efficiency was higher in sediments. Phosphobacteria, both inorganic and organic and other microorganisms were abundant in surface water but rare in sediments. Therefore, internal phosphorus may substantially flux into water column by enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic release, together with mobility of bacteria,thereby initiating the bloom. In short, biological mechanism may act in concert with physical and chemical factors to drive the internal phosphorus release and accelerate lake eutrophication.

  16. The effect of Cu(II)-loaded brushite scaffolds on growth and activity of osteoblastic cells.

    Ewald, Andrea; Käppel, Christine; Vorndran, Elke; Moseke, Claus; Gelinsky, Michael; Gbureck, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    Bone substitute materials such as calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are frequently used as growth factor carriers for the stimulation of osteoblast-formation around an implant. However, biological modification based on delicate protein factors like extracellular matrix proteins or growth factors is subject to a number of shortcomings like the need for storage below room temperature and cost of production. The aim of this study was to investigate ionic modification as an alternative bioinorganic route for implant modification. Although it is known that Cu(II) plays a role in angiogenesis and bone formation, not all involved processes are well understood yet. In this study the in vitro effect of Cu(II) on growth and activity of osteoblastic cells seeded on brushite (CaHPO(4) · 2 H(2) O) scaffolds as well as on glass discs was investigated. The results show that Cu(II) enhances cell activity and proliferation of osteoblastic cells on CPC and furthermore affects the expression of several bone specific proteins such as bone sialo protein or osteocalcin. Therefore, the modification of CPC with Cu(II) may offer a promising alternative to protein based modification to stimulate cellular activity for an improved bone healing.

  17. Cefuroxime axetil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced activity against S. aureus biofilm.

    Singh, Bhupender; Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; M R, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Vinod; Saxena, Preeti S; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    The present research work is focused on the development of solid lipid nanoparticles of cefuroxime axetil (CA-SLN) for its enhanced inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus produced biofilm. CA-SLN was prepared by solvent emulsification/evaporation method using single lipid (stearic acid (SA)) and binary lipids (SA and tristearin (TS)). Process variables such as volume of dispersion medium, concentration of surfactant, homogenization speed and time were optimized. The prepared SLN were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, drug polymer interaction studies (DSC and FT-IR), shape and surface morphology (SEM and AFM), in vitro drug release, stability studies and in vitro anti biofilm activity against S. aureus biofilm. Among the process variables, increased volume of dispersion medium, homogenization speed and time led to increase in particle size whereas increase in surfactant concentration decreased the particle size. SLN prepared using binary lipids exhibited higher entrapment efficiency than the single lipid. DSC and FT-IR studies showed no incompatible interaction between drug and excipients. CA-SLN showed two folds higher anti-biofilm activity in vitro than pristine CA against S. aureus biofilm.

  18. Cell surface display of cold-active esterase EstPc with the use of a new autotransporter from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T).

    Petrovskaya, L E; Novototskaya-Vlasova, K A; Kryukova, E A; Rivkina, E M; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    We have cloned the gene coding for AT877-a new predicted member of the autotransporter protein family with an esterase passenger domain from permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T). Expression of AT877 gene in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of the recombinant autotransporter in the outer membrane fraction and at the surface of the induced cells. AT877 displayed maximum hydrolytic activity toward medium-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C8-C10) at 50 °C and was resistant to the presence of several metal ions, organic solvents and detergents. Previously, we have described a cold-active esterase EstPc from the same bacterium which possesses high activity at low temperatures and relatively high thermal stability. To construct a cell surface display system for EstPc, the hybrid autotransporter gene coding for EstPc with the α-helical linker and the translocator domain from AT877 was constructed and expressed in E. coli. According to the results of the cell fractionation studies and esterase activity measurements, the EstPc passenger was successfully displayed at the surface of the induced cells. It demonstrated a temperature optimum at 15-25 °C and a substrate preference toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4). Obtained results provide a new example of the biotechnologically relevant enzyme from the permafrost microbial community with potential applications for the conversion of short- and medium-chain ester substrates and a basis for the construction of a new cell surface display platform.

  19. High-Performance Harmonic Isolation and Load Voltage Regulation of the Three-Phase Series Active Filter Utilizing the Waveform Reconstruction Method

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2009-01-01

    . The SAF-compensated system utilizing WRM provides highperformance load harmonic voltage isolation and load voltage regulation at steady-state and during transients compared to the system utilizing the synchronous reference-frame-based signal decomposition. In addition, reducing the line current sampling......This paper develops a waveform reconstruction method (WRM) for high accuracy and bandwidth signal decomposition of voltage-harmonic-type three-phase diode rectifier load voltage into its harmonic and fundamental components, which are utilized in the series active filter (SAF) control algorithms...

