WorldWideScience

Sample records for active case detection

  1. Active pulmonary tuberculosis case detection and treatment among floating population in China: an effective pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxu; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shiwen; Wang, Jia; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Lixia

    2010-12-01

    China has more and more floating population because of reform and opening-up. As one of the high burden countries in tuberculosis (TB) control in the world, China has to face more challenges about the TB case detection and treatment among floating population in China. Aim to evaluate the effect of case detection and treatment of the Floating Population TB Control Pilot Project from Global Fund Round Five (GFR5) TB Control Program in China. During October 2006 to September 2008, the pilot project was implemented gradually in 60 counties in Tianjin, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong and Guangdong. All quarterly reports of the pilot project were collected, and these materials were summarized and analyzed. In seven coastal provinces, 19,584 active pulmonary TB (PTB) cases were registered among floating population in 2 years. Among the active PTB cases, 87.2% were 15-45 years old, and 62.8% were male. In second year, 15,629 active PTB cases were registered, and the overall registration rate was 68 per 100,000 people. DOT treatments were provided for 18,125 active PTB cases in 2 years, and overall DOT treatment rate was 92.6%. There were 3,955 active PTB cases registered in first year, and the overall cure rate was 86.0%. Through the implementation of the pilot project, the TB case detection and treatment among floating population have been enhanced in pilot areas of China. The useful experience and results from the pilot project have been being gradually generalized nationally.

  2. Aggressive active case detection: a malaria control strategy based on the Brazilian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Cameron

    2005-02-01

    Since 1996, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has adopted a malaria control strategy known as aggressive active case detection (AACD) in which most or all members of every community are tested and treated for malaria on a monthly basis. The strategy attempts to identify and treat cases of asymptomatic malaria, which, if untreated, continue to transmit the infection. Malaria remains uncontrolled because almost all health care systems in the world rely on passive case detection: the treatment of only symptomatic cases of malaria. Research has shown conclusively that asymptomatic cases exist in any population where malaria transmission is stable and incidence is high: therefore passive case detection simply will not succeed in breaking the cycle of transmission. Numerous case studies show that malaria has been successfully controlled on a regional or national level by mass blood surveys. AACD is an effective malaria control strategy if used in conjunction with other methods, especially when (1) an effective treatment exists, (2) influx of potential carriers of the infection can be monitored, and (3) people are inclined to cooperate with monthly blood testing. AACD requires access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy supplies, extensive human resources, and prompt, affordable, and effective treatment. AACD is compared to PCD in terms of clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness in a case study of malaria in the Brazilian Yanomami Indians. Where it is feasible, AACD could drastically reduce the incidence of malaria and should be an integral part of the World Health Organization's Roll Back Malaria strategy.

  3. Impact of ASHA training on active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Pandey, Ravindra Nath; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Varsha; Kumar, Vijay; Matlashewski, Greg; Das, Pradeep

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA). ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs), it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL) regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL.

  4. Impact of ASHA training on active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nand Ravi Das

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA. ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs, it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. CONCLUSIONS: Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL.

  5. Detection of active faults using data fusion techniques : case study, Psachna Island of Evoia, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gountromichou, Chrysa; Pohl, Christine; Ehlers, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The identification of active faults (faults potentially capable to trigger an earthquake) is important for a seismically active country like Greece. Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis were used in order to detect, map and characterize the tectonic structures of Psachna town and the

  6. The capsule endoscopy "suspected blood indicator" (SBI) for detection of active small bowel bleeding: no active bleeding in case of negative SBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Andrea Oliver; Filmann, Natalie; Makhlin, Konstantin; Hausmann, Johannes; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Albert, Jörg G

