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Sample records for active cold loads

  1. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...... and 51 K for the two ACLs. The temperature sensitivity is slightly below 0.4 K/degrees C for the units, and excellent stability seems to prevail....

  2. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg......C-50degC, and long-term stability is assessed. To this end, a test bed has been developed. This test bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and performance are discussed. The test setup is described, and test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 and 56 K for the two ACLs...

  3. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...... degrees C, and long term stability is assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design is briefly reviewed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 K and 55 K for the two ACLs...

  4. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  5. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulasi Satyanarayana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  6. Aminopeptidase activity by spoilage bacteria and its relationship to microbial load and sensory attributes of poultry legs during aerobic cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2010-02-01

    The shelf life of poultry legs stored aerobically and the possible role of the aminopeptidase activity of gram-negative bacteria (p-nitroaniline test) as a predictor of poultry spoilage were evaluated on the basis of microbiological and sensory parameters. Chicken legs (n = 30) obtained immediately after evisceration in a local poultry processing plant were kept under aerobic refrigeration (4 +/- 1 degrees C) for 7 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs) and sensory (odor, color, and general acceptability on a hedonic scale of 1 to 9) parameters and aminopeptidase activity (absorbance at 390 nm [A(390)]) determinations were performed after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of storage. Aerobic plate counts of 7 log CFU/g and a score of 6 for general acceptability were used as indicators of the end point of shelf life. Strong correlations (r > or = 0.76; P counts, hedonic scores, and A(390) values. Samples were judged as unacceptable (shelf-life end point) after 2 and 4 days on the basis of sensory and microbiological analyses, respectively. A(390) values of 0.52 and 0.89 (corresponding to p-nitroaniline concentrations of 6.25 and 10.7 microg/ml, respectively) are proposed as the upper limits for acceptability on the basis of sensory and microbiological determinations, respectively. However, these recommendations are based on a small set of samples, and their general application is yet to be verified.

  7. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  8. Generalized Shape and Gauge Decoupling Load Distribution Optimization Based on IGA for Tandem Cold Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Peng; YANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    Load distribution is the foundation of shape control and gauge control, in which it is necessary to take into account the shape control ability of TCM (tandem cold mill) for strip shape and gauge quality. First, the objective function of generalized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization was established, which considered the rolling force characteristics of the first and last stands in TCM, the relative power, and the TCM shape control ability. Then, IGA (immune genetic algorithm) was used to accomplish this multi-objective load distribution optimization for TCM. After simulation and comparison with the practical load distribution strategy in one tandem cold mill, general-ized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization on the basis of IGA approved good ability of optimizing shape control and gauge control simultaneously.

  9. Object Oriented Modeling of Thermostatically Controlled Devices for Cold Load Pick-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During service restoration, the power level at buses can significantly differ from the one presented under steady-state conditions, demanding an amount of electric power significantly higher than the normal load. Hence, their post-outage behavior must be adequately forecasted in order to permit the development of reliable restoration plans, or to avoid inadequate actions that may lead to a subsequent shutdown of the electric power system. This problem is known in the literature as cold load pick-up and the thermostatically controlled loads can be pointed as the main responsible for this behavior. Approach: This study proposes a methodology to model the thermostatically controlled load behavior during the reenergization process, based on object oriented programming and the physical modeling of individual loads, avoiding the explicitly modeling of the electric distribution feeder. In this context, the load aggregation is also implemented using “feeder” classes in an hierarchical structure. Results: The methodology was tested considering distinct devices distributed along a hypothetical feeder and the results show the impacts of interruption duration and environmental temperature in the load behavior. Conclusion: The Cold-load phenomena can be successfully simulated based on physical parameters of thermostatically controlled loads using objectoriented programming, yielding satisfactory results. In special, the impacts of the environmental temperature in the load to be restored can be assessed in detail.

  10. Magnetic levitation for effective loading of cold cesium atoms in a crossed dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Feng, Guosheng; Xu, Rundong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Jizhou; Chen, Gang; Dai, Xingcan; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-05-01

    We report a detailed study of effective magnetically levitated loading of cold atoms in a crossed dipole trap: an appropriate magnetic field gradient precisely compensates for the destructive gravitational force of the atoms and an additional bias field simultaneously eliminates the antitrapping potential induced by the magnetic field gradient. The magnetic levitation is required for a large-volume crossed dipole trap to form a shallow but very effective loading potential, making it a promising method for loading and trapping more cold atoms. For cold cesium atoms in the F =3 , m F =3 state prepared by three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling, a large number of atoms ˜3.2 ×106 have been loaded into a large-volume crossed dipole trap with the help of the magnetic levitation technique. The dependence of the number of atoms loaded and trapped in the dipole trap on the magnetic field gradient and bias field, respectively, is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The optimum magnetic field gradient of 31.13 G/cm matches the theoretical value of 31.3 G/cm well. This method can be used to obtain more cold atoms or a large number of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms for many atomic species in high-field seeking states.

  11. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  12. Are thermophilic microorganisms active in cold environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Cousins, Claire; Wilkinson, Paul T.; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Rozitis, Ben

    2015-07-01

    The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.

  13. Beam heat load measurements in the cold bore superconductive undulator in ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, S; Hagelstein, M; Zimmermann, F; Rossmanith, Robert; Kostka, Barbara; Mashkina, Elena; Steffens, Erhard; Bernhard, Axel; Wollmann, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the beam-induced heat load in the ANKA cold-bore superconductive undulator are summarized. The strength of the two dominating effects, resistive wall heating and heating by electron bombardment, depends on the beam parameters and the gap width.

  14. Active load control using microtabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  15. Optimal component loading in 1-out-of-N cold standby systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the optimal choice of productivity (load) of components in 1-out-of-N non-repairable cold standby systems. It is assumed that each system component can function at different levels of productivity (load) and that the life time acceleration factor as well as operational and replacement costs of each component are affected by its productivity. We present a model for evaluating the standby system reliability and expected mission cost. Furthermore, we formulate and solve the optimal load distribution problems in which the mission cost is minimized subject to system reliability constraint. Both fixed and variable sequences of component initiation are considered. Illustrative examples are provided

  16. Simulation of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, Humberto; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The heat load due to the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cold arcs is a concern for its performance near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, which examine the electron-cloud induced heat load for different values of low-energy electron reflectivity and secondary emission yield at injection energy, as well as at beam energies of 4 TeV and 7 TeV, for two different bunch spacing: 25 ns and 50 ns. Benchmarking the simulations against heat-load observations at different beam energies and bunch spacings allows an estimate of the secondary emission yield in the cold arcs of the LHC and of its evolution as a function of time.

  17. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  18. Cold Thermal Storage and Peak Load Reduction for Office Buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil Y.Abdel-Shafi; Ramzy R.Obaid; Ibrahim M.Jomoah

    2014-01-01

    This paper involves the investigations of the chilled water and ice cold thermal storage technologies along with the associated operating strategies for the air conditioning (AC) systems of the typical office buildings in Saudi Arabia, so as to reduce the electricity energy consumption during the peak load periods. In Saudi Arabia, the extensive use of AC for indoor cooling in offices composes a large proportion of the annual peak electricity demand. The very high temperatures over long summer periods, extending from May to October, and the low cost of energy are the key factors in the wide and extensive use of air conditioners in the kingdom. This intense cooling load adds up to the requirement increase in the capacity of power plants, which makes them under utilized during the off-peak periods. Thermal energy storage techniques are one of the effective demand-side energy management methods. Systems with cold storage shifts all or part of the electricity requirement from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce demand charges and/or take advantage of off-peak rates. The investigations reveal that the cold thermal energy storage techniques are effective from both technical and economic perspectives in the reduction of energy consumption in the buildings during peak periods.

  19. Control of the metal-support interface of NiO-loaded photocatalysts via cold plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ji-Jun; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Ping

    2006-02-28

    NiO-loaded semiconductors have been extensively used as the photocatalysts for water splitting. The metal-support interface is an important factor affecting the efficiency. In the present work, the pretreatment methods were studied to produce a more desirable metal-support interface using Ta2O5 and ZrO2 as the support. The traditional method includes a thermal decomposition, reduction at 773 K, and oxidation at 473 K (R773-O473). The thermal decomposition of Ni(NO3)2 makes the Ni atoms migrate into the bulk of the supports, resulting in a diffused interfacial region. Alternatively, a cold plasma treatment was used to replace the thermal decomposition. Metal salts are quickly decomposed by glow discharge plasma treatment at room temperature, avoiding the thermal diffusion of Ni atoms. With the sequent R773-O473 treatment, a clean metal-support interface is produced. Moreover, the metal particles have optimal shapes with a larger surface. In photocatalysis, the clean metal-support interface is more favorable for the charge separation and transfer, and the increased metal surface provides more active sites. NiO/Ta2O5 and NiO/ZrO2 prepared with the plasma treatment exhibit higher activity for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from pure water and methanol solution, respectively. This work shows the potential of cold plasma treatment in the preparation of metal-loaded catalysts and nanostructured materials.

  20. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  1. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  2. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T [Space Environment Physics Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Solanki, S K, E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [MPI fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  3. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  4. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  5. Performance of CASTOR{sup R} HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, D-45127 Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR{sup R} HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out

  6. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  7. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds—a departure from the ‘hot mode’ accretion model—although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy’s centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing ‘shadows’ cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  8. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it. PMID:27279215

  9. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-08

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  10. Temperature and Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading and Transport in Cold and Mild Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bedding levels and trailer compartment on internal trailer temperature and relative humidity (RH during loading and transport of finishing pigs was evaluated in cold and mild weather. Three levels of bedding were used in each experiment: 0.6 m3, 1.2 m3, and 2.4 m3. In mild weather, internal temperatures were lower when 1.2 m3 or 2.4 m3 of bedding were used during loading and transport compared to 0.6 m3 (P < 0.05. Internal trailer temperature increased in a quadratic fashion in the top front compartment when 1.2 m3 was used (P < 0.05, and in a linear fashion in the top rear compartment when 2.4 m3 were used in cold weather (P < 0.05. In mild weather, temperature increased linearly in the top front compartment with heavy bedding levels. Relative humidity increased in a linear fashion in the top front compartment with 0.6 m3, bottom front with 1.2 m3, and top front with 1.2 m3 in cold weather (P < 0.05. In general, temperature and RH increased as bedding levels increased in both cold and mild temperatures. Excess bedding can absorb more moisture, resulting in transport loss and decreased animal welfare.

  11. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; J. E. Olesen; Porter, J R

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage.Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold storage warming-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

  12. Integrin activation by a cold atmospheric plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. In this paper, we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. We focus on the study of CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. The data show that fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration. Both cell types reduced their migration rates by ∼30-40% after CAP compared to control cells. Also, the impact of CAP treatment on cell migration and persistence of fibroblasts after integrin activation by MnCl2, serum starvation or replating cells onto surfaces coated with integrin ligands is assessed; the results show that activation by MnCl2 or starvation attenuates cells’ responses to plasma. Studies carried out to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of β1 integrin and focal adhesion size by using immunofluorescence show that fibroblasts have more active β1 integrin on their surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly. (paper)

  13. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C. PMID:22753389

  14. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.;

    2006-01-01

    the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in contrast to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. The measurements were conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The recordings were...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Cold-active α-Amylase Excreted by A Strain of Marine Cold-adaptive Penicillia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-hong; ZHANG Gang; HOU Yun-hua

    2004-01-01

    The filamentous fungi from the Huanghai sea sludge were screened according to their ability to produce cold-active α-amylase. The strain with the highest amylase activity was identified as Penicillium species. The α-amylase purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on DEAE-sepharose and sephadex G-100 shows a molecular weight of about 55000 and a pI of 4.38. The enzyme is stable in a pH range of 5.5-8.0 and has a maximum activity at pH 6.0. Compared with the α-amylase from mesophiles and thermophiles, the cold-active enzyme shows a high enzyme activity at lower temperatures and a high sensitivity at temperatures higher than 50 ℃. The optimal temperature is 40 ℃ and the activity decreases dramatically at temperatures above 50 ℃. Ca2+ shows a significant effect on maintaining the structure and the activity of the enzyme. EDTA and Cu2+ are its inhibitors. The products from the hydrolysis of soluble starch with the cold-active enzyme are maltose and other oligosaccharides.

  16. System ID Modern Control Algorithms for Active Aerodynamic Load Control and Impact on Gearbox Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, D.; Wilson, D.; Resor, B.; Berg, J.; Barlas, J.; Crowther, A.; Halse, C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed

  17. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries.

  18. Results of a 50% Waste Loading Vitrification Test Using the Cold Crucible Melter for Savannah River Site Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) is a promising alternative compared to the Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) reference technology for vitrification of high level radioactive waste (HLW). Successful tests with 45 wt.% waste loading in the glass facilitated the transition to the third task of the work with waste loading increased to 50 wt.%. The third test was performed using the Radon full-scale vitrification plant equipped with a new cylindrical cold crucible with an inner diameter of 418 mm. Average glass pour rate (average amount of glass poured per 1 hour of run) and specific glass pour rate (average pour rate per melter surface area) reached 16.2 kg/h and ∼118.2 kg/(m2h), respectively. Neither formation of sulfate/chloride salts ('yellow phase') nor melt foaming were observed. Occurrence of a spinel-type phase in the glass didn't reduce chemical durability of the glass. Product Consistency Testing (PCT) demonstrated that leaching of lithium, boron, sodium and silicon from glass samples produced in the CCIM were 15 to 30 times lower than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for waste form repository acceptance. (authors)

  19. Breakdown of adiabaticity when loading ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Realistic simulations of current ultra-cold atoms experiments in optical lattices show that the ramping up of the optical lattice is significantly nonadiabatic, implying that experimentally prepared Mott insulators are not really in the ground state of the atomic system. The nonadiabaticity is even larger in the presence of a secondary quasi-periodic lattice simulating "disorder". Alternative ramping schemes are suggested that improve the adiabaticity when the disorder is not too large.

  20. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew A.; Chaney, Larry; Rugh, John P.

    2016-04-01

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  1. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Lee, Se-Jun; Castro, Nathan J.; Yan, Dayun; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and novel drug loaded core-shell nanoparticles and evaluate its underlying mechanism for targeted breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via co-axial electrospraying. Biocompatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) was selected as the polymer shell to encapsulate anti-cancer therapeutics. Results demonstrated uniform size distribution and high drug encapsulation efficacy of the electrosprayed nanoparticles. Cell studies demonstrated the effectiveness of drug loaded nanoparticles and CAP for synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell growth when compared to each treatment separately. Importantly, we found CAP induced down-regulation of metastasis related gene expression (VEGF, MTDH, MMP9, and MMP2) as well as facilitated drug loaded nanoparticle uptake which may aid in minimizing drug resistance-a major problem in chemotherapy. Thus, the integration of CAP and drug encapsulated nanoparticles provides a promising tool for the development of a new cancer treatment strategy. PMID:26917087

  3. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Lee, Se-Jun; Castro, Nathan J; Yan, Dayun; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and novel drug loaded core-shell nanoparticles and evaluate its underlying mechanism for targeted breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via co-axial electrospraying. Biocompatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) was selected as the polymer shell to encapsulate anti-cancer therapeutics. Results demonstrated uniform size distribution and high drug encapsulation efficacy of the electrosprayed nanoparticles. Cell studies demonstrated the effectiveness of drug loaded nanoparticles and CAP for synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell growth when compared to each treatment separately. Importantly, we found CAP induced down-regulation of metastasis related gene expression (VEGF, MTDH, MMP9, and MMP2) as well as facilitated drug loaded nanoparticle uptake which may aid in minimizing drug resistance-a major problem in chemotherapy. Thus, the integration of CAP and drug encapsulated nanoparticles provides a promising tool for the development of a new cancer treatment strategy.

  4. Analysis of the effects of rising temperature for embankments under seismic loads in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature rising for frozen soil because of dynamic load was investigated by indoor tests.Roadway and railway embankments are always loaded by dynamic loads such as earthquakes and vehicles.Because the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is a re-gion where earthquakes occur frequently,it is essential to consider the temperature-rising effect of earthquakes or vehicles on railway and road embankment.In this paper and according to the theories of heat transfer and dynamic equilibrium equations,as-suming frozen soil as thermal elastic-viscoplastic material,taking the combination of thermal and mechanical stresses into account,we present the numerical formulae of this dynamic problem,and the computer program of the two-dimensional finite element is written.Using the program,the dynamic response analyses for embankments loaded by earthquake are worked out.Analysis in-dicated that the temperature-rising effect result from earthquakes for embankment in nonuniform distribution in some small areas,the maximum rising temperature is 0.16 ?C for consideration in this paper.

  5. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  6. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew David; Harper, Erin Nicole; Ryan, David Russell; Contreras, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  7. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  8. Continuous loading of cold atoms into a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, P O; Werner, J; Binhammer, T; Görlitz, A; Pfau, T; Schmidt, Piet O.; Hensler, Sven; Werner, Joerg; Binhammer, Thomas; Goerlitz, Axel; Pfau, Tilman

    2002-01-01

    We present a robust continuous optical loading scheme for a Ioffe-Pritchard (IP) type magnetic trap. Atoms are cooled and trapped in a modified magneto-optical trap (MOT) consisting of a conventional 2D-MOT in radial direction and an axial molasses. The radial magnetic field gradient needed for the operation of the 2D-MOT is provided by the IP trap. A small axial curvature and offset field provide magnetic confinement and suppress spin-flip losses in the center of the magnetic trap without altering the performance of the 2D-MOT. Continuous loading of atoms into the IP trap is provided by radiative leakage from the MOT to a metastable level which is magnetically trapped and decoupled from the MOT light. We are able to accumulate 30 times more atoms in the magnetic trap than in the MOT. The absolute number of $2\\times 10^8$~atoms is limited by inelastic collisions. A model based on rate equations shows good agreement with our data. Our scheme can also be applied to other atoms with similar level structure like ...

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in sputum and nasal fluids increases in asthmatics during common colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong H.; Hong, Seung J.; Chen, Haimei; Habib, Ali; Cho, David; Lee, Sun H.; Kang, Joseph; Ward, Theresa; Boushey, Homer A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Summary This study showed that sputum and nasal lavage levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) rise during a common cold in asthmatic patients. This rise may contribute to the progression of airway remodeling. PMID:24373352

  10. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  11. Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Chieh; Sze, Cathy; Wang, Ke; English, Jeffrey; Chan, Onyee; Holman, Ashley R.; Tal, Ilan; Palmer, Matthew R.; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy expenditure, and increased multiple circulating metabolites, including glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. Cold exposure also increased blood pressure and...

  12. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Faiyaz Ahmed; Asna Urooj

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.001) cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200...

  13. Production of Cold-Active Bacterial Lipases through Semisolid State Fermentation Using Oil Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Joseph; Supriya Upadhyaya; Pramod Ramteke

    2011-01-01

    Production of cold active lipase by semisolid state fermentation involves the use of agroindustrial residues. In the present study, semisolid state fermentation was carried out for the production of cold active lipase using Micrococcus roseus, isolated from soil samples of Gangotri glaciers, Western Himalayas. Among various substrate tested, groundnut oil cake (GOC) favored maximal yield of lipases at 15 ± 1°C within 48 h. Supplementation of glucose 1% (w/v) as additional carbon source and am...

  14. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecul...

  15. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β1- and β2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  16. An Overview of Active Structural Control under Seismic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Soong, T.T.; Masri, S. F.; Housner, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of active structural control as a means of structural protection against seismic loads, developed over the last 20 years, has received considerable attention in recent years. It has now reached the stage where active systems have been installed in full-scale structures. It is the purpose of this paper to provide an overview of this development with special emphasis placed on laboratory experiments using model structures and on full-scale implementation of some active control syste...

  17. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga Hyun; Lee, Sung June; Jeong, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Se Geun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Utilizing the biological activities of compounds by encapsulating natural components in stable nanoparticles is an important strategy for a variety of biomedical and healthcare applications. In this study, quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method, which is a suitable system for producing functional nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. The resulting quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in an aqueous system. Superoxide radical scavenging effects were found for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles as well as free quercetin. The quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles showed cell viability comparable to that of the controls. The amounts of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, such as interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were reduced significantly for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles. These results suggest that the antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin are maintained after encapsulation in silica. Silica nanoparticles can be used for the effective and stable incorporation of biologically active natural components into composite biomaterials. PMID:27038916

  18. The mechano-activated K+ channels TRAAK and TREK-1 control both warm and cold perception

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Jacques; Zimmermann, Katharina; Busserolles, Jérome; Deval, Emanuel; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Diochot, Sylvie; Guy, Nicolas; Borsotto, Marc; Reeh, Peter; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The sensation of cold or heat depends on the activation of specific nerve endings in the skin. This involves heat- and cold-sensitive excitatory transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, we show here that the mechano-gated and highly temperature-sensitive potassium channels of the TREK/TRAAK family, which normally work as silencers of the excitatory channels, are also implicated. They are important for the definition of temperature thresholds and temperature ranges in which excita...

  19. Cold Air Activities in July 2004 and Its Impact on Intense Rainfalls over Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The severe rainfall events in the mid-summer of July 2004 and the roles of cold air in the formation of heavy precipitation are investigated by using daily observational precipitation data of China and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that the severe rainfalls in Southwest China are closely related to the cold air activities from the mid-high latitudes, and the events take place under the cooperative effects of mid-high latitude circulation and low latitude synoptic regimes. It is the merging of a cold vortex over mid-latitudes with the northward landing typhoon and eastward Southwest China Vortex, as well as the abrupt transformation from a transversal trough into an upright one that causes three large alterations of mid-high atmospheric circulation respectively in the early and middle ten days of this month. Then, the amplitude of long waves soon magnifies, leading to the unusual intrusion of cold air to low-latitude areas in the mid-summer. Meanwhile, the warm and humid southwest summer monsoon is quite active. The strong interactions of cold air and summer monsoon over Southwest China result in the large-scale convective rainfalls on the southern side of cold air.With regard to the activities of cold air, it can influence rainfalls in three prominent ways. Firstly, the incursion of upper-level cold air is often accompanied by partial southerly upper-level jet. The ascending branch of the corresponding secondary circulation, which is on the left front side of the jet center, provides the favorite dynamic upward motion for the rainfalls. Secondly, the southward movement of cold air contributes to the establishment of atmospheric baroclinic structure, which would lead to baroclinic disturbances. The atmospheric disturbances associated with the intrusion of cold air can destroy the potential instability stratification, release the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and finally cause convective activities. In addition, the advection processes of dry

  20. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...

  1. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  2. Methane activation on palladium and mercury loaded solid supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataja, K.; Huuska, M.; Karinto, K.; Maijanen, A.; Reinikainen, M.; Kiviaho, J.; Hase, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Methane activation by non-radical method and especially possibilities to heterogenize the homogeneous non-radical system of Periana et al. was studied. Varied loadings of Pd and Hg were ion exchanged to acidic ZSM-5 zeolites with two different Si/A1 ratios. Activation was tested in tubular flow reactor and the outcoming gas was analyzed with quadrupole mass spectrometer. Catalysts, fresh and used, were characterized by XRF and XRD spectroscopies. The methane activation was observed on tested catalysts. However, the activation was concluded to occur mainly through radical reaction and only to some extent by the expected non-radical mechanism. (author) (9 refs.)

  3. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Tae; Chow, John W; Chae, Woen-Sik

    2012-06-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4-L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male collegiate golfers. Average EMG levels for different phases of golf swing were determined. An EMG-assisted optimization model was applied to compute the contact forces acting on the L4-L5. The results revealed a mean peak compressive load of over six times the body weight (BW) during the downswing and mean peak anterior and medial shear loads approaching 1.6 and 0.6 BW during the follow-through phases. The peak compressive load estimated in this study was high, but less than the corresponding value (over 8 BW) reported by a previous study. Average EMG levels of different muscles were the highest in the acceleration and follow-through phases, suggesting a likely link between co-contractions of paraspinal muscles and lumbar spinal loads. PMID:22900401

  4. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis).

  5. Activity of latissimus dorsi muscle during inspiratory threshold loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Monells, J; Aran, X; Aguar, M C; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    The ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) to participate as an accessory inspiratory muscle has been the subject of controversy. Electromyographic (EGM) activity of LD was evaluated in 11 healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 2 yrs; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 106 +/- 5% predicted; maximal inspiratory pressure (Pmax), 120 +/- 6 cmH2O) under different breathing conditions. The ipsilateral biceps brachii was chosen as the control muscle. The EMG was recorded from surface electrodes, but needle electrodes were also used for LD evaluation in a subset of three subjects. The EMG signal from both muscles was recorded simultaneously, rectified and integrated, with subtraction of the electrocardiographic signal. Situations evaluated were: 1) maximal voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) apnoea; and 3) breathing under progressive inspiratory threshold loads (20-100% Pmax, at 20% intervals). A close relationship was evident between LD recordings from surface and needle electrodes (r = 0.975). Activity of LD at baseline was 1.8 +/- 0.4% MVC, and showed a phasic increase during inspiration under loads. This change had a linear tendency and was significant for loads corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of Pmax when compared to the control muscle. At this latter level, LD activity was equivalent to 32 +/- 5% MVC (range 11-61%), whereas mean activity of the control muscle was less than 7.5% MVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7789491

  6. Effects of cold-hardening on compatible solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities related to freezing tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-juan; CHEN Yu-zhen; LIU Mei-qin; LU Cun-fu

    2008-01-01

    Cold acclimation is associated with many metabolic changes that lead to an increase of freezing tolerance. In order to investigate the biochemical process of cold acclimation in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, seedlings were acclimated at 2℃ under 16-h photoperiod (150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation) for 14 d. Freezing tolerance in seedlings increased after 14 d of cold-hardening. Contents of protein, proline and solute carbohydrate in cotyledon increased after cold acclimation. Patterns of isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. The activities of SOD, peroxidase and PPO in cold acclimated plants were increased during cold-hardening. We deduced that compatible solutes and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in development of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in this evergreen woody plant.

  7. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jianxi [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Huajie [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhou Yanqing [Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Jinye, E-mail: jywang@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 {mu}m. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  8. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 μm. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  9. Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

  10. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  11. Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Nobiletin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Luque-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavonoid with a remarkable antiproliferative effect. In order to overcome its low aqueous solubility and chemical instability, the use of nanoparticles as carriers has been proposed. This study explores the possibility of binding nobiletin to chitosan nanoparticles, as well as to evaluate their antiproliferative activity. The association and loading efficiencies are 69.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The formation of an imine bond between chitosan amine groups and the carbonyl group of nobiletin, via Schiff-base, is proposed. Nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibit considerable inhibition (IC50=8 μg/mL of cancerous cells, revealing their great potential for applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary- emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called ‘‘full crab crossing’’ and ‘‘early separation’’ schemes, the ‘‘large Piwinski angle’’ scheme, and a variant of the latter providing ‘‘compatibility’’ with the (upgraded) LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  13. Application of Active Flow Control Technique for Gust Load Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaoping; ZHU Xiaoping; ZHOU Zhou; FAN Ruijun

    2011-01-01

    A new gust load alleviation technique is presented in this paper based on active flow control.Numerical studies are conducted to investigate the beneficial effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil using arrays of jets during the gust process.Based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations,the grid-velocity method is introduced to simulate the gust influence,and dynamic response in vertical gust flow perturbation is investigated for the airfoil as well.An unsteady surface transpiration boundary condition is enforced over a user specified portion of the airfoil's surface to emulate the time dependent velocity boundary conditions.Firstly,after applying this method to simulate typical NACA0006 airfoil gust response to a step change in the angle of attack,it shows that the indicial responses of the airfoil make good agreement with the exact theoretical values and the calculated values in references.Furthermore,gust response characteristic for the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil is analyzed.Five kinds of flow control techniques are introduced as steady blowing,steady suction,unsteady blowing,unsteady suction and synthetic jets.The physical analysis of the influence on the effects of gust load alleviation is proposed to provide some guidelines for practice.Numerical results have indicated that active flow control technique,as a new technology of gust load alleviation,can affect and suppress the fluid disturbances caused by gust so as to achieve the purpose of gust load alleviation.

  14. The mechano-activated K+ channels TRAAK and TREK-1 control both warm and cold perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Jacques; Zimmermann, Katharina; Busserolles, Jérome; Deval, Emanuel; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Diochot, Sylvie; Guy, Nicolas; Borsotto, Marc; Reeh, Peter; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel

    2009-05-01

    The sensation of cold or heat depends on the activation of specific nerve endings in the skin. This involves heat- and cold-sensitive excitatory transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, we show here that the mechano-gated and highly temperature-sensitive potassium channels of the TREK/TRAAK family, which normally work as silencers of the excitatory channels, are also implicated. They are important for the definition of temperature thresholds and temperature ranges in which excitation of nociceptor takes place and for the intensity of excitation when it occurs. They are expressed with thermo-TRP channels in sensory neurons. TRAAK and TREK-1 channels control pain produced by mechanical stimulation and both heat and cold pain perception in mice. Expression of TRAAK alone or in association with TREK-1 controls heat responses of both capsaicin-sensitive and capsaicin-insensitive sensory neurons. Together TREK-1 and TRAAK channels are important regulators of nociceptor activation by cold, particularly in the nociceptor population that is not activated by menthol.

  15. Antioxidation and ATPase activity in the gill of mud crab Scylla serrata under cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Xianghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2007-01-01

    Mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an important commercial crustacean in China. An experiment was designed to study the effect of cold stress on S. serrata. After a one-week adaptation at 28 ℃, the temperature is suddenly reduced to 4 ℃. The crabs were sampled every 2 h for 10 h and dissected immediately to measure the enzyme activity. The crabs at room temperature (28 ℃) were used as the control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of 4 ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase;Mg2+-ATPase; Ca2+-ATPase; Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase) were measured biochemically. In contrast to the control group, the SOD activity increased significantly from 2 to 6 h after the cold stress, and then decreased. The CAT and GPX activities increased in 2 h, and then decreased gradually. The content of MDA increased gradually in 4 h. The activity ofNa+, K+-ATPase decreased in 2 h, increased up to the top value at Hour 6,then decreased again. The activities of Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase increased significantly in 6 h, insignificantly in any other hours. Under cold stress, the activity of antioxidative enzymes in S. serrata was reduced at first then stabilized, ROS-scavenging weakened, and MDA accumulated gradually in the gill after 6 h. The activity of the 4 ATPases in the crab decreased after 6 h,suggesting that the ability to regulate ion concentration has been paralyzed. Therefore, the maximum period to sustain healthy meat in the crab under cold stress is 6 hours.

  16. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my disse

  17. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  18. Update: cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2009-June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ricardford R

    2014-10-01

    From July 2013 through June 2014, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=719) was the highest of the past five cold seasons (2009-2014). The rate of cold injury among active component personnel was also the highest of the 5-year period. Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in each of the services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, younger than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Numbers of cases in the combat zone have decreased in the past 2 years, presumably as a result of declining numbers of personnel exposed and the changing nature of operations. The increase in numbers and the geographic distribution of cold injuries in the previous cold season are compatible with the unusual pattern of cold weather that marked Winter 2013-2014.

  19. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    famous Rosen type design back in the 1950s. After the discovered of new piezoelectric materials and new PT designs have been invented, the PT based power converters are in the area where they can outperform tradition electromagnetic based converters in certain applications. The performance of PTs can......An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...

  20. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  1. Observations of cold magnetospheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowing, cold magnetospheric ions have been observed in conjunction with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause crossings since the earliest ATS and OGO missions. The authors have reported on the occurrence and convection of low-energy (10-100 eV) ions seen by multiple satellites in association with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) encounters. More generally, Los Alamos 3-D plasma instruments observe these ions following storm sudden commencements (SSCs), when activity levels are high. The ions appear to be convecting radially outward and usually westward at speeds of a few to several tens of kilometers per second. Often the energy spectra reveal peaks at energies appropriate for cold convecting H+, He+ and O+. The occurrence frequency distribution of these dense cold ions is peaked near 1400 LT, with an overall range from 1000 to beyond 1800 LT. This local time distribution is greatly skewed from the overall plasmaspheric distribution, which peaks closer to 1800 LT. Multisatellite observations show that the ions are seen first at late afternoon local times and then at progressively earlier and earlier local times (though usually no earlier than 1000 LT). This apparent evolution in local time suggests that the late-afternoon plasmaspheric plasma moves out and dawnward during times of increased magnetospheric activity. The three-satellite observations also allow the authors to track cold plasma convection at multiple points in the magnetosphere, and potentially provide a glimpse of the large-scale convection pattern

  2. Activated carbon load equalization of gas-phase toluene: effect of cycle length and fraction of time in loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Moe; Kodi L. Collins; John D. Rhodes [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-08-01

    Fluctuating pollutant concentrations pose challenges in the design and operation of air pollution control devices such as biofilters. Effective load equalization could decrease or eliminate many of these difficulties. In research described here, experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of cycle length and fraction of time contaminants are supplied on the degree of load equalization achieved by passively operated granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Columns packed with bituminous coal based Calgon BPL 4 x 6 mesh GAC were subjected to a variety of cyclic loading conditions in which toluene was supplied at concentrations of 1000 or 250 ppmv during loading intervals, and uncontaminated air flowed through the columns during no-loading intervals. The fraction of time when toluene was supplied ranged from 1/2 to 1/6, and cycle lengths ranged from 6 to 48 h. Results demonstrate that passively operated GAC columns can temporarily accumulate contaminants during intervals of high influent concentration and desorb contaminants during intervals of no loading, resulting in appreciable load equalization without need for external regeneration by heating or other means. Greater load equalization was achieved as the fraction of time toluene was loaded decreased and as the cycle length decreased. A pore and surface diffusion model, able to predict the level of contaminant concentration attenuation in GAC columns with reasonable accuracy, was used to further explore the range of load equalization performance expected from columns of various packed bed depths. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Active Load Control Using a Non-traditional MEMs Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nakafuji, Dora; van Dam, Cornelis

    2001-11-01

    An active load control concept using micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs has been undergoing testing and development at the University of California at Davis. The concept utilizes microfabricated sliding components to retract and extend small tabs located near the trailing edge of a lifting surface. The tab assembly, referred to as a microtab, extends approximately normal to the surface and has a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of these retractable devices on either the suction or pressure side of a lifting surface effectively modifies the camber distribution and changes the lift and moments generated. On the pressure side, the effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional flap-like control surfaces resulting in positive DCl changes of 30conventional control surfaces which typically occupy 20of the lifting surface, these large-scale load changes are achieved using microtabs with heights of 1located 5suction side, these microtabs work by decreasing the lift resulting in negative DCl changes in the linear range of the lift curve. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices are capable of generating macro-scale changes in the aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative load control system based on microfabrication techniques will allow for miniaturization of conventional systems. With further development and integration with an activation and feedback network, these microtabs may result in significant reductions in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Due to their minute size, the activation and response times are expected to be much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. Using a multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication, the potentials of this concept

  4. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO2/ AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  5. Active Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin

    2016-05-16

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques that estimate the electricity usage of individual appliances from power measurements taken at a limited number of locations in a building. One of the key challenges in NILM is having too much data without class labels yet being unable to label the data manually for cost or time constraints. This paper presents an active learning framework that helps existing NILM techniques to overcome this challenge. Active learning is an advanced machine learning method that interactively queries a user for the class label information. Unlike most existing NILM systems that heuristically request user inputs, the proposed method only needs minimally sufficient information from a user to build a compact and yet highly representative load signature library. Initial results indicate the proposed method can reduce the user inputs by up to 90% while still achieving similar disaggregation performance compared to a heuristic method. Thus, the proposed method can substantially reduce the burden on the user, improve the performance of a NILM system with limited user inputs, and overcome the key market barriers to the wide adoption of NILM technologies.

  6. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Latifa Sri Suharto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and goat’s milk yogurt. The yogurt was stored in cold storage and evaluated the quality and antioxidant activity variables on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15th. The results showed that there were interaction (P<0.05 between types of yogurt and storage time on pH value and total lactic acid bacteria (LAB, but no interaction effect on viscosity. The types of yogurt significantly affected (P<0.05 aw, total titrable acid (TTA, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle and goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle were the best yogurt that contributed to a good quality and high antioxidant activity up to 15 d at cold storage.

  7. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC and the hot aqueous extract (FRH exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.001 cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 μg ml -1 . The IC 50 values of 1813 and 1331 μg ml -1 were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann′s dose response analysis.

  8. Evolution of Thermal Response Properties in a Cold-Activated TRP Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Benjamin R.; Sigal, Yaron M.; David Julius

    2009-01-01

    Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms) or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms). Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functiona...