  20. Poly(lactic) acid fibers loaded with mesoporous silica for potential applications in the active food packaging

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Nanni, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional fibrous systems based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA), mesoporous silica (SiO2) and ascorbic acid (AA) were produced by means of electrospinning technique, for potential applications in the active food packaging sector, as platform for the controlled release of antioxidant and/or antimicrobial agents with the additional filtering function. The ascorbic acid was physisorbed on the surface of mesoporous silica in order to stabilize it and to extend its antioxidant action. The influence of mesoporous silica and ascorbic acid on the microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated, revealing a revelant mechanical reinforcement in the case of fibers loaded only with SiO2 and a decrement in the case of SiO2 with physisorbed ascorbic acid, due to the worse interface between the fillers and the polymeric matrix.

  1. 45% power saving in a 0.25μm BiCMOS 10Gb/s 50Ω-terminated packaged active-load laser driver

    Ayranci, E.; Christensen, K.; Andreani, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    A 0.25μm BiCMOS laser driver based on active loads allows operation at 10Gb/s while drawing 5mA from a 1.8V supply. The design guarantees the correct matching of the driver outputs without the use of physical 50Ω load resistors. This enables a theoretical current consumption reduction of 50% (45%...

  2. A Novel Cold-Active Lipase from Candida albicans: Cloning, Expression and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    Dong-Ming Lan; Yong-Hua Wang; Bo Yang; Ning Yang; Wen-Kai Wang; Yan-Fei Shen

    2011-01-01

    A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86–34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM...

  3. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  4. Preparation and Photodynamic Anti-tumor Activity of Magnetic Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles Loaded with Photosensitizer

    YANG Xiao-xia; HUANG Hui; CHEN Zhi-long; HUANG Peng; SUN Yun; ZHOU Xing-ping

    2010-01-01

    A novel magnetic nanocarrier was strategically designed and successfully prepared. Photosensitizer 2, 7,12, 18-tetramethyl-3, 8-di-(1-propoxyethyl)-13, 17-bis-( 3-hydroxypropyl ) porphyrin ( PHPP ) wasencapsulated into polylactic acid (PLA)-coated Fe3O4nanoparticles. The diameter of nanocarrier is 30-50 nm by transmission electron micrograph ( TEM ). The encapsulation efficiency of photosensitizer is 27.98% calculated from UV-vis absorption spectra. The nanocarrier shows obvious photocytotoxic activity to Hela299 tumor cells in vitro.

  5. Sustained antioxidant activity of quercetin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

    Weiss-Angeli, Valéria; Poletto, Fernanda S; de Marco, Samuel L; Salvador, Miriam; da Silveira, Nádya P; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) are vesicular nanocarriers prepared by solvent displacement. LNC have been previously prepared using medium-chain triglyceride and sorbitan monostearate as liquid and solid lipophilic components dispersed in the core, surrounded by poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). Our objective was to investigate the antioxidant activity of LNC containing quercetin (QUE), a radical scavenger, prepared with octyl methoxycinnamate and sorbitan monostearate as lipophilic core components and PCL as the polymer wall. We selected Saccharomyces cerevisae cells as the proposed biological model. QUE-LNC presented z-average diameter of 212 nm, pH of 5.51 and zeta potential of -11 mV. Multiple light scattering analysis (TurbiscanLab) showed a photon path length of 172 microm. Furthermore, a validated turbidimetric study determined that the density of particles in suspension was 1.66 x 10(13). DSC analysis showed that the melting temperature of PCL shifted to lower values when in contact with octyl methoxycinnamate indicating a molecular interaction. After 1 h (7 h), the QUE-LNC formulation and QUE solution incubated with H2O2 showed cell survival of 84.4% (87.7%) and 65.6% (7.3%), respectively. After 35 h of incubation, cell survival was 31.7% and 0.9%, respectively. The QUE-LNC showed sustained antioxidant activity and potential as a nanostructured material to formulate final products.

  6. Inulin based micelles loaded with curcumin or celecoxib with effective anti-angiogenic activity.

    Mandracchia, Delia; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Trapani, Adriana; Ruggieri, Simona; Annese, Tiziana; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Trapani, Giuseppe; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-10-10

    Curcumin (CUR) and celecoxib (CLX) are two highly hydrophobic drugs which show bioavailability problems due to their poor aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to encapsulate each of these drugs in micelles based on biodegradable and amphiphilic polymers to investigate their anti-angiogenesis activity. Here we use an amphiphilic polymer, based on two natural substances from renewable resources (Inulin and Vitamin E, INVITE), as a self-assembling system for the drug delivery of CUR and CLX. By the in vivo assay of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) it was assessed that both INVITE-CUR and INVITE-CLX micelles possess remarkable anti-angiogenic activity, while the INVITE micelles alone resulted intrinsically pro-angiogenic. Furthermore, it has been shown that encapsulation of CUR and CLX in INVITE micelles enhances of several magnitudes the water-solubility of CUR and CLX (14·10(5) and 3·10(2) times for CUR and CLX, respectively). These results may have interesting implications not only in anticancer or diabetic maculopathy therapy based on the anti-angiogenesis strategy but also for regenerative medicine where over-production of new vessels is required.