    2014-09-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is the gold standard to diagnose small bowel bleeding. The "suspected blood indicator" (SBI) offers an automated detection of active small bowel bleeding but validity of this technique is unknown. The objective was to analyze specificity and sensitivity of the SBI using the second small bowel capsule generation for the detection of active bleeding. This is a retrospective analysis of all patients (199) who attended our clinic for CE from June 2008 through March 2013. The second-generation PillCam SB 2 capsule was used for detection of (1) luminal blood content and (2) potentially responsible small bowel lesions. The findings of an independent investigator were correlated to SBI findings and a number of SBI markings were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). In 157/199 cases, no sign of active bleeding or altered blood was detected. One hundred and thirty-seven of these 157 cases provided at least one SBI marking and a mean of 18.4 positive SBI markings per record were found. In 20 cases, neither SBI nor the human investigator detected abnormalities. Thirteen patients showed investigator-detected minor bleeding with mean SBI findings of 36 positive screenshots per record. When major bleeding was diagnosed by the investigator (n = 29), SBI detected a mean of 46.6 SBI-positive markings. SBI turned positive in 179 patients, whereas the investigator detected active bleeding in 42 cases. All patients with active bleeding were detected by SBI (sensitivity 100%, specificity 13%). ROC analysis revealed 51.0 SBI markings being the optimal cutoff for active versus no bleeding (sensitivity 79.1%, specificity 90.4%, misclassification of 15.3%). The new SBI software is a reliable tool to exclude active bleeding and/or major lesions but analysis of the CE video by a trained investigator is still important for the detection of lesions responsible for past bleeding.

  7. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hsiang eKao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall and kidney, supported by angiography and 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  8. Piloting a programme tool to evaluate malaria case investigation and reactive case detection activities: results from 3 settings in the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Chris; Sudathip, Prayuth; Herdiana, Herdiana; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yaobao; Luo, Alex; Ranasinghe, Neil; Bennett, Adam; Cao, Jun; Gosling, Roly D

    2017-08-22

    Case investigation and reactive case detection (RACD) activities are widely-used in low transmission settings to determine the suspected origin of infection and identify and treat malaria infections nearby to the index patient household. Case investigation and RACD activities are time and resource intensive, include methodologies that vary across eliminating settings, and have no standardized metrics or tools available to monitor and evaluate them. In response to this gap, a simple programme tool was developed for monitoring and evaluating (M&E) RACD activities and piloted by national malaria programmes. During the development phase, four modules of the RACD M&E tool were created to assess and evaluate key case investigation and RACD activities and costs. A pilot phase was then carried out by programme implementers between 2013 and 2015, during which malaria surveillance teams in three different settings (China, Indonesia, Thailand) piloted the tool over a period of 3 months each. This study describes summary results of the pilots and feasibility and impact of the tool on programmes. All three study areas implemented the RACD M&E tool modules, and pilot users reported the tool and evaluation process were helpful to identify gaps in RACD programme activities. In the 45 health facilities evaluated, 71.8% (97/135; min 35.3-max 100.0%) of the proper notification and reporting forms and 20.0% (27/135; min 0.0-max 100.0%) of standard operating procedures (SOPs) were available to support malaria elimination activities. The tool highlighted gaps in reporting key data indicators on the completeness for malaria case reporting (98.8%; min 93.3-max 100.0%), case investigations (65.6%; min 61.8-max 78.4%) and RACD activities (70.0%; min 64.7-max 100.0%). Evaluation of the SOPs showed that knowledge and practices of malaria personnel varied within and between study areas. Average monthly costs for conducting case investigation and RACD activities showed variation between study

  9. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  10. Influence of depth, time and human activity on detection rate of acoustic tags: a case study on two fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterå, H; Skilbrei, O T

    2016-03-01

    The detection rates of stationary acoustic transmitters deployed at three depths on two Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cage farms for c. 2 months were investigated. Deployment depth, time of day, day of the year and specific incidences at the farm substantially affected the rate of signal detection by the receiver. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Gate of radioactivity detection. guide on the methodology to follow in the case of activating; Portique de detection de radioactivite. Guide sur la methodologie a suivre en cas de declenchement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Most of operators of waste treatment centers are tooled up with gates of radioactivity detection. To meet to a need of clarification of procedures that can be followed during an activating of gates, cards have been established by a work group constituted by representatives of different entities concerned by the subject. These cards propose procedures to follow in the case of activating of gates in respecting the running legislation in the field of environment protection and radiation protection. Annexe with the terms mentioned in the cards are given, a lexicon on radioactivity and a list of organisms able and licensed to provide monitoring for the workers protection against the ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  12. Population-based screening versus case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a large burden of blindness and population-based screening is a strategy commonly employed to detect disease and prevent morbidity. However, not all diseases are amenable to screening. This communication examines the issue of "population-based screening" versus "case detection" in the Indian scenario. Using the example of glaucoma, it demonstrates that given the poor infrastructure, for a "rare" disease, case detection is more effective than population-based screening.