  9. Evolution of thermal response properties in a cold-activated TRP channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Benjamin R; Sigal, Yaron M; Julius, David

    2009-01-01

    Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms) or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms). Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functional diversity reflecting the characteristics of an organism's ecological niche. PMID:19492038

  10. Evolution of thermal response properties in a cold-activated TRP channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Myers

    Full Text Available Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms. Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functional diversity reflecting the characteristics of an organism's ecological niche.

  11. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    El Latifa Sri Suharto; Irma Isnafia Arief3); Epi Taufik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and ...

  12. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

  13. Dodecylamine-loaded halloysite nanocontainers for active anticorrosion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Jesus; Sawczen, Tiago; Aoki, Idalina

    2015-11-01

    Currently the most promising approach in the corrosion protection by smart coatings is the use of nanoreservoirs loaded with corrosion inhibitors. Nanocontainers are filled with anti-corrosive agents and embedded into a primer coating. Future prospective containers are halloysite nanotubes due to their low price, availability, durability, with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The aim of this work is to study the use of halloysite nanotubes as nanocontainers for encapsulated dodecylamine for active corrosion protection of carbon steel. Halloysite clay was characterized by XRD and TGA- thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Halloysite nanotubes were loaded with dodecylamine and embedded into an alkyd primer with a weight ratio of 10 wt.% . The anticorrosive performance of the alkyd primer doped with 10 wt.% of entrapped-dodecylamine halloysite was tested on coated carbon steel by direct exposure of the coated samples with a provoked defect into 0.01 mol/L NaCl corrosive media using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). EIS and SVET measurements showed the self-healing properties of the doped alkyd coating. Coated samples were also evaluated in a salt spray chamber and the self-healing effect was unequivocally noticed.

  14. Dodecylamine-loaded halloysite nanocontainers for active anticorrosion coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Marino Falcón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently the most promising approach in the corrosion protection by smart coatings is the use of nanoreservoirs loaded with corrosion inhibitors. Nanocontainers are filled with anti-corrosive agents and embedded into a primer coating. Future prospective containers are halloysite nanotubes due to their low price, availability, durability, with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The aim of this work is to study the use of halloysite nanotubes as nanocontainers for encapsulated dodecylamine for active corrosion protection of carbon steel. Halloysite clay was characterized by XRD and TGA- thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Halloysite nanotubes were loaded with dodecylamine and embedded into an alkyd primer with a weight ratio of 10 wt.% . The anticorrosive performance of the alkyd primer doped with 10 wt.% of entrapped-dodecylamine halloysite was tested on coated carbon steel by direct exposure of the coated samples with a provoked defect into 0.01 mol/L NaCl corrosive media using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET. EIS and SVET measurements showed the self-healing properties of the doped alkyd coating. Coated samples were also evaluated in a salt spray chamber and the self-healing effect was unequivocally noticed.

  15. Fatigue strength evaluation of self-piercing riveted cold rolled steel joints under mixed mode loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KYUNG-MIN LEE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength of cross-shaped specimens of SPR joints made of SPCC was evaluated at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°. For the static strength at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, the maximum loads were determined to be 4890N, 1969N, and 1611N, respectively. Regarding for the relationship between the load amplitude and the number of cycles (Nf, the results were Pamp = 2209.3N−f 0.014 , = 8610.8 −0.199 Pamp N f , and = 3459.3 −0.149 Pamp N f for the load angle of 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. On the basis of the lifetime of 106 cycles, the load amplitudes which correspond to the fatigue limit for load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38%, 28%, and 29% of the static strength, respectively. The effective stress intensity factor was not found to be appropriate in the evaluation of the fatigue lifetime due to the different fatigue fracture behavior of these specimens.

  16. Load-Induced Confinement Activates Diamond Lubrication by Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilibotti, G.; Corni, S.; Righi, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tribochemical reactions are chemical processes, usually involving lubricant or environment molecules, activated at the interface between two solids in relative motion. They are difficult to be monitored in situ, which leaves a gap in the atomistic understanding required for their control. Here we report the real-time atomistic description of the tribochemical reactions occurring at the interface between two diamond films in relative motion, by means of large scale ab initio molecular dynamics. We show that the load-induced confinement is able to catalyze diamond passivation by water dissociative adsorption. Such passivation decreases the energy of the contacting surfaces and increases their electronic repulsion. At sufficiently high coverages, the latter prevents surface sealing, thus lowering friction. Our findings elucidate effects of the nanoscale confinement on reaction kinetics and surface thermodynamics, which are important for the design of new lubricants.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhu; Se-Jun Lee; Castro, Nathan J.; Dayun Yan; Michael Keidar; Lijie Grace Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and nove...

  18. Can winter-active bumblebees survive the cold? Assessing the cold tolerance of Bombus terrestris audax and the effects of pollen feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Owen

    Full Text Available There is now considerable evidence that climate change is disrupting the phenology of key pollinator species. The recently reported UK winter activity of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris brings a novel set of thermal challenges to bumblebee workers that would typically only be exposed to summer conditions. Here we assess the ability of workers to survive acute and chronic cold stress (via lower lethal temperatures and lower lethal times at 0°C, the capacity for rapid cold hardening (RCH and the influence of diet (pollen versus nectar consumption on supercooling points (SCP. Comparisons are made with chronic cold stress indices and SCPs in queen bumblebees. Results showed worker bees were able to survive acute temperatures likely to be experienced in a mild winter, with queens significantly more tolerant to chronic cold temperature stress. The first evidence of RCH in any Hymenoptera is shown. In addition, dietary manipulation indicated the consumption of pollen significantly increased SCP temperature. These results are discussed in the light of winter active bumblebees and climate change.

  19. Evidence of active methanogen communities in shallow sediments of the sonora margin cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Godfroy, Anne; Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John; Toffin, Laurent

    2015-05-15

    In the Sonora Margin cold seep ecosystems (Gulf of California), sediments underlying microbial mats harbor high biogenic methane concentrations, fueling various microbial communities, such as abundant lineages of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). However, the biodiversity, distribution, and metabolism of the microorganisms producing this methane remain poorly understood. In this study, measurements of methanogenesis using radiolabeled dimethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate showed that biogenic methane production in these sediments was mainly dominated by methylotrophic methanogenesis, while the proportion of autotrophic methanogenesis increased with depth. Congruently, methane production and methanogenic Archaea were detected in culture enrichments amended with trimethylamine and bicarbonate. Analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and reverse-transcribed PCR-amplified 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from these enrichments revealed the presence of active methylotrophic Methanococcoides burtonii relatives and several new autotrophic Methanogenium lineages, confirming the cooccurrence of Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales methanogens with abundant ANME populations in the sediments of the Sonora Margin cold seeps.

  20. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF COLD WATER EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Wanigasekara Daya; Jayakody Anusha Chandra; Ratnasooriya Chatura Dayendra Tissa; Weerasekera Kumudu Rupika

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antinociceptive potential of cold water extract (CWE) of Desmodium triflorum (Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae) plant. One of four doses of CWE (dose 4000 mg/ml, 2000 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml) or 1 ml tap water was orally administered to male wistar rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using tail flik and hot plate techniques. The results showed that CWE possessed marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate test but not in the t...

  1. Soluble proteins and polyphenoloxidase activity in bud flowers, flowers and leaves of cold stored lisianthus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavasini, R.; Nunes, K.N.M.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of soluble protein present in lisianthus bud flowers, flowers and leaves in room temperature (24±2°C) and pre-exposure cold chamber at 9±2°C for 24 h, in order to examine a possible correlation between...... these parameters and postharvest longevity of lisianthus flowers. After treatments, flowers were kept in pots with water, stored at room temperature and evaluated every three days until the end of their decorative life for biochemical analyzes. During the experimental period the enzymatic activity increased...

  2. Low levels of physical activity increase metabolic responsiveness to cold in a rat (Rattus fuscipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seebacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a

  3. Exploring Cold Trapped Volatiles from Stationary Landers and Mobile Rovers: ESA Activities for Resource Prospecting at the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Aziz, S.; Houdou, B.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of ESA activities in the area of measuring cold trapped volatiles in-situ, including the PROSPECT package for the Russian Luna-27 mission and the development of mobile platform capabilities that could be applied to future missions.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, R; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Langa, S; El Aouad, N; Arqués, J L; Reyes, F; Medina, M

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P579 was used for the production and purification of reuterin. The purity of reuterin was assessed by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After purification, reuterin concentration obtained was 1.3 M. The inhibitory activity using Escherichia coli K12 as indicator strain was estimated to be 510 AU/ml. Survival curves in tryptic soy broth revealed that reuterin required to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was in the range of 2-4 AU/ml. Purified reuterin (10 AU/g) significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon kept under moderate or strong temperature abuse conditions. After 15 d at 8 °C, cold-smoked salmon with added reuterin exhibited L. monocytogenes counts 2.0 log CFU/g lower than control smoked salmon with no reuterin added. At 30 °C, reuterin also controlled the growth of the pathogen, with counts 1.4 and 0.9 log CFU/g lower than those observed in control smoked salmon after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The addition of purified reuterin might be used as a hurdle technology to improve the safety and extend the shelf-life of lightly preserved seafood products such as cold-smoked salmon.

  5. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  6. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  7. Toluene promotes lid 2 interfacial activation of cold active solvent tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AMS8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Leow, Adam Thean Chor

    2016-07-01

    The utilization of cold active lipases in organic solvents proves an excellent approach for chiral synthesis and modification of fats and oil due to the inherent flexibility of lipases under low water conditions. In order to verify whether this lipase can function as a valuable synthetic catalyst, the mechanism concerning activation of the lid and interacting solvent residues in the presence of organic solvent must be well understood. A new alkaline cold-adapted lipase, AMS8, from Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied for its structural adaptation and flexibility prior to its exposure to non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. Solvents such as ethanol, toluene, DMSO and 2-propanol showed to have good interactions with active sites. Asparagine (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr) were key residues attracted to solvents because they could form hydrogen bonds. Unlike in other solvents, Phe-18, Tyr-236 and Tyr-318 were predicted to have aromatic-aromatic side-chain interactions with toluene. Non-polar solvent also was found to possess highest energy binding compared to polar solvents. Due to this circumstance, the interaction of toluene and AMS8 lipase was primarily based on hydrophobicity and molecular recognition. The molecular dynamic simulation showed that lid 2 (residues 148-167) was very flexible in toluene and Ca(2+). As a result, lid 2 moves away from the catalytic areas, leaving an opening for better substrate accessibility which promotes protein activation. Only a single lid (lid 2) showed the movement following interactions with toluene, although AMS8 lipase displayed double lids. The secondary conformation of AMS8 lipase that was affected by toluene observed a reduction of helical strands and increased coil structure. Overall, this work shows that cold active lipase, AMS8 exhibits distinguish interfacial activation and stability in the presence of polar and non-polar solvents. PMID:27474867

  8. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, P.; Dano, M.-L.; Gendron, G.

    2009-02-01

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon-epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC™) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC™ actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC™ actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC™ actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology.

  9. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon–epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC(TM)) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC(TM) actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC(TM) actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC(TM) actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology

  10. Influence of Pretreatment on Cold Water Solubility and Esterification Activity of Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaying Xin; Yan Wang; Tie Liu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the Cold Water Solubility (CWS) and esterification activity of Native corn Starch (NS) by pretreatment NS using NaOH/urea aqueous solution. The influence of pretreatment on granule shape and crystal structure of corn starch was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). It has been found that the average particle size of Pretreatment corn Starch (PS) decreased to nanometer level, smaller than those of NS (4-15 μm). XRD r...

  11. Determination of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) has been developed and evaluated through the analysis of standard reference materials (SRM). After extensive preparation, approximately 400 mg cattail samples from the lower Apalachicola River floodplain were irradiated in the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The results of numerous field samples and two standard reference materials using the nuclear method show favorable comparison to results obtained by a CHNS/O analyzer. (author)

  12. Gene Profiling for Invertase Activity: Assessment of Potato Varieties for Resistance towards Cold Induced Sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato is the most important staple food in the world. Cold-induced sweetening occurs when potatoes are stored at low temperature for longer period of time. Due to non- enzymatic Millard reaction it causes unwanted changes in colour, taste and in flavor when fried and roasted at high temperature. However, long-term cold storage is mandatory to keep an adequate supply of potatoes throughout the year. The cause of cold-induced sweetening is invertase enzyme. Methods: Five potato varieties (Hermes (A Lady Rosetta (B Oscar (C Kuroda (D and Multa (E were investigated for invertase activity during two month cold storage at 4°C. Crude protein was extracted by PD Midi Trap G25 column technique. Quantification of mRNA expression was employed through QPCR. Determination of sucrose, reducing sugars and organic acids was simply done by 80% ethanol method and concentration were find out by using HPLC with already set standards. The correlation between invertase enzyme, sugar content and mRNA expression was calculated through Statistical methods. Results: Significant activity of invertase was observed at 4ºC with up to 6.3 nmol/min/mg of protein in the type-1 & 4 (cv. Hermes and Kuroda; 2.5 times less in type 2 (Rosetta and 3.5 times less in type 3 (Multa when compared with same at 4ºC. In addition, malic acid concentration was found positively correlated with invertase activity at 4ºC as compared with its concentration at harvesting time. However, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations were independent of invertase enzyme activity. The transcript level of invertase enzyme was found significantly high in potato tubers stored at 4ºC in result 1 & 4 type, less in result type 2(C and negligible in result 3(E potato variety when revealed through reverse transcription PCR. Conclusions: In conclusion, Oscar (C and Multa (E were found more resistant to CIS at 4ºC storage and may be used for future variety improvement programs for CIS resistant

  13. Effect of matrine on Kupffer cell activation in cold ischemia reperfusion injury of rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Hua Zhu; Yu-Dong Qiu; Hao Shen; Ming-Ke Shi; Yi-Tao Ding

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of matrine on activation of Kupffer cell during cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).METHODS: 168 syngeneic SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: untreated group, small-dose treated group, large-dose treated group and sham operation group. After 5 hours of preservation in Ringer's (LR) solution, orthotopic implantation of the donor liver was performed. At 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 24 h after reperfusion of the portal vein, 6 rats were killed in each group to collect the serum and the liver for assay and pathology.RESULTS: Matrine markedly inhibited the activation of Kupffer cells and their release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF cytotoxicity level at 2 h decreased significantly by matrine treatment (7.94±0.42, 2.39±0.19 and 2.01±0.13 U/ml,respectively; P<0.01), so did the other three time points. The level of hylluronic acid (HA) and alanine transaminase (ALT) decreased significantly in both treated groups, and matrine treatment markedly ameliorated focal necrosis of hepatocytes, inflammatory cells aggregating, rounding and detachment of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). And no significant difference was observed between the treated groups.CONCLUSION: Matrine can inhibit the activation of Kupffer cell and prevent the donor liver from cold preservation and reperfusion injury in rat orthotopic liver transplantation.

  14. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiluo eCao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of ammonia oxidizing archaea in different habitats (water versus sediment potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  15. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2015-07-21

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  16. Load alleviation potential of active flaps and individual pitch control in a full design load basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig;

    2015-01-01

    configuration is evaluated by comparing four setups: 1) baseline with collective pitch, 2) individual pitch control, 3) individual flap control and 4) individual flap control combined with individual pitch control. The CRTEF allows for a significant reduction of the lifetime fatigue on various load channels...

  17. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF COLD WATER EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antinociceptive potential of cold water extract (CWE of Desmodium triflorum (Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae plant. One of four doses of CWE (dose 4000 mg/ml, 2000 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml or 1 ml tap water was orally administered to male wistar rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using tail flik and hot plate techniques. The results showed that CWE possessed marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate test but not in the tail flick test. Antinociceptive action was dose-dependent. Further, it had a rapid onset (1h and a short duration (3h of action. The CWE was safe and was not accompanied with side effects even after sub chronic administration. The antinociception action was mediated by supraspinal mechanisms, possibly via alkaloids and flavonoids. It is concluded that CWE of D. triflorum may be used as a cheap, orally active safe antinociceptive drug.

  18. Application of cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis in environmental studies of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) to determine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the aquatic plant Typha domingensis, commonly known as cattail, during spring and fall seasons. According to studies of the Florida Everglades, cattail replaces sawgrass as a result of nutrient enrichment from farm water runoff. Nutrient enrichment, especially phosphorus, in sediment and the water column can lead to undesirable expansion. Early signs of this expansion are apparent in the Apalachicola River floodplain near Apalachicola, Florida, USA. This research project is designed to use cattails as biomonitors of nutrient enrichment in the lower Apalachicola River floodplain. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation has been developed in our previous studies at the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The results of numerous field samples, collected from the study area during spring and fall seasons in 2002, will be presented in this paper. (author)

  19. MOLECULAR MODELING AND DOCKING STUDIES OF COLD ACTIVE LIPASE FROM Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Modeling is essential tool in the drug design process describes the generation, manipulation or representation of 3D structures of the molecules and associated physico-chemical properties while docking predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex. A cold active lipase producing potential psychrophilic bacteria (GN was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA molecular studies as Pseudomonas vancouverensis. Lipase gene from closely related species P. fluorescens was investigated for their functional role and in silico characterization using molecular modeling and docking studies. A 3D structure of lipase gene was generated with SWISS-MODEL and Discovery Studio 3.0. The stereochemistry of the constructed model of cold active lipase was subjected to energy minimization and the stereo-chemical quality of the predicted structure was assessed. The superimposition of the template (PDBID: 2Z8X with predicted structure showed that weighted root mean square deviation of Cα trace between the template and the final refined model was 0.2 Å with a significant Zscore of 8.2 and sequence identity was 80.5%. Three ligands P-Nitrophenol, Acetate ion and Diethyl phosphonate were taken for docking calculation with generated structure. They were interacting on the functional motifs of predicted model. It has been observed that Leu26, Tyr29, Asn31, Asp33, Pro315 and Thr316 residues were involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with selected ligands. So these interacted residues can be used as prominent active binding sites and which was common to the predicted active site. Based on above investigations it has been found that P. vancouverensis lipase protein can play a similar role in lipid metabolic process and triglyceride lipase functional activity as reported for P. fluorescens lipase protein.

  20. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    and uncertainties in future application of ACLs in air and space borne missions, and important parameters, such as temperature sensitivity and long term stability are addressed. For the devices under test, temperature sensitivities are found to be in the range from 0.2 K/°C to 0.4 K/°C, and typical...

  1. Suppressive effect of carbon dioxide on the activation of cold receptors in the nasal cavity of cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glebovskii, V.D.; Baev, A.V.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of carbon dioxide concentration in the air passing through the nasal cavity on the afferent fiber impulse activity were studied in decerebrated cats. Passage of air through the nasal cavity in the direction from the nostrils to the choanes effected strong activation of cold receptors in the nasal cavity walls. When air was drawn in the opposite direction (i.e., exhaled), the receptors' activity decreases. When a 1, 3, or 6-percent CO/sub 2/-air mixture was blown through the nasal cavity, the cold receptor activity became depressed in direct proportion to the CO/sub 2/ concentration. Thus, like the receptors in the process that regulates lung distension, the cold thermoreceptors in the nasal cavity possess characteristics of chemoreceptors. 14 references.

  2. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Cold-induced precipitation of a monoclonal IgM: a negative activation enthalpy reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliga, Stefano C; Farrugia, William; Ramsland, Paul A; Falconer, Robert J

    2013-01-17

    Cold-induced precipitation of a monoclonal IgM cryoglobulin isolated from a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia was observed to have a negative activation enthalpy. The rate of the reaction increased, as the temperature decreased. Differential scanning calorimetry of the monoclonal IgM showed precipitation as an inverted peak during a downward temperature scan. The transition temperature was between 14 and 15 °C and was possibly concentration dependent. At temperatures below the transition the precipitation was best described by second-order kinetics. The difference in change in enthalpy between precipitation and disassociation suggests that cold-induced precipitation had a fast precipitation stage followed by a slower consolidation reaction. Negligible curvature of the Eyring plot suggested the precipitation reaction was dominated by van der Waal forces and hydrogen bonding. Conversely, during an upward temperature scan, disassociation was observed as a positive enthalpy peak. This reaction had two stages, a reaction undoing consolidation followed by heat-induced disassociation that had first-order kinetics.

  4. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  5. Loading and reflexes : the influence of body weight and active movements on reflex responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Catharina Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes six studies on the influence of active movements and body loading on reflex responses. To measure those influences healthy subjects were asked to walk with different loadings (e.g. a backpack) or with different active movements (e.g. arm swing) while different reflex responses

  6. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    To search for new cold-active lipases, a metagenomic library was constructed using cold-sea sediment samples at Edison Seamount and was screened for lipolytic activities by plating on a tricaprylin medium. Subsequently, a fosmid clone was selected, and the whole sequence of 36 kb insert of the fosmid clone was determined by shotgun sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of 25 open reading frames (ORF), and ORF20 (EML1) showed similarities to lipases. Phylogenetic analysis of EML1 suggested that the protein belonged to a new family of esterase/lipase together with LipG. The EML1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal-chelating chromatography. The optimum activity of the purified EML1 (rEML1) occurred at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively, and rEML1 displayed more than 50% activity at 5 degrees C. The activation energy for the hydrolysis of olive oil was determined to be 3.28 kcal/mol, indicating that EML1 is a cold-active lipase. rEML1 preferentially hydrolyzed triacylglycerols acyl-group chains with long chain lengths of > or = 8 carbon atoms and displayed hydrolyzing activities toward various natural oil substrates. rEML1 was resistant to various detergents such as Triton X-100 and Tween 80. This study represents an example which developed a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome. PMID:18773201

  7. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  9. The effect of active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery on subsequent knee extension and flexion strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Strejcová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recovery is an important aspect of every physical activity. Many athletes train hard without giving their body time to recover which can lead to overreaching, burnout or poor performance. Currently cold-water immersion recovery and active recovery have emerged as some of the most popular interventions enabling faster recovery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of three kinds of recovery (active recovery, cold water immersion, passive recovery on medium-term knee strength in the extension and flexion. METHODS: Fourteen athletes at the age of 26.6 ± 4.4 years performed, in a random cross-over design, 3 sessions with 3 repeated medium-term isokinetic tests. The effect of active recovery, passive rest and cold water immersion were assessed by 3 × 3 (time × recovery repeated-measure ANOVA, respectively. The dependent variables were – peak torque, total work and average power. RESULTS: We found significantly lower absolute differences between the first and third trial in knee extension for peak torque after the active recovery (↑ 0.9 N × m than after the cold water immersion (↓ 14.6 N × m or the passive recovery (↓ 13.9 N × m. The decrease of the average power was significantly lower differences after the active recovery (↓ 5 W than after the cold water immersion (↓ 23.7 W or passive recovery (↓ 25.9 W. The changes in total work were not significant. We did not found any changes in the isokinetic strength for the knee flexors after different kinds of recovery. Maximal heart rate (HRmax was significantly higher during the active recovery than during the cold water immersion and the passive recovery (173 ± 14, 166 ± 14 and 167 ± 14 rpm. We have found significant differences in the average heart rates (HRavg during active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery (124 ± 8, 97 ± 9 and 107 ± 12 rpm. CONCLUSION: We found the positive effect of the active recovery on the subsequent medium-term performance for

  10. Active Store Window: Enabling Far Store-Load Forwarding with Scalability and Complexity-Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hao Zhang; Xiao-Yin Wang; Dong Tong; Jiang-Fang Yi; Jun-Lin Lu; Ke-Yi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Conventional dynamically scheduled processors often use fully associative structures named load/store queue (LSQ) to implement the value communication between loads and the older in-flight stores and to detect the store-load order violation.But this in-flight forwarding only occupies about 15% of all store-load communications,which makes the CAM-based micro-architecture the major bottleneck to scale store-load communication further.This paper presents a new micro-architecture named ASW (short for active store window).It provides a new structure named speculative active store window to implement more aggressively speculative store-load forwarding than conventional LSQ.This structure could forward the data of committed stores to the executing loads without accessing to L1 data cache,which is referred to as far forwarding in this paper.At the back-end of the pipeline,it uses in-order load re-execution filtered by the tagged SSBF (short for store sequence bloom filter) to verify the correctness of the store-load forwarding.The speculative active store window and tagged store sequence bloom filter are all set-associate structures that are more efficient and scalable than fully associative structures.Experiments show that this simpler and faster design outperforms a conventional load/store queue based design and the NoSQ design on most benchmarks by 10.22% and 8.71% respectively.

  11. Flexibility and Stability Trade-Off in Active Site of Cold-Adapted Pseudomonas mandelii Esterase EstK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truongvan, Ngoc; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2016-06-28

    Cold-adapted enzymes exhibit enhanced conformational flexibility, especially in their active sites, as compared with their warmer-temperature counterparts. However, the mechanism by which cold-adapted enzymes maintain their active site stability is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of conserved D308-Y309 residues located in the same loop as the catalytic H307 residue in the cold-adapted esterase EstK from Pseudomonas mandelii. Mutation of D308 and/or Y309 to Ala or deletion resulted in increased conformational flexibility. Particularly, the D308A or Y309A mutant showed enhanced substrate affinity and catalytic rate, as compared with wild-type EstK, via enlargement of the active site. However, all mutant EstK enzymes exhibited reduced thermal stability. The effect of mutation was greater for D308 than Y309. These results indicate that D308 is not preferable for substrate selection and catalytic activity, whereas hydrogen bond formation involving D308 is critical for active site stabilization. Taken together, conformation of the EstK active site is constrained via flexibility-stability trade-off for enzyme catalysis and thermal stability. Our study provides further insights into active site stabilization of cold-adapted enzymes. PMID:27259687

  12. Activation of Spinal α2-Adrenoceptors Using Diluted Bee Venom Stimulation Reduces Cold Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold allodynia is an important distinctive feature of neuropathic pain. The present study examined whether single or repetitive treatment of diluted bee venom (DBV reduced cold allodynia in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI rats and whether these effects were mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors. Single injection of DBV (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg was performed into Zusanli acupoint 2 weeks post CCI, and repetitive DBV (0.25 mg/kg was injected for 2 weeks beginning on day 15 after CCI surgery. Single treatment of DBV at a low dose (0.25 mg/kg did not produce any anticold allodynic effect, while a high dose of DBV (2.5 mg/kg significantly reduced cold allodynia. Moreover, this effect of high-dose DBV was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist or propranolol (nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, coadministration of low-dose DBV (0.25 mg/kg and intrathecal clonidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonist synergically reduced cold allodynia. On the other hand, repetitive treatments of low-dose DBV showing no motor deficit remarkably suppressed cold allodynia from 7 days after DBV treatment. This effect was also reversed by intrathecal idazoxan injection. These findings demonstrated that single or repetitive stimulation of DBV could alleviate CCI-induced cold allodynia via activation of spinal α2-adrenoceptor.

  13. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  14. Molecular insights into cold active polygalacturonase enzyme for its potential application in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, L N; Pulicherla, K K

    2015-09-01

    Pectin is a complex structural heteropolysaccharide that require numerous pectinolytic enzymes for its complete degradation. Polygalacturonase from mesophilic or thermophilic origin are being widely used in fruit and vegetable processing in the recent decades to degrade pectic substances. Recently cold active pectinases are finding added advantages over meso and thermophilic counterparts, to use in industrial scale particularly in food processing industry. They facilitate in conservation of several properties of foods so that the end product retains its naturality and also generates economic benefits. In the present study, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, a well reported marine psychrophile is taken as a model organism for cold active polygalacturonase and is evaluated in comparision to the routinely used mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes by insicio approach. Polygalacturonase sequences from industrially important microbial sources were subjected to MEME and Pfam wherein motifs and domains involved in the conservation were analyzed. Dendrogram revealed sequence level similarity and motifs showed uniform distribution of conserved regions that are involved in important functions. It was also observed through clustalW analysis that the amount of arginine content of psychrophiles is less when compared with thermophiles. Finally, all the modeled enzyme structures were subjected to docking studies using Autodock 4.2 with the substrate polygalacturonic acid and binding energies were found to be -5.73, -6.22 and -7.27 KCals/mole for meso, thermo and psychrophiles respectively which indicates the efficiency of psychrophilic enzymes when compared with its counterparts giving scope for further experimentation to find their better usage in various food industry applications. PMID:26344963

  15. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  16. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  17. A gene encoding a new cold-active lipase from an Antarctic isolate of Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Suja; Te'o, Junior; Nevalainen, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Cold-active lipases are of significant interest as biocatalysts in industrial processes. We have identified a lipase that displayed activity towards long carbon-chain-p-nitrophenyl substrates (C12-C18) at 25 °C from the culture supernatant of an Antarctic Penicillium expansum strain assigned P. expansum SM3. Zymography revealed a protein band of around 30 kDa with activity towards olive oil. DNA fragments of a lipase gene designated as lipPE were isolated from the genomic DNA of P. expansum SM3 by genomic walking PCR. Subsequently, the complete genomic lipPE gene was amplified using gene-specific primers designed from the 5'- and 3'-regions. Reverse transcription PCR was used to amplify the lipPE cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 285 residues that included a predicted signal peptide. Three peptides identified by LC/MS/MS analysis of the proteins in the culture supernatant of P. expansum were also present in the deduced amino acid sequence of the lipPE gene suggesting that this gene encoded the lipase identified by initial zymogram activity analysis. Full analysis of the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the lipPE gene encodes a novel P. expansum lipase. The lipPE gene was expressed in E. coli for further characterization of the enzyme with a view of assessing its suitability for industrial applications. PMID:23779196

  18. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  19. Field measurement of dermal soil loading attributable to various activities: implications for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, J C; Richter, K Y; Fenske, R A

    1996-02-01

    Estimates of soil adherence to skin are required for assessment of dermal exposures to contaminants in soils. Previously available estimates depend heavily on indirect measurements and/or artificial activities and reflect sampling of hands only. Results are presented here from direct measurement of soil loading on skin surfaces of volunteers before and after normal occupational and recreational activities that might reasonably be expected to lead to soil contact. Skin surfaces assayed included hands, forearms, lower legs, faces and/or feet. Observed hand loadings vary over five orders of magnitude (roughly from 10(-3) to 10(2) mg/cm2) and are dependent upon type of activity. Hand loadings within the current default range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/cm2 were produced by activities providing opportunity for relatively vigorous soil contact (rugby, farming). Loadings less than 0.2 mg/cm2 were found on hands following activities presenting less opportunity for direct soil contact (soccer, professional grounds maintenance) and on other body parts under many conditions. The default range does not, however, represent a worst case. Children playing in mud on the shore of a lake generated geometric mean loadings well in excess of 1 mg/cm2 on hands, arms, legs, and feet. Post-activity average loadings on hands were typically higher than average loadings on other body parts resulting from the same activity. Hand data from limited activities cannot, however, be used to conservatively predict loadings that might occur on other body surfaces without regard to activity since non-hand loadings attributable to higher contact activities exceeded hand loadings resulting from lower contact activities. Differences between pre- and post-activity loadings also demonstrate that dermal contact with soil is episodic. Typical background (pre-activity) geometric mean loadings appear to be on the order of 10(-2) mg/cm2 or less. Because exposures are activity dependent, quantification of dermal exposure

  20. A novel cold active esterase derived from Colombian high Andean forest soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Alvarez, Diana; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    In order to search new lipolytic enzymes and conduct bioprospecting of microbial communities from high Andean forest soil, a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clones was constructed in Escherichia coli using plasmid p-Bluescript II SK+. The library covered 80 Mb of the metagenomic DNA mainly from Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Two clones with lipolytic activity in tributyrin as a substrate were recovered. Clone BAA3G2 (pSK-estGX1) was selected and the entire 4.6 Kb insert sequence was determined. The sequence had a GC content of 70.6% and could be derived from an undescribed Actinobacteria genome. One open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (gene estGX1) with a molecular mass of 22.4 kDa that contained the pentapeptide G-P-S-G-G near the N-terminus essential for lipase activity and the putative catalytic triad was identified, also a putative ribosomal binding site located 18 bp upstream the estGX1 ATG start codon was identified. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the protein belonged to a new lipase family. The secreted enzyme showed a preference for short length fatty acids, with specific activity against p-nitrophenyl-butyrate (0.142 U/mg of total protein), it was cold active with relative activity of 30% at 10°C and moderately thermo active with relative activity of 80% at 50°C and had a pH optimum of 8.0 at 40°C. PMID:22806812

  1. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. PMID:26899302

  2. The influence of ergonomic devices on mechanical load during patient handling activities in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Koppelaar, E; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Miedema, H.S.; Burdorf, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mechanical load during patient handling activities is an important risk factor for low back pain among nursing personnel. The aims of this study were to describe required and actual use of ergonomic devices during patient handling activities and to assess the influence of these ergonomic devices on mechanical load during patient handling activities. METHODS: For each patient, based on national guidelines, it was recorded which specific ergonomic devices were required during distin...

  3. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  4. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  5. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  6. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  7. Effect of Pre-harvest Treatments on the Cellulase Activity and Quality of Ber Fruit Under Cold Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Kaur JAWANDHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to find out the effect of various pre-harvest treatments such as CaCl2 (@ 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (@0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, GA3 (@ 20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (@ 0.1% on the cellulase activity and quality of 'Umran' ber fruits during cold storage. Marked trees were sprayed at colour break stage with the test chemicals. Fruits were packed in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5 oC and 85 � 90 % RH for 30 days. The fruits were evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days interval for various parameters such as cellulase activity, phenolics content, palatability rating and rotting percentage. Cellulase activity registered a gradual increase upto 20 days of storage thereafter a decline was noted in all the treatments. The palatability rating increased up to 10 days of storage in all the treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased with an advancement in storage period. Among the various pre-harvest treatments CaCl2 (2% recorded minimum cellulase activity and rotting percentage and have also registered high palatability rating and phenolics content during cold storage conditions. Studies showed that pre-harvest application of CaCl2 (2% maintained very good fruit quality and prolonged shelf-life for 20 days under cold storage conditions.

  8. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases and conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in an appendix

  9. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  10. Exercising in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  11. Mechanical load on the upper extremity during wheelchair activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drongelen, Stefan; Van der Woude, Lucas H; Janssen, Thomas W; Angenot, Edmond L; Chadwick, Edward K; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the net moments on the glenohumeral joint and elbow joint during wheelchair activities. DESIGN: Kinematics and external forces were measured during wheelchair activities of daily living (level propulsion, riding on a slope, weight-relief lifting, reaching, negotiating a curb)

  12. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

  13. Factors on goods temperature stability in fruits & vegetables cold storage during the loading process%果蔬冷库进货期间货物温度稳定性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯坤旋; 南晓红; 杨巧银; 刘晓菲

    2015-01-01

    温度是果蔬贮藏环境最重要的参数.为了研究果蔬进库过程中影响货物温度稳定性的因素,该文以西安某苹果冷藏库为研究对象,建立冷库环境三维非稳态数值求解模型,模拟了进货过程中新进货物摆放间距、进货温度和进货量对达到贮藏条件货物温度稳定性的影响.模拟结果表明,在实际运行管理中,存在适宜的进货温度和进货量,可使苹果贮藏环境受进货过程影响最小,进货效率最高;增大进货间距可以减小对货物温度场的影响,进货摆放间距并不是越大越好.该文研究的冷库,进货过程中货物应先预冷到3℃再进库,进货摆放间距为0.5 m,进货量不大于10%.%Temperature is one of the most important environmental parameters for fruit or vegetable cold storage. During loading process of fruits or vegetables into cold storage, the new loading goods will influence the temperature stability of goods already settled in the storage room which have reached the storage requirements. Obtaining temperature variation and distribution characteristics in a cold storage during the loading process can provide theoretical reference for optimal design of the cold storage and improve its practical operation and management. To study the factors on the stability of goods temperature during the loading process of fruits and vegetables into cold storage, a combination of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculation and experimental study was carried out to further understand the complicated phenomenon of air flow and heat transfer in cold storage. A 3D (three-dimensional) unsteady numerical calculation model of storage environment was developed for a real cold storage with 50 t volume for apples in Xi'an. A ceiling air cooler was equipped in the cold storage. Thek-ε turbulent model was considered as CFD model. The apple zone was regarded as porous medium zone. The influences of the spacing of goods, loading temperature and loading

  14. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Vander Schaaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  15. Further studies on the numerical simulation of bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Canping; GOU Limin; YOU Jiachun; LIU Xuewei; OU Chuling

    2016-01-01

    Using the occurrence characteristics of bubble plumes in the South China Sea as a reference, this paper continues to study the seismic responses produced by bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region. To make the plume modelling scheme more reasonable, we modified the original modelling scheme and reconstructed a plume water body model based on the variation of its radius as bubbles rise in seawater. The plume seismic records of shot gathers were obtained by forward simulation. The seismic records of single shot show obvious characteristics of a scattering wave field and the periodic characteristics of the model. Seismic records of shot gathers were processed using prestack depth migration. The boundary of its imaging section has a good convergence effect. The migration sections can be imaged distinctly with higher accuracy. The aforementioned studies once again laid a foundation for the further study of the seismic responses produced by plumes. They also gradually probed a more suitable seismic data processing method for plumes and provided a theoretical guidance for the identification of plumes.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of fluid conduits sustaining an active deep marine cold seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, M.J.; Ruppel, C.; Van Dover, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cold seeps in deep marine settings emit fluids to the overlying ocean and are often associated with such seafloor flux indicators as chemosynthetic biota, pockmarks, and authigenic carbonate rocks. Despite evidence for spatiotemporal variability in the rate, locus, and composition of cold seep fluid emissions, the shallow subseafloor plumbing systems have never been clearly imaged in three dimensions. Using a novel, high-resolution approach, we produce the first three-dimensional image of possible fluid conduits beneath a cold seep at a study site within the Blake Ridge gas hydrate province. Complex, dendritic features diverge upward toward the seafloor from feeder conduits at depth and could potentially draw flow laterally by up to 103 m from the known seafloor seep, a pattern similar to that suggested for some hydrothermal vents. The biodiversity, community structure, and succession dynamics of chemosynthetic communities at cold seeps may largely reflect these complexities of subseafloor fluid flow.