  7. Preparation of silver nanoparticles loaded graphene oxide nanosheets for antibacterial activity

    T, T. T., Vi; Lue, S. J.

    2016-11-01

    A simple, facile method to fabricate successfully silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) decorated on graphene oxide (GO) layers via grafted thiol groups. Samples were prepared with different concentrations of AgNO3. Resulting AgNPs were quasi-spherical in shape and attached on the layers of GO. Physical properties were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Antimicrobial test was effectively showed using MRSA (Staphylococcus areus). The GO-Ag NPs with appropriate Ag NPs content of 0.2 M AgNO3 exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity at 48.77% inhibition after 4 hours incubation.

  8. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    Bergami, Leonardo

    section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able...... on each blade based on measurements of the root flapwise bending moment; each blade is considered as an independent Single Input-Single Output system. The second algorithm is a Multiple Input-Multiple Output Model Predictive Control (MIMO-MPC), which monitors the whole turbine response, and controls all...... the available actuators: ATEF, individual blade pitch, and generator. Both algorithms include frequency-dependent weighting of the control actions in order to limit high frequency control activity, and thus effectively reduce actuators use and wear. The smart rotor performances are evaluated from HAWC2...

  9. Early-stage fault isolation based on frequency response fitted by small-size samples for cryogenic cold compressors with active magnetic bearings

    Arpaia, Pasquale; De Vito, Luca; Girone, Mario; Pezzetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A model-based method for fault detection and early-stage isolation, applicable when unfaulty conditions can be identified only by a reduced number of trials (even only one), is presented. The basic idea is to model analytically the uncertainty of the unfaulty frequency response and express the fault condition in terms of the noise power variance. A preliminary fault isolation is carried out by sensitivity analysis in order to identify the most influencing model parameters and assess their influence on the estimated noise. Then, during maintenance tests, the noise power is checked to detect the faulty condition. This technique is conceived to check the quality of a critical component in an experimental installation (fault detection and early-stage isolation), as well as to detect its faulty dynamic behaviors over a long horizon maintenance test campaign (condition monitoring). The method was applied to four cold compressors with active magnetic bearings at CERN by proving to be able to detect an actual faulty condition in one of such compressors.

  10. Predicting temperature timit values for cold touchable surfaces

    Hartog, E.A. den

    2005-01-01

    During some occupational activities, workers have to handle objects or tools in cold environments. In other circumstances, contact between the hand and the cold surface might be accidental (e.g., when a worker touches a cold surface, a cooler, etc). In both cases, contact between the hands and the c

  11. The effect of food location, heat load, and intrusive medical procedures on brushing activity in dairy cows.

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Nicol, C J; Klement, E

    2013-10-01

    Animals allocate time and effort to a range of core (e.g., sleeping, feeding, drinking) and "luxury" (e.g., playing, exploring) activities. A luxury activity is characterized by low resilience and, as such, will be reduced when time or energy resources are limited, including under conditions of stress or discomfort. One seemingly luxurious activity available to cows on an increasing number of dairy farms is rubbing against an automated brush. The current study examined the effect of distance from food, heat load, and an intrusive medical procedure (i.e., artificial insemination and transrectal pregnancy examination) on the resilience of brush usage. The probability of using the brush decreased significantly when food was located distantly from the brush (mean=0.53) compared with days when food was located closer to the brush (mean=0.81). Brush usage also decreased at high temperature and humidity levels, with an average decrease of 0.062 brushing events for an increase of 1 temperature-humidity index unit (95% confidence interval=-0.93-0.030). In addition, a significant reduction of approximately 50% in brushing activity was observed on days of artificial insemination compared with the preceding 3d and the following 3d. These findings show that brush usage is a low resilience activity that reduces under a range of conditions. It may thus have the potential to be used as an indicator of a range of health and welfare problems in cows. Further research should be conducted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this suggested tool and its possible contribution to the early detection of morbidity.

  12. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  13. Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique

    Yu YN

    2013-07-01

    residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere. Keywords: SPG membrane emulsification, nanoparticles, docetaxel, pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity

  14. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Ram Kumar, M.C.; Arun Kumar, A. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli 627 152 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed low cost cold atmospheric plasma reactor for plasma polymerization technique. • Surface of the PP film was modified by grafting of AAc and PEG by CAPP polymerization. • Biomolecules of chitosan, insulin and heparin were immobilized on surface of PEG-AAc grafted PP films. • The surface modified PP films were characterized by various techniques. • The plasma polymerized and immobilized film reveals substantial blood compatibility. - Abstract: Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as O−C=O, C=O, C−N and S−S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was

  15. Collaborative Researchers or Cold Warriors? The Origins, Activities, and Legacy of the Smithsonian’s Institute of Social Anthropology