  13. From Use Cases to Activity Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Use cases can be used to capture requirements and to subdivide IT-systems into functionally coherent units. Information systems are activity systems that carry out important business activities. Many systems development methods recognize activity modeling as an important development activity. Use...

  14. 'I could not join because I had to work for pay.': A qualitative evaluation of falciparum malaria pro-active case detection in three rural Cambodian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffon, Pierluigi; Rossi, Gabriele; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Nguon, Chea; Debackere, Mark; Vernaeve, Lieven; De Smet, Martin; Venables, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Pro-active case detection (Pro-ACD), in the form of voluntary screening and treatment (VSAT) following community mobilisation about 'asymptomatic malaria', is currently being evaluated as a tool for Plasmodium falciparum elimination in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. A qualitative study was conducted to explore community understanding, perceptions, expectations and acceptability of the Pro-ACD intervention in order to identify aspects that could be improved in future Pro-ACD activities. This was ancillary to a three-round VSAT campaign, carried out in three villages between December 2015 and March 2016. Qualitative data collection began shortly after the end of the three rounds of screening. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Nine focus group discussions with participants (n = 46) and non-participants (n = 40) in the Pro-ACD screening were conducted, in addition to in-depth interviews with key village figures (n = 9). Health promotion messages were well delivered and received, but it was difficult for many villagers to understand the messages around 'asymptomatic malaria'. Overall, villagers and village leaders had a positive opinion about the VSAT intervention. Acceptability was high, as a direct consequence of favourable perceptions towards the screening activity: the Pro-ACD intervention was seen by the local population as an effective, inexpensive, reliable and readily available tool to protect individuals and the community from the insurgence of malaria. Physical absence and lack of time (both linked to work-related activities) were the main reasons for non-participation. Although VSAT was generally well perceived and accepted, the 'time factor' related to the need to satisfy essential daily subsistence requirements played a significant role in determining participation in the screening. More well-adapted and meaningful Pro-ACD approaches could be implemented by improving the timing of the testing activites, and strengthening community

  15. DETECTION OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wentao; Xu Liangzhong; Zhang Taiming; Zhu weiping; Li Xiaomei; Jin Aiping

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the significance of telomerase activity in breast carcinoma with its respect to axillary lymph node status. Methods: Telomerase activity was analyzed in 88 breast carcinomas and 16benign breast lesions, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Results: Telomerase activity was detected in 75 (85%) of 88 breast carcinomas (including three breast carcinomas in situ which were all positive for telomerase activity), whereas in benign breast lesions analyzed only 2(12.5%) of 16 cases were positive for telomerase activity. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). Besides,telomerase activity was expressed significantly higher in node-positive breast carcinoma (93%) than in nodenegative ones (77%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that telomerase activation plays an important role during breast carcinoma development. It is possible that this enzyme may serve as an early indication of breast carcinoma.

  16. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  17. Activity Level Change Detection for Persistent Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, F; Bush, L. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Instead of traditional target tracking, this approach utilizes GMTI data as moving spots on the ground to estimate the level of activities and detect unusual activities such as military deployments...