  17. THREE-PHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROLLER FOR BALANCED AND UNBALANCED NON-LINEAR LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.NAGESWARA RAO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The active power filter produces equal but opposite harmonic currents to the point of connection with the nonlinear load. This results in a reduction of the original distortion and correction of the power factor. A threephase insulated gate bipolar transistor based current controlled voltage source inverter with a dc bus capacitor is used as an active filter. The firing pulses to the shunt active filter will be generated by using sine PWM method. The models for three-phase active power filter controller for balanced and unbalanced non-linear load is made and is simulated using Matlab/simulink software.

  18. Systematic functional analysis and application of a cold-active serine protease from a novel Chryseobacterium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Subramanian, Parthiban; Chandrasekaran, Suganthi; Karthikeyan, Sivashanmugam; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan

    2017-02-15

    Psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from natural and artificially cold environments were screened for synthesis of cold-active protease. The strain IMDY showing the highest protease production at 5°C was selected and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IMDY as novel bacterium with Chryseobacterium soli(T) as its nearest neighbor. Classical optimization enhanced the protease production from 18U/mg to 26U/mg and the enzyme was found to be active at low temperature, activity enhanced by CaCl2, inhibited by PMSF, stable against NaCl, and its activity retained in the presence of surfactants, organic solvents and detergents. On testing, the meat tenderization, myofibril fragmentation, pH, and TBA values were favorable in IMDY-protease treated meat compared to control. SDS profiling and SEM analysis also showed tenderization in meat samples. Hence, this study proposes to consider the cold-active protease from Chryseobacterium sp. IMDY as a pertinent candidate to develop potential applications in food processing industry. PMID:27664603

  19. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  20. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    category rating 10 scale (Borg CR10 scale) can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of exercise. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the feasibility of the use of the Borg CR10 scale for rating strength training intensity of the hip abductor and hip adductor muscles, and 2) to compare...... resistance training of the hip adductor and hip abductor muscles. Although elastic resistance and exercise machine seem equally effective for recruiting muscle activity of the hip adductors, the elastic resistance condition was able to demonstrate greater muscle recruitment than the exercise machine during...

  1. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  2. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237Np was observed at an energy of Eγ=182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σγ=22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241Am and of 242Pu were observed at Eγ=154.72(7) keV with σγ=72.80(252) b and Eγ=287.69(8) keV with σγ=7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was demonstrated. Compared

  3. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has......-MPC requires lower flap activity, and also achieves higher reductions of the tower fatigue loads, thus indicating that a combined control approach that coordinates and integrates all available sensors and actuators has the potential for overall better results than achieved by a series of independent control...

  4. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  5. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  6. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  7. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  8. The influence of ergonomic devices on mechanical load during patient handling activities in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelaar, E.; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Miedema, H.S.; Burdorf, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mechanical load during patient handling activities is an important risk factor for low back pain among nursing personnel. The aims of this study were to describe required and actual use of ergonomic devices during patient handling activities and to assess the influence of these ergonomic

  9. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept. 2002) effort. With many of these million dollar turbines failing at only half the design lifespans, conventional techniques for stiffening rotors, enlarging generators and gearboxes, and reinforcing towers are insufficient to accommodate the demands for bigger, taller and more powerful turbines. The DOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports R&D efforts to develop lighter, more efficient and longer lasting wind turbines and advance turbine components. However, as wind turbine systems continue to increase in size and complexity, fundamental research and technology development has not kept pace with needs. New technologies to increase turbine life spans and to reduce costs are needed to realize wind electricity generation potentials. It is becoming quite evident that without a better understanding of static and dynamic response to normal and abnormal operating loads coupled with sophisticated flow analysis and control techniques, large turbine operating life and component life will be severely limited. Promising technologies include active load control and load alleviation systems to mitigate peak loads from damaging key components. This project addresses science and engineering challenges of developing enabling technologies for active load control for turbine applications using an innovative, translational microtab approach. Figure 1.1 illustrates the microtabs as applied on a wind turbine system. Extending wind turbine operating life is a crucial component for reducing the cost of wind-generated electricity, enabling wind

  10. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.;

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...

  11. VAMP7 regulates constitutive membrane incorporation of the cold-activated channel TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debapriya; Pinto, Silvia; Danglot, Lydia; Vandewauw, Ine; Segal, Andrei; Van Ranst, Nele; Benoit, Melissa; Janssens, Annelies; Vennekens, Rudi; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Galli, Thierry; Vriens, Joris; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cation channel TRPM8 plays a central role in the somatosensory system, as a key sensor of innocuously cold temperatures and cooling agents. Although increased functional expression of TRPM8 has been implicated in various forms of pathological cold hypersensitivity, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine TRPM8 abundance at the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate constitutive transport of TRPM8 towards the plasma membrane in atypical, non-acidic transport vesicles that contain lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and provide evidence that vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) mediates fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane. In line herewith, VAMP7-deficient mice exhibit reduced functional expression of TRPM8 in sensory neurons and concomitant deficits in cold avoidance and icilin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Our results uncover a cellular pathway that controls functional plasma membrane incorporation of a temperature-sensitive TRP channel, and thus regulates thermosensitivity in vivo. PMID:26843440

  12. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  13. Investigation of the Hydroisomerization Activities of Ni-Mo Catalysts Loaded on HY adn HUSY Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuChangbo; LiuChenguang

    2002-01-01

    A series of Ni-Mo/zeolite-Al2o3 catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and their catalytic experiments were carried out using an automated microflow apparatus.It is concluded that the Ni-Mo catalyst loaded on the HUSY has larger BET surface areas and possesses more acid sites than that loaded on the HY zeolite,and simultaneously the Ni-Mo/HUSY-Al2O3 catalyst reveals higher catalytic activ-ity characterized by feedstock conversion and isomer yield which is about two or three times higher than that of the Ni-Mo/HY-Al2O3 catalyst.

  14. Polyol synthesis of highly active PtRu/C catalyst with high metal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shiyou; Sun, Gongquan; Tian, Juan; Jiang, Luhua; Qi, Jing; Xin, Qin [Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China)

    2006-12-01

    Highly loaded PtRu/C catalyst with high activity toward methanol electrooxidation was synthesized via a modified polyol process. XRD patterns indicated that the prepared catalyst was highly alloyed and TEM results showed that the metal nanoparticles were small and uniformly distributed on the carbon support despite the high metal loading. EDX results suggested that the two metals distributed uniformly in the catalyst. Electrochemical characterization and single cell test jointly showed that the prepared 40-20wt.%PtRu/C catalyst possessed high activity toward methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  15. Effect of Pre-harvest Treatments on the Cellulase Activity and Quality of Ber Fruit Under Cold Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhjit Kaur JAWANDHA; Mahajan, B. V. C.; Parmpal Singh GILL

    2009-01-01

    Studies were carried out to find out the effect of various pre-harvest treatments such as CaCl2 (@ 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%), Ca(NO3)2 (@0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%), GA3 (@ 20, 40 and 60 ppm) and Bavistin (@ 0.1%) on the cellulase activity and quality of 'Umran' ber fruits during cold storage. Marked trees were sprayed at colour break stage with the test chemicals. Fruits were packed in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5 oC and 85 � 90 % RH) for 30 days. The fruits were evaluated after 10, 20 and...

  16. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjuan Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1 from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1, Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL, and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL. Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  17. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity. PMID:24927145

  18. Fault Tolerant Algorithm Based on Dynamic and Active Load Balancing for Redundant Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Feng Tian; Jun-Wei Zhang; Feng-Xian Wang

    2004-01-01

    A new Some-Read-Any-Write (SRAW) fault tolerant algorithm for redundant services is presented that allows a system to adjust failures dynamically in order to keep the availability and improve the performance. SRAW is based upon dynamic and active load balancing. By introducing dynamic and active load balancing scheme into redundant services, not only the processing speed of requests can be greatly improved, but also the load balancing can be simply and efficiently achieved. Integrated with consistency protocol in this paper, SRAW can also be applied to state services. The performance of SRAW algorithm is also analyzed, and comparisons with other fault tolerant algorithms, especially with RAWA, indicate that SRAW efficiently improves the performance of redundant services with guaranteeing system availability.

  19. Controlled release and antibacterial activity of tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded bacterial cellulose composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shuxia; Wu, Jimin; Huang, Min; Min, Huihua; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-07-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is widely used in biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared an antibiotic drug tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH)-loaded bacterial cellulose (BC) composite membranes, and evaluated the drug release, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The structure and morphology of the fabricated BC-TCH composite membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The TCH release results show that the incorporation of BC matrix to load TCH is able to control the release. In vitro antibacterial assay demonstrate that the developed BC-TCH composites displayed excellent antibacterial activity solely associated with the loaded TCH drug. More importantly, the BC-TCH composite membranes display good biocompatibility. These characteristics of BC-TCH composite membranes indicate that they may successfully serve as wound dressings and other medical biomaterials. PMID:27106158

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Glass lonomer Cement Incorporated with Chlorhexidine-Loaded Zeolite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-02-01

    A functional dental restorative system with antimicrobial properties was developed using zeolite (ZE) nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery carrier. ZE NPs loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) were prepared using the ionic immobilization method. The resulting CHX-loaded ZE NPs were then incorporated into commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). The average size of the CHX-loaded ZE NPs was about 100 to 200 nm, and the NPs were dispersed homogeneously in the GIC. The in vitro release profile of encapsulated GIC containing CHX showed an early release burst of approximately 30% of the total CHX by day 7, whereas GIC containing CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a sustained release of CHX without the early release burst in a 4-week immersion study. The agar diffusion test results showed that the GIC incorporated with CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a larger growth inhibition zone of Streptococcus mutans than GIC alone, indicating that this innovative delivery platform potently imparted antimicrobial activity to the GIC. Moreover, these findings suggest that a range of antimicrobial drugs that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria can be incorporated efficiently into dental GIC using CHX-loaded ZE NPs.

  1. Biogeography, biodiversity and fluid dependence of deep-sea cold-seep communities at active and passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Olu, Karine

    1998-01-01

    To date, several cold-seep areas which fuel chemosynthesis-based benthic communities have been explored, mainly by deployment of manned submersibles. They are located in the Atlantic and in the Eastern and Western Pacific oceans and in the Mediterranean Sea, in depths ranging between 400 and 6000 m in different geological contexts in passive and active margins. Our study is based on a review of the existent literature on 24 deep cold seeps. The geographic distribution of seeps, the variations of origin and composition of fluids, and rates of fluid flow are presented as they are important factors which explain the spatial heterogeneity and the biomass of biological communities. Methane-rich fluid of thermogenic and/or biogenic origin is the principal source of energy for high-productive communities; however, production of sulphide by sulphate reduction in the sediment also has a major role. The dominant seep species are large bivalves belonging to the families Vesicomyidae or Mytilidae. Other symbiont-containing species occur belonging to Solemyidae, Thyasiridae, Lucinidae bivalves, Pogonophora worms, Cladorhizidae and Hymedesmiidae sponges. Most of the symbiont-containing cold-seep species are new to science. Different symbiont-containing species rely on sulphide or methane oxidation, or both, via chemoautotrophic endosymbiotic bacteria. A total of 211 species, from which 64 are symbiont-containing species, have been inventoried. Patterns in biodiversity and biogeography are proposed. A large majority of the species are endemic to a seep area and the symbiont-containing species are mainly endemic to the cold-seep ecosystem. A comparison of species found in other deep chemosynthesis-based ecosystems, hydrothermal vents, whale carcass and shipwreck reduced habitats, reveals from the existing data, that only 13 species, of which five are symbiont-containing species occur, at both seeps and hydrothermal vents. The species richness of cold-seep communities decreases

  2. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  3. Application of active power sensitivity to frequency and voltage variations on load shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgis, Adly A. [Clemson University, 303 Riggs Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-0915 (United States); Mathure, Shruti [ITC Holdings, MI (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The occurrence of a large disturbance in a power system can lead to a decline in the system frequency and bus voltages due to a real and reactive power deficiency or due to the formation of islands with generation-load imbalance. Load shedding is an emergency control action that can prevent a blackout in the power system by relieving the overload in some parts of the system. This paper shows that rate of change of frequency can be utilized to determine the magnitude of generation-load imbalance, while the rate of change of voltage with respect to active power can be utilized to identify the sensitive bus for load shedding. The frequency, voltages and their rate of change can be obtained by means of measurements in real-time from various devices such as digital recorders or phasor measurement units or these parameters can be estimated from the voltage data by other means such as an optimal estimation method like Kalman filtering. The rate of change of system frequency, along with the equivalent system inertia may be used to estimate the magnitude of the disturbance prior to each load shedding step. The buses with a higher rate of change of voltage may be identified as the critical ones for load shedding and load can be first shed at these buses, depending on the change in the power flow at each bus. This application is tested on the IEEE 30 bus system and the preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to be used in load shedding to restore system voltage and frequency. (author)

  4. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to simul

  5. Intercomparison of Neutron Beam Guides for Cold Neutron Activation Station at HANARO using McStas/VITESS/RESTRAX Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, Hoang Sy Minh; Sun, Gwang Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The HANARO (KAERI) research reactor has been developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron (CN) research facilities since July, 2003. The neutron guide system plays an important role in transporting cold neutrons from the CN source to the neutron facilities as CN-NDP, CN-PGAA, SANS, etc. The CN activation station is being installed in the HANARO cold-neutron research project. The CN-NDP and CN-PGAA were selected as two facilities using at this station. At the end position of CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the CN-NDP and CN-PGAA will be installed in the CN guide hall. In order to predict the neutron flux and intensity values at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the simulation results of neutron flux at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides are presented by using several Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing simulation codes. The intercomparison of neutron flux values between McStas, VITESS and RESTRAX are performed for getting fairly correct results at two neutron beam guides

  6. Isolation and characterization of EstC, a new cold-active esterase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Brault

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2 contains more than 50 genes coding for putative lipolytic enzymes. Many studies have shown the capacity of this actinomycete to store important reserves of intracellular triacylglycerols in nutrient depletion situations. In the present study, we used genome mining of S. coelicolor to identify genes coding for putative, non-secreted esterases/lipases. Two genes were cloned and successfully overexpressed in E. coli as His-tagged fusion proteins. One of the recombinant enzymes, EstC, showed interesting cold-active esterase activity with a strong potential for the production of valuable esters. The purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at 35°C and was cold-active with retention of 25% relative activity at 10°C. Its optimal pH was 8.5-9 but the enzyme kept more than 75% of its maximal activity between pH 7.5 and 10. EstC also showed remarkable tolerance over a wide range of pH values, retaining almost full residual activity between pH 6-11. The enzyme was active toward short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C12, displaying optimal activity with the valerate (C5 ester (k(cat/K(m = 737±77 s(-1 mM(-1. The enzyme was also very active toward short chain triglycerides such as triacetin (C2:0 and tributyrin (C4:0, in addition to showing good primary alcohol and organic solvent tolerance, suggesting it could function as an interesting candidate for organic synthesis of short-chain esters such as flavors.

  7. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...... of this study is on the analysis of main crankshaft bearings, where the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at actively controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located along the bearing surface....

  8. EFFECT OF WEB HOLES ON WEB CRIPPLING STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS UNDER END-ONE-FLANGE LOADING CONDITION-PART I: TESTS AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Ying; uzzaman, asraf; Lim, James; Abdelal, Gasser; Sha, Wei; Nash, David; Young, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition; the cases of both flanges fastened and unfastened to the bearing plates are considered. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted o...

  9. EFFECT OF WEB HOLES ON WEB CRIPPLING STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS UNDER END-ONE-FLANGE LOADING CONDITION - PART II: PARAMETRIC STUDY AND PROPOSED DESIGN EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Ying; uzzaman, asraf; Lim, James; Abdelal, Gasser; Sha, Wei; Nash, David; Young, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-section sizes. The holes are located either centred above the bearing plates or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole de...

  10. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power......This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...

  11. Recent technological advances for modular active harmonic load-pull measurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madonna, Gian Luigi; Pisani, Umberto; Ferrero, Andrea Pierenrico

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Load-pull systems are today widely accepted as fundamental tools for non-linear performance evaluation, from device design and modeling in R&D labs to MMIC production testing. This paper presents an overview of the recent innovations in load-pull measurements. After a brief introduction on novelties regarding passive set-ups, the survey deals with technological advances for active systems. Finally, a realization of a modular broadband system for on-wafer measurements in the 0.5-18 GH...

  12. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs. PMID:26540024

  13. E. coli-Derived L-Asparaginase Retains Enzymatic and Cytotoxic Activity In Vitro for Canine and Feline Lymphoma after Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie M. Wypij

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. L-asparaginase is effective in treating canine and feline lymphoma, however chemotherapy poses a significant financial cost to veterinary clients, limiting therapy for many pets. Single dose vials result in significant drug wastage, and drug shortages limit consistent availability for pets. Hypothesis. E. coli-derived asparaginase retains enzymatic and antineoplastic activity in canine and feline lymphoma cells after cold storage. Methods. E. coli-derived asparaginase was cold-stored: refrigeration (7–14 days and freezing (14 days–six months, one to three freeze/thaw cycles. Enzymatic activity of asparaginase was measured via a modified asparagine assay. Effects of cold-stored asparaginase on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured in feline (MYA-1, F1B and canine (17–71, OSW lymphoma cells. Results. Cold-stored E. coli-derived asparaginase retains antineoplastic activity in all four cell lines tested. Cold-stored E. coli-derived L-asparaginase depletes asparagine and retains enzymatic activity. Duration of refrigeration, duration of freezing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles have minimal effect on asparaginase enzyme activity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance. This study establishes a scientific basis for long-term cold storage of reconstituted E. coli-derived asparaginase that may result in better utilization of limited drug resources and improve financial feasibility of E. coli-derived asparaginase as a therapeutic option for pets with lymphoma.

  14. Extracellular cold active lipase from the psychrotrophic Halomonas sp. BRI 8 isolated from the Antarctic sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav; Swanandi Suresh Pote; Amit Yadav; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Rama Kaustubh Bhadekar

    2013-01-01

    An extracellular cold active lipase-producing psychrotrophic bacterium (BRI 8) was isolated from the Antarctic sea water sample. The 16s rRNA sequence study revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas (929 bp). The present paper reports optimization of fermentation conditions for production of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) from Halomonas sp. BRI 8. Highest lipase production was observed in the medium containing olive oil and peptone. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme catalysis were...

  15. Determination of hydrogen in niobium by cold neutron prompt gamma ray activation analysis and neutron incoherent scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Paul; H.H. Cheu-Maya; G.R. Myneni

    2002-11-01

    The presence of trace amounts of hydrogen in niobium is believed to have a detrimental effect on the mechanical and superconducting properties. Unfortunately, few techniques are capable of measuring hydrogen at these levels. We have developed two techniques for measuring hydrogen in materials. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has proven useful for the determination of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. Neutron incoherent scattering (NIS), a complementary tool to PGAA, has been used to measure trace hydrogen in titanium. Both techniques were used to study the effects of vacuum heating and chemical polishing on the hydrogen content of superconducting niobium.

  16. Effect of gait retraining for reducing ambulatory knee load on trunk biomechanics and trunk muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüesch, Corina; Laffer, Dominik; Netzer, Cordula; Pagenstert, Geert; Mündermann, Annegret

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that walking with increased medio-lateral trunk sway is associated with lower external knee adduction moment and lower extremity muscle activation, and higher external ipsilateral trunk moment and trunk muscle activity than walking with normal trunk sway in healthy participants. Fifteen participants performed walking trials with normal and increased medio-lateral trunk sway. Maximum trunk sway, first maximum knee adduction moment, lateral trunk bending moment, and bilateral vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae muscle activity were computed. Walking with increased trunk sway was associated with lower maximum knee adduction moment (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.62Nm/kg vs. 0.62-0.76Nm/kg; P<.001) and ipsilateral gluteus medius (-17%; P=.014) and erector spinae muscle activity (-24%; P=.004) and greater maximum lateral trunk bending moment (+34%; P<.001) and contralateral external oblique muscle activity (+60%; P=.009). In all participants, maximum knee adduction moment was negatively correlated and maximum trunk moment was positively correlated with maximum trunk sway. The results of this study suggest that walking with increased trunk sway not only reduces the external knee adduction moment but also alters and possibly increases the load on the trunk. Hence, load-altering biomechanical interventions should always be evaluated not only regarding their effects on the index joint but on other load-bearing joints such as the spine. PMID:27264398

  17. Rutin-loaded chitosan microspheres: Characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Donato; Failla, Paola; Costa, Nicola; Pullano, Salvatore; Fiorillo, Antonino; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2016-11-01

    Rutin was microencapsulated in a chitosan matrix using the spray-drying technique and the resulting system was investigated. High amounts of rutin were efficiently entrapped within polymeric microspheres, and these microparticles were characterized by a smooth surface and afforded a controlled release of the active compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of rutin-loaded microspheres was investigated in in vitro models of NCTC 2544 and C-28 cells treated with LPS by determining the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. The rutin-loaded microspheres showed an increase of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with respect to the free active compound. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that massive intracellular uptake of the chitosan microspheres took place after a few hours of incubation and that the drug was localized in the cytosol compartment of the treated cells. The improved anti-inflammatory activity of the rutin-loaded microspheres was further confirmed by an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. PMID:27516307

  18. Oridonin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oridonin (ORI, a famous diterpenoid from Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis and autophagy-inducing activity in human cancer therapy, while clinical application of ORI is limited by its strong hydrophobicity and rapid plasma clearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of ORI could be enhanced by loading into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. ORI-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization with narrow size distribution and good entrapment efficacy. MTT assay indicated that ORI-loaded SLNs enhanced the inhibition of proliferation against several human cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF-7 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG 2 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells compared with free ORI, while no significant enhancement of toxicity to human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown. Meanwhile, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that ORI-SLNs induced more significant cell cycle arrest at S and decreased cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells than bulk ORI solution. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI assay indicated that apoptotic rates of cells treated with ORI-loaded SLNs were higher compared with free ORI. In summary, our data indicated that SLNs may be a potential carrier for enhancing the antitumor effect of hydrophobic drug ORI.

  19. A novel cold-active β-D-galactosidase from the Paracoccus sp. 32d - gene cloning, purification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzbicka-Woś Anna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-D-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23 catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides. Cold-active β-D-galactosidases have recently become a focus of attention of researchers and dairy product manufactures owing to theirs ability to: (i eliminate of lactose from refrigerated milk for people afflicted with lactose intolerance, (ii convert lactose to glucose and galactose which increase the sweetness of milk and decreases its hydroscopicity, and (iii eliminate lactose from dairy industry pollutants associated with environmental problems. Moreover, in contrast to commercially available mesophilic β-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis the cold-active counterparts could make it possible both to reduce the risk of mesophiles contamination and save energy during the industrial process connected with lactose hydrolysis. Results A genomic DNA library was constructed from soil bacterium Paracoccus sp. 32d. Through screening of the genomic DNA library on LB agar plates supplemented with X-Gal, a novel gene encoding a cold-active β-D-galactosidase was isolated. The in silico analysis of the enzyme amino acid sequence revealed that the β-D-galactosidase Paracoccus sp. 32d is a novel member of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 2. However, owing to the lack of a BGal_small_N domain, the domain characteristic for the LacZ enzymes of the GH2 family, it was decided to call the enzyme under study 'BgaL'. The bgaL gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pBAD Expression System. The purified recombinant BgaL consists of two identical subunits with a combined molecular weight of about 160 kDa. The BgaL was optimally active at 40°C and pH 7.5. Moreover, BgaL was able to hydrolyze both lactose and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside at 10°C with Km values of 2.94 and 1.17 mM and kcat values 43.23 and 71.81 s-1, respectively. One U of the recombinant BgaL would thus be capable

  20. Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.

    OpenAIRE

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5...

  1. Isolation and characterization of glacier VMY22, a novel lytic cold-active bacteriophage of Bacillus cereus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuling; Ji; Chunjing; Zhang; Yuan; Fang; Qi; Zhang; Lianbing; Lin; Bing; Tang; Yunlin; Wei

    2015-01-01

    As a unique ecological system with low temperature and low nutrient levels, glaciers are considered a "living fossil" for the research of evolution. In this work, a lytic cold-active bacteriophage designated VMY22 against Bacillus cereus MYB41-22 was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China, and its characteristics were studied. Electron microscopy revealed that VMY22 has an icosahedral head(59.2 nm in length, 31.9 nm in width) and a tail(43.2 nm in length). Bacteriophage VMY22 was classified as a Podoviridae with an approximate genome size of 18 to 20 kb. A one-step growth curve revealed that the latent and the burst periods were 70 and 70 min, respectively, with an average burst size of 78 bacteriophage particles per infected cell. The pH and thermal stability of bacteriophage VMY22 were also investigated. The maximum stability of the bacteriophage was observed to be at pH 8.0 and it was comparatively stable at p H 5.0–9.0. As VMY22 is a cold-active bacteriophage with low production temperature, its characterization and the relationship between MYB41-22 and Bacillus cereus bacteriophage deserve further study.

  2. Science Letters: Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 and activity in carbon-nitric oxide reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xian-kai; ZOU Xue-quan; SHI Hui-xiang; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 was performed by annealing in ammonia, and the activity of the modified carbon for NO reduction was studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that Fe2O3 enhances the amount of surface oxygen complexes and facilitates nitrogen incorporation in the carbon, especially in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. The modified carbon shows excellent activity for NO reduction in the low temperature regime (<500 ℃) because of the cooperative effect of Fe2O3 and the surface nitrogen species.

  3. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); He, Shui Zhong [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  4. Optimization of piezoelectric bimorph actuators with active damping for static and dynamic loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoso, Alberto; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers optimal design problems in the context of active damping. More specifically, we are interested in controlling the tip-deflection of a cantilever beam subjected to static and time-harmonic loading on its free extreme. First, the thickness profile of a piezoelectric bimorph...... electric field breakdown. Results are presented for both design variable cases, for static as well as for dynamic excitation for single frequency and frequency intervals....

  5. Effects of temperature and volumetric loading rate on phenol adsorption capacity by granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamrungsri, P.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature and volumetric loading rate on adsorption capacity of phenol by granular activated carbon were studied using F-300 and C2-115 granular activated carbon. All the experiments were conducted both in a batch study and a fixed-bed adsorption column study with the initial phenol concentration of 10 mg/l. In the batch study, the effects of temperature on the adsorption capacity and the rate of adsorption were determined. The results from the batch study showed that the rate of adsorption of F-300 was higher than that of C2-115. Moreover, it was clearly shown that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing temperature in both types of activated carbon at a contact time of 5 hours. In addition, the results from the fixed-bed column study revealed that the adsorption capacity decreased with increasing volumetric loading rate. Regression analysis expressed that the constants of Bohart-Adams Model ( K at volumetric loading rate of 2.5 , 5.0 and 10.0 m3/m2-hr were 0.0027 , 0.0063 and 0.0128 l/mg-hr for F-300 and 0.0021, 0.0071 and 0.0127 l/mg-hr for C2-115, respectively. N0 constant at volumetric loading rates of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 m3/ m2-hr were 30,393, 19,502 and 13,997 mg/l for F-300 and 27,752, 13,873 and 10,535 mg/l for C2-115, respectively. Thus, it can be summarized that the performance of F-300 was higher than that of C2-115 activated carbon at the studied conditions.

  6. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-zhi Qiu; Ji-ming Kong; Ren-chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of ...

  7. 78 FR 10055 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... of load alleviation system failures (see paragraph (c) under Loads, Probability of Failure of Load... alleviation system failure (see paragraph (b) under Factor of Safety, Load Alleviation Systems). This airplane..., Probability of Failure of Load Alleviation System (a) Failures of the load alleviation system, including......

  8. Definition of two agonist types at the mammalian cold-activated channel TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Gees, Maarten; Toth, Balazs Istvan; Ghosh, Debapriya; Mulier, Marie; Vennekens, Rudi; Vriens, Joris; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Various TRP channels act as polymodal sensors of thermal and chemical stimuli, but the mechanisms whereby chemical ligands impact on TRP channel gating are poorly understood. Here we show that AITC (allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil) and menthol represent two distinct types of ligands at the mammalian cold sensor TRPM8. Kinetic analysis of channel gating revealed that AITC acts by destabilizing the closed channel, whereas menthol stabilizes the open channel, relative to the transition state. Based on these differences, we classify agonists as either type I (menthol-like) or type II (AITC-like), and provide a kinetic model that faithfully reproduces their differential effects. We further demonstrate that type I and type II agonists have a distinct impact on TRPM8 currents and TRPM8-mediated calcium signals in excitable cells. These findings provide a theoretical framework for understanding the differential actions of TRP channel ligands, with important ramifications for TRP channel structure-function analysis and pharmacology. PMID:27449282

  9. Loading Capacity versus Enzyme Activity in Anisotropic and Spherical Calcium Carbonate Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatan, Senem; Yashchenok, Alexey; Khan, Nazimuddin; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan; Cocquyt, Melissa; Pinchasik, Bat-El; Khalenkow, Dmitry; Möhwald, Helmuth; Konrad, Manfred; Skirtach, Andre

    2016-06-01

    A new method of fabrication of calcium carbonate microparticles of ellipsoidal, rhomboidal, and spherical geometries is reported by adjusting the relative concentration ratios of the initial salt solutions and/or the ethylene glycol content in the reaction medium. Morphology, porosity, crystallinity, and loading capacity of synthesized CaCO3 templates were characterized in detail. Particles harboring dextran or the enzyme guanylate kinase were obtained through encapsulation of these macromolecules using the layer-by-layer assembly technique to deposit positively and negatively charged polymers on these differently shaped CaCO3 templates and were characterized by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, fluorometric techniques, and enzyme activity measurements. The enzymatic activity, an important application of such porous particles and containers, has been analyzed in comparison with the loading capacity and geometry. Our results reveal that the particles' shape influences morphology of particles and that, as a result, affects the activity of the encapsulated enzymes, in addition to the earlier reported influence on cellular uptake. These particles are promising candidates for efficient drug delivery due to their relatively high loading capacity, biocompatibility, and easy fabrication and handling. PMID:27166641

  10. Enhanced reactivity of mechanically-activated nano-scale gasless reactive materials consolidated via the cold-spray technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciochini, Antoine; Radulescu, Matei; Meydanoglu, Onur; Charron-Tousignant, Yannick; van Dyke, Jason; Jodoin, Bertrand; Nganbe, Michel; Yandouzi, Mohamed; Lee, Julian J.

    2011-06-01

    It has been speculated that gasless reactive systems can sustain supersonic detonations waves, provided the local decomposition rate is sufficiently fast and the initial density is sufficiently close to the theoretical maximal density. The present study presents a novel method to prepare nano-scale energetic materials with high reactivity, vanishing porosity, structural integrity and arbitrary shape. The experiments have focused on the Ni-Al system. To increase the reactivity, an initial mechanical activation was achieved by the technique of ball milling. The consolidation of the materials used the supersonic cold gas spray technique, where the particles are accelerated to high speeds and consolidated via plastic deformation upon impact, forming activated nano-composites in arbitrary shapes with close to zero porosity. This technique permits to retain the micro-structures in the powders and prevents any reactions during the consolidation phase. Deflagration tests of the obtained samples showed an increase in the deflagration rate by up to two orders of magnitude.

  11. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  12. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  13. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena;

    2015-01-01

    activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters......This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR....... The experiments are conducted with real domestic refrigerators representing TCL. Activating refrigerators for DR with a delay reduces the ISE (integral square error) in power limitation by 28.46%, overshoot by 7.69%. The delay in refrigerator activation causes reduction in power ramp down rate by 39.90%, ramp up...

  14. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  15. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice.

  16. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  17. Investigation of the Hydroisomerization Activities of Ni-Mo Catalysts Loaded on HY and HUSY Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of Ni-Mo/zeolite-A12O3 catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation andtheir catalytic experiments were carried out using an automated microflow apparatus. It is concluded that theNi-Mo catalyst loaded on the HUSY has larger BET surface areas and possesses more acid sites than thatloaded on the HY zeolite, and simultaneously the Ni-Mo/HUSY-A12O3 catalyst reveals higher catalytic activ-ity characterized by feedstock conversion and isomer yield which is about two or three times higher than thatof the Ni-Mo/HY-A12O3 catalyst.

  18. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  19. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  20. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit (prunus persica (l.) batsch.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes (endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)) and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv Early Grand showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than Flordaking. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage. (author)

  1. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Roxithromycin Loaded Pegylated Poly Lactide-co-glycolide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Noori Koopaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study The purpose of this study was to prepare pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGAnanoparticles (NPs loaded with roxithromycin (RXN with appropriate physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity. Roxithromycin, a semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin, is more stable than erythromycin under acidic conditions and exhibits improved clinical effects. Methods RXN was loaded in pegylated PLGA NPs in different drug;polymer ratios by solvent evaporation technique and characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge,surface morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release profile, and in vitro antibacterial effects on S. aureus, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis.Results and conclusion NPs were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. The particle size ofnanoparticles ranged from 150 to 200 nm. NPs with entrapment efficiency of up to 80.0±6.5% and drug loading of up to 13.0±1.0% were prepared. In vitro release study showedan early burst release of about 50.03±0.99% at 6.5 h and then a slow and steady release of RXN was observed after the burst release. In vitro antibacterial effects determined that theminimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of RXN loaded PEG-PLGA NPs were 9 times lower on S. aureus, 4.5 times lower on B. subtilis, and 4.5 times lower on S. epidermidis compared to RXN solution. In conclusion it was shown that polymeric NPs enhanced the antibacterialefficacy of RXN substantially.

  2. Resin-loaded papers: sampling and trace analysis using neutron activation and x-ray spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resin-loaded papers, composed of approximately 50 weight percent cellulose and 50 weight percent resin, provide an ideal medium for sampling large volumes of solution, then determining the concentrated elements by either fluorescent x-ray spectrography or neutron activation. This combination of chemistry and spectrography offers a versatile quantitative approach to the determination of trace elements in the ppM-ppB range. Standards and unknowns are prepared by either multiple filtration of solutions through two or more papers to measure the collection efficiency or a radiotracer is added to the solution to serve as a collection monitor. Reagent and paper blanks are incorporated into the analytical procedure. Papers containing strong acid or base resins collect a wide range of ions. Specific ions are collected by either chemical processing of the solution prior to filtration through the resin-loaded paper or by the use of papers loaded with chelating resins having high specificity. Advantages of the resin-loaded paper approach prior to spectrography are: improved analytical accuracy as the standards and unknowns are present in similar matrices; sampling errors are reduced and sensitivity significantly increased by concentration of the elements from a large volume of solution; and x-ray and gamma-ray spectral interferences are greatly reduced compared to bulk analysis. Also standard papers can be reused and stored indefinitely for x-ray applications. Examples of published applications to a wide range of industrial, environmental, and health problems are summaized together with applications by the Bureau of Mines to metallurgical and mining problems. Potential applications of new ion exchange resins and reagent-loaded papers are also considered

  3. Relationship Between Accelerometer Load, Collisions, and Repeated High-Intensity Effort Activity in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-12-01

    Triaxial accelerometers have been critical in providing information on the high-acceleration, low-velocity movements that occur in team sports. In addition, these sensors have proven to be useful in quantifying the activities that do not involve the vertical acceleration associated with locomotion (e.g., tackling, on-ground wrestling, and grappling). This study investigated the relationship between Player Load (PL), 2D Player Load (2DPL), and Player Load Slow (PL Slow), collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity in rugby league players. One hundred and eighty-two rugby league players (age, 24.3 ± 3.3 years) participated in this study. Movement was recorded using a global positioning system unit sampling at 10 Hz and triaxial accelerometer sampling at 100 Hz. Analysis was completed during 26 matches (totaling 386 appearances). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and total collisions and RHIE activity. When all players were considered, weak relationships were found between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed. However, PL was strongly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with total distance, low-speed activity, high-speed running distance, total collisions, and the number of RHIE bouts for forwards and hookers. Weak and typically insignificant relationships were found between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed by the adjustables and outside backs positional groups. The relationships between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts are stronger in positions where contact and repeated-effort demands are high. From a practical perspective, these results suggest that PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow offer useful "real-time" measures of collision and RHIE activity, particularly in forwards and hookers, to inform interchange strategies and ensure players are training at an adequate intensity. PMID:26196661

  4. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  5. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-06-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer.