    A. Peter Castro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International research collaboration is increasingly popular, providing many scholarly and practical benefits. These collaborative endeavors also encounter obstacles and costs, including ones involving issues of power and professional ethics. My study seeks to widen our understanding of international collaborative social science research by examining the complex origins, diverse activities, and clouded legacy of the Smithsonian Institution’s Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA. The ISA was an innovative collaborative teaching and research program founded by Julian Steward during World War II to meet many goals, including increasing social science capacity in Latin America, expanding knowledge about contemporary cultural change, strengthening area expertise among U.S. scholars, and promoting closer relations among the peoples of the Americas. The ISA provided career-enhancing opportunities for U.S. and Latin American scholars, while helping to pioneer applied medical anthropology. I take issue with recent analysts who portray the ISA as promoting, including through covert research, U.S. hegemonic interests seeking to control rural Latin America.

  16. In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions.

    Nuchuchua, Onanong; Sakulku, Usawadee; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-01-01

    The nanoemulsions composed of citronella oil, hairy basil oil, and vetiver oil with mean droplet sizes ranging from 150 to 220 nm were prepared and investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Larger emulsion droplets (195-220 nm) shifted toward a smaller size (150-160 nm) after high-pressure homogenization and resulted in higher release rate. We proposed that thin films obtained from the nanoemulsions with smaller droplet size would have higher integrity, thus increasing the vaporization of essential oils and subsequently prolonging the mosquito repellant activity. The release rates were fitted with Avrami's equations and n values were in the same range of 0.6 to 1.0, implying that the release of encapsulated limonene was controlled by the diffusion mechanism from the emulsion droplet. By using high-pressure homogenization together with optimum concentrations of 5% (w/w) hairy basil oil, 5% (w/w) vetiver oil (5%), and 10% (w/w) citronella oil could improve physical stability and prolong mosquito protection time to 4.7 h due to the combination of these three essential oils as well as small droplet size of nanoemulsion.

  17. Photodegradation of formaldehyde by activated carbon loading TiO{sub 2} synthesized via microwave irradiation

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ge, Xinyu; Tong, Yanbin [Shihezi University, Shihezi (China)

    2015-07-15

    A microwave-assisted synthetic method to form a series of AC/TiO{sub 2} for application as photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde (HCHO) is presented. The influence of prepared conditions such as microwave power, microwave time, and the ratio of activated carbon and titanium dioxide sol (AC/TiO{sub 2}-sel) on the degradation of HCHO was investigated. HCHO conversion of 58.68% was achieved by AC/TiO{sub 2} at microwave power of 700W for 15 min with AC/TiO{sub 2}-sel ratio of 1 : 2, which maintained multiple properties including high content of anatase and TiO{sub 2} largely distributed on AC without reunion, and possessed abundant functional groups for degradation. The influence of operation parameters on the degradation was also investigated: increasing dosage of catalyst and decreasing the initial concentration of HCHO could increase the conversion of HCHO. Acidic conditions can promote degradation effect. Stronger intensity of UV irradiating could improve efficiency of photocatalytic conversion of HCHO.

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activity in anodized WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotubes

    Nazari, M.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Bayati, R.; Eftekhari-Yekta, B.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, TiO2 and WO3-grafted TiO2 nanotubes were grown via anodizing of titanium substrates in tungstate containing electrolytes. The samples were characterized in detail by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry techniques. Besides, photocatalytic characteristics were evaluated through measuring the degradation rate of 4-chlorophenol to establish a correlation between structure and photochemical properties. We were able to control morphology and growth mode of nanotubes from a tubular to a worm-like structure by changing the electrolyte composition. The samples possessed an anatase-rutile matrix where the anatase/rutile ratio was found to increase with the concentration of tungstate in the electrolyte. We attributed this observation to change in electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and the heat generated on the substrates. It was unambiguously revealed that a composite of WO3 and TiO2 forms and, in parallel, tungsten is doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO2. The maximum photocatalytic reaction rate constant for TiO2 and WO3-TiO2 samples was determined to be 0.0131 and 0.0174 min-1 respectively. The grafting TiO2 nanotubes with WO3 enhances the photocatalytic activity mainly due to the hindrance of charge carrier recombination and the formation of a more acidic surface. We established a correlation between structure, stoichiometry, and photocatalytic characteristics of nanotubes.

  19. In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of H2bdtc-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Zumira A Carneiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which remains a serious public health concern and continues to victimize thousands of people, primarily in the poorest regions of Latin America. In the search for new therapeutic drugs against T. cruzi, here we have evaluated both the in vitro and the in vivo activity of 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-phenyl-pyrazoline-1-(S-benzyl dithiocarbazate (H2bdtc as a free compound or encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN; we compared the results with those achieved by using the currently employed drug, benznidazole. H2bdtc encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (a effectively reduced parasitemia in mice at concentrations 100 times lower than that normally employed for benznidazole (clinically applied at a concentration of 400 µmol kg(-1 day(-1; (b diminished inflammation and lesions of the liver and heart; and (c resulted in 100% survival of mice infected with T. cruzi. Therefore, H2bdtc is a potent trypanocidal agent.