  18. Comparison between different methodologies for detecting radon in soil along an active fault: The case of the Pernicana fault system, Mt. Etna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammanco, S.; Imme, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Neri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Three different methodologies were used to measure Radon ( 222 Rn) in soil, based on both passive and active detection system. The first technique consisted of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), CR-39 type, and allowed integrated measurements. The second one consisted of a portable device for short time measurements. The last consisted of a continuous measurement device for extended monitoring, placed in selected sites. Soil 222 Rn activity was measured together with soil Thoron ( 220 Rn) and soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efflux, and it was compared with the content of radionuclides in the rocks. Two different soil-gas horizontal transects were investigated across the Pernicana fault system (NE flank of Mount Etna), from November 2006 to April 2007. The results obtained with the three methodologies are in a general agreement with each other and reflect the tectonic settings of the investigated study area. The lowest 222 Rn values were recorded just on the fault plane, and relatively higher values were recorded a few tens of meters from the fault axis on both of its sides. This pattern could be explained as a dilution effect resulting from high rates of soil CO 2 efflux. Time variations of 222 Rn activity were mostly linked to atmospheric influences, whereas no significant correlation with the volcanic activity was observed. In order to further investigate regional radon distributions, spot measurements were made to identify sites having high Rn emissions that could subsequently be monitored for temporal radon variations. SSNTD measurements allow for extended-duration monitoring of a relatively large number of sites, although with some loss of temporal resolution due to their long integration time. Continuous monitoring probes are optimal for detailed time monitoring, but because of their expense, they can best be used to complement the information acquired with SSNTD in a network of monitored sites

  19. Detection of uranium mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorov, V.; Ryjinski, M.; Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    In undisturbed natural uranium ore the 238 U decay chain isotopes appear in secular decay equilibrium with activity ratios equal to one. In the course of ore processing the bulk of the uranium decay products is separated from the uranium product and concentrated in the tails. Therefore the disturbed activity ratios of short-lived daughters to long-lived parents can be indicators of ore processing. Using 234 Th and 238 U activities (the short-lived daughter with T 1/2 =24.1 days and the long- lived parent respectively) one can roughly estimate how much time has elapsed since ore processing occurred. Equilibrium is reached in about three months after processing and the 234 Th and 238 U activity levels are approximately equal (taking into account the error of measurements). Higher or lower 234 Th activity levels, relative to 238 U, indicate the material has been recently processed. Assuming the product is depleted in Th and the tails are enriched, the activity of 234 Th in fresh product should be lower than 238 U and higher in fresh tails. The 234 Th/ 230 Th activity ratio can also be used for age estimations ( 230 Th is a long-lived nuclide). Five samples were taken from the Ranger Uranium Mine and Concentration Plant in Australia, and one sample was taken from the Jabiluka mine (10 km far from the Ranger Mine). The samples included non-processed ore, coarse ore from the stockpile, final crushed ore, fresh and old tails, and fresh product (U 3 O 8 ). All the samples were analyzed by HRGS to measure the activities of gamma emitting nuclides. XRF and IDMS were used to measure uranium content and isotopic composition. The 238 U activity was calculated from these measurement results. The 234 Th activity was measured by HRGS with a planar HPGe detector and a calibrated low activity 241 Am solution as an internal standard. The 234 Th/ 230 Th activity ratio was measured using the 60 keV energy region where both isotopes have gamma lines. Use of gamma lines with close

  20. Leveraging tuberculosis case relative locations to enhance case detection and linkage to care in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Marie; Rajasekharan, Sathyanath; Ustero, Piluca; Ngo, Katherine; Sikhondze, Welile; Mzileni, Buli; Mandalakas, Anna; Kay, Alexander W