  6. Prevalence and infection load dynamics of Rickettsia felis in actively feeding cat fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Reif

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. felis in actively feeding R. felis-infected fleas. In three separate trials, fleas were allowed to feed on cats, and a mean of 3.9x10(6 R. felis 17-kDa gene copies was detected for each flea. A distinct R. felis infection pattern was not observed in fleas during nine consecutive days of bloodfeeding. However, an inverse correlation between the prevalence of R. felis-infection, which ranged from 96% in Trial 1 to 35% in Trial 3, and the R. felis-infection load in individual fleas was identified. Expression of R. felis-infection load as a ratio of R. felis/C. felis genes confirmed that fleas in Trial 3 had significantly greater rickettsial loads than those in Trial 1. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Examining rickettsial infection dynamics in the flea vector will further elucidate the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis, and facilitate a more accurate understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of R. felis transmission in nature.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of fish scale loaded TiO2 composites under solar light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ngee Ho; Soon-An Ong; Hakimah Osman; Fong-Mun Chong

    2012-01-01

    Fish scale (FS) loaded TiO2 composites were investigated as photocatalysts in degradation of Methyl Orange under solar light irradiation.Composites were prepared through sol-gel method by varying mass ratio of TiO2/FS at 90:10,70:30 and 50:50,respectively.The catalysts prepared in this study were characterized by using XRD,SEM,FT-IR and nitrogen sorption.The effects of solar irradiation,mass ratio of TiO2/FS composites,irradiation time and catalyst loadings were studied.Synergistic effect was found in TiO2/FS of 90:10 composite which performed higher photocatalytic degradation than synthesized TiO2 under solar light irradiation.However,further increasing fish scale content in the composites reduced the photocatalytic activity drastically.Under solar light irradiation,all the catalysts in this study exhibited photocatalytic activity,except TiO2/FS of 50:50 composite that only acted as a weak biosorbent without performing any photocatalytic property.Photocatalytic degradation increased with increasing catalyst loading and irradiation time but decreased with increased of initial dye concentration.

  8. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer. PMID:27324595

  9. Production, purification, and characterization of a novel cold-active superoxide dismutase from the Antarctic strain Aspergillus glaucus 363.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashev, Radoslav; Feller, Georges; Kostadinova, Nedelina; Krumova, Ekaterina; Alexieva, Zlatka; Gerginova, Maria; Spasova, Boryana; Miteva-Staleva, Jeni; Vassilev, Spassen; Angelova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The Antarctic fungal strain Aspergillus glaucus 363 produces cold-active (CA) Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). The strain contains at least one gene encoding Cu/Zn-SOD that exhibited high homology with the corresponding gene of other Aspergillus species. To our knowledge, this is the first nucleotide sequence of a CA Cu/Zn-SOD gene in fungi. An effective laboratory technology for A. glaucus SOD production in 3 L bioreactors was developed on the basis of transient cold-shock treatment. The temperature downshift to 10 °C caused 1.4-fold increase of specific SOD activity compared to unstressed culture. Maximum enzyme productivity was 64 × 10(3) U kg(-1) h(-1). Two SOD isoenzymes (Cu/Zn-SODI and Cu/Zn-SODII) were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The specific activity of the major isoenzyme, Cu/Zn-SODII, after Q-Sepharose chromatography was 4000 U mg(-1). The molecular mass of SODI (38 159 Da) and of SODII (15 835 Da) was determined by electrospray quadropole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The presence of Cu and Zn were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Cu/Zn-SODII revealed a high degree of structural homology with Cu/Zn-SOD from other fungi, including Aspergillus species.

  10. Web interactive non intrusive load disaggregation system for active demand in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Smart Grid combines the use of traditional technology with innovative digital solutions, making the management of the electricity grid more flexible. It allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The optimization of energy consumption in Smart Grids is possible by using an innovative system based on Non Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NIALM algorithms, in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements, that provide a feedback in such a way to make energy more visible and more amenable to understanding and control. We contribute with an approach for monitoring consumption of electric power in households based on both a NILM algorithm, that uses a simple load signatures, and a web interactive systems that allows an active role played by users.

  11. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao;

    2016-01-01

    , while the wind farm is following certain power references given by the network operator. The damage equivalent loads are included in the objective function by means of lookup tables generated under a series of working conditions. A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used to solve......One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines...... the optimization problem. The proposed dispatch strategy is compared with the proportional dispatch strategy under different scenarios. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  12. Transmission measurements of guides for ultra-cold neutrons using UCN capture activation analysis of vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, A., E-mail: Andreas.Frei@ph.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schreckenbach, K.; Franke, B.; Hartmann, F.J.; Huber, T.; Picker, R.; Paul, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2010-01-01

    The efficient transport of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from their source to the experimental site is a major issue for various kinds of precision experiments. Neutron guides often have to transport the UCN several tens of meters with acceptable losses. In order to qualify the guides, their UCN transmission properties have to be determined with high precision. For this purpose we have developed a novel method. The transmitted UCN were absorbed at the end of the guide in a vanadium disc producing the {beta}-emitter {sup 52} V (half life 3.74 min). The intensity of the 1434 keV {gamma}-ray following the {beta}-decay was measured. UCN guides of non-magnetic nickel alloys made by the replication technique were studied. They show a high Fermi pseudopotential V{sub F} for UCN and a low surface roughness. For these guides the transmission per meter was determined with a relative error of +-0.6%, resulting in values above 0.95/m. By an absolute calibration of the gamma-ray detection system we also deduced the absolute value of the UCN current absorbed in the vanadium plate. Possible applications of this method are discussed.

  13. The Characterization of Psychrophilic Microorganisms and their potentially useful Cold-Active Glycosidases Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchly, Jean E.

    2008-06-30

    Our studies of novel, cold-loving microorganisms have focused on two distinct extreme environments. The first is an ice core sample from a 120,000 year old Greenland glacier. The results of this study are particularly exciting and have been highlighted with press releases and additional coverage. The first press release in 2004 was based on our presentation at the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology and was augmented by coverage of our publication (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 71:7806) in the Current Topics section of the ASM news journal, “Microbe.” Of special interest for this report was the isolation of numerous, phylogenetically distinct and potentially novel ultrasmall microorganisms. The detection and isolation of members of the ultrasmall population is significant because these cells pass through 0.2 micron pore filters that are generally used to trap microorganisms from environmental samples. Thus, analyses by other investigators that examined only cells captured on the filters would have missed a significant portion of this population. Only a few ultrasmall isolates had been obtained prior to our examination of the ice core samples. Our development of a filtration enrichment and subsequent cultivation of these organisms has added extensively to the collection of, and knowledge about, this important population in the microbial world.

  14. Preparation of polysaccharide loaded collagen membrane with anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zibin; Ding, Shengli; He, Xiaohong; Dai, Xuemei; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Min; Leng, Xue; Ma, Yanshun; Yang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The scavenging activity of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum, Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma Lucidum Karst to DPPH free radicals was investigated. It was found that among the three polysaccharides, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) exhibits the best scavenging activity. Polysaccharide loaded collagen membranes were prepared by mixing LBP with collagen, starch, glycerol, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and glutaraldehyde. In vitro drug release from membranes was evaluated. With increasing the immersion time, the release rate first increases and then slows down. Meanwhile, the scavenging activity to DPPH radicals exhibits similar variation, in agreement with a good release effect of the membrane. The optimal formulation of collagen membrane and preparation parameters were obtained considering the overall properties and the scavenging activity to radicals. PMID:26406078

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nanotitania loaded W-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide (TiO2) is a promising material as a photocatalyst for photodecomposition of hazardous organic pollutants under illumination, because it is cheap, safe, environmentally benign, and chemically stable. However, the control of particle size and monodispersity of TiO2 is a challenging task. The use of MCM-41, an inorganic template of uniform pore size (2-10 nm), can overcome this difficulty and produce stable nanoparticles of uniform size and shape. In an attempt to extend light absorption of the TiO2-based photocatalyst towards the visible light range and eliminate the rapid recombination of excited electrons/holes during photoreaction, a new photocatalyst (25%TiO2-loaded W-MCM-41) powder was prepared. W-MCM-41, with different ratios of Si to W (Si/W = 25, 50, 75), was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and loaded with 25 wt% TiO2 utilizing a sol-gel method. In order to compare the photocatalytic activity of our sample, titania-loaded plain MCM-41 was also prepared. These materials were characterized by various physiochemical techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples was evaluated using methyl orange as a model organic compound. It was found that the photodegradation ability of 25% TiO2-loaded W-MCM-41 was highly related to the amount of W atoms present in the sample; the optimum atomic ratio of Si to W was 25. It has been confirmed that the recombination rate of electrons/holes in 25%TiO2/W-MCM-41 declined due to the existence of W atoms in the sample

  16. Characterization of hydrogen in concrete by cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis and neutron incoherent scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R.L.; Chen-Mayer, H.H.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Blaauw, M.

    2000-07-01

    A combination of cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron incoherent scattering (NIS) has been used for nondestructive characterization of hydrogen as a function of position in slabs of wet concrete of different composition. Hydrogen was determined by PGAA by scanning each sample across of 5 mm diameter neutron beam in 10 mm increments, and measuring the 2223 keV prompt gamma ray. NIS measurements were performed by scanning the samples across a 5 mm diameter neutron beam at 5 mm increments and detecting scattered neutrons. The measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the techniques for 2D compositional mapping of hydrogen and other elements in materials, and indicate the potential of these methods for monitoring the uniformity of drying concrete.

  17. Differential methane oxidation activity and microbial community composition at cold seeps in the Arctic off western Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründger, Friederike; Svenning, Mette M.; Niemann, Helge; Silyakova, Anna; Serov, Pavel; Li Hong, Wei; Wegener, Gunter; Panieri, Giuliana; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Most models considering climate change related bottom water warming suggest that gas hydrates may become destabilized, leading to the mobilization of methane into seabed and water column ecosystems, and, eventually, into the atmosphere. However, the capacity of methanotrophic microbes retaining methane in sediments and the hydrosphere is not well constrained. Here, we investigate the microbial utilization of methane in sediments and the water column, focusing on cold seeps discovered at the arctic continental margin of western Svalbard. We measured ex situ rates of methane oxidation and sulfate reduction in two active gas flare sites with different geological settings at the Vestnesa Ridge (1204 m water depth) and within a pingolike feature area southwest off Svalbard (PLF; 380 m water depth). Our results show contrarily situations at our two sampling sites: At Vestnesa Ridge we find high methane oxidation rates with values up to 2055 nmol cm‑3 d‑1 at the sediment surface where the sediments are oversaturated with methane. Whereas, methane concentration and oxidation rates are low in the overlying water column (2 pmol cm‑3 d‑1). In contrast, at the sediment surface at PLF methane concentration and oxidation rates are considerably lower (up to 1.8 nmol cm‑3 d‑1). While the overlying bottom water contains high concentration of methane and shows oxidation rates with values of up to 3.8 nmol cm‑3 d‑1. The data on methane oxidation and sulfate reduction activity are compared to the sediment geochemistry and to data from metagenomic analysis identifying the methanotrophic community composition. These results provide unique insight into the dynamic responses of the seabed biological filter at cold seeps in the Arctic off western Svalbard. This study is part of the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate and was supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme grant No. 223259.

  18. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  19. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  20. Extracellular cold active lipase from the psychrotrophic Halomonas sp. BRI 8 isolated from the Antarctic sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular cold active lipase-producing psychrotrophic bacterium (BRI 8 was isolated from the Antarctic sea water sample. The 16s rRNA sequence study revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas (929 bp. The present paper reports optimization of fermentation conditions for production of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3 from Halomonas sp. BRI 8. Highest lipase production was observed in the medium containing olive oil and peptone. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme catalysis were 7.0 and 10°C respectively. The enzyme was relatively more stable in acidic pH range and retained 50% activity when incubated at 30°C for 1 h. The enzyme was stable in various organic solvents and showed more than 100% activity in presence of isoamyl alcohol. Significant enzyme activity was also observed in the presence of metal ions and detergents. The molecular mass of partially purified lipase was found to be around 66 kD.

  1. Approach to unbalance power active compensation under linear load unbalances and fundamental voltage asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui-Chilet, S.; Gimeno-Sales, F.J.; Orts, S.; Alcaniz, M.; Masot, R. [Instituto de Tecnologia Electrica - Grupo de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcera, G.; Figueres, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper proposes a new definition of the unbalance power that allows the selective compensation of inefficiencies caused by linear loads by means of a three-phase shunt active power compensator (APC). Symmetrical components of current and voltage are used to evaluate the unbalance power in these systems and to define the compensating currents. The instantaneous power flows with unbalanced linear loads connected to a three-phase electrical system are analyzed following the normal procedure used for the quantification of the reactive power. Equations to calculate the unbalance power and the effective apparent power are obtained from the analysis of the instantaneous power flows. The output currents of the selective APC are defined using the instantaneous unbalance power approach. Power quantities and APC compensating current are defined for IEEE Std. 1459 and for the instantaneous unbalance power approach. Two examples are used to compare the power quantities and the APC operation. The main effects of unbalanced linear load and of fundamental voltage asymmetries are analyzed. Simulations of a shunt APC emphasize the advantages of the calculation of the compensating currents based on the proposed instantaneous unbalance power approach. A comparison with the results obtained by calculation of the compensating currents based on IEEE Std. 1459 is carried out. A new power factor is also defined and compared with other conventional definitions. (author)

  2. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  3. Active Control of Thermostatic Loads for Economic and Technical Support to Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2016-01-01

    Active control of electric water heaters (EWHs) is presented in this paper as a means of exploiting demand flexibility for supporting low-voltage (LV) distribution grids. A single-node model of an EWH is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory using a thermal energy balancing equation and three...... of the energy band is done based on feeder loading to respect thermal grid constraints. Finally, a voltage-based control is implemented to provide real-time voltage support to the LV grids. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the presented method to realize both economic and technical advantages...

  4. Visual working memory load-related changes in neural activity and functional connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory (VWM helps us store visual information to prepare for subsequent behavior. The neuronal mechanisms for sustaining coherent visual information and the mechanisms for limited VWM capacity have remained uncharacterized. Although numerous studies have utilized behavioral accuracy, neural activity, and connectivity to explore the mechanism of VWM retention, little is known about the load-related changes in functional connectivity for hemi-field VWM retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG from 14 normal young adults while they performed a bilateral visual field memory task. Subjects had more rapid and accurate responses to the left visual field (LVF memory condition. The difference in mean amplitude between the ipsilateral and contralateral event-related potential (ERP at parietal-occipital electrodes in retention interval period was obtained with six different memory loads. Functional connectivity between 128 scalp regions was measured by EEG phase synchronization in the theta- (4-8 Hz, alpha- (8-12 Hz, beta- (12-32 Hz, and gamma- (32-40 Hz frequency bands. The resulting matrices were converted to graphs, and mean degree, clustering coefficient and shortest path length was computed as a function of memory load. The results showed that brain networks of theta-, alpha-, beta-, and gamma- frequency bands were load-dependent and visual-field dependent. The networks of theta- and alpha- bands phase synchrony were most predominant in retention period for right visual field (RVF WM than for LVF WM. Furthermore, only for RVF memory condition, brain network density of theta-band during the retention interval were linked to the delay of behavior reaction time, and the topological property of alpha-band network was negative correlation with behavior accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that the differences in theta- and alpha- bands between LVF and RVF

  5. Surface functionalization of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with octa-arginine for enhanced anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Dodwadkar, Namita S; Deshpande, Pranali P; Parab, Shruti; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-08-01

    Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (commercially available as DOXIL or Lipodox) were surface functionalized with a cell-penetrating peptide, octa-arginine (R8). For this purpose, R8-peptide was conjugated to the polyethylene glycol-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DOPE) amphiphilic co-polymer. The resultant R8-PEG-PE conjugate was introduced into the lipid bilayer of liposomes at 2 mol% of total lipid amount via spontaneous micelle-transfer technique. The liposomal modification did not alter the particle size distribution, as measured by Particle Size Analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, surface-associated cationic peptide increased zeta potential of the modified liposomes. R8-functionalized liposomes (R8-Dox-L) markedly increased the intracellular and intratumoral delivery of doxorubicin as measured by flow cytometry and visualizing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) compared to unmodified Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (Dox-L). R8-Dox-L delivered loaded Doxorubicin to the nucleus, being released from the endosomes at higher efficiency compared to unmodified liposomes, which had marked entrapment in the endosomes at tested time point of 1h. The significantly higher accumulation of loaded drug to its site of action for R8-Dox-L resulted in improved cytotoxic activity in vitro (cell viability of 58.5 ± 7% for R8-Dox-L compared to 90.6 ± 2% for Dox-L at Dox dose of 50 μg/mL for 4h followed by 24h incubation) and enhanced suppression of tumor growth (348 ± 53 mm(3) for R8-Dox-L, compared to 504 ± 54 mm(3) for Dox-L treatment) in vivo compared to Dox-L. R8-modification has the potential for broadening the therapeutic window of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment, which could lead to lower non-specific toxicity. PMID:23333899

  6. 冷连轧机负荷分配多目标优化计算方法%Multi-objective optimization calculation method of load distribution of cold tandem rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金耀辉; 王军生; 宋君; 王奎越; 刘宝权; 吴萌

    2015-01-01

    Considering the equipment ability,mill production,and product quality,the multi-objective function of load distribution of the cold tandem rolling mill is established according to the rolling force,plate shape screwdown ratio,power,and tension. The constraint optimization problem is conver-ted into the unconstraint optimization problem through introducing a penalty term. This optimization method is composed of two phases.β factor theory is used to solve the nonlinear equations in the ini-tialization phase. And the Nelder-Mead simplex method is used to solve the multi-objective function in the optimization phase. This load distribution calculation method has been successfully applied in the process control system of a 5-stand cold tandem rolling mill,and the control effect is good.%在综合考虑设备能力、轧机产量和产品质量的基础上,建立了基于轧制力、板形、压下率、功率及张力的冷连轧机负荷分配多目标函数。通过引入惩罚项,将约束优化问题转化为无约束优化问题来求解。采用两阶段计算方法,初始阶段采用β因子理论方法求解非线性方程组,优化阶段采用Nelder-Mead单纯形法求解多目标函数。此负荷分配计算方法已成功应用于某五机架冷连轧机组的过程控制系统,效果较好。

  7. A novel cold-active lipase from Candida albicans: cloning, expression and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dong-Ming; Yang, Ning; Wang, Wen-Kai; Shen, Yan-Fei; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2011-01-01

    A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86-34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM, which has double mutations that revert 154 and 293 to serine residues, showed good lipase activity, and was overexpressed and purified by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The pure Lip5-DM was stable at low temperatures ranging from 15-35 °C and pH 5-9, with the optimal conditions being 15-25 °C and pH 5-6. The activation energy of recombinant lipase was 8.5 Kcal/mol between 5 and 25 °C, suggesting that Lip5-DM was a cold-active lipase. Its activity was found to increase in the presence of Zn(2+), but it was strongly inhibited by Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+) and some surfactants. In addition, the Lip5-DM could not tolerate water-miscible organic solvents. Lip5-DM exhibited a preference for the short-and medium-chain length p-nitrophenyl (C4 and C8 acyl group) esters rather than the long chain length p-nitrophenyl esters (C12, C16 and C18 acyl group) with highest activity observed with the C8 derivatives. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity toward triacylglycerols, such as olive oil and safflower oil.

  8. Muscle activity and spine load during pulling exercises: influence of stable and labile contact surfaces and technique coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-10-01

    This study examined pulling exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps. Specific questions included: which exercises challenged particular muscles, what was the magnitude of resulting spine load, and did technique coaching influence results. Fourteen males performed pulling tasks while muscle activity, external force, and 3D body segment motion were recorded. These data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, in this way the model was sensitive to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. It appears that suspension straps alter muscle activity less in pulling exercises, compared to studies reporting on pushing exercises. The chin-up and pull-up exercises created the highest spine load as they required the highest muscle activation, despite the body "hanging" under tractioning gravitational load. Coaching shoulder centration through retraction increased spine loading but undoubtedly adds proximal stiffness. An exercise atlas of spine compression was constructed to help with the decision making process of exercise choice for an individual. PMID:25066518

  9. Kinetics Study of Photocatalytic Activity of Flame-Made Unloaded and Fe-Loaded CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unloaded CeO2 and nominal 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 5.00, and 10.00 mol% Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP. The samples were characterized to obtain structure-activity relation by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (UV-vis DRS. XRD results indicated that phase structures of Fe-loaded CeO2 nanoparticles were the mixture of CeO2 and Fe2O3 phases at high iron loading concentrations. HRTEM images showed the significant change in morphology from cubic to almost-spherical shape observed at high iron loading concentration. Increased specific surface area with increasing iron content was also observed. The results from UV-visible reflectance spectra clearly showed the shift of absorption edge towards longer visible region upon loading CeO2 with iron. Photocatalytic studies showed that Fe-loaded CeO2 sample exhibited higher activity than unloaded CeO2, with optimal 2.00 mol% of iron loading concentration being the most active catalyst. Results from XPS analysis suggested that iron in the Fe3+ state might be an active species responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activities observed in this study.

  10. Extracellular enzymatic activities of cold-adapted bacteria from polar oceans and effect of temperature and salinity on cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yinxin; Yu Yong; Chen Bo; Li Huirong

    2004-01-01

    The potential of 324 bacteria isolated from different habitats in polar oceans to produce a variety of extracellular enzymatic activities at low temperature was investigated. By plate assay, lipase, protease, amylase, gelatinase, agarase, chitinase or cellulase were detected. Lipases were generally present by bacteria living in polar oceans. Protease-producing bacteria held the second highest proportion in culturable isolates. Strains producing amylase kept a relative stable proportion of around 30% in different polar marine habitats. All 50 Arctic sea-ice bacteria producing proteases were cold-adapted strains, however, only 20% were psychrophilic. 98% of them could grow at 3% NaCl, and 56% could grow without NaCl. On the other hand, 98% of these sea-ice bacteria produced extracellular proteases with optimum temperature at or higher than 35℃, well above the upper temperature limit of cell growth. Extracellular enzymes including amylase, agarase, cellulase and lipase released by bacteria from seawater or sediment in polar oceans, most expressed maximum activities between 25 and 35℃. Among extracellular enzymes released by bacterial strain BSw20308, protease expressed maximum activity at 40℃, higher than 35℃ of polysaccharide hydrolases and 25℃ of lipase.

  11. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ferreira I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  13. Expression of a functional cold active β-galactosidase from Planococcus sp-L4 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdian, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Karimi, Ehsan; Tanipour, Mohammad Hossein; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Bazaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Mashkani, Baratali

    2016-09-01

    Lactase deficiency problem discourages many adults from consuming milk as a major source of micro- and macronutrients. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is an ideal solution for this problem but such processing adds significant costs. In this study, a cold active β-galactosidase from Planococcus sp-L4 (bgal) was optimized for expression of recombinant "BGalP" in Pichia pastoris. As a result of codon optimization, the codon adaptation index was improved from 0.58 to 0.85 after replacing rare codons. After transformation of two P. pastoris strains (KM71H and GS115), the activity of BGalP enzyme was measured in the culture supernatants using ortho-Nitrophenyl-β-galactoside (ONPG). Maximal activity was recorded as 3.7U/ml on day 11 in KM71H clone #2 which was 20% higher than the best GS115 clone. Activity measurements under different conditions indicated optimal activity at pH 6.5. It was active at temperatures ranging from 0 to 55°C with deactivation occurring at or above 60°C. Protein analysis of the crude ultra-filtrate showed the enzyme was ∼75kDa and was the major constituent (85%) of the sample. This enzyme have the potential to find utility for the breakdown of lactose in chilled milk and subsequently can be deactivated by pasteurization. The use of BGalP would minimize energy consumption thus decreasing cost and also help to preserve the nutritional elements of the milk. PMID:26361980

  14. Effects of different single loading on cold resistance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in Helan mountain east region%负载量对贺兰山东麓赤霞珠葡萄抗寒性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 王金涛

    2015-01-01

    为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄枝条抗寒性的影响,以宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙土和灌淤土6年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,测定了单株5穗、10穗、15穗、20穗、25穗负载量水平下一年生葡萄枝条的相对电导率、半致死温度、可溶性糖、脯氨酸及翌年葡萄枝条萌芽率及果枝比等指标。结果表明:两地6年生赤霞珠葡萄枝条的抗寒性随着单株负载量的增加有先增加后降低的趋势。灌淤土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理10穗的半致死温度最低为-16.15℃,砾质沙土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理15穗半致死温度最低为-22.18℃,因此控制合适的负载量有利于酿酒葡萄安全越冬。在相同低温、相同负载处理条件下,砾质沙土上赤霞珠枝条可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量高于灌淤土上赤霞珠枝条。%In order to explor different single loading on cold resistance of wine grapes, six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of different single loading including the sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil in Helan mountain east region, and the electrical conductivity, semi-lethal temperatures(LT50), soluble sugar, proline, as well as the bud germination rate and fruit-shoot ratio of annual branches were measured. The results showed that the annual branches of different region had a tendency with increase single loading, cold resistance increase first and then decrease. Under the condition of single loading 10 clusters treatment, the semi-lethal temperatures(LT50) of annual branches in irrigation-silting soil was as low as-16.5℃, which the other was minimum-22.18℃in the sandy soil with the single loading 15 clusters, so controling the appropriate single loading could improve the safety of wine grapes during its living through the winter. Under the condition of same temperature and loading treatment, the content of soluble sugar and proline of

  15. Kinetic modeling of the purging of activated carbon after short term methyl iodide loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bimolecular reaction model containing the physico-chemical parameters of the adsorption and desorption was developed earlier to describe the kinetics of methyl iodide retention by activated carbon adsorber. Both theoretical model and experimental investigations postulated constant upstream methyl iodide concentration till the maximum break-through. The work reported here includes the extension of the theoretical model to the general case when the concentration of the challenging gas may change in time. The effect of short term loading followed by purging with air, and an impulse-like increase in upstream gas concentration has been simulated. The case of short term loading and subsequent purging has been experimentally studied to validate the model. The investigations were carried out on non-impregnated activated carbon. A 4 cm deep carbon bed had been challenged by methyl iodide for 30, 90, 120 and 180 min and then purged with air, downstream methyl iodide concentration had been measured continuously. The main characteristics of the observed downstream concentration curves (time and slope of break-through, time and amplitude of maximum values) showed acceptable agreement with those predicted by the model

  16. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis.

  17. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-06-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy.

  18. Dynamic Active Earth Pressures of the Retaining Piles with Anchors under Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-zhi Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pile-anchor supporting structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering; then knowledge of active earth pressure on piles is very important for engineers. In this paper, based on the pseudodynamic method and considering the vehicle’s vibration characteristic, a method to calculate the earth pressure on piles under vehicle load is presented. At the same time, the constraint of anchor is simplified relation of lateral deformation of piles in present method. Effects of a wide range of parameters like rupture angle, vibration acceleration coefficient, wall friction angle, and soil friction angle on active earth pressure have been studied. Results are presented in terms of coefficients in the figures and comparison of the test data and the earth pressure calculated by M-O method and present study. The result shows that the measured earth pressure is accordant with the theoretical analysis, so the method in this paper is an effective basis for the calculation of earth pressure on piles under vehicle loads.

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from Monascus ruber M7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hailun; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Mu

    2016-07-01

    Cold active esterases are a class of important biocatalysts that exhibit high activity at low temperatures. In this study, a search for putative cold-active esterase encoding genes from Monascus ruber M7 was performed. A cold-active esterase, named Lip10, was isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals that Lip10 contained a conserved sequence motif Gly(173)-Xaa-Ser(175)-Xaa-Gly(177) that is also present in the majority of esterases and lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Lip10 was a novel microbial esterase. The lip10 gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), resulting in the expression of an active and soluble protein that constituted 40 % of the total cell protein content. Lip10 maintained almost 50 % of its maximal activity at 4-10 °C, with optimal activity at 40 °C. Furthermore, Lip10 retained 184-216 % of its original activity, after incubation in 50 % (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents for 24 h. The enzyme also exhibited high activity under alkaline conditions and good tolerance to metal ions in the reaction mixture. These results indicate that Lip10 may have potential uses in chemical synthesis and food processing industrial applications as an esterase. PMID:27209523

  20. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements.

  1. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. PMID:27104932

  2. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  3. Neutrophils accentuate renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dose-dependent protective effect of a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, M; Torras, J; Herrero, I; Valles, J; Paubert-Braquet, M; Cruzado, J M; Alsina, J; Grinyo, J M

    1997-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the renal damage induced by cold ischemia-reperfusion was worsened by neutrophils (PMN), and if blockade of platelet-activating factor (PAF) could effectively decrease this injury. After flushing with EuroCollins, 85 kidneys from Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either no cold ischemia or a 4-h cold ischemia, and then were reperfused for 75 min at 37 degrees C and 100 mm Hg in an isolated perfusion circuit. Reperfusion was performed with a Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 4.5% albumin, with and without human PMN (7.5 x 10(5) cells/ml) and with and without addition of a PAF receptor antagonist (BN 52021). Hemodynamic and functional parameters were continuously assessed during reperfusion. At end of the study, PAF production was evaluated. Presence of PMN during reperfusion of nonischemic kidneys produced no alteration of functional parameters or PAF production. After 4-h cold ischemia, the presence of PMN during reperfusion produced a significant worsening of plasma flow rate, glomerular filtration rate and sodium reabsorption in comparison with kidneys reperfused without PMN. Also, higher production of PAF was observed in the kidneys reperfused with PMN than in the kidneys reperfused without PMN. After 4-h cold ischemia, addition of BN 52021 during reperfusion in the presence of PMN significantly increased the plasma flow rate, glomerular filtration rate and sodium reabsorption in comparison with kidneys reperfused without this PAF antagonist. This effect was dose dependent. After 4-h cold ischemia, addition of BN 52021 during reperfusion in the absence of PMN produced no significant effect on functional parameters in comparison with kidneys reperfused without this PAF antagonist. These results indicate that PMN contribute to renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury evaluated in the isolated perfused kidney. Treatment with a PAF receptor antagonist attenuated this injury in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that it

  4. CVC冷轧机承载辊缝凸度调节域计算模型%Model of CVC Cold Rolling Mill Loaded Roll Gap Crown Control Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇华; 邸洪双; 刘光明; 郝亮

    2011-01-01

    The crown control room prediction model of loaded roll gap of 4-high CVC cold rolling mill was developed.The loaded roll gap was divided into two parts, unloaded roll gap crown and deformation roll gap crown.Taking a CVC mill as an example, the model calculated result was consistent with the result that calculated by influence function method.It could be used to preset the shape crown of different actual production conditions on line.%开发了四辊CVC冷轧机承载辊缝凸度调节域预报模型,其将承载辊缝分为空载辊缝凸度与变形辊缝凸度两部分.以某厂CVC轧机为例,计算的凸度调节域与影响函数法计算的凸度调节域相吻合,可在线对不同工况下的轧机进行板凸度的预设定.

  5. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    % lower content of free amino acids. The relative amount of single free amino acids was unaffected by the presence of inhibitor, except for valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were formed in lower relative amount. Removal of intestines (gutted herring) and thereby...... all intestinal proteolytic activity did not change the free amino acid profile, except for the concentration of histidine which decreased more when intestines were present. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  6. Unattainable paradise: American Labor's global activities and the petroleum workers during the cold war era

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Geert

    2014-01-01

    One of the most remarkable pieces of history of the postwar international Labour movement concerns the International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical Workers (IFPCW). It was the only American-based International Trade Secretariat(ITS) which became very active on a global scale during its short-lived existence (1954-1975). This contribution attempts to address a series of issues raised in a recent study on the history of the IFPCW on the basis of additional research of primary sources. Res...

  7. Inhomogeneous response of expiratory muscle activity to cold block of the ventral medullary surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Okabe, S; Hida, W; Izumiyama, T; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1991-11-01

    We assessed the effects of cooling the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on the activity of chest wall and abdominal expiratory muscles in eight anesthetized artificially ventilated dogs after vagotomy and denervation of the carotid sinus nerves. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the triangularis sterni, internal intercostal, abdominal external oblique, abdominal internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured with EMG of the diaphragm as an index of inspiratory activity. Bilateral localized cooling (2 x 2 mm) in the thermosensitive intermediate part of the VMS produced temperature-dependent reduction in the EMG of diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The rib cage expiratory EMGs were little affected at 25 degrees C; their amplitudes decreased at lower VMS temperatures (less than 20 degrees C) but by significantly fewer degrees than the diaphragmatic and abdominal expiratory EMGs at a constant VMS temperature. With moderate to severe cooling (less than 20 degrees C) diaphragmatic EMG disappeared, but rib cage expiratory EMGs became tonic and resumed a phasic pattern shortly before the recovery of diaphragmatic EMG during rewarming of the VMS. These results indicate that the effects of cooling the VMS differ between the activity of rib cage and abdominal expiratory muscles. This variability may be due to inhomogeneous inputs from the VMS to expiratory motoneurons or to a different responsiveness of various expiratory motoneurons to the same input either from the VMS or the inspiratory neurons.

  8. Cold turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Highly popular cold remedies could be banned from sale because of their link to a dangerous drug epidemic that has yet to surface in the UK. Rebecca Coombes asks whether the authorities are over-reacting

  9. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Thanasis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. In an industrial-oriented manner the baseline rotor is upscaled by 5% and the ATEFs are implemented in the outer 30% of the blades. The flap system is kept simple and robust with a single flap section and control with wind speed, rotor azimuth, root bending moments and angle of attack in flap's mid-section being the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple and applicable method that can be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling and lowering cost of energy.

  10. Paclitaxel loading in PLGA nanospheres affected the in vitro drug cell accumulation and antiproliferative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maria Ruggero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTX is one of the most widely used drug in oncology due to its high efficacy against solid tumors and several hematological cancers. PTX is administered in a formulation containing 1:1 Cremophor® EL (polyethoxylated castor oil and ethanol, often responsible for toxic effects. Its encapsulation in colloidal delivery systems would gain an improved targeting to cancer cells, reducing the dose and frequency of administration. Methods In this paper PTX was loaded in PLGA NS. The activity of PTX-NS was assessed in vitro against thyroid, breast and bladder cancer cell lines in cultures. Cell growth was evaluated by MTS assay, intracellular NS uptake was performed using coumarin-6 labelled NS and the amount of intracellular PTX was measured by HPLC. Results NS loaded with 3% PTX (w/w had a mean size Conclusion These findings suggest that the greater biological effect of PTX-NS could be due to higher uptake of the drug inside the cells as shown by intracellular NS uptake and cell accumulation studies.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of carbon spheres loaded Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinhui, E-mail: lillian09281@hotmail.com; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhang, Na; Li, Ruijuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbon spheres loaded Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites are obtained by hydrothermal process. • Cu{sub 2}O/Cu nanocrystals grow on the surface of carbon spheres. • The composites with core–shell structure show highly photo-catalytic activity. • The composites can degrade methyl orange under simulated solar light irradiation. • The composites can be used to treat dye wastewater or organic pollutants. - Abstract: In this work, using amylose as carbon source and cupric acetate as copper source, carbon spheres loaded Cu{sub 2}O/Cu composites were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of the molar ratios between glucose and Cu(II), and hydrothermal time on the morphology and sizes of the composites were investigated. The result of photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the composites could degrade methyl orange in aqueous solution under simulated solar light irradiation. The highest degradation rate was achieved to 93.83% when the composites were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 180 °C for 16 h and the molar ratio between glucose and Cu(II) was 10/1. The composites, as new and promising materials, can be used to treat dye wastewater or other organic pollutants.