  20. Ammonium glycyrrhizinate-loaded niosomes as a potential nanotherapeutic system for anti-inflammatory activity in murine models

    Marianecci C

    2014-01-01

    exclusion assay (for cell mortality and an MTT assay (for cell viability. Release profiles for the AG-loaded NSVs were studied in vitro using cellulose membranes. NSVs showing the most desirable physicochemical properties were selected to test for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in murine models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the NSVs was investigated by measuring edema and nociception in mice stimulated with chemical agents.Results: NSVs showed favorable physicochemical properties for in vitro and in vivo administration. In addition, they demonstrated long-term stability based on Turbiscan Lab Expert analysis. The membrane fluidity of the NSVs was not affected by self-assembling of the surfactants into colloidal structures. Fluorescence anisotropy was found to be independent of the molar ratios of cholesteryl hemisuccinate and/or cholesterol during preparation of the NSVs. The anti-inflammatory AG drug showed no effect on the stability of the NSVs. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AG-loaded NSVs decreased edema and nociceptive responses when compared with AG alone and empty NSVs. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that pH sensitive and neutral NSVs show no statistical significant difference.Conclusion: NSVs were nontoxic and showed features favorable for potential administration in vivo. In addition, neutral NSVs showed signs of increased anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses when compared with AG.Keywords: niosomes, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, pH sensitivity, cytotoxicity, inflammation

  1. Activity of Nanobins Loaded with Cisplatin and Arsenic Trioxide in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Swindell, Elden Peter, III

    Despite recent advances in breast cancer screening and detection, the disease is still a leading cause of death for women of all ages. Young, African-American women are disproportionally affected with a type of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, which is particularly difficult to treat and has the worst prognosis of any breast cancer subtype. These tumors often spread to the lungs, liver, bones and brains of patients, which is ultimately fatal. This dissertation presents results from a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments that investigate the clinical utility of a novel nanoparticulate formulation of cisplatin and arsenic trioxide, NB(Pt,As) for treating primary and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. These nanobins consist of a solid, crystalline metal nanoparticle surrounded by a lipid bilayer with 80-90 nm diameter. This drug payload is extremely stable, and so NB(Pt,As) is extremely well tolerated in mice. Furthermore, NB(Pt,As) is effective in two different mouse models of breast cancer, one of primary tumor growth an another of lung metastases. A discovery presented here, that thiol containing compounds are required for drug release, may explain these seemingly incongruous results. The large amount of intracellular thiol can trigger drug release, while the low concentration of free thiols in blood is insufficient to cause drug release. To improve the treatment of brain tumors with this unique drug, we added transferrin to the surface of the nanobin using copper-catalyzed "click" chemistry, which preserves protein activity. The addition of transferrin to the nanobins enables 10 fold greater uptake in the brains of mice treated with the transferrin-targeted nanobins Tf-NB(Pt,A) compared to NB(Pt,As). By penetrating the blood brain barrier, the Tf-NB(Pt,As) was able to reduce breast cancer metastases in the brains of mice, whereas NB(Pt,As) had no effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate the intricate balance of drug release

  2. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  3. Silver and zinc oxide nanostructures loaded on activated carbon as new adsorbents for removal of methylene green: a comparative study.

    Ghaedi, M; Karimi, H; Yousefi, F

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the removal of methylene green (MG) from aqueous solution based on two new adsorbents including silver nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively) has been carried out. The dependency of removal process to variables such as contact time, pH, amount of adsorbents, and initial MG concentration were examined and optimized. It was found that the maximum MG removal percentage was achieved at pH = 7.0 following stirring at 400 r min(-1) for 7 and 6 min for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir model having maximum adsorption capacity of 166.7 and 200 mg g(-1) for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of MG adsorption on Ag-NP-AC such as enthalpy and entropy changes, activation energy, sticking probability, and Gibbs free energy changes show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the removal process. Among different conventional kinetic models, the pseudo second-order kinetics in addition to particle diffusion mechanism is the best and efficient model for the prediction and explanation of experimental data of MG adsorption onto both adsorbents.

  4. Enhanced photostability, radical scavenging and antitumor activity of indole-3-carbinol-loaded rose hip oil nanocapsules.