    2018-01-01

    In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane, Swaziland. The project aimed to identify geographical areas with high TB burdens to inform active case finding efforts. Butimba implemented household contact tracing; obtaining landmark based, informal directions, to index case homes, defined here as relative locations. The relative locations were matched to census enumeration areas (known location reference areas) using the Microsoft Excel Fuzzy Lookup function. Of 403 relative locations, an enumeration area reference was detected in 388 (96%). TB cases in each census enumeration area and the active case finders in each Tinkhundla, a local governmental region, were mapped using the geographic information system, QGIS 2.16. Urban Tinkhundla predictably accounted for most cases; however, after adjusting for population, the highest density of cases was found in rural Tinkhundla. There was no correlation between the number of active case finders currently assigned to the 7 Tinkhundla surrounding Mbabane and the total number of TB cases (Spearman rho = -0.57, p  = 0.17) or the population adjusted TB cases (Spearman rho = 0.14, p  = 0.75) per Tinkhundla. Reducing TB incidence in high-burden settings demands novel analytic approaches to study TB case locations. We demonstrated the feasibility of linking relative locations to more precise geographical areas, enabling data-driven guidance for National Tuberculosis Programs' resource allocation. In collaboration with the Swazi National Tuberculosis Control Program, this analysis highlighted opportunities to better align the active case finding national strategy with the TB disease

  1. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  2. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams

  3. Detecting active comets with SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /MIT, MKI; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Princeton U. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

  4. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...... from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system...... such that it is possible to detect these faults....

  5. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  6. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  7. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  8. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  9. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...... of different tampering events. In order to assess the developed methods we have collected a large data set, which contains sequences from different active cameras at different scenarios. We evaluate our sys- tem on these data and the results are encouraging with a very high detecting rate and relatively few...

  10. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  11. Controller modification applied for active fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on active fault detection (AFD) for parametric faults in closed-loop systems. This auxiliary input applied for the fault detection will also disturb the external output and consequently reduce the performance of the controller. Therefore, only small auxiliary inputs are used...... with the result that the detection and isolation time can be long. In this paper it will be shown, that this problem can be handled by using a modification of the feedback controller. By applying the YJBK-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify...... the frequency for the auxiliary input is selected. This gives that it is possible to apply an auxiliary input with a reduced amplitude. An example is included to show the results....

  12. Detection of cardiac activity changes from human speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Mikulec, Martin; Mehic, Miralem

    2015-05-01

    Impact of changes in blood pressure and pulse from human speech is disclosed in this article. The symptoms of increased physical activity are pulse, systolic and diastolic pressure. There are many methods of measuring and indicating these parameters. The measurements must be carried out using devices which are not used in everyday life. In most cases, the measurement of blood pressure and pulse following health problems or other adverse feelings. Nowadays, research teams are trying to design and implement modern methods in ordinary human activities. The main objective of the proposal is to reduce the delay between detecting the adverse pressure and to the mentioned warning signs and feelings. Common and frequent activity of man is speaking, while it is known that the function of the vocal tract can be affected by the change in heart activity. Therefore, it can be a useful parameter for detecting physiological changes. A method for detecting human physiological changes by speech processing and artificial neural network classification is described in this article. The pulse and blood pressure changes was induced by physical exercises in this experiment. The set of measured subjects was formed by ten healthy volunteers of both sexes. None of the subjects was a professional athlete. The process of the experiment was divided into phases before, during and after physical training. Pulse, systolic, diastolic pressure was measured and voice activity was recorded after each of them. The results of this experiment describe a method for detecting increased cardiac activity from human speech using artificial neural network.

  13. Pulmonary tuberculosis case detection in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a Team Leader, Healthcare Projects - Real Medicine Foundation,. Juba, South Sudan ... describes case finding as very low, but treatment success as high. This study was conducted to ... through logistics and capacity building. Standardize ...

  14. TB case detection in Tajikistan – analysis of existing obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Korobitsyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tajikistan National TB Control ProgramObjective: (1 To identify the main obstacles to increasing TB Detection in Tajikistan. (2 To identify interventions that improve TB detection.Methods: Review of the available original research data, health normative base, health systems performance and national economic data, following WHO framework for detection of TB cases, which is based on three scenarios of why incident cases of TB may not be notified.Results: Data analysis revealed that some aspects of TB case detection are more problematic than others and that there are gaps in the knowledge of specific obstacles to TB case detection. The phenomenon of “initial default” in Tajikistan has been documented; however, it needs to be studied further. The laboratory services detect infectious TB cases effectively; however, referrals of appropriate suspects for TB diagnosis may lag behind. The knowledge about TB in the general population has improved. Yet, the problem of TB related stigma persists, thus being an obstacle for effective TB detection. High economic cost of health services driven by under-the-table payments was identified as another barrier for access to health services.Conclusion: Health system strengthening should become a primary intervention to improve case detection in Tajikistan. More research on reasons contributing to the failure to register TB cases, as well as factors underlying stigma is needed.