  12. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  13. Characterization of TiO2 Loaded on Activated Carbon Fibers and Its Photocatalytic Reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA,Bing-Yu; DUAN,Li-Yan; MA,Chuan-Li; WANG,Chun-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,TiO2 loaded on activated carbon fibers(ACF)was prepared by a coating treatment,followed by calcination at different temperatures in air atmosphere.The photocatalyst developed was characterized by SEM,XRD,XPS and UV-Vis adsorption spectroscopy.It was observed from SEM images that TiO2 loaded on ACF was in the form of small clusters with nanometer size.As confirmed by XRD and XPS determinations,the crystalline pattern of immobilized TiO2 was still anatase-form after calcination,and the micrographic structure and surface properties of ACF have not been damaged by the deposition process and calcination at different temperatures.Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue(MB)in aqueous solution was investigated using TiO2/ACF as photocatalyst.The comparison of photolysis,absorption and photocatalysis was carried out.The results indicated that the photocatalysis process of combined photocatalyst showed much higher degradation rate than that of photolysis and absorption processes.In addition,the possibility of cyclic usage of the photocatalyst was also confirmed.

  14. 5-Fluorouracil Loaded Chitosan-PVA/Na+MMT Nanocomposite Films for Drug Release and Antimicrobial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Babul Reddy; B Manjula; T Jayaramudu; E R Sadiku; P Anand Babu; S Periyar Selvam

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were blended with different concentrations of sodium montmorillonite (Na?MMT) clay solution by a solvent casting method. X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscope results show that the film properties are related to the co-existence of Na?MMT intercalation/exfoliation in the blend and the interaction between chitosan–PVA and Na?MMT. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded with chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT nanocomposite films for in vitro drug delivery study. The antimicrobial activity of the chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT films showed significant effect against Salmonella (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), whereas 5-FU encapsulated chitosan–PVA/Na?MMT bio-nanocomposite films did not show any inhibition against bacteria. Our results indicate that combination of a flexible and soft polymeric material with high drug loading ability of a hard inorganic porous material can produce improved control over degradation and drug release. It will be an economically viable method for preparation of advanced drug delivery vehicles and biodegradable implants or scaffolds.

  15. [Preparation and anti-cancer activity in vitro of curcumin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-li; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    This paper is to prepare curcumin (Cur) loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Cur-MSN), evaluate its release behavior and anti-cancer activity in vitro. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) was prepared by polymerization method and Cur-MSN was obtained using solvent evaporation method and impregnation centrifugation method. The preparation method was optimized using entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading efficiency (LE) as indexes. Cur-MSN was characterized with scanning electron microscope and its particle size and zeta potential were determined. Finally, in vitro release behavior in 0.2% SDS solution and its cell-killing effect on HeLa cells were also evaluated. The Cur-MSN prepared with process optimization method was round and uniform and exhibited typical mesoporous characterization. The mean particle size and Zeta potential of Cur-MSN were 75.8 nm and -30.1 mV, respectively. EE and LE of three batches of Cur-MSN were (72.55 ± 2.01)% and (16.21 ± 1.12)%, respectively. In vitro release behavior of Cur-MSN showed a sustained release profile with 83.5% cumulative release within 96 h. The killing effect of Cur-MSN on HeLa cells was dose-dependent with IC50 of 19.40 mg x L(-1), which was similar to that of Cur. PMID:27071254

  16. Plasmonic silver nanoparticles loaded titania nanotube arrays exhibiting enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanthi, S. T.; Iyyapushpam, S.; Sundarakannan, B.; Subramanian, E.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical anodization and photochemical reduction is employed to fabricate highly ordered silver loaded titania nanotubes (Ag/TNT) arrays. The Ag/TNT samples show an extended optical absorbance from UV to visible region owing to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag. The photoluminescence intensity of Ag/TNT is significantly lower than that of pure titania revealing a decrease in charge carrier recombination. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared samples are studied using linear sweep and transient photocurrent measurements. Compared with pure TNT, the Ag loaded samples show a higher photoelectrochemical activity. The results demonstrate an efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the consequent increase in lifetime of charge carriers by Ag/TNT. The photocatalytic results of methyl orange dye degradation show that the Ag/TNT-3-05 sample exhibits the maximum degradation efficiency of 98.85% with kinetic rate constant of 0.0236(5) min-1 for 180 min light illumination.

  17. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  18. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications.

  19. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  20. A Case Study of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Activities in Hailstorms under Cold Eddy Synoptic Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Guili; QIE Xiushu; YUAN Tie; ZHOU Yunjun

    2006-01-01

    There were three hailstorms in Shandong Province, caused by a same northeast cold eddy situation on 1 June 2002. Cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes occurring in the weather event were observed by Shandong Lightning Detection Network (SLDN), which consists of 10 sensors covering all over Shandong Province. The temporal and spatial distributions of CG lightning are nvestigated for the three hailstorms by using the data from SLDN, Doppler radar and satellite. The results show that different thunderstorms present different lightning features even if under the same synoptic situation. The percentage of positive CG lightning is very high during the period of hail falling. CG flashes mainly occurred in the region with a cloud top brightness temperature lower than -50℃. Negative CG flashes usually clustered in the lower temperature region and tended to occur in the region with maximum temperature gradient, while the positive ones usually spread discretely. Negative CG flashes usually occurred in intense echo regions with reflectivity greater than 50dBz, while the positive CG flashes often occurred in weak and stable echo regions (10-30 dBz) or cloud anvils, although they can be observed in strong convective regions sometimes. Almost all hail falling took place in the stage with active positive flashes, and the peak positive flash rate is a little prior to the hail events. The thunderstorm could lead to disastrous weather when positive CG lightning activities occur in cluster. Severe thunderstorms sometimes present a low flash rate at its vigorous stage, which is probably caused by the "mechanism of chargeregion lift" through investigating the reflectivity evolution. Combined with the total lightning (intracloud and CG) data obtained by LIS onboard TRMM, the phenomenon of high ratio of intracloud flash to CG flash in severe hailstorm has been discussed. The competition of the same charge sources between different lightning types can also be helpful for explaining the cause of

  1. Effects of Cold Acclimation on Several Enzyme Activities in Euonymus radicans 'Emorald & Gold' and Its Relation to Semi-lethal Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Huihong; Gao Shumin; Zhao Fengjun; Li Fenglan

    2004-01-01

    The changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ATPase in the leaves of Euonymus radicans were studied when seedlings were cold-acclimated (at 4 ℃) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and then treated for 1 d under low temperature stress (at -5 ℃). The semi-lethal temperatures of acclimated and unacclimated seedlings were also investigated. The results indicated that the activities of the three enzymes in the leaves of the seedlings treated at 4 ℃ for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were all higher than those of unacclimated seedings (treated at 22 ℃ as controls). The activities of SOD and POD increased continuously with the prolongation of the time of cold acclimation, but stepped up to summits then down to the levels of the controls. The activities of SOD culminated at the first week, and the activities of POD at the second week. When acclimated and unacclimated seedlings were both treated at -5 ℃ for 1 d, the activities of the three enzymes in the leaves of acclimated seedlings were a little lower than those before stress, but higher than those of the controls. Moreover, the decrease rate of enzyme activities was greatly lower than that of the controls. The results showed that cold acclimation could enhance the stability of the three enzymes in the leaves of seedlings under low temperature stress; the semi-lethal temperature was -19.1 ℃ when the seedlings were treated at 4 ℃ for 3 weeks, but it was -5.4 ℃ when the seedlings were treated at 22 ℃. The decline of the semi-lethal temperature caused by the adaptive changes of enzyme activities was one of the foundations of enhancing the cold tolerance.

  2. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  3. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin organic films on PTFE activated by cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An air diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge is used to activate the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE samples, which are subsequently coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and tannic acid (TAN single, bi- and multilayers, respectively, using the dip-coating method. The surfaces are characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The XPS measurements show that with plasma treatment the F/C atomic ratio in the PTFE surface decreases, due to the diminution of the concentration of CF2 moieties, and also oxygen incorporation through formation of new C–O, C=O and O=C–O bonds can be observed. In the case of coated samples, the new bonds indicated by XPS show the bonding between the organic layer and the surface, and thus the stability of layers, while the gradual decrease of the concentration of F atoms with the number of deposited layers proves the creation of PVP/TAN bi- and multi-layers. According to the ATR-FTIR spectra, in the case of PVP/TAN multilayer hydrogen bonding develops between the PVP and TAN, which assures the stability of the multilayer. The AFM lateral friction measurements show that the macromolecular layers homogeneously coat the plasma treated PTFE surface.

  4. Unified Theory of Activated Relaxation in Cold Liquids over 14 Decades in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Kenneth; Mirigian, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We formulate a predictive theory at the level of forces of activated relaxation in thermal liquids that covers in a unified manner the apparent Arrhenius, crossover and deeply supercooled regimes (J.Phys.Chem.Lett.4,3648(2013)). The alpha relaxation event involves coupled cage-scale hopping and a long range cooperative elastic distortion of the surrounding liquid, which results in two inter-related, but distinct, barriers. The strongly temperature and density dependent collective barrier is associated with a growing length scale, the shear modulus and density fluctuations. Thermal liquids are mapped to an effective hard sphere fluid based on matching long wavelength density fluctuation amplitudes. The theory is devoid of fit parameters, has no divergences at finite temperature nor below jamming, and captures the key features of the alpha relaxation time in molecular liquids from picoseconds to hundreds of seconds. The approach is extended to polymer liquids based on the Kuhn length as the key variable. The influence of chain length and backbone stiffness on the glass transition temperature and fragility have been studied where degree of polymerization enters via corrections to asymptotic conformational statistics.

  5. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  6. In Vivo Mechanical Loading Rapidly Activates β–catenin Signaling in Osteocytes through a Prostaglandin Mediated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Castillo, N; Kim-Weroha, NA; Kamel, MA; Javaheri, B; Ellies, DL; Krumlauf, RE; Thiagarajan, G.; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    The response of the skeleton to loading appears to be mediated through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and osteocytes have long been postulated to be the primary mechanosensory cells in bone. To examine the kinetics of the mechanoresponse of bone and cell types involved in the in vivo, we performed forearm loading of 17-week-old female TOPGAL mice. β-catenin signaling was observed only in embedded osteocytes, not osteoblasts, at 1 hour post loading, spreading to addition...

  7. Biogeochemistry of a low-activity cold seep in the Larsen B area, western Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gutt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available First videographic indication of an Antarctic cold seep ecosystem was recently obtained from the collapsed Larsen B ice shelf, western Weddell Sea (Domack et al., 2005. Within the framework of the R/V Polarstern expedition ANTXXIII-8, we revisited this area for geochemical, microbiological and further videographical examinations. During two dives with ROV Cherokee (MARUM, Bremen, several bivalve shell agglomerations of the seep-associated, chemosynthetic clam Calyptogena sp. were found in the trough of the Crane and Evans glacier. The absence of living clam specimens indicates that the flux of sulphide and hence the seepage activity is diminished at present. This impression was further substantiated by our geochemical observations. Concentrations of thermogenic methane were moderately elevated with 2 μM in surface sediments of a clam patch, increasing up to 9 μM at a sediment depth of about 1 m in the bottom sections of the sediment cores. This correlated with a moderate decrease in sulphate from about 28 mM at the surface down to 23.4 mM, an increase in sulphide to up to 1.43 mM and elevated rates of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM of up to 600 pmol cm−3 d−1 at about 1 m below the seafloor. Molecular analyses indicate that methanotrophic archaea related to ANME-3 are the most likely candidates mediating AOM in sediments of the Larsen B seep.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Bradbury, Mark; Ostrikov, Kostya; Murphy, Anthony B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med), with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min) may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mai-Prochnow

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med, with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  10. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase from the Cold Adapted Microorganism Psychromonas ingrahamii: A Low Temperature Active Enzyme with Broad Substrate Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pascarella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine hydroxymethyltransferase from the psychrophilic microorganism Psychromonas ingrahamii was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a His-tag fusion protein. The enzyme was characterized with respect to its spectroscopic, catalytic, and thermodynamic properties. The properties of the psychrophilic enzyme have been contrasted with the characteristics of the homologous counterpart from E. coli, which has been structurally and functionally characterized in depth and with which it shares 75% sequence identity. Spectroscopic measures confirmed that the psychrophilic enzyme displays structural properties almost identical to those of the mesophilic counterpart. At variance, the P. ingrahamii enzyme showed decreased thermostability and high specific activity at low temperature, both of which are typical features of cold adapted enzymes. Furthermore, it was a more efficient biocatalyst compared to E. coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT particularly for side reactions. Many β-hydroxy-α-amino acids are SHMT substrates and represent important compounds in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and food additives. Thanks to these attractive properties, this enzyme could have a significant potential for biotechnological applications.

  11. Cold-active bacteriophages from the Baltic Sea ice have diverse genomes and virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senčilo, Ana; Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Saarijärvi, Mikko; Bamford, Dennis H; Roine, Elina

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are the major prokaryotic component of the Baltic Sea ice microbiome, and it is postulated that phages are among their major parasites. In this study, we sequenced the complete genomes of six earlier reported phage isolates from the Baltic Sea ice infecting Shewanella sp. and Flavobacterium sp. hosts as well as characterized the phage-host interactions. Based on the genome sequences, the six phages were classified into five new genera. Only two phages, 1/4 and 1/40, both infecting Shewanella sp. strains, showed significant nucleotide sequence similarity to each other and could be grouped into the same genus. These two phages are also related to Vibrio-specific phages sharing approximately 25% of the predicted gene products. Nevertheless, cross-titrations showed that the cold-active phages studied are host specific: none of the seven additionally tested, closely related Shewanella strains served as hosts for the phages. Adsorption experiments of two Shewanella phages, 1/4 and 3/49, conducted at 4 °C and at 15 °C revealed relatively fast adsorption rates that are, for example, comparable with those of phages infective in mesophilic conditions. Despite the small number of Shewanella phages characterized here, we could already find different types of phage-host interactions including a putative abortive infection.

  12. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  13. Study of removal of Direct Yellow 12 by cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Batuol [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri, E-mail: syamak.nasiri@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pebdani, Arezou Amiri [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali; Mihandoost, Asma [Department of Chemistry, University of Ilam, P.O. Box: 65315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    In this research, cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon (CdO-NW-AC) has been synthesized by a simple procedure and characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and UV–vis spectrometry. This new adsorbent has been efficiently utilized for the removal of the Direct Yellow 12 (DY-12) from wastewater. To obtain maximum DY-12 removal efficiency, the influences of variables such as pH, DY-12 concentration, amount of CdO-NW-AC, contact time, and temperature have been examined and optimized in a batch method. Following the variable optimization, the experimental equilibrium data (at different concentration of DY-12) was fitted to conventional isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The applicability of each method is based on the R{sup 2} and error analysis for each model. It was found that the experimental equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The dependency of removal process to time and the experimental data follow second order kinetic model with involvement of intraparticle diffusion model. The negative value of Gibbs's free energy and positive value of adsorption enthalpy show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption process. - Graphical abstract: Typical FE-SEM image of the CdO nanowires. Highlights: ► Cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon was utilized as an adsorbent. ► It was used for the removal of Direct Yellow 12 from aqueous solutions. ► The adsorption of Direct Yellow 12 on this adsorbent is endothermic in nature. ► The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  14. Provision of secondary frequency control via demand response activation on thermostatically controlled loads: Solutions and experiences from Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the provision of secondary frequency control in electric power systems based on demand response (DR) activation on thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) and quantifies the computation resource constraints for the control of large TCL population. Since TCLs are fast responsive loads, they represent a suitable alternative to conventional sources for providing such control. An experimental investigation with domestic fridges representing the TCLs was conducted in an islande...

  15. MaJAZ1 Attenuates the MaLBD5-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Gene MaAOC2 in Regulating Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Liang-jie; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment could effectively reduce the chilling injury of many fruits, including banana, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, one lateral organ boundaries (LOB) domain (LBD) gene, designated as MaLBD5, was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that accumulation of MaLBD5 was induced by cold temperature and MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that MaLBD5 was localized to the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MaLBD5 physically interacted with MaJAZ1, a potential repressor of jasmonate signaling. Furthermore, transient expression assays indicated that MaLBD5 transactivated a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, termed MaAOC2, which was also induced by cold and MeJA. More interestingly, MaJAZ1 attenuated the MaLBD5-mediated transactivation of MaAOC2. These results suggest that MaLBD5 and MaJAZ1 might act antagonistically in relation to MeJA-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit, at least partially via affecting jasmonate biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings expand the knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network of MeJA-mediated cold tolerance of banana fruit.

  16. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS. PMID:22734927

  17. In Vivo Mechanical Loading Rapidly Activates β–catenin Signaling in Osteocytes through a Prostaglandin Mediated Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castillo, N; Kim-Weroha, NA; Kamel, MA; Javaheri, B; Ellies, DL; Krumlauf, RE; Thiagarajan, G; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    The response of the skeleton to loading appears to be mediated through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and osteocytes have long been postulated to be the primary mechanosensory cells in bone. To examine the kinetics of the mechanoresponse of bone and cell types involved in the in vivo, we performed forearm loading of 17-week-old female TOPGAL mice. β-catenin signaling was observed only in embedded osteocytes, not osteoblasts, at 1 hour post loading, spreading to additional osteocytes and finally to cells on the bone surface by 24 hrs. This early activation at 1 hour appeared to be independent of receptor (Lrp5/6) mediated activation as it occurred in the presence of the inhibitors sclerostin and/or Dkk1. The COX-2 inhibitor, Carprofen, blocked the activation of β-catenin signaling and decline in sclerostin positive osteocytes post-loading implying an important role for prostaglandin. In vitro, PI3K/Akt activation was shown to be required for β-catenin nuclear translocation downstream from prostaglandin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells supporting this mechanism. Downstream targets of β-catenin signaling, sclerostin and Dkk1, were also examined and found to be significantly down regulated in osteocytes in vivo at 24 hours post-loading. The pattern of initially activated osteocytes appeared random and in order to understand this heterogeneous expression, a novel finite element model of the strain field in the ulna was developed, which predicts highly variable local magnitudes of strain experienced by osteocytes. In summary, both in vivo and in vitro models show the rapid activation of β-catenin in response to load through the early release of prostaglandin and that strain fields in the bone are extremely heterogeneous resulting in heterogeneous activation of the β-catenin pathway in osteocytes in vivo. PMID:25836764

  18. In vivo mechanical loading rapidly activates β-catenin signaling in osteocytes through a prostaglandin mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castillo, N; Kim-Weroha, N A; Kamel, M A; Javaheri, B; Ellies, D L; Krumlauf, R E; Thiagarajan, G; Johnson, M L

    2015-07-01

    The response of the skeleton to loading appears to be mediated through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and osteocytes have long been postulated to be the primary mechanosensory cells in bone. To examine the kinetics of the mechanoresponse of bone and cell types involved in vivo, we performed forearm loading of 17-week-old female TOPGAL mice. β-catenin signaling was observed only in embedded osteocytes, not osteoblasts, at 1h post-loading, spreading to additional osteocytes and finally to cells on the bone surface by 24h. This early activation at 1h appeared to be independent of receptor (Lrp5/6) mediated activation as it occurred in the presence of the inhibitors sclerostin and/or Dkk1. The COX-2 inhibitor, Carprofen, blocked the activation of β-catenin signaling and decline in sclerostin positive osteocytes post-loading implying an important role for prostaglandin. In vitro, PI3K/Akt activation was shown to be required for β-catenin nuclear translocation downstream from prostaglandin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells supporting this mechanism. Downstream targets of β-catenin signaling, sclerostin and Dkk1, were also examined and found to be significantly downregulated in osteocytes in vivo at 24h post-loading. The pattern of initially activated osteocytes appeared random and in order to understand this heterogeneous expression, a novel finite element model of the strain field in the ulna was developed, which predicts highly variable local magnitudes of strain experienced by osteocytes. In summary, both in vivo and in vitro models show the rapid activation of β-catenin in response to load through the early release of prostaglandin and that strain fields in the bone are extremely heterogeneous resulting in heterogeneous activation of the β-catenin pathway in osteocytes in vivo. PMID:25836764

  19. In situ measurements of growth rates and grain-averaged activation energies of individual grains during recrystallization of 50% cold-rolled aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We study recrystallization kinetics - and activation energies of individual grains. → The kinetics is found to deviate significantly from mean kinetics. → An explanation for the observed kinetics is proposed. → Activation energies of individual grains are found to form a broad distribution. -- Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction has been used to study the growth kinetics of 1406 individual grains recrystallizing in 50% cold-rolled aluminium. It is found that each grain follows its own kinetics. The radial growth of individual grains is found to often be piecewise linear, and an explanation based on the cell block microstructure of cold-rolled aluminium is proposed. Grain-averaged activation energies of 793 individual grains are determined, and found to constitute a broad distribution. Reasons and implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  1. Cold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, John P., E-mail: jpw@castinganalysis.com [Casting Analysis Corp., PO Box 52, Weyers Cave, VA 24486 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  2. Cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  3. Cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime

  4. Downregulation of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and impairs spermatogenic function in mouse testes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ping Xia; Xin-Min Zheng; Hang Zheng; Xiao-Jun Liu; Gui-Yong Liu; Xing-Huan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is an RNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal testes and downregulated after heat stress caused by cryptorchidism,varicocele or environmental temperatures.The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of CIRP in the testes.We employed RNAi technique to knock down the expression of CIRP in the testes,and performed haematoxylin and eosin staining to evaluate morphological changes following knockdown.Germ cell apoptosis was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay,and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)signalling pathways were investigated by Western blotting to determine the possible mechanism of apoptosis.We found that using siRNA is a feasible and reliable method for knocking down gene expression in the testes.Compared to controls,the mean seminiferous tubule diameter (MSTD) and the thickness of the germ cell layers decreased following siRNA treatment,whereas the percentage of apoptotic seminiferous tubules increased.The p44/p42,p38 and SAPK/JNK MAPK pathways were activated after downregulation of CIRP.In conclusion,we discovered that downregulation of CIRP resulted in increased germ cell apoptosis,possibly viathe activation of the p44/p42,p38 and SAPK/JNK MAPK pathways.

  5. α-Galactosidase-A Loaded-Nanoliposomes with Enhanced Enzymatic Activity and Intracellular Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ingrid; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José L; Elizondo, Elisa; Gil, Pilar Rivera; Moreno, Evelyn; Faraudo, Jordi; Sala, Santi; Bueno, Dolores; González-Mira, Elisabet; Rivas, Merche; Melgarejo, Marta; Pulido, Daniel; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Parajo, Maria F; Schwartz, Simó; Ventosa, Nora; Veciana, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are caused by lysosomal dysfunction usually as a consequence of deficiency of a single enzyme required for the metabolism of macromolecules, such as lipids, glycoproteins, and mucopolysaccharides. For instance, the lack of α-galactosidase A (GLA) activity in Fabry disease patients causes the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the vasculature leading to multiple organ pathology. Enzyme replacement therapy, which is the most common treatment of LSD, exhibits several drawbacks mainly related to the instability and low efficacy of the exogenously administered therapeutic enzyme. In this work, the unprecedented increased enzymatic activity and intracellular penetration achieved by the association of a human recombinant GLA to nanoliposomes functionalized with Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) peptides is reported. Moreover, these new GLA loaded nanoliposomes lead to a higher efficacy in the reduction of the GLA substrate named globotriasylceramide in a cellular model of Fabry disease, than that achieved by the same concentration of the free enzyme. The preparation of these new liposomal formulations by DELOS-SUSP, based on the depressurization of a CO2 -expanded liquid organic solution, shows the great potential of this CO2 -based methodology for the one-step production of protein-nanoliposome conjugates as bioactive nanomaterials with therapeutic interest. PMID:26890358

  6. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activities of rare earth-loaded BiVO4 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BiVO4-based photocatalysts loaded with rare earth (RE=Ho, Sm, Yb, Eu, Gd, Nd, Ce and La) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), nitrogen adsorption for the BET specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results of XRD, SEM and XPS analysis deduced that the rare earth ions were present as RE2O3 in the samples. The DRS analysis showed the shift in the absorbption edge from the UV to the visible range: Ho3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 4. Gd3+-BiVO4 had the highest photocatalytic activity among all the RE3+-BiVO4 catalysts. The optimal Gd content was 8 at% under visible light irradiation. This beneficial effect was attributed to the specific electron structure characteristics of gadolinium and the increasing in the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. On the contrast, the other rare earth ions had the detrimental effect on the photocatalytic decolorization of MB.

  7. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  8. Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Enhanced Copper-Silica-Loaded Titania Prepared via Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramarao Poliah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanopowder, loaded with SiO2 and Cu-SiO2, was prepared under both acidic and basic environments via the hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of TiO2 were studied by XRD, TEM, and FT-IR. The photocatalytic activity of samples was studied by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange, using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The effect of Ti/Si ratio, pH, and Cu2+ addition on the formation of TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity was investigated in detail. The results show that a large surface area and a high surface acidity were important factors to achieve good TiO2 performance. The presence of Ti-O-Si bonding enhanced surface acidity, which improved its ability to adsorb more hydroxyl radicals and increased its surface area. The addition of 0.1 mol% concentration of Cu2+ and 25 mol% SiO2 in TiO2 induced the formation of new states close to the conduction band, which narrowed the band gap energy and enhanced the photodegradation efficiency.

  9. Atmospheric-Pressure DBD Cold Plasma for Preparation of High Active Au/P25 Catalysts for Low-Temperature CO Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Lanbo; ZHAN Zhibin; ZHANG Xiuling; QI Bin; XU Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure was adopted for preparation of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 supported Au catalysts (Au/P25-P) with the assistance of the deposition-precipitation procedure.The influences of the plasma reduction time and calcination on the performance of the Au/P25-P catalysts were investigated.CO oxidation was performed to investigate the catalytic activity of thc Au/P25 catalysts.The results show that DBD cold plasma for the fabrication of Au/P25-P catalysts is a fast process,and Au/P25-P (4 min) exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity due to the complete reduction of Au compounds and less consumption of oxygen vacancies.In order to form more oxygen vacancies active species,Au/P25-P was calcined to obtain Au/P25-PC catalysts.Interestingly,Au/P25-PC exhibited the highest activity for CO oxidation among the Au/P25 samples.The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the smaller size and high distribution of Au nanoparticles are the mean reasons for a high performance of Au/P25-PC.Atmospheric-pressure DBD cold plasma was proved to be of great efficiency in preparing high performance supported Au catalysts.

  10. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanxing; Cui, Chenchen; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang; Pan, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10 mg L(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2 mg L(-1)) removal in 60 min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100 mg L(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

  11. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    . The effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved......The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ...

  12. Provision of secondary frequency control via demand response activation on thermostatically controlled loads: Solutions and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie;

    2016-01-01

    of household fridge performance in terms of response time and ramp-up rate, as well as the impact on fridge temperature and behaviour after the control period. The experimental results show that TCLs are fast responsive loads for DR activation, with the average control signal response time of 24 s......This paper studies the provision of secondary frequency control in electric power systems based on demand response (DR) activation on thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) and quantifies the computation resource constraints for the control of large TCL population. Since TCLs are fast responsive...

  13. In vitro anti-telomerase activity of novel lycopene-loaded nanospheres in the human leukemia cell line K562

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Gharib; Zohreh Faezizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lycopene, a plant carotenoid, has potent effects against the various types of cancer cells. To date, the effect of lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms on the telomerase activity in human leukemia cell line K562 have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to prepare a novel lycopene-loaded nanosphere and compare its anti-telomearse activity in K562 cell line with those of free lycopene. Materials and Methods: The lycopene-loaded nanospheres were prepared by...

  14. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  15. Biogeochemistry of a low-activity cold seep in the Larsen B area, western Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available First videographic indication of an Antarctic cold seep ecosystem was recently obtained from the collapsed Larsen B ice shelf, western Weddell Sea (Domack et al., 2005. Within the framework of the R/V Polarstern expedition ANTXXIII-8, we revisited this area for geochemical, microbiological and further videographical examinations. During two dives with ROV Cherokee (MARUM, Bremen, several bivalve shell agglomerations of the seep-associated, chemo syntheticclam Calyptogena sp. were found in the trough of the Crane and Evans glacier. The absence of living clam specimens indicates that the flux of sulphide and hence the seepage activity is diminished at present. This impression was further substantiated by our geochemical observations. Concentrations of thermogenic methane were moderately elevated with 2 μM in surface sediments of a clam patch, increasing up to 9 μM at a sediment depth of about 1 m in the bottom sections of the sediment cores. This correlated with a moderate decrease in sulphate from 28 mM at the surface down to 23.4 mM, an increase in sulphide to up to 1.43 mM and elevated rates of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM of up to 600 pmol cm−3 d−1 at about 1 m below the seafloor. Molecular analyses indicate that methanotrophic archaea related to ANME-3 are the most likely candidates mediating AOM in sediments of the Larsen B seep (Domack et al., 2005; EOS 86, 269–276.

  16. Enhancing the thermostability of a cold-active lipase from Penicillium cyclopium by in silico design of a disulfide bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongbiao; Li, Jianfang; Wu, Minchen; Wang, Junqing

    2014-08-01

    Cysteine mutants of a cold-active lipase (PcLipI) from Penicillium cyclopium were designed by the software Disulfide by Design Ver. 1.20 in an effort to improve enzyme thermostability by addition of a disulfide bridge. Those mutants predicted by molecular dynamics simulation to have better thermostability than the wild type were first expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then, for further investigation, in Pichia pastoris GS115. By replacing Val248 and Thr251 with cysteines to create a disulfide bridge, the recombinant lipases reE-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in E. coli) and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C (expressed in P. pastoris) were obtained. Both had enhanced thermostability with half-lives at 35 °C about 4.5- and 12.8-fold longer than that of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris, respectively. The temperature optima of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C were 35 and 30 °C, which were each 5 °C higher than those of the parent PcLipI expressed in E. coli and P. pastoris. The K ms of reE-PcLipV248C-T251C and reP-PcLipV248C-T251C toward tributyrin were 53.2 and 39.5 mM, while their V maxs were 1,460 and 3,800 U/mg, respectively. PcLipV248C-T251C had better thermostability and catalytic efficiency than the other mutants and the parent PcLipI. PMID:24867629

  17. Gut colonization by an ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas reduces the cold hardiness of mulberry pyralid larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Sato, M

    1999-06-01

    To evaluate the suitability of using ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria for the biological control of insect pests, the supercooling point (SCP) of larvae of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes duplicalis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori, ingesting INA strains of Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas and Pseudomonas syringae was determined. Mean SCP of the guts of silkworm larvae ingesting INA strains of E. ananas ranged from -2.5 to -2.8 degrees C, being 5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. Similarly, mean SCP of mulberry pyralid larvae ingesting INA strain of E. ananas, which can grow well in the gut, was -4.7 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, being 6.5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. On the other hand, mean SCP of the larvae-ingesting INA strain of P. syringae, which cannot grow in the gut, was -9.0 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, rising by only 2.5 degrees C higher than that in the control treatments. In addition, more than 80% of the larvae of mulberry pyralid ingesting the INA strain of E. ananas froze and eventually died when exposed to -6 degrees C for 18 h, while only 36% of the larvae ingesting the INA strain of P. syringae, or approximately 20% of the control larvae, froze and died. Thus, the gut colonization by INA strains of E. ananas reduced remarkably the cold hardiness of the insects. These findings suggest that INA strains of E. ananas could be effective as a potential biological control agent of insect pests. PMID:10413571

  18. Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Run-Hong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration. PMID:23796608

  19. Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Run-Hong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera seed and seed oil residue and oxidative stability of its cold pressed oil compared with extra virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol; Angelika Petrasch

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) seed contains highly valuable substances with an impressive range of medicinal, cosmetic and food uses. MO seed, seed oil and its residue were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against selected foodborne microorganisms using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability of cold pressed MO seed oil in comparison with those of extra virgi...

  1. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures.

  2. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures. PMID:2577452

  3. Facile synthesis of Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjun; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Tianye; Jia, Liwei; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Shengyu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge composite photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a facile two-step approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance, and scanning electron microscopy. The Bi2WO6/Bi2O3 photocatalyst was successfully loaded on polyurethane sponge and the composite displayed enhanced absorption in the ultraviolet-to-visible light region. Furthermore, the composite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity and reusability towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. This work demonstrates a facile method for synthesizing Bi2WO6/Bi2O3-loaded polyurethane sponge with enhanced photocatalytic activity and easy immobilization of the photocatalyst for application in environmental purification.

  4. Dynamic fracturing by successive coseismic loadings leads to pulverization in active fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Fondriest, M.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies show that pulverized rocks observed along large faults can be created by single high-strain rate loadings in the laboratory, provided that the strain rate is higher than a certain pulverization threshold. Such loadings are analogous to large seismic events. In reality, pulverized rocks have been subject to numerous seismic events rather than one single event. Therefore, the effect of successive "milder" high-strain rate loadings on the pulverization threshold is investigated by applying loading conditions below the initial pulverization threshold. Single and successive loading experiments were performed on quartz-monzonite using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Damage-dependent petrophysical properties and elastic moduli were monitored by applying incremental strains. Furthermore, it is shown that the pulverization threshold can be reduced by successive "milder" dynamic loadings from strain rates of ~180 s-1 to ~90 s-1. To do so, it is imperative that the rock experiences dynamic fracturing during the successive loadings prior to pulverization. Combined with loading conditions during an earthquake rupture event, the following generalized fault damage zone structure perpendicular to the fault will develop: furthest from the fault plane, there is a stationary outer boundary that bounds a zone of dynamically fractured rocks. Closer to the fault, a pulverization boundary delimits a band of pulverized rock. Consecutive seismic events will cause progressive broadening of the band of pulverized rocks, eventually creating a wider damage zone observed in mature faults.

  5. Load rather than length sensitive feedback contributes to soleus muscle activity during human treadmill walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klint, Richard Albin Ivar af; Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2010-01-01

    body load and ankle joint angle. The volunteers walked on a treadmill ( approximately 3.6 km/h) connected to a body weight support (BWS) system. To manipulate the load sensitive afferents the level of BWS was switched between 5 and 30% of body weight. The effect of transient changes in BWS...

  6. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.;

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through operation impact on the wind turbines structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in power system simulation tools using simplified drive train mechanical model, approach which doesn't allow a thorough investigation of structural loads...

  7. 77 FR 42949 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... alleviation systems that either directly, or as a result of failure or malfunction, affect structural... System (a) Failures of the load alleviation system, including the annunciation system, must be... failure of the load alleviation system, including the annunciation system, is greater than 1 x 10 -8...

  8. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate...

  9. Preparation, characterisation and antibacterial activity of a florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiaojin; Lu, Mengmeng; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2015-12-01

    A florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (FFC-SLN) suspension was prepared by hot homogenisation and ultrasonic technique. The suspension was characterised for its release profile, stability, toxicity, and the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the suspension was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the mean diameter, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were 253 ± 3 nm, 0.409 ± 0.022 and 47.5 ± 0.21 mV, respectively. In vitro release profile showed the FFC-SLN suspension had sustained release effect. The minimum inhibition concentration values of the FFC-SLN suspension were 6 and 3 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively, compared with 3.5 and 2 µg/mL of native florfenicol. The suspension was relatively stable at 4°C and less stable at room temperature during 9 months storage. Although the nanoparticle carriers exhibited cytotoxicity in cell cultures, the LD50 of the lyophilised dry power of the suspension was higher than 5 g/kg body weight. Mortality protection against E. coli lethal infection in mice showed that the nanoparticle suspension had much better efficacy (6/10) than native drug (1/10). These results indicate that FFC-SLN suspension could be a promising formulation in veterinary medicine.

  10. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  11. The antimicrobial activity of honey, bee pollen loads and beeswax from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacániová Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of propolis, bee pollen loads and beeswax samples collected in the year 2009 from two locations in Slovakia to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 99.9% and 70% methanol (aqueous, v/v and 96% and 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v were used. Five different strains of bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes ccM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ccM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus ccM 3953; Salmonella enterica ccM 4420, Escherichia coli ccM 3988, three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and seven different strains of yeasts Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were tested. After 48 hours S. aureus was the bacterium most sensitive to the 70% ethanol extract of pollen, A. fumigatus was the most sensitive microscopic fungus (70% ethanol and C. glabrata the most sensitive yeast (70% methanol. Microorganisms most sensitive to propolis extracts were L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus (70% ethanol and G. candidum (70% methanol. Most sensitive to beeswax extracts were E. coli, A. niger and C. tropicalis.