    Gehrcke, Mailine; Giuliani, Laura Minussi; Ferreira, Luana Mota; Barbieri, Allanna Valentini; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; da Silveira, Elita Ferreira; Azambuja, Juliana Hofstatter; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Braganhol, Elizandra; Cruz, Letícia

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with indole-3-cabinol (I3C) using rose hip oil (RHO) or medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil core. In vitro radical scavenging activity (DPPH method), hemolysis, and antitumor effects on breast (MCF-7) and glioma (C6) cells were conducted. Preformulation evaluations revealed that RHO is suitable to prepare the nanocapsules considering the log P determination and dissolution/swelling experiments of polymer films. The nanocapsules were prepared and presented adequate physicochemical characteristics as mean size around 250nm, polydispersity index values oil core (RHO or MCT) on these parameters. However, the photodegradation study demonstrated that RHO nanocapsules showed less degree of I3C degradation in comparison to MCT nanocapsules. The in vitro release profile showed that both nanocapsule suspensions demonstrated an initial burst effect followed by a prolonged I3C release. In addition, the formulations were considered hemocompatibles at 10μg/mL and showed an enhanced radical scavenging activity in comparison to free I3C. Moreover, nanocapsules prepared with RHO increased about two times the antitumor effect of I3C on MCF-7 and C6 cells without significant reduction of astrocyte cell viability. In conclusion, nanocapsule formulations developed in this study might be considered promising for cancer treatment.

  5. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity.

    Valicherla, Guru R; Dave, Kandarp M; Syed, Anees A; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-05-31

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy.

  6. 高强薄壁冷弯卷边槽钢柱承载力计算方法%Calculation method for load-carrying capacity of high strength thin-wall cold-formed lipped channel columns under axial compression

    金梦飞; 刘昕露; 吕呈; 孙德发

    2014-01-01

    Based on the contrast analysis of the Effective Width Method and the Direct Strength Method, analysis and discussion are mentioned about the ultimate load-carrying capacities of 1 mm thickness Q345 cold-formed thin-wall steel lipped channel columns. The calculation and test results showed that, it is relative safety in calculation the lipped channel columns according to GB 50018-2002 Technical Code of Cold-Formed Thin-wall Steel Structure.%在分析比较有效宽度法( EWM)和直接强度法( DSM)的基础上,以1 mm厚Q345冷弯薄壁卷边槽钢柱为例,对其极限承载力进行了较深入的探讨和对比分析,计算与试验结果表明:按GB 50018-2002冷弯薄壁型钢结构技术规范计算槽钢柱是可行的。

  7. Inspiratory-resistive loading increases the ventilatory response to arousal but does not reduce genioglossus muscle activity on the return to sleep.

    Cori, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baptista, Shaira; Huynh, Ivan; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John A; Jordan, Amy S

    2012-09-01

    Arousals from sleep are thought to predispose to obstructive sleep apnea by causing hyperventilation and hypocapnia, which reduce airway dilator muscle activity on the return to sleep. However, prior studies of auditory arousals have not resulted in reduced genioglossus muscle activity [GG-electromyogram (EMG)], potentially because airway resistance prior to arousal was low, leading to a small ventilatory response to arousal and minimal hypocapnia. Thus we aimed to increase the ventilatory response to arousal by resistive loading prior to auditory arousal and determine whether reduced GG-EMG occurred on the return to sleep. Eighteen healthy young men and women were recruited. Subjects were instrumented with a nasal mask with a pneumotachograph, an epiglottic pressure catheter, and intramuscular GG-EMG electrodes. Mask CO(2) levels were monitored. Three- to 15-s arousals from sleep were induced with auditory tones after resting breathing (No-Load) or inspiratory-resistive loading (Load; average 8.4 cmH(2)O·l(-1)·s(-1)). Peak minute ventilation following arousal was greater after Load than No-Load (mean ± SE; 8.0 ± 0.6 vs. 7.4 ± 0.6 l/min, respectively). However, the nadir end tidal partial pressure of CO(2) did not differ between Load conditions (43.1 ± 0.6 and 42.8 ± 0.5 mmHg, respectively), and no period of reduced GG activity occurred following the return to sleep (GG-EMG baseline, minimum after Load and No-Load = 2.9 ± 1.2%, 3.1 ± 1.3%, and 3.0 ± 1.3% max, respectively). These findings indicate that the hyperventilation, which occurs following tone-induced arousal, is appropriate for the prevailing level of respiratory drive, because loading did not induce marked hypocapnia or lower GG muscle activity on the return to sleep. Whether similar findings occur following obstructive events in patients remains to be determined.