  15. Automatic Earthquake Detection by Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, advances in machine learning have transformed fields such as image recognition, natural language processing and recommender systems. Many of these performance gains have relied on the availability of large, labeled data sets to train high-accuracy models; labeled data sets are those for which each sample includes a target class label, such as waveforms tagged as either earthquakes or noise. Earthquake seismologists are increasingly leveraging machine learning and data mining techniques to detect and analyze weak earthquake signals in large seismic data sets. One of the challenges in applying machine learning to seismic data sets is the limited labeled data problem; learning algorithms need to be given examples of earthquake waveforms, but the number of known events, taken from earthquake catalogs, may be insufficient to build an accurate detector. Furthermore, earthquake catalogs are known to be incomplete, resulting in training data that may be biased towards larger events and contain inaccurate labels. This challenge is compounded by the class imbalance problem; the events of interest, earthquakes, are infrequent relative to noise in continuous data sets, and many learning algorithms perform poorly on rare classes. In this work, we investigate the use of active learning for automatic earthquake detection. Active learning is a type of semi-supervised machine learning that uses a human-in-the-loop approach to strategically supplement a small initial training set. The learning algorithm incorporates domain expertise through interaction between a human expert and the algorithm, with the algorithm actively posing queries to the user to improve detection performance. We demonstrate the potential of active machine learning to improve earthquake detection performance with limited available training data.

  16. Active Exploration for Robust Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Javier J.; Hemann, Garrett A.; Huang, Albert S.; Posner, Ingmar; Roy, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Today, mobile robots are increasingly expected to operate in ever more complex and dynamic environments. In order to carry out many of the higher-level tasks envisioned a semantic understanding of a workspace is pivotal. Here our field has benefited significantly from successes in machine learning and vision: applications in robotics of off-the-shelf object detectors are plentiful. This paper outlines an online, any-time planning framework enabling the active exploration of such detections. O...

  17. Active noncontact tonometer for glaucoma detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanmei; Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.; Lee, Wing K. A.; Hero, Mark

    2002-09-01

    Glaucoma is an increasingly common cause of visual impairment, and in some cases causes blindness. The approach to develop a low cost and non-contact tonometer for the detection of glaucoma, to replace the Goldmann tonometer used worldwide, is presented in this paper. The new tonometer exploits the vibration property of the cornea - the resonance frequency of the cornea rises with increasing intra-ocular pressure (IOP). An audio frequency signal is used to vibrate the cornea of the eye, the vibration of the cornea is measured using a fibre optic lever probe, and then the IOP can be calculated from the detected resonance frequency of the cornea. The initial PC-version experiment system of the new tonometer has been demonstrated and preliminary testing has been performed, showing a suitable sensitivity in detecting the resonance frequency against the IOP using both the simulated-eye model and the pig's eye. The initial system has been improved to be suitable for greater than 15mm detecting distance, and the measurement of vibrations of human cornea in-vivo has been carried out. Work is now focusing on increasing the sensitivity of the fibre probe, and reducing the measuring time to less than 1 second.

  18. Reactive case detection for malaria elimination: real-life experience from an ongoing program in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Hugh J W; Novotny, Joe M; Kunene, Simon; Dlamini, Sabelo; Zulu, Zulisile; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Greenhouse, Bryan; Gosling, Roly D