  12. Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.

  13. Application of a load-bearing passive and active vibration isolation system in hydraulic drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Oliver; Haase, Thomas; Pohl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Hydraulic drives are widely used in many engineering applications due to their high power to weight ratio. The high power output of the hydraulic drives produces high static and dynamic reaction forces and moments which must be carried by the mounts and the surrounding structure. A drawback of hydraulic drives based on rotating pistons consists in multi-tonal disturbances which propagate through the mounts and the load bearing structure and produce structure borne sound at the surrounding structures and cavities. One possible approach to overcome this drawback is to use an optimised mounting, which combines vibration isolation in the main disturbance direction with the capability to carry the reaction forces and moments. This paper presents an experimental study, which addresses the vibration isolation performance of an optimised mounting. A dummy hydraulic drive is attached to a generic surrounding structure with optimised mounting and excited by multiple shakers. In order to improve the performance of the passive vibration isolation system, piezoelectric transducers are applied on the mounting and integrated into a feed-forward control loop. It is shown that the optimised mounting of the hydraulic drive decreases the vibration transmission to the surrounding structure by 8 dB. The presented study also reveals that the use of the active control system leads to a further decrease of vibration transmission of up to 14 dB and also allows an improvement of the vibration isolation in an additional degree of freedom and higher harmonic frequencies.

  14. Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of carbopol loaded meloxicam nanoethosomes gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Abdul; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Alam, Mohd Aftab

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to develop nanoethosomes for transdermal meloxicam delivery. The ethosomes were prepared by varying the variables such as concentrations of phospholipids 90G, ethanol, and sonication time while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and transdermal flux were the chosen responses. Results indicate that the nanoethosomes of meloxicam provides lesser vesicles size, better entrapment efficiency and improved flux for transdermal delivery as compared to rigid liposomes. The optimized formulation (MCEF-OPT) obtained was further evaluated for an in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Optimized nanoethosomal formulation with vesicles size of 142.3nm showed 78.25% entrapment efficiency and achieved transdermal flux of 10.42μg/cm(2)/h. Nanoethosomes proved to be significantly superior in terms of, amount of drug permeated into the skin, with an enhancement ratio of 3.77 when compared to rigid liposomes. In vivo pharmacodynamic study of carbopol(®) loaded nanoethosomal gel showed significant higher percent inhibition of rat paw edema compared with oral administration of meloxicam. Our results suggest that nanoethosomes are an efficient carrier for transdermal delivery of meloxicam. PMID:24657163

  15. In vivo anticancer activity of methotrexate-loaded layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min; Chung, Hae-Eun; Hong, Seung-Hee; Kim, In-Hoo; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A methotrexate (MTX)-loaded layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticle system was synthesized by intercalating MTX into the interlayer spaces of LDH. In vivo pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the MTX-LDH hybrid had similar kinetic behaviors as free MTX, showing a rapid decline in the plasma MTX level, with characteristics of a biexponential function. However, the hybrid system remarkably suppressed tumor growth in human osteosarcoma-bearing mice compared to an equivalent amount of free MTX. Using MTX-LDH nanoparticles, a significantly high amount of MTX was delivered to target tumor tissue, whereas a low level was found in normal tissues. Moreover, LDH nanocarriers did not accumulate in any specific tissue nor cause acute toxicity up to the applied dose for the hybrid system. These results suggest that the MTX-LDH nanohybrid system has great potential as an anti-cancer drug with enhanced in vivo anti-tumor activity and bioavailability in target tumor tissue along with reduced side effects. PMID:23489199

  16. Cadmium uptake and xylem loading are active processes in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Li, Ting-qiang; He, Zhen-li

    2009-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is a well known cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator native to China; however, the mechanism behind its hyperaccumulation of Cd is not fully understood. Through several hydroponic experiments, characteristics of Cd uptake and translocation were investigated in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii in comparison with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results showed that at Cd level of 10 microM measured Cd uptake in HE was 3-4 times higher than the implied Cd uptake calculated from transpiration rate. Furthermore, inhibition of transpiration rate in the HE has no essential effect on Cd accumulation in shoots of the plants. Low temperature treatment (4 degrees C) significantly inhibited Cd uptake and reduced upward translocation of Cd to shoots for 9 times in HE plants, whereas no such effect was observed in NHE. Cadmium concentration was 3-4-fold higher in xylem sap of HE, as compared with that in external uptake solution, whereas opposite results were obtained for NHE. Cadmium concentration in xylem sap of HE was significantly reduced by the addition of metabolic inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), in the uptake solutions, whereas no such effect was noted in NHE. These results suggest that Cd uptake and translocation is an active process in plants of HE S. alfredii, symplastic pathway rather than apoplastic bypass contributes greatly to root uptake, xylem loading and translocation of Cd to the shoots of HE, in comparison with the NHE plants. PMID:18937997

  17. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  18. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  19. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  20. Novel electrostatic trap for cold polar molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xue-Yan; Ma Hui; Yin Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme in which cold polar molecules are trapped by an electrostatic field generated by the combination of a pair of parallel transparent electrodes (i.e., two infinite transparent plates) and a ring electrode (i.e., a ring wire). The spatial distributions of the electrostatic fields from the above charged wire and the charged plates and the corresponding Stark potentials for cold CO molecules are calculated; the dependences of the trap centre position on the geometric parameters of the electrode are analysed. We also discuss the loading process of cold molecules from a cold molecular beam into our trap. This study shows that the proposed scheme is not only simple and convenient to trap, manipulate and control cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states, but also provides an opportunity to study cold collisions and collective quantum effects in a variety of cold molecular systems, etc.

  1. Using Pulse Rate in Estimating Workload Evaluating a Load Mobilizing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pulse rate is a direct indicator of the state of the cardiovascular system, in ad-dition to being an indirect indicator of the energy expended in performing a task. The pulse of a person is the number of pulses recorded in a peripheral artery per unit time; the pulse appears as a pressure wave moving along the blood vessels, which are flexible, “in large arterial branches, speed of 7-10 m/s in the small arteries, 15 to 35 m/s”. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to assess heart rate, using the technique of recording the frequency of the pulse, oxy-gen consumption and observation of work activity in the estimation of the workload in a load handling task for three situations: lift/transfer/deposit; before, during and after the task the pulse rate is recorded for 24 young volunteers (10 women and 14 men under laboratory conditions. We performed a gesture analysis of work activity and lifting and handling strategies. Results: We observed an increase between initial and final fp in both groups and for the two tasks, a dif¬ference is also recorded in the increase in heart rate of 17.5 for charging 75 % of the participants experienced an increase in fp above 100 lat./min. Par 25 kg, registered values indicate greater than 114 lat./min and 17.5 kg than 128 lat./min values. Discussion: The pulse rate method is recommended for its simplicity of use for operational staff, supervisors and managers and indus¬trial engineers not trained in the physiology method can also be used by industrial hygienists.

  2. [Anti-tumor activity of folate receptor targeting docetaxel-loaded membrane-modified liposomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Dong-Kai; Pan, Wei-San

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tumor activity of folate receptor targeting docetaxel-loaded membrane-modified liposomes (FA-PDCT-L) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. FA-PDCT-L was prepared by organic solvent injection method. Transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic light scattering were employed to study the physicochemical parameters of FA-PDCT-L. The inhibitory effects of docetaxel injection (DCT-I), non-modified DCT liposomes (DCT-L) and FA-PDCT-L on the growth of MCF-7 and A-549 cells at different incubation times were detected by CCK-8 assay; and the hemolytic test was employed in vitro. Tumor mice were randomized into 4 groups: DCT-I, DCT-L, FA-PDCT-L and control group (normal saline), and given drugs at 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) through tail vein. The tumor volume, mice weight, inhibition rate of tumor and life span were measured at the end of experiments. The IC50 of the FA-PDCT-L for MCF-7 and A549 cell lines were significantly lower than that of DCT-I and DCT-L, without hemolysis reaction observed. Compared with control group, the weights of tumor in DCT-I, DCT-L and FA-PDCT-L were decreased, especially for FA-PDCT-L, with inhibitory rates at 79.03 % (P DCT-I and DCT-L. In conclusion, FA-PDCT-L shows a good anti-tumor activity, indicating that it is potential carriers for DCT in the treatment of tumor.

  3. The Effects of Surface-Induced Loads on Forearm Muscle Activity During Steering a Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder C.; Soylu, Abdullah R.

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  4. The effects of precision demands during a low intensity pinching task on muscle activation and load sharing of the fingers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Looze, M.P. de; Veeger, D.; Douwes, M.; Groenesteijn, L.; Korte, E. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2003-01-01

    High precision demands in manual tasks can be expected to cause more selective use of a part of the muscular synergy involved. To test this expectation, load sharing of the index finger and middle finger was investigated during a pinching task. Myoelectric activation of lower arm and neck-shoulder m

  5. Application of Model Predictive Control for Active Load Management in a Distributed Power System with High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an experimental platform (SYSLAB) for the research on advanced control and power system communication in distributed power systems and one of its components-an intelligent office building (PowerFlexHouse), which is used to investigate the technical potential for active load...

  6. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.0

  7. Capabilities and applications of a computer program system for dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes with active controls /DYLOFLEX/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B., III; Goetz, R. C.; Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates the capabilities of the DYLOFLEX Computer Program System. DYLOFLEX is an integrated system of computer programs for calculating dynamic loads of flexible airplanes with active control systems. A brief discussion of the engineering formulation for each of the nine DYLOFLEX programs is described. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by the analyses of two example configurations.

  8. Preparation and Antifungal Activity of Spray-Dried Amphotericin B-loaded Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Faezizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Amphotericin B (AmB which is an appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of mycosis has many toxic effects including nephrotoxicity. Recently preparation of a new drug loaded nanoparticles for the reduction of toxicity and increase in the effectiveness of AmB has been reported. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the spray-dried AmB-loaded nanospheres. Methods: AmB-loaded nanospheres was prepared by means of nanoprecipitation method. The spray-dried nanospheres was prepared by using aerosil and AmB entrapment efficacy was measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AmB-loaded nanospheres against Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 was determined by using microdilution method and its in vitro haemolytic effect and antifungal efficacy on infected rabbits was also analyzed. Results: The entrapment efficacy for AmB loaded nanospheres was 65.2% ± 3. The MIC of AmB-loaded nanospheres against C. albicans compared to the free antibiotic was lower significantly. Also, the AmB-loaded nanospheres found to be 9.5 times less toxic than free AmB on human red blood cells. In vivo testing indicated that AmB-loaded nanospheres have a stronger protective effect against candidiasis compared to the free AmB. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that prepared spray-dried AmB-loaded nanospheres would be a good choice for the treatment of mycosis because of low toxicity and high stability and effectiveness.

  9. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4He, 3He, 3H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  10. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  11. Coping with Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a cold-active endo-β-1,4-d-xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a cold-active endo-β-1,4-d-xylanase is described. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. Endo-β-1,4-d-xylanases are used in a multitude of industrial applications. Native crystals of a cold-adapted xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 8 were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.6, b = 110.8, c = 150.2 Å at 100 K, and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, with a VM of 2.07 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to a solvent content of ∼40%

  13. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE-INDUCED LOADS ON FOREARM MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING STEERING A BICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB and Mountain Bike (MTB are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction. During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider

  14. Dynamic loads by a blowdown incident DAISY-code of RPV-internals and primary loops of a PWR for the 0.1A-leck in the cold leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the investigations of the dynamic loads for the RPV-internals and the primary loops of a pressurized water reactor with the fluid-structure code DAISY are documented for the case of a blowdown accident. For the first time the complete primary circuit of a PWR is modelled in a coupled code with regard to the fluid-structure interaction of the reactor internals with the surrounding water. In the performed calculations the consequences of a 0.1 A-leck, corresponding to the RSK-recommendations /RSK 81/, are investigated for the structures of the primary circuit and the RPV internals. After the exposition of the problems the scope of the work and the special problems are discussed. The applied computer technique for the fluid and structural part as well the coupling interface is explained. The model for the fluiddynamic part includes the four loops with the steamgenerators, the pumps and the pressure vessel with specific attention to a realistic modelling of the downcomer region. The structural model comprehends the RPV internals with particular emphasis on the core barrel. The required initial and boundary conditions and their realization is extensively discussed. The results of the different cases of initial and boundary conditions are presented and compared on diagrams. Finally the results are assessed and the influences of the simplifications and the assumptions are reviewed. The most important finding of this investigation is the fact that as consequence of a postulated 0.1 A-leak in the cold leg of a pressurized water reactor there is no risk for the structural integrity of all RPV internals and all components of the loops. (orig.)

  15. Analysis on Load-Carrying Capacity of New Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Steel Roof Truss%新型冷弯薄壁型钢屋架结构承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 李元齐; 沈祖炎

    2009-01-01

    基于已完成的G550冷弯薄壁型钢屋架结构承载力试验,采用通用有限元软件ANSYS,建立考虑材料和几何非线性的分析模型.分析结构的特征值屈曲和非线性屈曲承载能力,通过对比试验数据结果,研究屋架结构的合理分析模式.结果表明,屋架结构的破坏模式为上弦杆的整体弯扭屈曲,与试验观测到的现象一致,极限承载力和试验结果非常接近.研究表明,有限元分析模型设计合理,节点处自由度耦合的手段能模拟自攻螺钉连接的受力情况.%Based on the experiments of G550 cold-formed thin-walled steel roof truss structures,an analysis model considering geometry and material non-linearity is established using general FEM software ANSYS.Both eigenvalue buckling and non-linear stability analysis of this structure are performed,a reasonable analysis model for roof truss structure is studied by comparing with test data The results showed that the failure mode of roof truss is flexual-torsional buckling of top chord members,which accords with the phenomena observed during test,the ultimate load-bearing capacity is also very close to test data.The study demonstrates that the FEM analysis model is rational,the measure of coupling nodes' degree of freedom can simulate force state of self-taping screw connections.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure DBD Cold Plasma for Preparation of High Active Au/P25 Catalysts for Low-Temperature CO Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lanbo; Zhan, Zhibin; Zhang, Xiuling; Qi, Bin; Xu, Weijie

    2016-05-01

    Cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure was adopted for preparation of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 supported Au catalysts (Au/P25-P) with the assistance of the deposition-precipitation procedure. The influences of the plasma reduction time and calcination on the performance of the Au/P25-P catalysts were investigated. CO oxidation was performed to investigate the catalytic activity of the Au/P25 catalysts. The results show that DBD cold plasma for the fabrication of Au/P25-P catalysts is a fast process, and Au/P25-P (4 min) exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity due to the complete reduction of Au compounds and less consumption of oxygen vacancies. In order to form more oxygen vacancies active species, Au/P25-P was calcined to obtain Au/P25-PC catalysts. Interestingly, Au/P25-PC exhibited the highest activity for CO oxidation among the Au/P25 samples. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the smaller size and high distribution of Au nanoparticles are the mean reasons for a high performance of Au/P25-PC. Atmospheric-pressure DBD cold plasma was proved to be of great efficiency in preparing high performance supported Au catalysts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505019, 21173028), the Science and Technology Research Project of Liaoning Provincial Education Department (No. L2013464), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Doctor of Liaoning Province (No. 20131004), and the Dalian Jinzhou New District Science and Technology Plan Project (No. KJCX-ZTPY-2014-0001)

  17. SCIENCES IN COLD AND ARID REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Scope Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, an international Engiish-language journal, is devoted to publishing the latest research achievements on the process and the pattern of Earth surface system in cold and arid regions. Researches in cold regions 1) emphasize particularly on the cold-region-characterized physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions, and on the response of Cryosphere to Global change and Human activities as well as its effect to environment and the acclimatizable

  18. Experimental modes of recovery loading for the first stage of recovery after intense impellent activity in the modern pentathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremenko A.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of training activity for sensitivity restoration cardio respiratory systems of the qualified athletes in modern pentathlon are presented. More high degree of activation and optimization of reactions of the cardio respiratory system is rotined. Kinetics and stability of reactions of frequency of heart-throbs and pulmonary ventilation was increased. Decline of «drift» of frequency of heart-throbs in the conditions of the standard loadings of middle intensity testify to the decline of tension of functions, optimization of activity of the cardio respiratory system.

  19. Active control of tiltrotor blade in-plane loads during maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David G.; Ham, Norman D.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of one/rev rotor aerodynamic loads which arise in tiltrotor aircraft during airplane-mode high speed pull-up and push-over maneuvers is examined using a coupled rotor/fuselage dynamic simulation. A modified eigenstructure assignment technique is used to design a controller which alleviates the in-plane loads during high pitch rate maneuvers. The controller utilizes rotor cyclic pitch inputs to restructure the aircraft short period and phugoid responses in order to achieve the coupling between pitch rate and rotor flapping responses which minimizes the rotor aerodynamic loading. Realistic time delays in the feedback path are considered during the controller design. Stability robustness in the presence of high frequency modeling errors is ensured through the use of singular value analysis.

  20. Muscle activation strategies during strength training with heavy loading versus repetitions to failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2012-01-01

    strategies with electromyography during heavy repetitions versus repetitions to failure with lighter resistance. 15 healthy untrained females performed a set with heavy loading (3 Repetition maximum) and a set of repetitions to failure with lower resistance (∼15 RM) during lateral raise with elastic tubing....... Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and median power frequency (MPF) of specific shoulder and neck muscles was analysed and the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading immediately after each set of exercise. During the failure set normalized EMG was significantly lower during the first repetition...

  1. In vitro and in vivo activities of ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with different surface charges against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Amir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Different studies have shown that entrapment of antibiotics into liposomes could increase their anti-Pseudomonas activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare ticarcillin loaded-nanoliposomes with variable surface charges and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248. Methods Ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Ticarcillin encapsulation efficacies for different formulations were measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ticarcillin nanoliposomal forms against strain ATCC 29248 were determined by broth dilution method. The killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exposed to various concentrations of ticarcillin in free and nanoliposomal forms were analyzed. Ultimately, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of nanoliposomes in burned mice skin infected with strain ATCC 29248 was investigated. Results The encapsulation efficacies for ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were significantly higher (76% ± 0.17 than those of neutral (55% ± 0.14 and anionic (43% ± 0.14 nanoliposomes. The MIC of free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of ticarcillin against ATCC 29248 were to 24, 3, 6 and 48 mg/L, respectively. The killing rates of ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of free and other drug formulations. Treatment by ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 60 and 20% survival rates, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggested that cationic ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes because of high effectiveness would be a good choice to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  2. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng;

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation in...... stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  3. Hydrogen content in doped and undoped BaPrO3 and BaCeO3 by cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Camille Y.; WU, Jian; Li, Liping; Haile, Sossina M.

    2005-01-01

    Proton uptake in undoped and Y-doped BaPrO3 has been measured by cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis, and compared to the proton uptake in Gd-doped BaCeO3, as determined by the same technique. The conventional proton incorporation model of perovskites in which oxygen ion vacancies, generated by the introduction of the trivalent dopant onto the tetravalent perovskite site, are filled with hydroxyl groups upon exposure of the sample to H2O containing atmospheres, predicts that the pro...

  4. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, Marco J M; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe H K; van der Woude, Luc H V; Veeger, Dirk Jan H E J; van der Beek, Allard J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the i

  5. Mechanical loading of the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Kingma, I.; Dieen, van J.H.; Vries, de W.K.H.; Woude, van der L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical load on the low back and shoulders during pushing and pulling in combination with three task constraints: the use of one or two hands, three cart weights, and two handle heights. The second objective was to explore the relation between the i

  6. 77 FR 28530 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS) on the Cirrus Model SR 22 (serial numbers 0002-2333, 2335-2419... Sheet A00009CH (Serial Numbers (S/Ns) 0002 through 2333, 2335 through 2419, and 2421 through 2437)...

  7. Kettlebell swing, snatch, and bottoms-up carry: back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Marshall, Leigh W

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to quantify spine loading during different kettlebell swings and carries. No previously published studies of tissue loads during kettlebell exercises could be found. Given the popularity of kettlebells, this study was designed to provide an insight into the resulting joint loads. Seven male subjects participated in this investigation. In addition, a single case study of the kettlebell swing was performed on an accomplished kettlebell master. Electromyography, ground reaction forces (GRFs), and 3D kinematic data were recorded during exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell. These variables were input into an anatomically detailed biomechanical model that used normalized muscle activation; GRF; and spine, hip, and knee motion to calculate spine compression and shear loads. It was found that kettlebell swings create a hip-hinge squat pattern characterized by rapid muscle activation-relaxation cycles of substantial magnitudes (∼50% of a maximal voluntary contraction [MVC] for the low back extensors and 80% MVC for the gluteal muscles with a 16-kg kettlebell) resulting in about 3,200 N of low back compression. Abdominal muscular pulses together with the muscle bracing associated with carries create kettlebell-specific training opportunities. Some unique loading patterns discovered during the kettlebell swing included the posterior shear of the L4 vertebra on L5, which is opposite in polarity to a traditional lift. Thus, quantitative analysis provides an insight into why many individuals credit kettlebell swings with restoring and enhancing back health and function, although a few find that they irritate tissues. PMID:21997449

  8. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Valicherla, Guru R.; Dave, Kandarp M.; Anees A. Syed; Mohammed Riyazuddin; Gupta, Anand P.; Akhilesh Singh; Wahajuddin,; Kalyan Mitra; Dipak Datta; Gayen, Jiaur R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking stud...

  9. Preparation and antibacterial activity of titanium nanotubes loaded with Ag nanoparticles in the dark and under the UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chanjuan; Feng, Bo, E-mail: fengbo@swjtu.edu.cn; Li, Yiting; Tan, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Highly ordered anatase-type titanium nanotubes (TNTs) arrays were prepared on the surface of titanium by anodization and subsequently heat treatment at 450 °C for 5 h. Three different diameters of TNTs (50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm) were fabricated via the voltage changed. Then Ag was loaded on these TNTs through a photo-reduction method of AgNO{sub 3} solution. Ag particles with the size of approximately 10 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of TNTs. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and contact angle test. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activities of Ag-loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs-Ag) were evaluated through antibacterial experiment against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under the UV light (λ = 365 nm) irradiation respectively. The results indicated that under the UV light TNTs-Ag had higher antibacterial activities to the two bacteria than TNTs, though the later also showed antibacterial ability. While in the dark environment, the loading of Ag nanoparticles largely enhanced the antibacterial activities of the titanium nanotubes. In addition, the antibacterial efficiencies of all samples increased with increase of nanotube diameters both in the dark and under the UV light. Therefore, TNTs loaded with Ag nanoparticles are expected to be well suited for endo-prosthetic applications due to their excellent antibacterial activities in the dark. And their antibacterial efficiencies can be controlled by adjusting diameters of TNTs, distribution and size of Ag nanoparticles.

  10. Aspects on the cytokine load in trauma with special reference to blood components and local versus systemic cytokine activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansson, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    ASPECTS ON THE CYTOKINE LOAD IN TRAUMA with special reference to BLOOD COMPONENTS and LOCAL VERSUS SYSTEMIC CYTOKINE ACTIVITY by Marianne Kristiansson, M.D. Dissertation from the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Huddinge University Hospital Karolinska Institute, Stockholm and Department of Clinical Immunology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden Cytokines and their inhibitors are thought to be involved in many of the pathophysiologi...

  11. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a cold-active GDSL-esterase of a Pseudomonas sp. S9 isolated from Spitsbergen island soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicka, Monika; Wanarska, Marta; Krajewska, Ewelina; Pawlak-Szukalska, Anna; Kur, Józef; Cieśliński, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    An estS9 gene, encoding an esterase of the psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. S9 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced sequence revealed a protein of 636 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 69 kDa. Further amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the EstS9 enzyme contained a G-D-S-L motif centered at a catalytic serine, an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal autotransporter domain. Two recombinant E. coli strains for production of EstS9N (a two domain enzyme) and EstS9Δ (a one domain enzyme) proteins were constructed, respectively. Both recombinant proteins were successfully produced as inclusion bodies and then purified under denaturing conditions. However, because of the low enzymatic activity of the refolded EstS9Δ protein, only the EstS9N protein was further characterized. The purified and refolded EstS9N protein was active towards short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C8), with optimal activity for the butyrate (C4) ester. With p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at 35°C and pH 9.0. Additionally, the EstS9N esterase retained ~90% of its activity from 25-40°C and ~40% of its activity at 10°C. Moreover, analysis of its kinetic parameters (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate determined at 15°C and 25°C confirmed that the EstS9 enzyme is cold-adapted. To the best of our knowledge, EstS9 is the third characterized cold-active GDSL-esterase and the first one confirmed to contain an autotransporter domain characteristic for enzymes secreted by the type V secretion system.

  12. In vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded nanoemulsion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Mayson H., E-mail: mhalkhatib@kau.edu.sa; AlBishi, Hayat M. [College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Biochemistry (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used to treat several cancer diseases. However, it has several dose limitation aspects because of its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and cytotoxicity. In this study, five nanoemulsion (NE) formulations, containing soya phosphatidylcholine/polyoxyethylenglycerol trihydroxy-stearate 40 (EU)/sodium oleate as surfactant, cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.22), were produced. The NE droplets morphologies of the entire blank and DOX-loaded formulations, revealed by the transmission electron microscope, were spherical. The droplet sizes of blank NEs, obtained between 2.9 and 6.4 nm, decreased significantly with the increase in the ratio of surfactant-to-oil, whereas the droplets sizes of DOX-loaded NE formulations were significantly higher and found in the range of 7.7-15.9 nm. The evaluation for both blank and DOX-loaded NE formulations proved that the NE carrier had improved the DOX efficacy and reduced its cytotoxicity. It showed that the cell growth inhibition of the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have exceeded the commercial DOX by a factor of 1.7 with increased apoptosis activity and minimal cytotoxicity against the normal human foreskin cells (HFS). In contrast, commercial DOX was found to exhibit a significant non-selective toxicity against both MCF-7 and HFS cells. In conclusion, we have developed DOX-loaded NE formulations which selectively and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells and increased apoptosis.

  13. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  14. In vitro evaluation of antitumor activity of doxorubicin-loaded nanoemulsion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used to treat several cancer diseases. However, it has several dose limitation aspects because of its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and cytotoxicity. In this study, five nanoemulsion (NE) formulations, containing soya phosphatidylcholine/polyoxyethylenglycerol trihydroxy-stearate 40 (EU)/sodium oleate as surfactant, cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.22), were produced. The NE droplets morphologies of the entire blank and DOX-loaded formulations, revealed by the transmission electron microscope, were spherical. The droplet sizes of blank NEs, obtained between 2.9 and 6.4 nm, decreased significantly with the increase in the ratio of surfactant-to-oil, whereas the droplets sizes of DOX-loaded NE formulations were significantly higher and found in the range of 7.7–15.9 nm. The evaluation for both blank and DOX-loaded NE formulations proved that the NE carrier had improved the DOX efficacy and reduced its cytotoxicity. It showed that the cell growth inhibition of the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have exceeded the commercial DOX by a factor of 1.7 with increased apoptosis activity and minimal cytotoxicity against the normal human foreskin cells (HFS). In contrast, commercial DOX was found to exhibit a significant non-selective toxicity against both MCF-7 and HFS cells. In conclusion, we have developed DOX-loaded NE formulations which selectively and significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells and increased apoptosis.

  15. Assessment of Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc, from the Commissioning of Sector 7-8

    CERN Document Server

    Maglioni, C

    2008-01-01

    This note presents first estimates of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, evaluated experimentally during the commissioning of sector 7-8 in April 2007. Heat loads to the thermal shielding are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E, while heat loads to the 1.9K level of the cold masses are estimated from the internal energy balance during a natural warm-up of the sector in the absence of active cooling. A comparison of the measured heat loads with the budgeted heat loads is then presented and discussed.

  16. CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF HYDROQUINONE WITH Co(Ⅱ)/ACTIVE CARBON CATALYST LOADED IN STATIC BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; YAN Yongsheng; XU Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts based on Co(Ⅱ) supported on active carbon were prepared and loaded in static bed.The hydroquinone wouid be degraded completely after treated by Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation method with Co(Ⅱ)/active carbon catalyst.After activate treatment, the active carbon was immerged in cobaltoas nitrate solution, then put into a drying oven, Co(Ⅱ) could be loaded on the micro-surface of carbon.Taking the static bed as the equipment, the absorption of active carbon and catalysis of Co(Ⅱ) was used to reduce activation energy of hydroquinone.Thus hydroquinone could be drastically degraded and the effluent can be drained under the standard.Referring to Fenton reaction mechanism, experiment had been done to study the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidation mechanism of Co(Ⅱ).The degradation rate of hydroquinone effluent could be achieved to 92% when treated in four columns at H2O2 concentration 10%, reaction temperature 40℃, pH 5 and reaction time 2.5h.

  17. CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF HYDROQUINONE WITH Co(II)/ACTIVE CARBON CATALYST LOADED IN STATIC BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts based on Co(II) supported on active carbon were prepared and loaded in static bed. The hydroquinone would be degraded completely after treated by Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation method with Co(II)/active carbon catalyst. After activate treatment, the active carbon was immerged in cobaltous nitrate solution, then put into a drying oven, Co(II) could be loaded on the micro-surface of carbon. Taking the static bed as the equipment, the absorption of active carbon and catalysis of Co(II) was used to reduce activation energy of hydroquinone. Thus hydroquinone could be drastically degraded and the effluent can be drained under the standard. Referring to Fenton reaction mechanism, experiment had been done to study the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidation mechanism of Co(II). The degradation rate of hydroquinone effluent could be achieved to 92% when treated in four columns at H2O2 concentration 10%, reaction temperature 40℃ , pH 5 and reaction time 2.5h.

  18. Characterisation of the nematode community of a low-activity cold seep in the recently ice-shelf free Larsen B area, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent climate-induced ice-shelf disintegration in the Larsen A (1995 and B (2002 areas along the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula formed a unique opportunity to assess sub-ice-shelf benthic community structure and led to the discovery of unexplored habitats, including a low-activity methane seep beneath the former Larsen B ice shelf. Since both limited particle sedimentation under previously permanent ice coverage and reduced cold-seep activity are likely to influence benthic meiofauna communities, we characterised the nematode assemblage of this low-activity cold seep and compared it with other, now seasonally ice-free, Larsen A and B stations and other Antarctic shelf areas (Weddell Sea and Drake Passage, as well as cold-seep ecosystems world-wide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nematode community at the Larsen B seep site differed significantly from other Antarctic sites in terms of dominant genera, diversity and abundance. Densities in the seep samples were high (>2000 individuals per 10 cm(2 and showed below-surface maxima at a sediment depth of 2-3 cm in three out of four replicates. All samples were dominated by one species of the family Monhysteridae, which was identified as a Halomonhystera species that comprised between 80 and 86% of the total community. The combination of high densities, deeper density maxima and dominance of one species is shared by many cold-seep ecosystems world-wide and suggested a possible dependence upon a chemosynthetic food source. Yet stable (13C isotopic signals (ranging between -21.97±0.86‰ and -24.85±1.89‰ were indicative of a phytoplankton-derived food source. CONCLUSION: The recent ice-shelf collapse and enhanced food input from surface phytoplankton blooms were responsible for the shift from oligotrophic pre-collapse conditions to a phytodetritus-based community with high densities and low diversity. The parthenogenetic reproduction of the highly dominant Halomonhystera species is rather unusual

  19. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity.

  20. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF COLD STORAGE USING ENERGYPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHISH S. UTAGE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the study of cold storage refrigeration plant and simulation of refrigeration system to evaluate the cooling load and annual energy consumption for cold storage applications. The specific temperature and humidity range is required for properly storing any particular food and thus facilitates its preservation for a longer duration of time. The present cold storage capacity in India is grossly inadequate and with a positive future outlook for the agro, food processing, retail and pharmaceutical industry there is urgent need to scale up and develop integrated cold chain facilities across the country. In this view, a simple methodology is presented to obtain the cooling load and energy consumption for a cold storage using an energy simulation tool “EnergyPlus”. Also the attempt has been made to minimize energy consumption of cold store by replacing the Expanded Polystyrene (EPS with Poly-urethane Foam (PUF insulation. The methodology has been validated against the actual data obtained from Penguin cold storage situated in Pune, India. It is found from the simulation results that the average reduction of cooling load for summer design day is 9.78 % while for winter design day it is 9.26 %, when 150 mm thick insulation of EPS is replaced by 100 mm PUF insulation. Due to this replacement the annual cooling energy is saved by Rs. 63875 with pay-back period of 6.8 years.

  1. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  2. Biomechanical effects of sitting with adjustable ischial and lumbar support on occupational low back pain: evaluation of sitting load and back muscle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to standing posture, sitting decreases lumbar lordosis, increases low back muscle activity, disc pressure, and pressure on the ischium, which are associated with occupational LBP. A sitting device that reduces spinal load and low back muscle activities may help increase sitting comfort and reduce LBP risk. The objective of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effect of sitting with a reduced ischial support and an enhanced lumbar support (Off-Loading on load, interface pressure and muscle activities. Methods A laboratory test in low back pain (LBP and asymptomatic subjects was designed to test the biomechanical effect of using the Off-Loading sitting posture. The load and interface pressure on seat and the backrest, and back muscle activities associated with usual and this Off-Loading posture were recorded and compared between the two postures. Results Compared with Normal (sitting upright with full support of the seat and flat backrest posture, sitting in Off-Loading posture significantly shifted the center of the force and the peak pressure on the seat anteriorly towards the thighs. It also significantly decreased the contact area on the seat and increased that on the backrest. It decreased the lumbar muscle activities significantly. These effects are similar in individuals with and without LBP. Conclusion Sitting with reduced ischial support and enhanced lumbar support resulted in reduced sitting load on the lumbar spine and reduced the lumbar muscular activity, which may potentially reduce sitting-related LBP.

  3. Experimental analysis of flexibility change with different levels of power reduction by demand response activation on thermostat controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie;

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the flexibility available with thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power system services by demand response (DR) activation. Although the DR activation on TCLs can provide power system ancillary services, it is important to know how long such services can...... be provided for when different levels of power reduction are imposed. The flexibility change with different levels of power reduction is tested experimentally with domestic fridges used by real customers with unknown user interaction. The investigation quantifies the flexibility of household fridges...

  4. The impact of phosphate loading activities on near marine environment: The Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of loading cargoes of phosphate ore into ships on the near marine environment at the Syrian coast has been evaluated. Results have shown a significant enhancement of 210Po, 210Pb and other natural radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210Po and 210Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq kg-1 respectively, while 210Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 mBql-1. In addition, comparable values of 210Po and 210Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) suggest that their use as indicators for phosphate pollution is not recommended. However, the effect of loading cargoes on Tartous port marine environment of Tartous was found to be mainly related to wind direction where radioactive air particulate are either being dispersed to land or sea. (author)

  5. An Innovative Design of a Microtab Deployment Mechanism for Active Aerodynamic Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chang Tsai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an innovative design of a microtab system for aerodynamic load control on horizontal-axis wind-turbine rotors. Microtabs are small devices located near the trailing edge of the rotor blades and enable a rapid increase or decrease of the lift force through deployment of the tabs on the pressure or suction side of the airfoil, respectively. The new system has been designed to replace an earlier linearly-actuated microtab mechanism whose performance was limited by space restrictions and stiction. The newly-designed microtab system is based on a four-bar linkage that overcomes the two drawbacks. Its improved kinematics allows for the tab height to increase from 1.0% to 1.7% of the airfoil chord when fully deployed, thereby making it more effective in terms of aerodynamic load control. Furthermore, the modified four-bar link mechanism provides a more robust and reliable mechanical structure.

  6. Chlorhexidine Salt-Loaded Polyurethane Orthodontic Chains: In Vitro Release and Antibacterial Activity Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Padois, Karine; Bertholle, Valérie; Pirot, Fabrice; Hyunh, Truc Thanh Ngoc; De Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo; Falson, Françoise; Sonvico, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of indwelling medical devices has enormously increased the interest in materials incorporating antibiotics and antimicrobial agents as a means to prevent dangerous device-related infections. Recently, chlorhexidine-loaded polyurethane has been proposed as a material suitable for the production of devices which are able to resist microbial contamination. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro release of chlorhexidine from new polymeric orthodontic chai...