  8. Water and Electrolyte Exchange during Exposure to Cold, Altitude and Combined Cold and Altitude

    1981-04-28

    adrenergic receptors may play a dominant role in acclimation to cold in the laboratory rat . Since an increase in the rate of secretion of thyroid hormones...stimulation that accompanies cold acclimation in the laboratory rat . Studies from this laboratory have shown that reduction in thyroid activity reduces

  9. Formation of ion pairing as an alternative to improve encapsulation and anticancer activity of all-trans retinoic acid loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles

    Carneiro G

    2012-12-01

    findings are in agreement with the data obtained in the evaluation of subdiploid DNA content and cell-cycle analysis, which showed better anticancer activity for BA-RA-loaded SLNs than TA-RA-loaded SLNs and free RA. Taken together, these findings suggest that the BA-RA-loaded SLN formulation is a promising alternative for the intravenous administration of RA in the treatment of cancer.Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, all-trans retinoic acid, cancer, treatment, antitumor activity, ion pairing

  10. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II) Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    da Silva, Patricia B.; de Souza, Paula C.; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Lopes, Erica de O.; Frem, Regina C. G.; Netto, Adelino V. G.; Mauro, Antonio E.; Pavan, Fernando R.; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS) composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol), 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate), and Eumulgin® HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8), and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4) as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II) complexes [CuCl2(INH)2]·H2O (1), [Cu(NCS)2(INH)2]·5H2O (2) and [Cu(NCO)2(INH)2]·4H2O (3). The Cu(II) complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from −0.00690 ± 0.0896 to −8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50) against Vero (ATCC® CCL-81), J774A.1 (ATCC® TIB-67), and MRC-5 (ATCC® CCL-171) cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.). These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB. PMID:27196901

  11. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  12. Miconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: formulation and evaluation of a novel formula with high bioavailability and antifungal activity

    Aljaeid BM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bader Mubarak Aljaeid,1 Khaled Mohamed Hosny1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt Background and objective: Miconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that has poor aqueous solubility (<1 µg/mL; as a result, a reduction in its therapeutic efficacy has been reported. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate miconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (MN-SLNs for oral administration to find an innovative way to alleviate the disadvantages associated with commercially available capsules. Methods: MN-SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. The solubility of miconazole in different solid lipids was measured. The effect of process variables, such as surfactant types, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and the charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release, antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results: The MN-SLN, consisting of 1.5% miconazole, 2% Precirol ATO5, 2.5% Cremophor RH40, 0.5% Lecinol, and 0.1% Dicetylphosphate, had an average diameter of 23 nm with a 90.2% entrapment efficiency. Furthermore, the formulation of MN-SLNs enhanced the antifungal activity compared with miconazole capsules. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed that the bioavailability was enhanced by >2.5-fold. Conclusion: MN-SLN was more efficient in the treatment of candidiasis with enhanced oral bioavailability and could be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of miconazole. Keywords: miconazole, Precirol ATO5, solid lipid nanoparticles, encapsulation, Cremophor RH40, antifungal activity

  13. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men

    Paula G. Cocate

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of dietary glycemic load (GL on cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active subjects are not completely known. Objective: This cross-sectional study assessed the association of habitual dietary GL with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men. Methods: One-hundred seventy-six subjects (Age: 50.6 ± 5.0 years, BMI: 25.5 ± 3.6 kg/m² were evaluated. Anthropometry, lifestyle features, insulin resistance, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; 8-iso-PGF2α and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG and lipid profile were assessed. Dietary intake was estimated through a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results: The dietary GL was positively associated with free fatty acid concentrations (β = 0.311, r² = 0.13, P-value = 0.034 and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (β = 0.598, r² = 0.19, P-value = 0.028 regardless of confounding factors (central obesity, red meat consumption, age and energy intake. The oxidative stress biomarker, 8-OHdG, was associated with habitual dietary GL (β = 0.432, r² = 0.11, P-value = 0.004, regardless of previous confounding factors plus excessive alcohol consumption, iron intake and current smoking status. Conclusions: The dietary GL was positively associated with lipid profile (free fatty acid concentrations and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio and oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG. These results indicate potential harmfulness of diet with higher GL to cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men, even in physically active individuals.

  14. 高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件承载力试验研究%Load-carrying capacity of 550MPa high-strength cold-formed thin-walled steel built-up box section columns

    李元齐; 姚行友; 沈祖炎; 王树坤; 刘翔

    2011-01-01

    由两个槽形截面构成的抱合箱形截面在超薄壁冷弯型钢结构中应用广泛,但关于其承载力的计算只是将单个构件的承载力简单地数学叠加,并没有相应公式来考虑单个槽形截面构件之间的相互加强.对40根高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件进行试验研究,考察其受力特性及破坏特征,包括轴压构件21个,绕弱轴偏心和绕强轴偏心构件共19个.试验研究结果表明:抱合箱形截面构件由于两个槽形截面试件的相互约束作用,实测承载力比按单根构件计算承载力叠加结果提高10%~20%左右.最后,在试验和理论分析的基础上,针对高强冷弯薄壁型钢抱合箱形截面受压构件极限承载力提出了一种建议计算方法,依照建议计算方法所得结果与试验结果吻合较好,且偏于安全,可供实际设计参考.%Built-up box section columns by two lipped channel sections are widely used in super thin-walled cold-formed steel structures.However, for their load-carrying capacities of built-up box section columns, usually a mathematical sum according to the load-carrying capacities of each channel section involved is utilized without any further consideration on the reinforcement between single channel sections.Load-carrying capacities and failure modes of 40 high-strength cold-formed thin-walled steel built-up box section columns have been studied, including 21 axially-compressed columns and 19 eccentrically-compressed columns subjected to bending moments along the weak axis and the strong axis respectively.The results show that, due to the interaction between two lipped channel columns connected by self-drilling screws, the ultimate load-carrying capacity of a built-up box section column is 10% to 20% higher than the sum of the ultimate load-carrying capacity of two single lipped channels loaded in the same way independently.Based on the tests and theoretical analysis, a proposed method to estimate