    2013-01-01

    As countries move towards malaria elimination, methods to identify infections among populations who do not seek treatment are required. Reactive case detection, whereby individuals living in close proximity to passively detected cases are screened and treated, is one approach being used by a number of countries including Swaziland. An outstanding issue is establishing the epidemiologically and operationally optimal screening radius around each passively detected index case. Using data collected between December 2009 and June 2012 from reactive case detection (RACD) activities in Swaziland, we evaluated the effect of screening radius and other risk factors on the probability of detecting cases by reactive case detection. Using satellite imagery, we also evaluated the household coverage achieved during reactive case detection. Over the study period, 250 cases triggered RACD, which identified a further 74 cases, showing the value of RACD over passive surveillance alone. Results suggest that the odds of detecting a case within the household of the index case were significantly higher than in neighbouring households (odds ratio (OR) 13, 95% CI 3.1-54.4). Furthermore, cases were more likely to be detected when RACD was conducted within a week of the index presenting at a health facility (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.1-66.4) and if the index household had not been sprayed with insecticide (OR sprayed vs not sprayed 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.46). The large number of households missed during RACD indicates that a 1 km screening radius may be impractical in such resource limited settings such as Swaziland. Future RACD in Swaziland could be made more effective by achieving high coverage amongst individuals located near to index cases and in areas where spraying has not been conducted. As well as allowing the programme to implement RACD more rapidly, this would help to more precisely define the optimal screening radius.

  19. A pragmatic approach to measuring, monitoring and evaluating interventions for improved tuberculosis case detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Lucie; Creswell, Jacob; Stevens, Robert; Brouwer, Miranda; Ramis, Oriol; Weil, Olivier; Klatser, Paul; Sahu, Suvanand; Bakker, Mirjam I.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to detect all individuals with active tuberculosis has led to a growing interest in new approaches to improve case detection. Policy makers and program staff face important challenges measuring effectiveness of newly introduced interventions and reviewing feasibility of scaling-up

  20. A pragmatic approach to measuring, monitoring and evaluating interventions for improved tuberculosis case detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, L; Creswell, J; Stevens, R.; Brouwer, M; Ramis, O; Weil, O; Klatser, P.R.; Sahu, S; Bakker, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to detect all individuals with active tuberculosis has led to a growing interest in new approaches to improve case detection. Policy makers and program staff face important challenges measuring effectiveness of newly introduced interventions and reviewing feasibility of scaling-up

  1. Query-by-example surgical activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yixin; Vedula, S Swaroop; Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Hager, Gregory D

    2016-06-01

    Easy acquisition of surgical data opens many opportunities to automate skill evaluation and teaching. Current technology to search tool motion data for surgical activity segments of interest is limited by the need for manual pre-processing, which can be prohibitive at scale. We developed a content-based information retrieval method, query-by-example (QBE), to automatically detect activity segments within surgical data recordings of long duration that match a query. The example segment of interest (query) and the surgical data recording (target trial) are time series of kinematics. Our approach includes an unsupervised feature learning module using a stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE), two scoring modules based on asymmetric subsequence dynamic time warping (AS-DTW) and template matching, respectively, and a detection module. A distance matrix of the query against the trial is computed using the SDAE features, followed by AS-DTW combined with template scoring, to generate a ranked list of candidate subsequences (substrings). To evaluate the quality of the ranked list against the ground-truth, thresholding conventional DTW distances and bipartite matching are applied. We computed the recall, precision, F1-score, and a Jaccard index-based score on three experimental setups. We evaluated our QBE method using a suture throw maneuver as the query, on two tool motion datasets (JIGSAWS and MISTIC-SL) captured in a training laboratory. We observed a recall of 93, 90 and 87 % and a precision of 93, 91, and 88 % with same surgeon same trial (SSST), same surgeon different trial (SSDT) and different surgeon (DS) experiment setups on JIGSAWS, and a recall of 87, 81 and 75 % and a precision of 72, 61, and 53 % with SSST, SSDT and DS experiment setups on MISTIC-SL, respectively. We developed a novel, content-based information retrieval method to automatically detect multiple instances of an activity within long surgical recordings. Our method demonstrated adequate recall

  2. Isomers of fluoroamphetamines detected in forensic cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Tina Maria

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed on the detection, separation and quantification of isomers from the new designer drugs named fluoroamphetamines (FAs) in forensic cases in eastern Denmark. The drugs were detected in whole blood extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass...... of drugs (DUID) cases, involving 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) have been observed with whole blood concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.58 mg/kg. One autopsy case involved 4-FA; however, it was determined to be a combined intoxication. In 2010, ortho-fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) was discovered in forensic...