  7. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The bactericidal properties of myristic acid and curcumin were revealed in a number of studies. However, whether curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions can be used to inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis, which causes nosocomial infections, has not been reported. Our aim was to develop curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions to inhibit S. epidermidis on the skin. The interfacial tension, size distribution, and viscosity data of the microemulsions were characterized to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the curcumin microemulsions. Curcumin distribution in neonate pig skin was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dermal curcumin accumulation (326 µg/g skin) and transdermal curcumin penetration (87 µg/cm(2)/d) were obtained with the microemulsions developed herein. Curcumin at the concentration of 0.86 µg/mL in the myristic acid microemulsion could inhibit 50% of the bacterial growth, which was 12 times more effective than curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cocktail combination of myristic acid and curcumin in the microemulsion carrier synergistically inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis. The results we obtained highlight the potential of using curcumin-loaded microemulsions as an alternative treatment for S. epidermidis-associated diseases and acne vulgaris. PMID:22976319

  9. In vitro anti-telomerase activity of novel lycopene-loaded nanospheres in the human leukemia cell line K562

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Amir; Faezizadeh, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lycopene, a plant carotenoid, has potent effects against the various types of cancer cells. To date, the effect of lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms on the telomerase activity in human leukemia cell line K562 have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to prepare a novel lycopene-loaded nanosphere and compare its anti-telomearse activity in K562 cell line with those of free lycopene. Materials and Methods: The lycopene-loaded nanospheres were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The lycopene entrapment efficacy was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The anti-proliferation effect of the lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms in the different times (0-72 h) and the different doses (0-100 μg/ml) on K562 cell line was studied using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The changes of telomerase activity, following treatment with the lycopene in the free and encapsulated forms, were detected using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The entrapment efficacy of lycopene was 78.5% ± 2. Treatment of the K562 cell line with lycopene, in particular in encapsulated form, resulted in a significant inhibition of the cell growth and increasing of percentage of apoptotic cells. It has also been observed that the telomerase activity in the lycopene-loaded nanospheres-treated cells was significantly inhibited in a dose and time-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our data suggest a novel mechanism in the anti-cancer activity of the lycopene, in particular in encapsulated form, and could be provided a basis for the future development of anti-telomerase therapies. PMID:24914298

  10. Cold symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  11. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO2/Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO2/Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO2/Ag, TiO2/rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO2/Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO2/Ag, 93% for TiO2/rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  12. Position of the pelvis, lower extremities load and the arch of the feet in young adults who are physically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body posture is an individual motion habit. It is variable and depends on the gender, age, structure of the body but also on mental and physical state. Although it is difficult to formulate a universal definition of correct body posture, the opinion that its elementary feature is symmetry is beyond any doubt. Such symmetry is related to the position of particular anatomical points and effects of static and dynamic forces. Aim of the research: To assess the relations between the pelvis position in the frontal plane, the static load on the lower limbs and architecture of the feet. The following features were analysed in a group of young, healthy and particularly physically active women and men: the frequency of asymmetry related to pelvis position, the load on the lower limbs related to body weight and foot architecture. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 100 students of physical education. To assess the position of the pelvis a palpable-visual method was used. Clarke’s method was applied to characterize the foot architecture determined by the position of standing with one leg on the CQ Elektronik podoscope. The static load on the lower limbs was assessed using the stabilographic platform EMILDUE from Technomex. Results : Collected data and observations show frequent asymmetric changes of pelvis position in the frontal plane and incorrect balance of the body in the standing position. The change of static load on the lower limbs influences the longitudinal architecture of the feet and this influence is statistically significant. Increased asymmetry of the pelvis in the frontal plane is related to profound disorder of body balance. Conclusions : Asymmetric position of the pelvis is associated with asymmetric arching of the feet and asymmetric body weight distribution. Full symmetric position of the pelvis is rare even among young people who are physically active.

  13. Cold seep epifaunal communities on the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand: composition, succession, and vulnerability to human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Bowden

    Full Text Available Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna.

  14. Cold Seep Epifaunal Communities on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand: Composition, Succession, and Vulnerability to Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Baco, Amy R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Smith, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna. PMID:24204691

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Argon Plasma against 78 Genetically Different (mecA, luk-P, agr or Capsular Polysaccharide Type) Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Rutger; Lührman, Anne; Holtfreter, Silva; Kolata, Julia; Radke, Dörte; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma showed varying effects against mecA+ or mecA-Staphylococcus aureus strains. This observation may have important clinical and epidemiological implications. Here, the antibacterial activity of argon plasma was investigated against 78 genetically different S. aureus strains, stratified by mecA, luk-P, agr1-4, or the cell wall capsule polysaccharide types 5 and 8. kINPen09® served as the plasma source for all experiments. On agar plates, mecA+luk-P-S. aureus strains showed a decreased susceptibility against plasma compared to other S. aureus strains. This study underlines the high complexity of microbial defence against antimicrobial treatment and confirms a previously reported strain-dependent susceptibility of S. aureus to plasma treatment.

  16. Cold confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  17. Cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles: comparative pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi HS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardeep S Oberoi,1 Natalia V Nukolova,1,2 Frederic C Laquer,3 Larisa Y Poluektova,4 Jiangeng Huang,1 Yazen Alnouti,1 Masanao Yokohira,5 Lora L Arnold,5 Alexander V Kabanov,1,2 Samuel M Cohen,5 Tatiana K Bronich,1,21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 4Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores are shown here to improve the therapeutic performance of the platinum-containing anticancer compound cisplatin. Biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity of cisplatin-loaded core cross-linked micelles of poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(methacrylic acid were evaluated in a mouse ovarian cancer xenograft model. Cisplatin-loaded micelles demonstrated prolonged blood circulation, increased tumor accumulation, and reduced renal exposure. Improved antitumor response relative to free drug was seen in a mouse model. Toxicity studies with cisplatin-loaded micelles indicate a significantly improved safety profile and lack of renal abnormalities typical of free cisplatin treatment. Overall, the study supports the fundamental possibility of improving the potential of platinum therapy using polymer micelle-based drug delivery.Keywords: cross-linked micelle, cisplatin, ovarian cancer, block ionomer complex, drug delivery

  18. Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy. PMID:22149075

  20. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  1. 无加劲冷成型方钢管-H形钢梁翼缘板焊接节点受拉性能试验研究%Experimental study on load carrying capacity of welded joint assemblage between no-diaphragm cold-formed rectangular tube column and flange plate of H-shaped beam under statically tensile load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以一; 张梁; 王拓

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of the no-diaphragm joint connecting the cold-formed tube column and the H-shaped beam, 11 specimens consisting of flange plate of H-shaped beams that were welded to rectangular columns at flange plates were tested under statically tensile load considering the effect of molding types, location of seams of tube column, the restriction of flange plates in the orthogonal direction and the dimension parameters of tubes and flange plates.After the test some conclusions can be drawn that the load carrying capacity and stiffness of cold formed section specimens are higher than the welded section one.The location of tube seams has almost no effect on the capacity and initial stiffness of the connection.The restraints in the orthogonal direction makes the initial stiffness of specimens a little higher.When the end of flange plate is hunched, the average stress of the flange plate will be higher.The most important parameters which affect the capacity of joints are the ratio of width to thickness of tube section, the ratio of width of flange plate to that of tube and the ratio of flange plate thickness to the tube thickness.%为研究无加劲方钢管柱-H形钢梁节点的特性,对粱翼缘板与柱段焊接组成的节点进行试验研究,分析截面形成方式、钢管成型焊缝位置、与平面受力正交方向上的梁翼缘板约束作用、梁翼缘板端部构造形式以及钢管与梁翼缘板几何参数对连接的力学性能的影响.试验设了3组11个试件,得到单调拉伸荷载作用下各试件的开裂荷载、极限荷载与各部分变形等力学指标.试验研究表明:冷成型钢管承载力和初始刚度较焊接组合截面试件有所提高;钢管成型焊缝的位置对节点受拉承载力及初始刚度没有影响;正交方向梁翼缘板的约束对节点初始刚度略有提高作用;梁翼缘板加宽的连接方式可以提高梁翼缘板的平均应力;影响节点受力性能的主要

  2. Acute cold exposure-induced down-regulation of CIDEA, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A, in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue by sympathetically activated beta3-adrenoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2009-09-18

    The thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) largely depends on the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is up-regulated by environmental alterations such as cold. Recently, CIDEA (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A) has also been shown to be expressed at high levels in the mitochondria of BAT. Here we examined the effect of cold on the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in interscapular BAT of conscious rats with regard to the sympathetic nervous system. Cold exposure (4 degrees C for 3h) elevated the plasma norepinephrine level and increased norepinephrine turnover in BAT. Cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in BAT, accompanied by up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of UCP1. The cold exposure-induced changes of CIDEA and UCP1 were attenuated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with propranolol (a non-selective beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal) or SR59230A (a selective beta(3)-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal), respectively. These results suggest that acute cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of CIDEA in interscapular BAT by sympathetically activated beta(3)-adrenoreceptor-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTARIZATION OF PERINDOPRIL ERBUMINE LOADED ETHANOLIC LIPOSOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Goudanavar; Manjunatha; Doddayya Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the preparation of Perindopril erbumine ethosomes and study of effect of alcohol and phospholipid on transdermal delivery. Perindopril erbumine is an ACE inhibitor which slowly inhibits the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II, is being involved in the blood pressure regulation. Perindopril erbumine loaded ethanolic Liposomes were prepared by an hot - cold method using different concentrations of Alcohol and Soya lecithin in d...

  4. Effects of Shoe Heel Height on Loading and Muscle Activity for Trans-Tibial Amputees During Standing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiaohong; WANG Rencheng; Winson Lee

    2009-01-01

    This study accesses the effects of shoe heel heights on loading, muscle activity, and plantar foot pressure of trans-tibial amputees during standing. Five male subjects with unilateral trans-tibial amputation volunteered to participate in this study. Three pairs of shoes with zero, 20 mm, and 40 mm heel heights were used. The loading line of the prosthetic side, the plantar foot pressure, and the surface electromyography (EMG) of 10 muscles were simultaneously recorded. With increasing shoe heel heights during standing, the loading line of the prosthetic side shifted from the anterior to the posterior side of the knee center, the peak pressure was increased in the medial forefoot region, and the peak pressure was reduced in the heel region. The EMG of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius of the sound leg almost doubled and that of the rectus fomris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis of the prosthetic side increased to different extents with in-creasing heel heights from zero to 40 mm. These results show a high correlation with human physical be-havior. Changing of the heel heights for trans-tibial amputees during standing actually had similar effects to altering the prosthetic sagittal alignment. The results suggest that an alignment change is necessary to ac-commodate heel height changes and that prosthesis users should be cautious when choosing shoes.

  5. Regenerative potential and anti-bacterial activity of tetracycline loaded apatitic nanocarriers for the treatment of periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatment of periodontal infections includes mechanical debridement, administration of antibiotics and bone grafting. Oral administration of antibiotics results in undesirable side effects, while current modes of local administration are affected by problems concerning allergic response to the polymeric carrier agents. We have developed an osteoconductive drug delivery system composed of apatitic nanocarriers capable of providing sustained delivery of drugs in the periodontium. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocarriers of different Ca/P ratios were synthesized and characterized using the x-ray diffraction method, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the BET gas isotherm method. Loading and release studies performed with tetracycline showed a sustained release of up to 88% in phosphate buffered saline over a period of five days. Antibacterial activity studies showed that the tetracycline loaded CDHA (TC-CDHA) nanocarriers were effective against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The biocompatibility of the TC-CDHA nanocarriers was demonstrated using an alamar blue assay and further characterized by cell uptake studies. Interestingly, cell uptake of drug loaded CDHA also increased the cellular proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells. Hence, it can be concluded that the CDHA nanocarriers are ideal drug delivery agents and have bone regenerative potential for local periodontal applications. (paper)

  6. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  7. Linear, Mannitol-Based Poly(anhydride-esters) with High Ibuprofen Loading and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nicholas D; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2015-11-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as mannitol and xylitol, are biocompatible polyols that have been used to make highly cross-linked polyester elastomers and dendrimers for tissue engineering and drug delivery. However, research that utilizes the secondary hydroxyl groups as sites for pendant bioactive attachment and subsequent polymerization is limited. This work is the first report of a linear, completely biodegradable polymer with a sugar alcohol backbone and chemically incorporated pendant bioactives that exhibits sustained bioactive release and high bioactive loading (∼70%). With four pendant esters per repeat unit, this poly(anhydride-ester) has high loading and biodegrades into three biocompatible products: bioactive, sugar alcohol, and alkyl-based diacid. Ibuprofen serves as a representative bioactive, whereas mannitol is a representative polyol. Polymerization was achieved through reaction with (trimethylsilyl)ethoxyacetylene. Drug release via polymer degradation was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, a cytocompatibility study with fibroblast cells was performed to elucidate the polymer's suitability for in vivo use and a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) assay was performed on the degradation media to ensure that released ibuprofen retained its anti-inflammatory activity. This work enables the future development of novel, biodegradable polymers exhibiting two key features: (i) polymer backbones with easily modified pendant groups, such as targeting moieties, and (ii) high drug loading using a multitude of bioactive classes.

  8. Biochemical characterization and structural analysis of a new cold-active and salt-tolerant esterase from the marine bacterium Thalassospira sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santi, Concetta; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti S; Di Scala, Alessia; de Pascale, Donatella; Altermark, Bjørn; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2016-05-01

    A gene encoding an esterase, ThaEst2349, was identified in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Thalassospira sp. GB04J01. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 45 °C and the thermal stability displayed a retention of 75 % relative activity at 40 °C after 2 h. The optimal pH was 8.5 but the enzyme kept more than 75 % of its maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.5. ThaEst2349 also showed remarkable tolerance towards high concentrations of salt and it was active against short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters, displaying optimal activity with the acetate. The enzyme was tested for tolerance of organic solvents and the results are suggesting that it could function as an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications. The crystal structure of ThaEst2349 was determined to 1.69 Å revealing an asymmetric unit containing two chains, which also is the biological unit. The structure has a characteristic cap domain and a catalytic triad comprising Ser158, His285 and Asp255. To explain the cold-active nature of the enzyme, we compared it against thermophilic counterparts. Our hypothesis is that a high methionine content, less hydrogen bonds and less ion pairs render the enzyme more flexible at low temperatures. PMID:27016194

  9. Improved In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid Loaded in Cholesteryl Butyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Lima, Flávia Alves; Carneiro, Guilherme; Ramos Jonas Periera; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2016-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid, a hydrophobic drug, has become one of the most successful examples of differentiation agents used for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. On the other hand, histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as cholesteryl butyrate, present differentiating activity and.can potentiate action of drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent a promising alternative for administration of hydrophobic drugs such as ATRA. This study aimed to develop, characterize, and evaluate the cytotoxicity of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for leukemia treatment. The influence of in situ formation of an ion pairing between all-trans retinoic acid and lipophilic amines on the characteristics of the particles (size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency) was evaluated. Cholesteryl butyrate, a butyric acid donor, was used as a component of the lipid matrix. In vitro activity on cell viability and distribution of cell cycle phases were evaluated for HL-60, Jurkat, and THP-1 cell lines. The encapsulation efficiency of all-trans retinoic acid in cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles was significantly increased by the presence of the amine. Inhibition of cell viability by all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was more pronounced than the free drug. Analysis of the distribution of cell cycle phases also showed increased activity for all-trans retinoic acid-loaded cholesteryl butyrate-solid lipid nanoparticles, with a clear increase in subdiploid DNA content. The ion pair formation in SLN containing cholesteryl butyrate can be explored as a simple and inexpensive strategy to improve the efficacy and bioavail-ability of ATRA in the treatment of the cancer and metabolic diseases in which this retinoid plays an important role. PMID:27433579

  10. Invariant chain as a vehicle to load antigenic peptides on human MHC class I for cytotoxic T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Sébastien; Kumari, Shraddha; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Sand, Kine M K; Yang, Weiwen; Landsverk, Ole J B; Bakke, Oddmund; Olweus, Johanna; Gregers, Tone F

    2014-03-01

    Protective T-cell responses depend on efficient presentation of antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) and class II (MHCII) molecules. Invariant chain (Ii) serves as a chaperone for MHCII molecules and mediates trafficking to the endosomal pathway. The genetic exchange of the class II-associated Ii peptide (CLIP) with antigenic peptides has proven efficient for loading of MHCII and activation of specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we investigated if Ii could similarly activate human CD8(+) T cells when used as a vehicle for cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes. The results show that wild type Ii, and Ii in which CLIP was replaced by known CTL epitopes from the cancer targets MART-1 or CD20, coprecipitated with HLA-A*02:01 and mediated colocalization in the endosomal pathway. Furthermore, HLA-A*02:01-positive cells expressing CLIP-replaced Ii efficiently activated Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in a TAP- and proteasome-independent manner. Finally, dendritic cells transfected with mRNA encoding IiMART-1 or IiCD20 primed naïve CD8(+) T cells. The results show that Ii carrying antigenic peptides in the CLIP region can promote efficient presentation of the epitopes to CTLs independently of the classical MHCI peptide loading machinery, facilitating novel vaccination strategies against cancer.

  11. Potential of palm kernel activated carbon epoxy (PKAC-E composite as solid lubricant: Effect of load on friction and wear properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.W. Chua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of load on the friction and wear properties of palm kernel activated carbon epoxy (PKAC-E composite. The PKAC-E composite specimen was fabricated by hot compression molding method. Dry sliding test was performed by using a pin-on-disc tribometer at various load conditions with constant sliding speed and distance. The experimental results show that wear rate and friction coefficient of PKAC-E composite decreases with applied load. However, at higher load, friction coefficient increases slightly and remains almost invariant with applied load. In addition, some adhesive and abrasive wear types were identified on the worn surfaces. The main conclusion of this work is that PKAC-E composite show unique properties as solid lubricant at low load under unlubricated conditions.

  12. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  13. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating ERK and p38 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Na; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee

    2016-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a potent inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), upregulates the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP). The link between CIRP and EMT, however, remains unknown. To determine the role of CIRP in EMT, we performed CIRP knockdown and overexpression experiments in in vitro TGF-β1-induced EMT models. We found that CIRP overexpression promoted the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers after TGF-β1 treatment for EMT induction. It also promoted cell migration and invasion, key features of EMT. In contrast, CIRP knockdown inhibited the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers after TGF-β1 treatment for EMT induction. In addition, it also inhibited cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the RNA-recognition motif in CIRP is essential for the role of CIRP in EMT. At the downstream level, CIRP knockdown downregulated Snail, key transcriptional regulator of EMT, while CIRP overexpression upregulated it. We found out that the link between CIRP and Snail is mediated by ERK and p38 pathways. EMT is a critical component of carcinoma metastasis and invasion. As demonstrated in this study, the biological role of CIRP in EMT may explain why CIRP overexpression has been associated with a bad prognosis in cancer patients. PMID:27395339

  14. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  15. Study on the distribution of active centers in novel low Ti-loading MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑峰; 王立; 赵振荣; 王文钦; 陈涛

    2004-01-01

    Novel MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalysts prepared using a new one-pot ball milling method can effectively control the amounts of Ti-loading in the catalysts. Complex GPC data on polypropylene synthesized by these novel catalysts were analyzed using the method of fitting the molecular weight distribution (MWD) curves with a multiple Flory-Schulz function. It was found that multiple active centers exist in these novel catalysts. Detailed study of the effects of the Ti-loadings in the catalysts on the distribution of the active centers showed that the Ti-loadings in the novel MgCl2-supported Z-N catalysts might affect the proportion of each type of active centers; and might be the main factor responsible for the effect of the Ti-loadings on the microstructure, the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution width of the resultant polymer, the catalytic activity and polymerization kinetics.

  16. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Min, Booki; Choi, Ki Hong; Hong, Young June; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future.

  17. Cytotoxic macrophage-released tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as a killing mechanism for cancer cell death after cold plasma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims at studying the anticancer role of cold plasma-activated immune cells. The direct anti-cancer activity of plasma-activated immune cells against human solid cancers has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed the effect of plasma-treated RAW264.7 macrophages on cancer cell growth after co-culture. In particular, flow cytometer analysis revealed that plasma did not induce any cell death in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed that TNF-α released from plasma-activated macrophages acts as a tumour cell death inducer. In support of these findings, activated macrophages down-regulated the cell growth in solid cancer cell lines and induced cell death in vitro. Together our findings suggest plasma-induced reactive species recruit cytotoxic macrophages to release TNF-α, which blocks cancer cell growth and can have the potential to contribute to reducing tumour growth in vivo in the near future. (paper)

  18. GREENPATCH® - Cold Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    GreenPatch® is environmentally friendly cold asphalt that is a direct replacement for traditional cold patch in repairing asphalt pavements. This revolutionary breakthrough in the cold asphalt industry contains no petroleum based softeners such as diesel, toluene, kerosene, and naphthalene found in conventional cold asphalt that pose serious threats to human health and the environment.

  19. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity.

  20. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity. PMID:25829338

  1. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (Pcold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health. PMID:18381266

  2. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eAschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  3. Study on semi-active control of mega-sub controlled structure by MR damper subject to random wind loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xiangjun; Zhang Xun'an; Sheldon Cherry

    2008-01-01

    The recently proposed mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS), a new type of structure associated with the design and construction of super-tall buildings, has attracted the attention of designers for use in enhancing the control effectiveness in mega-fi'ame buildings. In this paper, a dynamic equation and method to assemble parameter matrixes for a mega-sub controlled structure under random wind loads is presented. Semi-active control using magnetorheological dampers for the MSCS under random wind loads is investigated, and is compared with a corresponding system without dampers. A parametric study of the relative stiffness ratio and relative mass ratio between the mega-frame and the substructures, as well as the additional column stiffness ratio that influences the response control effectiveness of the MSCS, is discussed. The studies reveal, for the first time, that different control mechanisms exist. The results indicate that the proposed structure employing semi-active control can offer an effective control mechanism. Guidelines for selecting parameters are provided based on the analytical study.

  4. Platinum nanocatalysts loaded on graphene oxide-dispersed carbon nanotubes with greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Li, Shuai; Si, Yanmei; Zhang, Ning; Sun, Zongzhao; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-07-21

    A powerful enzymatic mimetic has been fabricated by employing graphene oxide (GO) nanocolloids to disperse conductive carbon supports of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before and after the loading of Pt nanocatalysts. The resulting GOCNT-Pt nanocomposites could present improved aqueous dispersion stability and Pt spatial distribution. Unexpectedly, they could show greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities in water, as evidenced in the colorimetric and electrochemical investigations in comparison to some inorganic nanocatalysts commonly used. Moreover, it is found that the new enzyme mimetics could exhibit peroxidase-like catalysis activity comparable to natural enzymes; yet, they might circumvent some of their inherent problems in terms of catalysis efficiency, electron transfer, environmental stability, and cost effectiveness. Also, sandwiched electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully conducted using GOCNT-Pt as enzymatic tags. Such a fabrication avenue of noble metal nanocatalysts loaded on well-dispersed conductive carbon supports should be tailored for the design of different enzyme mimics promising the extensive catalysis applications in environmental, medical, industrial, and particularly aqueous biosensing fields.

  5. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. PMID:24433897

  6. Active modulation of visible light with graphene-loaded ultrathin metal plasmonic antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Renwen; Pruneri, Valerio; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2016-08-01

    Electro-optical modulation of visible and near-infrared light is important for a wide variety of applications, ranging from communications to sensing and smart windows. However, currently available approaches result in rather bulky devices, suffer from low integrability, and can hardly operate at the low power consumption levels and fast switching rates required by microelectronic drivers. Here we show that planar nanostructures patterned in ultrathin metal-graphene hybrid films sustain highly tunable plasmons in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Strong variations in the reflection and absorption of incident light take place when the plasmons are tuned on- and off-resonance with respect to externally incident light. As a result, a remarkable modulation depth (i.e., the maximum relative variation with/without graphene doping) exceeding 90% in transmission and even more dramatic in reflection (>600%) is predicted for graphene-loaded silver films of 1-5 nm thickness and currently attainable lateral dimensions. These new structures hold great potential for fast low-power electro-optical modulation.

  7. Active modulation of visible light with graphene-loaded ultrathin metal plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Renwen; Pruneri, Valerio; García de Abajo, F Javier

    2016-08-26

    Electro-optical modulation of visible and near-infrared light is important for a wide variety of applications, ranging from communications to sensing and smart windows. However, currently available approaches result in rather bulky devices, suffer from low integrability, and can hardly operate at the low power consumption levels and fast switching rates required by microelectronic drivers. Here we show that planar nanostructures patterned in ultrathin metal-graphene hybrid films sustain highly tunable plasmons in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Strong variations in the reflection and absorption of incident light take place when the plasmons are tuned on- and off-resonance with respect to externally incident light. As a result, a remarkable modulation depth (i.e., the maximum relative variation with/without graphene doping) exceeding 90% in transmission and even more dramatic in reflection (>600%) is predicted for graphene-loaded silver films of 1-5 nm thickness and currently attainable lateral dimensions. These new structures hold great potential for fast low-power electro-optical modulation.

  8. [The significance of free radicals and antioxidants due to the load induced by sport activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, V; Liska, J; Racek, J; Rokyta, R

    2004-01-01

    Sport performance is followed by a high production of free radicals. The main reasons are reperfusion after the previous imbalance between the increased need of the organism and the ability of blood supply by oxygen, increased production of ATP, decomposition of the cells particularly white blood cells, oxidation of the purin basis from DNA, stress, output of epinephrine release of free iron, increased temperature in the muscle and its inflammation, and the reception of free radicals from external environment. Peroxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA and other compounds follows the previous biochemical steps. Antioxidants are consumed by free radicals, antioxidative enzymes are released into blood plasma, intracellular calcium is increased, the production of nitric oxide rises, the levels of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid increase. These penetrate through the membranes and oxidatively damage the tissues. Training improves the ability of the organism to balance the increased load of free radicals. The damage can be lowered by the application of a mixture of antioxidants, the most important are vitamin C, A, E, glutathione, selenium, carnosine, eventually bioflavonoids and ginkgo biloba. The lack of antioxidants can significantly diminish the sport performance and therefore the supplementation with antioxidants is for top sportsmen but also for aged people advisable. PMID:15709642

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and magnetically guided antiproliferative activity studies of drug-loaded superparamagnetic nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Vázquez Ortega, Salvador; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel; Gómez-Treviño, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Commonly, the key players in anticancer therapies and, more specifically, antineoplastic drugs display poor water solubility and slow dissolution rates. As a consequence, they present low bioavailability, poor tissue distribution, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic profiles, limiting their use. To overcome these barriers and improve efficacy, various drug formulations and delivery strategies have been developed. For example, nanoparticles can be used as drug delivery vehicles and current research is encouraging. However, the intra-tumoral diffusion of functionalized nanovehicles remains to be achieved. In the present study, the anticancer drug paclitaxel was loaded into superparamagnetic nanoparticles and characterized. Novel in vitro experiments based on one or two layers of cells revealed important information about the conditions required to achieve efficient drug intra-tumoral diffusion, using these superparamagnetic nanovectors, once they have been localized by external magnetic fields. These studies indicated that ultralow concentrations of paclitaxel (i.e., tenths of ng/μl) significantly reduce the viability of neoplastic cells when they are delivered with control using these nanovectors. Moreover, we showed that a discontinuous application of a magnetic field promotes the localization of the nanoparticles in a targeted region and favors the subsequent dissemination of the nanoparticles between cellular layers.

  10. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposome's containing DHA and EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Hadian, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to prepare α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposomes as carriers of DHA and EPA and to investigate their physicochemical properties, such as peroxide value (PV), volatile compounds (VOCs), particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and morphology of the liposomes. The particle size of liposomes was in the range of 82.4-107.2nm. The highest extent of lipid oxidation was observed at 40°C for 90days, with the lowest PV and propanal levels for a nanoliposome formulation in comparison with the control sample. The zeta potential of the nanoliposomes was decreased during storage. No significant change in the PV and zeta potential of the liposome formulations with α-tocopherol was observed at 4°C after 90days (0.14meq/kg and -43.5mV, respectively). This study demonstrated that incorporation of α-tocopherol into liposomes contributes a significant antioxidant effect on DHA and EPA. PMID:27542462

  11. Influence of curcumin-loaded cationic liposome on anticancer activity for cervical cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengkrit, Nattika; Saesoo, Somsak; Srinuanchai, Wanwisa; Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2014-02-01

    The delivery of curcumin has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat various cancer cells. Since curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in liposomes, which were modified with three components of DDAB, cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant. The purpose of this study was to establish a critical role of DDAB in liposomes containing curcumin at cellular response against two types of cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). Here, we demonstrate that DDAB is a potent inducer of cell uptake and cell death in both cell lines. The enhanced cell uptake was found on DDAB-containing liposome, but not on DDAB-free liposome. However, the cytotoxicity of DDAB-containing liposomes was high and needs to be optimized. The cytotoxicity of liposomal curcumin was more pronounced than free curcumin in both cells, suggesting the benefits of using nanocarrier. In addition, the anticancer efficiency and apoptosis effect of the liposomal curcumin formulations with DDAB was higher than those of DDAB-free liposomes. Therefore curcumin loaded liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cervical cancers.

  12. Effect of phosphogypsum amendment on soil physico-chemical properties, microbial load and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Soumya; Mishra, C S K; Guru, B C; Rath, Monalisa

    2011-09-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is produced as a solid waste from phosphatic fertilizer plants. The waste slurry is disposed off in settling ponds or in heaps. This solid waste is now increasingly being used as a calcium supplement in agriculture. This study reports the effectof PG amendmenton soil physico chemical properties, bacterial and fungal count and activities of soil enzymes such as invertase, cellulase and amylase over an incubation period of 28 days. The highest mean percent carbon loss (55.98%) was recorded in 15% PG amended soil followed by (55.28%) in 10% PG amended soil and the minimum (1.68%) in control soil. The highest number of bacterial colonies (47.4 CFU g(-1) soil), fungal count (17.8 CFU g(-1) soil), highest amylase activity (38.4 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) and cellulase activity (38.37 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) were recorded in 10% amended soil. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) has been recorded in the activities of amylase and cellulase over the period of incubation irrespective of amendments. Considering the bacterial and fungal growth and the activities of the three soil enzymes in the control and amended sets, it appears that 10% PG amendment is optimal for microbial growth and soil enzyme activities.

  13. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  14. Purification and Properties of Cold-active Metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum and Effect of Culture Conditions on Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Kuddus; Pramod W. Ramteke

    2008-01-01

    Curtobacterim luteum, a gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterium, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. The maximum enzyme production was achieved when isolate was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15℃ over 120 hour. The metal ions such as Zn and Cr enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of pudfied enzyme was 8090 u/mg after 34.1 fold purification. The 115 kD enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20℃ and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6-8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 hours at 4℃-20℃. However, lost 65% of activity at 30℃, and was almost inactivated at 50℃, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions.

  15. Active control implementation in cable-stayed bridges for quasi-static loading patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Crusells Girona, Miquel; Aparicio Bengoechea, Ángel Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The following paper deals with active control implementation in cable-stayed bridges. Recent developments in structural active control of cable-stayed bridges are focused on the adaptability to dynamic effects produced by earthquakes or extreme winds (El Ouni et al., 2012; Pakos and Wojcicki, 2014; Domaneschi et al., 2015a,b). Nevertheless, no attention has been paid to the static or quasi-static case. As stated by Housner et al. (1996), Song et al. (2006) or Gilewski and Al Sabouni-Zawadzka ...

  16. Selective High Impedance Surface Active Region Loading of Archimedean Spiral Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Sarah; Cahill, Robert; Fusco, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We show that a significant increase in the gain and front-to-back ratio is obtained when different high impedance surface (HIS) sections are placed below the active regions of an Archimedean spiral antenna. The principle of operation is demonstrated at 3, 6, and 9 GHz for an antenna design that employs a ground plane composed of two dissimilar HISs. The unit cells of the HISs are collocated and resonant at the same frequency as the 3- and 6-GHz active regions of the wideband spiral. It is sho...

  17. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam......High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs...

  18. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs...

  19. Protein immobilization on epoxy-activated thin polymer films: effect of surface wettability and enzyme loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam H; Bakhtina, Asya; Gross, Richard A

    2008-12-01

    A series of epoxy-activated polymer films composed of poly(glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were prepared. Variation in comonomer composition allowed exploration of relationships between surface wettability and Candida antartica lipase B (CALB) binding to surfaces. By changing solvents and polymer concentrations, suitable conditions were developed for preparation by spin-coating of uniform thin films. Film roughness determined by AFM after incubation in PBS buffer for 2 days was less than 1 nm. The occurrence of single CALB molecules and CALB aggregates at surfaces was determined by AFM imaging and measurements of volume. Absolute numbers of protein monomers and multimers at surfaces were used to determine values of CALB specific activity. Increased film wettability, as the water contact angle of films increased from 420 to 550, resulted in a decreased total number of immobilized CALB molecules. With further increases in the water contact angle of films from 55 degrees to 63 degrees, there was an increased tendency of CALB molecules to form aggregates on surfaces. On all flat surfaces, two height populations, differing by more than 30%, were observed from height distribution curves. They are attributed to changes in protein conformation and/or orientation caused by protein-surface and protein-protein interactions. The fraction of molecules in these populations changed as a function of film water contact angle. The enzyme activity of immobilized films was determined by measuring CALB-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Total enzyme specific activity decreased by decreasing film hydrophobicity.

  20. GCMS Analysis and Anti-microbial Activity of Essential Oil of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. from Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert Region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. has been done for the first time from Trilokinath (3020m of Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert region of North Indian higher altitude Himalayas in the month of July, 2007. Essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation from the aerial parts of the plants collected from the wild sources. The extraction yield for the essential oil of A. minor Jacq. ex Bess. was 0.40%. The oil was analyzed by GCMS; the components of the essential oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The essential oil analysis led to the identification of 18 out of 22 constituents representing 65.37% of the composition of oil. The major constituents of the oil were: 1, 8- cineole (22.30%, camphor (12.64%, davanone (12.33%, ascaridole (11.11% and á-phellandrene (5.23%. The presence of artedouglasia oxide-C in A. minor has not been reported earlier in the same species and therefore acts as a new chemotype from this study area. The present study describes the phytochemical profile and anti-microbial activity of essential oil of A. minor. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains. These results permitted the conclusion to be made that, it is the first report of the GCMS analysis and anti-microbial activity on a new chemotype of A. minor Jacq

  1. Peptide-loaded dendritic cells prime and activate MHC-class I-restricted T cells more efficiently than protein-loaded cross-presenting DC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Met, Ozcan; Buus, Søren; Claesson, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    Undifferentiated and differentiated dendritic cells (uDC and dDC, respectively), derived from the bone marrow, were studied in vitro and in vivo. Ovalbumin (OVA) and two OVA-derived peptides binding to H-2K(b) and I-A(b), respectively, were used. Two IL-2 secreting T cell hybridomas specific...... for the OVA-derived epitopes were used in the in vitro read-out. The ability to cross-present the H-2K(b) binding OVA(257-264)-peptide (SIINFEKL) was restricted to dDC, which express CD11c(+), CD86(+), and MHC-II(+). In vitro, the antigenicity of SIINFEKL-loaded DC declined at a slower rate than that of OVA......-pulsed DC. Moreover, SIINFEKL-loaded DC were up to 50 times more efficient than DC-pulsed with OVA-protein for generation of an H-2K(b)-restricted response. Immunization of mice with SIINFEKL-loaded DC resulted in a much stronger H-2K(b)-restricted response than immunization with OVA-pulsed DC. These data...

  2. Improving photocatalytic water reduction activity for In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} by loading metal cocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Yang, Jia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sun, Yu; Wang, Ziyao; Wang, Ling [Bashu Secondary School, Chongqing 400013 (China); Cong, Rihong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Tao, E-mail: taoyang@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is the only ternary oxide in the In–Ti–O phase diagram. It was prepared by high temperature solid state reaction in this work and verified to be pure with high crystallinity by Le Bail fitting on the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Scanning electron microscopy show that the micrometer particles of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} was composed of submicron crystallites. UV–vis diffused reflectance spectra suggested a wide bandgap of 3.55 eV, which is consistent with the theoretical calculations. The bottom of the conduction band is composed of both In 6s and Ti 3d orbitals, however the low density of the states lead to a low density of the charge carriers excited by UV irradiation. Thus the photocatalytic H{sub 2} production rate of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is only 3.6 μmol/h/g in 20 vol% methanol aqueous solution. With the assistance of Ru- and Pt-cocatalyst, the activity is significantly increased and the optimal H{sub 2} evolution rate is 35.7 μmol/h/g when loading 1 wt% Ru and 1 wt% Pt, simultaneously. All the catalysts recovered after the photocatalytic reactions show no degradation according to powder XRD. - Highlights: • UV–Vis reflectance spectra suggest the bandgap energy of In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is 3.55 eV. • The bottom of the conduction band is composed of both In 6s and Ti 3d orbitals. • As-prepared In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} has a photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution rate of 3.6 μmol/h/g. • 1 wt% Ru or 1 wt% Pt loaded In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} shows an improved photocatalytic activity. • The optimal activity is 35.7 μmol/h/g when loading both 1 wt% Ru and 1 wt% Pt.