  15. Load Measurements

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-TiO2 Loaded Bamboo-based Activated Carbon Fibers by H2O Activation

    Dongna Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the support for loading TiO2, bamboo-based activated carbon fibers (BACFs were obtained from Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel after liquefaction using phenol, melt-spinning, curing carbonization, and H2O activation. TiO2/BACFs were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, and XPS. Anatase TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity was formed on the surface of BACFs, and the average crystallite size of the TiO2 film was 17 to 30 nm. The characteristic absorbance peaks of anatase TiO2 were observed at 1402 and 541 to 605 cm-1 on the infrared spectrum of TiO2/BACFs. The surface of TiO2/BACFs was mainly comprised of C–C, C–O, C=O, and Ti-O bonds. With increased calcination temperature, the contents of element Ti and Ti-O bonds of lattice oxygen on the surface of TiO2/BACFs increased and then decreased. The degradation rate of TiO2/BACFs for methylene blue (MB solution reached more than 98% after 7 h of UV illumination.

  17. In vitro drug release behavior, mechanism and antimicrobial activity of rifampicin loaded low molecular weight PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymeric nanospheres.

    Gajendiran, M; Divakar, S; Raaman, N; Balasubramanian, S

    2013-12-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA (92:8)) and a series of PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri block copolymers were synthesized by direct melt polycondensation. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR, and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques, viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rifampicin (RIF) loaded polymeric nanospheres (NPs) were prepared by ultrasonication-W/O emulsification technique. The NPs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvisible spectroscopy and DLS measurements. The drug loaded triblock copolymeric NPs have five folds higher drug content and drug loading efficiency than that of PLGA microspheres (MPs). The in vitro drug release study shows that the drug loaded NPs showed an initial burst release after that sustained release up to 72 h. All the triblock copolymeric NPs follow anomalous drug diffusion mechanism while the PLGA MPs follow non-Fickian super case-II mechanism up to 12 h. The overall in-vitro release follows second order polynomial kinetics up to 72 h. The antimicrobial activity of the RIF loaded polymer NPs was compared with that of pure RIF and tetracycline (TA). The RIF loaded triblock copolymeric NPs inhibited the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure RIF and TA.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by urea loaded on activated carbon fibre (ACF) and CeO2/ACF at 30 degrees C: the SCR mechanism.

    Zeng, Zheng; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhai, Yunbo; Fan, Xiaopeng

    2012-06-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by urea loaded on rayon-based activated carbon fibre (ACF) and CeO2/ACF (CA) was studied at ambient temperature (30 degrees C) to establish a basic scheme for its reduction. Nitric oxide was found to be reduced to N2 with urea deposited on the ACF and CA. When oxygen was present, the greater the amount of loaded urea (20-60%), the greater the NO(x) conversions, which were between 72.03% and 77.30%, whereas the NO(x) conversions were about 50% when oxygen was absent. Moreover, when the urea was loaded on CA, a catalyst containing 40% urea/ACF loaded with 10% CeO2 (UCA4) could yield a NO(x) conversion of about 80% for 24.5 h. Based on the experimental results, the catalytic mechanisms of SCR with and without oxygen are discussed. The enhancing effect of oxygen resulted from the oxidation of NO to NO2, and urea was the main reducing agent in the SCR of loaded catalysts. ACF-C was the catalytic centre in the SCR of NO of ACF, while CeO2 of urea-loaded CA was the catalytic centre.

  19. Load induced blindness

    Macdonald, J. S. P.; Lavie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied oil indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005. for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect oil the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the pe...

  20. Optimization of the ultrasonic assisted removal of methylene blue by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon using experimental design methodology.

    Roosta, M; Ghaedi, M; Daneshfar, A; Sahraei, R; Asghari, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was focused on the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption onto the gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC). This nanomaterial was characterized using different techniques such as SEM, XRD, and BET. The effects of variables such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), temperature and sonication time (min) on MB removal were studied and using central composite design (CCD) and the optimum experimental conditions were found with desirability function (DF) combined response surface methodology (RSM). Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Analysis of experimental adsorption data to various kinetic models such as pseudo-first and second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models show the applicability of the second-order equation model. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.01 g) is applicable for successful removal of MB (RE>95%) in short time (1.6 min) with high adsorption capacity (104-185 mg g(-1)).