  3. A Novel Cold-Active Lipase from Candida albicans: Cloning, Expression and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ming Lan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86–34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM, which has double mutations that revert 154 and 293 to serine residues, showed good lipase activity, and was overexpressed and purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The pure Lip5-DM was stable at low temperatures ranging from 15–35 °C and pH 5–9, with the optimal conditions being 15–25 °C and pH 5–6. The activation energy of recombinant lipase was 8.5 Kcal/mol between 5 and 25 °C, suggesting that Lip5-DM was a cold–active lipase. Its activity was found to increase in the presence of Zn2+, but it was strongly inhibited by Fe2+, Fe3+, Hg2+ and some surfactants. In addition, the Lip5-DM could not tolerate water-miscible organic solvents. Lip5-DM exhibited a preference for the short- and medium-chain length p-nitrophenyl (C4 and C8 acyl group esters rather than the long chain length p-nitrophenyl esters (C12, C16 and C18 acyl group with highest activity observed with the C8 derivatives. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity toward triacylglycerols, such as olive oil and safflower oil.

  4. Estimating cognitive load during self-regulation of brain activity and neurofeedback with therapeutic brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback training with brain-computer interfaces is currently studied in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions to reduce disorder-specific symptoms. For this purpose, a variety of classification algorithms have been explored to distinguish different brain states. These neural states, e.g. self-regulated brain activity versus rest, are separated by setting a threshold parameter. Measures such as the maximum classification accuracy have been introduced to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Interestingly, the very same measures are often used to estimate the subject’s ability to perform brain self-regulation. This is surprising, as the goal of improving the tool that differentiates brain states is different from the aim of optimizing neurofeedback for the subject who performs brain self-regulation. For the latter, knowledge about mental resources and work load is essential to adapt the difficulty of the intervention.In this context, we apply an analytical method and provide empirical data to determine the zone of proximal development as a measure of a subject’s cognitive resources and the instructional efficacy of neurofeedback. This approach is based on a reconsideration of item-response theory and cognitive load theory for instructional design, and combines them with the classification accuracy curve as a measure of BCI performance.

  5. Fluctuation of microbial activities after influent load variations in a full-scale SBR. Recovery of the biomass after starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Angela; Draper, Patricia; Etchebehere, Claudia [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Quimica y Facultad de Ciencias

    2009-10-15

    Due to variations in the production levels, a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for post-treatment of tannery wastewater was exposed to low and high ammonia load periods. In order to study how these changes affected the N-removal capacity, the microbiology of the reactor was studied by a diverse set of techniques including molecular tools, activity tests, and microbial counts in samples taken along 3 years. The recover capacity of the biomass was also studied in a lab-scale reactor operated with intermittent aeration without feeding for 36 days. The results showed that changes in the feeding negatively affected the nitrifying community, but the nitrogen removal efficiencies could be restored after the concentration stress. Species substitution was observed within the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter predominated initially, and after an ammonia overload period, Nitrosomonas nitrosa and Nitrospira became dominant. Some denitrifiers, with nirS related to Alicycliphilus, Azospirillum, and Marinobacter nirS, persisted during long-term reactor operation, but the community fluctuated both in composition and in abundance. This fluctuating community may better resist the continuous changes in the feeding regime. Our results showed that a nitrifying-denitrifying SBR could be operated with low loads or even without feeding during production shut down periods. (orig.)

  6. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharief ud Din Khan; Manju Arora; Wahab, M. A.; Parveen Saini

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin (AR) based electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC) in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorpo...

  7. Prevalence and Infection Load Dynamics of Rickettsia felis in Actively Feeding Cat Fleas

    OpenAIRE

    Reif, Kathryn E.; Stout, Rhett W.; Gretchen C Henry; Lane D Foil; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. fel...

  8. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Cunfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Xiaoling, E-mail: tinachen0628@163.com [Department of Endodontics, Xiamen Stomatology Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Lizong, E-mail: lzdai@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. - Highlights: • A new type of antibacterial agent (PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites) was synthesized. • The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was studied. • Inhibition zone, MIC, MBC, and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. • PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity.

  9. Contributions of phosphatase and microbial activity to internal phosphorus loading and their relation to lake eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatase may accelerate the process of lake eutrophication through improving phosphorus bioavailability. This mechanism was studied in three Chinese eutrophic shallow lakes (Lake Taihu, Lake Longyang and Lake Lianhua). Phosphatase activity was related to the concentration of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and chlorophyll a. Stability of dissolved phosphatase in reverse micelles may be attributed to molecular size, conformation and active residues of the enzyme.At the site with Microcystis bloomed in Lake Taihu, dissolved phosphatase activity was higher and more stable in micelles, SRP concentrations were lower in interstitial water, the contents of different forms of phosphorus and the amounts of aerobic bacteria were lower while respiration efficiency was higher in sediments. Phosphobacteria, both inorganic and organic and other microorganisms were abundant in surface water but rare in sediments. Therefore, internal phosphorus may substantially flux into water column by enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic release, together with mobility of bacteria,thereby initiating the bloom. In short, biological mechanism may act in concert with physical and chemical factors to drive the internal phosphorus release and accelerate lake eutrophication.

  10. Removal of cationic and anionic dyes by immobilised titanium dioxide loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination of adsorption and photodegradation processes induces strong beneficial effects in dye removals. Adding high adsorption capacity activated carbon to photoactive titanium dioxide is an attractive solution due to their potential in removing dyes of diverse chemical characteristics. Recently, immobilisation has been an acceptable approach to overcome the drawbacks encountered with powder suspensions. The present study involves the removals of Victoria Blue R (VBR), a cationic dye and Indigo Carmine (IC), an anionic using approximately one gram of immobilised titanium dioxide (TiO2), activated carbon (AC) and mixture titanium dioxide/ activated carbon (TiO2/ AC) from 200 mL solution at the concentration of 20 ppm under UV illumination for 4 hours. Comparisons were made in terms of their removal efficiency by applying first-order kinetics model. Immobilised TiO2 showed total removal of IC in 40 minutes whereas only 44 % of VBR was removed in 2 hours. On the other hand, in the case of immobilised AC, about 87 % of VBR and 6 % of IC were removed in 2 hours. The results obtained using immobilised TiO2/ AC proved the prominence of this immobilised sample in dealing with VBR and IC by achieving 95 % and 62 % removal respectively in 2 hours. (author)

  11. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  12. Immunostimulatory activities of dendritic cells loaded with adenovirus vector carrying HBcAg/HBsAg

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Hongyu; Li, Chunling; Zhang, Yimin; Yu, Liang; Xiang, Dairong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Fengzhe; Han, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the immunostimulatory activities of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with HBcAg and/or HBsAg recombinant adenovirus (rAd). Methods: DCs were transfected with rAd (DC/Ad-C+Ad-S, DC/Ad-C, and DC/Ad-S), or pulsed with HBcAg antigen (DC/HBcAg). Flow cytometry was used to detect the phenotype of DCs and the cytokine production of T lymphocytes. Mice were vaccinated with DCs transfected with rAd or pulsed with antigen, and DNA vaccine. Mixed lymphocyte react...

  13. Preparation and Photodynamic Anti-tumor Activity of Magnetic Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles Loaded with Photosensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-xia; HUANG Hui; CHEN Zhi-long; HUANG Peng; SUN Yun; ZHOU Xing-ping

    2010-01-01

    A novel magnetic nanocarrier was strategically designed and successfully prepared. Photosensitizer 2, 7,12, 18-tetramethyl-3, 8-di-(1-propoxyethyl)-13, 17-bis-( 3-hydroxypropyl ) porphyrin ( PHPP ) wasencapsulated into polylactic acid (PLA)-coated Fe3O4nanoparticles. The diameter of nanocarrier is 30-50 nm by transmission electron micrograph ( TEM ). The encapsulation efficiency of photosensitizer is 27.98% calculated from UV-vis absorption spectra. The nanocarrier shows obvious photocytotoxic activity to Hela299 tumor cells in vitro.

  14. Poly(lactic) acid fibers loaded with mesoporous silica for potential applications in the active food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Nanni, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional fibrous systems based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA), mesoporous silica (SiO2) and ascorbic acid (AA) were produced by means of electrospinning technique, for potential applications in the active food packaging sector, as platform for the controlled release of antioxidant and/or antimicrobial agents with the additional filtering function. The ascorbic acid was physisorbed on the surface of mesoporous silica in order to stabilize it and to extend its antioxidant action. The influence of mesoporous silica and ascorbic acid on the microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated, revealing a revelant mechanical reinforcement in the case of fibers loaded only with SiO2 and a decrement in the case of SiO2 with physisorbed ascorbic acid, due to the worse interface between the fillers and the polymeric matrix.

  15. Clinical application of radiation skin thermometer in cold water loading test%放射皮温计在冷水复温试验临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聪; 郎丽; 陈思枝; 曹丹燕; 郑倩玲; 吴奇峰; 周洁婷; 王海兰

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究放射皮温计在冷水复温试验( CWLT)中的临床应用. 方法 采用随机抽样方法,以从事非手传振动作业的30名正常健康人员为对照组,以从事手传振动作业的30名人员为接振组. 2组人群均分别采用放射皮温计和数字皮温计测试CWLT前后8个不同时间点的手部皮温,对结果进行统计分析. 结果 在相同时间点及相同手别的条件下,对照组人群采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05 );接振组人群除CWLT前的时间点外,采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05). 无论是对照组还是接振组,采用2种皮温计进行CWLT的5和10 min复温率分别比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05 ). 分别采用数字皮温计和放射皮温计进行CWLT的5、10、30 min复温异常率,对照组人群分别为40.0%、43.3%、40.0%和50.0%、60.0%、33.3%,接振组人群分别为53.3%、60.0%、50.0%和53.3%、66.7%和60.0%;无论是对照组还是接振组,采用2种皮温计测量的皮温分别判断5、10 和30 min 复温异常的结果均具有一致性( P>0.05 ).结论 放射皮温计可作为CWLT的检测工具.%Objective To study the clinical application of radiation thermometer in cold water loading test ( CWLT ) . Methods Using random sampling method , 30 healthy office personnel who were not engaged in hand-transmitted vibration operation were selected as control group , 30 workers engaged in hand-transmitted vibration operation were chosen as vibration group .Radiation skin thermometer and digital skin thermometer were used respectively to test the hand skin temperature at 8 time-points before and after CWLT .The results were analyzed statistically .Results In control group, using the same time points and same hands , the results of skin temperature tested by two kinds of skin thermometers showed no statistical difference ( P>0.05);the same results appeared in vibration group

  16. Synthesis of Monodisperse Chitosan Nanoparticles and in Situ Drug Loading Using Active Microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vivek; Marathe, Ila; Ghormade, Vandana; Bodas, Dhananjay; Paknikar, Kishore

    2015-10-21

    Chitosan nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles. However, the conventional method of unregulated mixing during ionic gelation limits their application because of heterogeneity in size and physicochemical properties. Therefore, a detailed theoretical analysis of conventional and active microreactor models was simulated. This led to design and fabrication of a polydimethylsiloxane microreactor with magnetic micro needles for the synthesis of monodisperse chitosan nanoparticles. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized conventionally, using 0.5 mg/mL chitosan, were 250 ± 27 nm with +29.8 ± 8 mV charge. Using similar parameters, the microreactor yielded small size particles (154 ± 20 nm) at optimized flow rate of 400 μL/min. Further optimization at 0.4 mg/mL chitosan concentration yielded particles (130 ± 9 nm) with higher charge (+39.8 ± 5 mV). The well-controlled microreactor-based mixing generated highly monodisperse particles with tunable properties including antifungal drug entrapment (80%), release rate, and effective activity (MIC, 1 μg/mL) against Candida. PMID:26448128

  17. Activity and in vivo tracking of Amphotericin B loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A C O; Nascimento, A L; de Vasconcelos, N M; Jerônimo, M S; Siqueira, I M; R-Santos, L; Cintra, D O S; Fuscaldi, L L; Pires Júnior, O R; Titze-de-Almeida, R; Borin, M F; Báo, S N; Martins, O P; Cardoso, V N; Fernandes, S O; Mortari, M R; Tedesco, A C; Amaral, A C; Felipe, M S S; Bocca, A L

    2015-05-01

    The development of biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles has become an important strategy for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of many classical drugs, as it may expand their activities, reduce their toxicity, increase their bioactivity and improve biodistribution. In this study, nanoparticles of Amphotericin B entrapped within poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid and incorporated with dimercaptosuccinic acid (NANO-D-AMB) as a target molecule were evaluated for their physic-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics, biocompatibility and antifungal activity. We found high plasma concentrations of Amphotericin B upon treatment with NANO-D-AMB and a high uptake of nanoparticles in the lungs, liver and spleen. NANO-D-AMB exhibited antifungal efficacy against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and induced much lower cytotoxicity levels compared to D-AMB formulation in vivo and in vitro. Together, these results confirm that NANO-D-AMB improves Amphotericin B delivery and suggest this delivery system as a potential alternative to the use of Amphotericin B sodium deoxycholate. PMID:25827397

  18. Inulin based micelles loaded with curcumin or celecoxib with effective anti-angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Delia; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Trapani, Adriana; Ruggieri, Simona; Annese, Tiziana; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Trapani, Giuseppe; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-10-10

    Curcumin (CUR) and celecoxib (CLX) are two highly hydrophobic drugs which show bioavailability problems due to their poor aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to encapsulate each of these drugs in micelles based on biodegradable and amphiphilic polymers to investigate their anti-angiogenesis activity. Here we use an amphiphilic polymer, based on two natural substances from renewable resources (Inulin and Vitamin E, INVITE), as a self-assembling system for the drug delivery of CUR and CLX. By the in vivo assay of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) it was assessed that both INVITE-CUR and INVITE-CLX micelles possess remarkable anti-angiogenic activity, while the INVITE micelles alone resulted intrinsically pro-angiogenic. Furthermore, it has been shown that encapsulation of CUR and CLX in INVITE micelles enhances of several magnitudes the water-solubility of CUR and CLX (14·10(5) and 3·10(2) times for CUR and CLX, respectively). These results may have interesting implications not only in anticancer or diabetic maculopathy therapy based on the anti-angiogenesis strategy but also for regenerative medicine where over-production of new vessels is required.

  19. Oncolytic Adenovirus Loaded with L-carnosine as Novel Strategy to Enhance the Antitumor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Mariangela; Iovine, Barbara; Kuryk, Lukasz; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Vitale, Andrea; Yliperttula, Marjo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity. An ad hoc modified, positively charged L-carnosine was combined with the capsid of an oncolytic adenovirus to generate an electrostatic virus-carnosine complex. This complex showed enhanced antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. In HCT-116 colorectal and A549 lung cancer cell lines, the complex showed higher transduction ratio and infectious titer compared with an uncoated oncolytic adenovirus. The in vivo efficacy of the complex was tested in lung and colon cancer xenograft models, showing a significant reduction in tumor growth. Importantly, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of complex on tumor growth reduction. We found that complex induces apoptosis in both cell lines, by using two different mechanisms, enhancing viral replication and affecting the expression of Hsp27. Our system could be used in future studies also for delivery of other bioactive drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 651-60. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26861248

  20. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  1. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources

  2. Enhanced anticancer activity of DM1-loaded star-shaped folate-core PLA-TPGS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Zhu, Yongqiang; Cai, Shiyu; Sun, Leilei; Chen, Tianyi

    2014-10-01

    The efficient delivery of therapeutic drugs into interested cells is a critical challenge to broad application of nonviral vector systems. In this research, emtansine (DM1)-loaded star-shaped folate-core polylactide- d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (FA-PLA-TPGS-DM1) copolymer which demonstrated superior anticancer activity in vitro/ vivo in comparison with linear FA-PLA-TPGS nanoparticles was applied to be a vector of DM1 for FR+ breast cancer therapy. The DM1- or coumarin 6-loaded nanoparticles were fabricated, and then characterized in terms of size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. And the viability of MCF-7/HER2 cells treated with FA-DM1-nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed. Severe combined immunodeficient mice carrying MCF-7/HER2 tumor xenografts were treated in several groups including phosphate-buffered saline control, DM1, DM1-NPs, and FA-DM1-NPs. The antitumor activity was then assessed by survival time and solid tumor volume. All the specimens were prepared for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections for hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data showed that the FA-DM1-NPs could efficiently deliver DM1 into MCF-7/HER2 cells. The cytotoxicity of DM1 to MCF-7/HER2 cells was significantly increased by FA-DM1-NPs when compared with the control groups. In conclusion, the FA-DM1-NPs offered a considerable potential formulation for FR+ tumor-targeting biotherapy.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera seed and seed oil residue and oxidative stability of its cold pressed oil compared with extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO seed contains highly valuable substances with an impressive range of medicinal, cosmetic and food uses. MO seed, seed oil and its residue were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against selected foodborne microorganisms using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability of cold pressed MO seed oil in comparison with those of extra virgin olive (EVO oil were also evaluated and the results indicated that MO residue had the highest antioxidant activity followed by oil and seed, respectively. The extracts of MO seed and residue against Staphylococcus aureus showed the maximum inhibition zone of 20.67 and 24.67 mm, respectively, at 100 mg/ml concentration. In comparison, MO seed oil contained a high level of oleic acid (71.87% to that of EVO oil (78.10%. MO seed oil was much more stable against oxidation than EVO oil based on the oxidative stability index results.

  4. The investigation of the alanin-aminotransferase and aspartat-aminotransferase activity in the white rats organs on the total γ-irradiation and the physical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe investigations of enzyme activity such as aspartat aminotransferase (AST, KE 2.6.1.1.) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, KE 2.6.1.2.) playing an important role in proteins metabolism were carried out in cell fraction of rat liver, miocard and sceleton muscle after the influence of ionizing radiation (6 Gy) and the maximum physical loading. It was shown that physical loading furthered the increases of ALT-activity in all fractions except liver cytosol. And it was noted a strongly pronounced tendency of AST-activity to lowering, except muscle cell fractions. It was shown that the physical tiredness made worse penetrated radiation action on the investigated anzymes

  5. Two non-destructive neutron inspection techniques: prompt gamma-ray activation analysis and cold neutron tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Baechler, Sébastien; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Jolie, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Deux techniques d’inspection non-destructives utilisant des faisceaux de neutrons froids ont été développées à la source de neutrons SINQ de l’Institut Paul Scherrer : (1) l’analyse par activation neutronique prompte (PGAA) et (2) la tomographie neutronique. L’analyse par PGA (Prompt Gamma-ray Activation) est une méthode nucléaire qui permet de déterminer la concentration d’éléments présents dans un échantillon. Cette technique consiste à détecter les rayons gamma prompts émis par l’échantill...

  6. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjuan Yuan; Dongming Lan; Ruipu Xin; Bo Yang; Yonghua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity ...

  7. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  8. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  9. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  10. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  11. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Cold Weather Pet Safety Client Handout Available for download ... in hot cars , but did you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to your pets’ ...

  12. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000557.htm Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in ...

  13. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  14. Transgenic ice nucleation-active Enterobacter cloacae reduces cold hardiness of corn borer and cotton bollworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaorong; Sun, Fuzai; Zhang, Xinjian; Zhao, Tingchang; Qi, Jiyan

    2004-12-27

    The ice nucleation (IN) gene iceA of Erwinia ananas 110 was integrated into the chromosomes of two Enterobacter cloacae strains (Enc1.2022 and Enc1.181). These two newly derived transgenic strains, designated Enc2022-I and Enc181-I, respectively, possessed ice nucleation activity at -2.5 degrees C, significantly higher than their parent strains (active at approx -10 degrees C or lower). After ingesting these transgenic bacteria, the mean supercooling points (SCPs) of corn borer and cotton bollworm larvae were -3 to -4 degrees C, significantly higher than those of untreated controls. The SCPs remained significantly elevated over the 9-day period after ingestion, which matched well with the efficient gut colonization of the bacteria during this period. All treated larvae froze and eventually died after exposure for 6 h to a temperature of -7 degrees C, and more than 95% died after 12 h at -5 degrees C. In contrast, few or none of the untreated control larvae froze and died under the same conditions. Furthermore, the growth ability of these transgenic ice nucleation-active (INA) En. cloacae strains on corn leaves was reduced, compared to that of wild-type epiphytic E. ananas, as revealed by pot tests conducted in both greenhouse and outdoor conditions. The stable colonization in insect guts and their lower affinity to plants would make these transgenic INA bacteria useful as a novel tool for biological control of insect pests in agricultural fields. PMID:16329857

  15. Distinguishing the impacts of human activities and climate variability on runoff and sediment load change based on paired periods with similar weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fei; Hessel, Rudi; Mu, Xingmin; Maroulis, Jerry; Zhao, Guangju; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Runoff and sediment loads from river basin are largely affected by the interplay of climate variability and human activities within the basin. However, distinguishing the impacts of climate variability and human activities would vastly improve our knowledge of water resources, climate variability

  16. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  17. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  18. Transcription, Signaling Receptor Activity, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Fatty Acid Metabolism Mediate the Presence of Closely Related Species in Distinct Intertidal and Cold-Seep Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann; Van Belleghem, Steven; Derycke, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Bathyal cold seeps are isolated extreme deep-sea environments characterized by low species diversity while biomass can be high. The Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barents Sea, 1,280 m) is a rather stable chemosynthetic driven habitat characterized by prominent surface bacterial mats with high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Here, the nematode Halomonhystera hermesi thrives in high abundances (11,000 individuals 10 cm(-2)). Halomonhystera hermesi is a member of the intertidal Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex that includes five cryptic species (GD1-5). GD1-5's common habitat is characterized by strong environmental fluctuations. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of H. hermesi and GD1, H. hermesi's closest relative. Genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are more strongly expressed in H. hermesi than in GD1, and many genes were only observed in H. hermesi while being completely absent in GD1. Both observations could in part be attributed to high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Additionally, fatty acid elongation was also prominent in H. hermesi confirming the importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids in this species. Significant higher amounts of transcription factors and genes involved in signaling receptor activity were observed in GD1 (many of which were completely absent in H. hermesi), allowing fast signaling and transcriptional reprogramming which can mediate survival in dynamic intertidal environments. GC content was approximately 8% higher in H. hermesi coding unigenes resulting in differential codon usage between both species and a higher proportion of amino acids with GC-rich codons in H. hermesi. In general our results showed that most pathways were active in both environments and that only three genes are under natural selection. This indicates that also plasticity should be taken in consideration in the evolutionary history of Halomonhystera species. Such plasticity, as well as possible

  19. AMPylation matches BiP activity to client protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Steffen; Rato, Cláudia; Chen, Ruming; Antrobus, Robin; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Hsp70 chaperone BiP affects protein folding homeostasis and the response to ER stress. Reversible inactivating covalent modification of BiP is believed to contribute to the balance between chaperones and unfolded ER proteins, but the nature of this modification has so far been hinted at indirectly. We report that deletion of FICD, a gene encoding an ER-localized AMPylating enzyme, abolished detectable modification of endogenous BiP enhancing ER buffering of unfolded protein stress in mammalian cells, whilst deregulated FICD activity had the opposite effect. In vitro, FICD AMPylated BiP to completion on a single residue, Thr518. AMPylation increased, in a strictly FICD-dependent manner, as the flux of proteins entering the ER was attenuated in vivo. In vitro, Thr518 AMPylation enhanced peptide dissociation from BiP 6-fold and abolished stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by J-domain cofactor. These findings expose the molecular basis for covalent inactivation of BiP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12621.001 PMID:26673894

  20. A Novel Cold-Active Lipase from Candida albicans: Cloning, Expression and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Ming Lan; Yong-Hua Wang; Bo Yang; Ning Yang; Wen-Kai Wang; Yan-Fei Shen

    2011-01-01

    A novel lipase gene lip5 from the yeast Candida albicans was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that 86–34% identity exists with lipases from other Candida species. The lipase and its mutants were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, where alternative codon usage caused the mistranslation of 154-Ser and 293-Ser as leucine. 154-Ser to leucine resulted in loss of expression of Lip5, and 293-Ser to leucine caused a marked reduction in the lipase activity. Lip5-DM...

  1. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A Text Size ... the easiest sports around, snowshoeing can be excellent cold-weather cross-training for runners and cyclists — or ...

  2. Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu YN

    2013-07-01

    residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere. Keywords: SPG membrane emulsification, nanoparticles, docetaxel, pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity

  3. Seagrasses are negatively affected by organic matter loading and Arenicola marina activity in a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L; Pieck, Timon; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-06-01

    When two ecosystem engineers share the same natural environment, the outcome of their interaction will be unclear if they have contrasting habitat-modifying effects (e.g., sediment stabilization vs. sediment destabilization). The outcome of the interaction may depend on local environmental conditions such as season or sediment type, which may affect the extent and type of habitat modification by the ecosystem engineers involved. We mechanistically studied the interaction between the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltii and the bioturbating and sediment-destabilizing lugworm Arenicola marina, which sometimes co-occur for prolonged periods. We investigated (1) if the negative sediment destabilization effect of A. marina on Z. noltii might be counteracted by positive biogeochemical effects of bioirrigation (burrow flushing) by A. marina in sulfide-rich sediments, and (2) if previously observed nutrient release by A. marina bioirrigation could affect seagrasses. We tested the individual and combined effects of A. marina presence and high porewater sulfide concentrations (induced by organic matter addition) on seagrass biomass in a full factorial lab experiment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find an effect of A. marina on porewater sulfide concentrations. A. marina activities affected the seagrass physically as well as by pumping nutrients, mainly ammonium and phosphate, from the porewater to the surface water, which promoted epiphyte growth on seagrass leaves in our experimental set-up. We conclude that A. marina bioirrigation did not alleviate sulfide stress to seagrasses. Instead, we found synergistic negative effects of the presence of A. marina and high sediment sulfide levels on seagrass biomass. PMID:24633960

  4. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  5. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  6. Activity of Nanobins Loaded with Cisplatin and Arsenic Trioxide in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Elden Peter, III

    Despite recent advances in breast cancer screening and detection, the disease is still a leading cause of death for women of all ages. Young, African-American women are disproportionally affected with a type of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, which is particularly difficult to treat and has the worst prognosis of any breast cancer subtype. These tumors often spread to the lungs, liver, bones and brains of patients, which is ultimately fatal. This dissertation presents results from a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments that investigate the clinical utility of a novel nanoparticulate formulation of cisplatin and arsenic trioxide, NB(Pt,As) for treating primary and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. These nanobins consist of a solid, crystalline metal nanoparticle surrounded by a lipid bilayer with 80-90 nm diameter. This drug payload is extremely stable, and so NB(Pt,As) is extremely well tolerated in mice. Furthermore, NB(Pt,As) is effective in two different mouse models of breast cancer, one of primary tumor growth an another of lung metastases. A discovery presented here, that thiol containing compounds are required for drug release, may explain these seemingly incongruous results. The large amount of intracellular thiol can trigger drug release, while the low concentration of free thiols in blood is insufficient to cause drug release. To improve the treatment of brain tumors with this unique drug, we added transferrin to the surface of the nanobin using copper-catalyzed "click" chemistry, which preserves protein activity. The addition of transferrin to the nanobins enables 10 fold greater uptake in the brains of mice treated with the transferrin-targeted nanobins Tf-NB(Pt,A) compared to NB(Pt,As). By penetrating the blood brain barrier, the Tf-NB(Pt,As) was able to reduce breast cancer metastases in the brains of mice, whereas NB(Pt,As) had no effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate the intricate balance of drug release

  7. Ammonium glycyrrhizinate-loaded niosomes as a potential nanotherapeutic system for anti-inflammatory activity in murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianecci C

    2014-01-01

    exclusion assay (for cell mortality and an MTT assay (for cell viability. Release profiles for the AG-loaded NSVs were studied in vitro using cellulose membranes. NSVs showing the most desirable physicochemical properties were selected to test for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in murine models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the NSVs was investigated by measuring edema and nociception in mice stimulated with chemical agents.Results: NSVs showed favorable physicochemical properties for in vitro and in vivo administration. In addition, they demonstrated long-term stability based on Turbiscan Lab Expert analysis. The membrane fluidity of the NSVs was not affected by self-assembling of the surfactants into colloidal structures. Fluorescence anisotropy was found to be independent of the molar ratios of cholesteryl hemisuccinate and/or cholesterol during preparation of the NSVs. The anti-inflammatory AG drug showed no effect on the stability of the NSVs. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AG-loaded NSVs decreased edema and nociceptive responses when compared with AG alone and empty NSVs. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that pH sensitive and neutral NSVs show no statistical significant difference.Conclusion: NSVs were nontoxic and showed features favorable for potential administration in vivo. In addition, neutral NSVs showed signs of increased anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses when compared with AG.Keywords: niosomes, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, pH sensitivity, cytotoxicity, inflammation

  8. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  9. Influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract loaded oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Martin E; Zeeb, Benjamin; Salminen, Hanna; Gibis, Monika; Lautenschlaeger, Ralf; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of oil-in-water emulsions loaded with rosemary extract in mixed emulsion systems was investigated. Firstly, differently sized hexadecane-in-water model emulsions (10% (w/w) hexadecane, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) containing 4000 ppm rosemary extract in the oil phase or without added antioxidant were prepared using a high shear blender and/or high-pressure homogenizer. Secondly, emulsions were mixed with fish oil-in-water emulsions (10% (w/w) fish oil, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) at a mixing ratio of 1 : 1. Optical microscopy and static light scattering measurements indicated that emulsions were physically stable for 21 days, except for the slight aggregation of emulsions with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm. The droplet size of hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract had no influence on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides at pH 5 and 7. Significantly lower concentrations of propanal were observed for the emulsions loaded with rosemary extract with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm from day 12 to 16 at pH 7. Finally, hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract significantly retarded lipid oxidation of fish oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems, but no differences in antioxidant efficacy between the differently sized emulsions were observed at pH 5. PMID:25586114

  10. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicherla, Guru R; Dave, Kandarp M; Syed, Anees A; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy. PMID:27241877

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Cu loaded TiO2 Nano tube Arrays and their Photo catalytic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the preparation of Cu loaded TiO2 nano tube arrays. Firstly, TiO2 nano tube arrays were formed by anodization. Afterwards, the formed nano tube arrays were incorporated with Cu by wet impregnation method. The soaking time and concentration were varied to obtain an optimum set of parameter for Cu incorporation in TiO2 nano tubes. After anodization, all samples were annealed at 400 degree Celsius for 4 hours to obtain anatase phase. The nano tube arrays were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). An average diameter 63.02 nm and length 12.15 μm were obtained for TiO2 nano tubes. The photo catalytic activity of these nano tubes were investigated with methyl orange (MO) and the TiO2 nano tube prepared in 0.01 M of Cu (NO3)2 solution within 3 hours demonstrates the highest photo catalytic activity with 83.6 % degradation of methyl orange. (author)

  12. Silver and zinc oxide nanostructures loaded on activated carbon as new adsorbents for removal of methylene green: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Karimi, H; Yousefi, F

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the removal of methylene green (MG) from aqueous solution based on two new adsorbents including silver nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively) has been carried out. The dependency of removal process to variables such as contact time, pH, amount of adsorbents, and initial MG concentration were examined and optimized. It was found that the maximum MG removal percentage was achieved at pH = 7.0 following stirring at 400 r min(-1) for 7 and 6 min for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir model having maximum adsorption capacity of 166.7 and 200 mg g(-1) for Ag-NP-AC and ZnO-NR-AC, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of MG adsorption on Ag-NP-AC such as enthalpy and entropy changes, activation energy, sticking probability, and Gibbs free energy changes show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the removal process. Among different conventional kinetic models, the pseudo second-order kinetics in addition to particle diffusion mechanism is the best and efficient model for the prediction and explanation of experimental data of MG adsorption onto both adsorbents.

  13. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicherla, Guru R; Dave, Kandarp M; Syed, Anees A; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-05-31

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy.

  14. Collaborative Researchers or Cold Warriors? The Origins, Activities, and Legacy of the Smithsonian’s Institute of Social Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peter Castro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International research collaboration is increasingly popular, providing many scholarly and practical benefits. These collaborative endeavors also encounter obstacles and costs, including ones involving issues of power and professional ethics. My study seeks to widen our understanding of international collaborative social science research by examining the complex origins, diverse activities, and clouded legacy of the Smithsonian Institution’s Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA. The ISA was an innovative collaborative teaching and research program founded by Julian Steward during World War II to meet many goals, including increasing social science capacity in Latin America, expanding knowledge about contemporary cultural change, strengthening area expertise among U.S. scholars, and promoting closer relations among the peoples of the Americas. The ISA provided career-enhancing opportunities for U.S. and Latin American scholars, while helping to pioneer applied medical anthropology. I take issue with recent analysts who portray the ISA as promoting, including through covert research, U.S. hegemonic interests seeking to control rural Latin America.

  15. Early-stage fault isolation based on frequency response fitted by small-size samples for cryogenic cold compressors with active magnetic bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; De Vito, Luca; Girone, Mario; Pezzetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A model-based method for fault detection and early-stage isolation, applicable when unfaulty conditions can be identified only by a reduced number of trials (even only one), is presented. The basic idea is to model analytically the uncertainty of the unfaulty frequency response and express the fault condition in terms of the noise power variance. A preliminary fault isolation is carried out by sensitivity analysis in order to identify the most influencing model parameters and assess their influence on the estimated noise. Then, during maintenance tests, the noise power is checked to detect the faulty condition. This technique is conceived to check the quality of a critical component in an experimental installation (fault detection and early-stage isolation), as well as to detect its faulty dynamic behaviors over a long horizon maintenance test campaign (condition monitoring). The method was applied to four cold compressors with active magnetic bearings at CERN by proving to be able to detect an actual faulty condition in one of such compressors. PMID:26827354

  16. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  17. How cold is cold dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T., E-mail: armen@phy.syr.edu, E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  18. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II) Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia B da; Souza, Paula C de; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Lopes, Erica de O; Frem, Regina C G; Netto, Adelino V G; Mauro, Antonio E; Pavan, Fernando R; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS) composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol), 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate), and Eumulgin(®) HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8), and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4) as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II) complexes [CuCl₂(INH)₂]·H₂O (1), [Cu(NCS)₂(INH)₂]·5H₂O (2) and [Cu(NCO)₂(INH)₂]·4H₂O (3). The Cu(II) complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from -0.00690 ± 0.0896 to -8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50) against Vero (ATCC(®) CCL-81), J774A.1 (ATCC(®) TIB-67), and MRC-5 (ATCC(®) CCL-171) cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.). These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB. PMID:27196901

  19. Highly Active and Stable Pt-Loaded Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Yolk-Shell Catalyst for Water-Gas Shift Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Oh; Hong, Young Jun; Na, Hyun-Suk; Jang, Won-Jun; Kang, Yun Chan; Roh, Hyun-Seog

    2016-07-13

    Multishelled, Pt-loaded Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 yolk-shell microspheres were prepared by a simple spray pyrolysis process for use in the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. The Pt-loading was optimized, obtaining highly active Pt/Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 yolk-shell nanostructures for the WGS. Of the prepared catalysts, a 2% Pt loading of the Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 yolk-shell microspheres showed the highest CO conversion. The high catalytic activity of the 2% Pt/Ce0.75Zr0.2O2 catalyst was mainly due to its easier reducibility and the maintenance of active catalytic Pt species. The Pt-loaded Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 catalyst microspheres were highly resistant to Pt sintering because of their unique yolk-shell structure. Spray pyrolysis was found to be highly efficient for the production of precious-metal-loaded, multicomponent metal oxide yolk-shell microspheres for catalytic applications. PMID:27315135

  20. THACO, a Test Facility for Characterizing the Noise Performance of Active Antenna Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Woestenburg, E E M; Ruiter, M; Ivashina, M V; Witvers, R H

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an outdoor test facility for the noise characterization of active antenna arrays, using measurement results of array noise temperatures in the order of 50 K for a number of small aperture arrays. The measurement results are obtained by a Y-factor method with hot and a cold noise sources, with an absorber at room temperature as the hot load and the cold sky as the cold load. The effect of shielding the arrays by the test facility, with respect to noise and RFI from the environment, will also be discussed.