  3. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2017-10-05

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams. In that context, embodiments of gas-triggered MEMS microbeam sensors and switches are described. The microbeam devices can be coated with a Metal-Organic Framework to achieve high sensitivity. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm can be used to quantify an amount of gas captured by the devices according to frequency shift. Noise analysis is also conducted according to the embodiments, which shows that the microbeam devices have high stability against thermal noise. The microbeam devices are also suitable for the generation of binary sensing information for alarming, for example.

  5. [The process of detection and treatment of cases of tuberculosis in a prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Mariana Soares; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Brum, Clarice Brinck; Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da

    2016-06-01

    This study seeks to analyze the process of detection and treatment of cases of tuberculosis (TB) in a prison in the south of Brazil. An active and passive search for TB was conducted to estimate the scale of TB in a prison with 764 inmates. In conjunction with the detection strategies and clinical follow-up of the 41 TB cases, participant observation and records in field diaries were performed, making it possible to analyze the scope and limitations of detection and treatment of cases of TB in prison. The development of search strategies is discussed along with the use of questionnaires to detect symptomatic cases, as well as the inadequacy of the clinical follow-up of TB cases, involvement of different workers and coordination between prison and health services. There is clear potential for the control of TB using an active search to induce the passive detection and screening for symptoms that - even skewed by the perceptions of inmates regarding symptoms of TB - enabled an increase in detection. The functional dynamics of prison life hamper the inclusion of health routines and can restrict actions to control TB and other diseases. In the process of control of TB in prisons, the feasibility of effective detection methods is as important as planning based on disease conditions, network services and workers involved.

  6. Enzymatic Activity Detection via Electrochemistry for Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studemeister, Lucy; Koehne, Jessica; Quinn, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical detection of biological molecules is a pertinent topic and application in many fields such as medicine, environmental spills, and life detection in space. Proteases, a class of molecules of interest in the search for life, catalyze the hydrolysis of peptides. Trypsin, a specific protease, was chosen to investigate an optimized enzyme detection system using electrochemistry. This study aims at providing the ideal functionalization of an electrode that can reliably detect a signal indicative of an enzymatic reaction from an Enceladus sample.

  7. Fast and direct detection of neuronal activation with diffusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, D.; Urayama, S.; Aso, T.; Hanakawa, T.; Fukuyama, H.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 30 years functional neuroimaging has emerged as a revolutionary path to study the brain and the mind. This has been possible because of significant advances mainly in two imaging modalities, namely Positron Emission Tomograph y (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Amazingly, although those two modalities are based on radically different physical approaches (detection of 1 3 radioactivity for the first one and nuclear magnetization for the second), both allo w brain activation images to be obtained through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the same principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism: Blood flow increases locally in activated brain regions. In the case of PET one uses H 2 O radioactive water which is produced by using a cyclotron and injected to the subject vasculature. In activated brain regions the increase in blood flow leads to a local increase in the tissue radioactive water content detected and localized by the PE T camera. With MRI the hydrogen nuclei of brain endogenous water molecules are magnetized by a strong external magnetic field. In activated regions the increase in blood flow results in an increase of blood oxygenation which induces a slight perturbation of the magnetization relaxation properties of the water molecules around blood vessels detected by the MRI scanner (so called 'BOLD' effect). I n both approaches water is, thus, merely an indirect means to look at changes in cerebral blood flow which accompany brain activation, and although PET and BOLD f MRI have been extremely successful for the functional neuroimaging community, present well known limitations. While the coupling between neuronal activation, metabolism and blood flow has been verified in most instances including BOLD f MRI, the degree and the mechanism of coupling remains largely debated (Magistratt, Pellerin, Mangia) and may fail in some pathological

  8. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimia, Andrei; Richards, William O; Bradshaw, L Alan

    2006-01-01

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is characterized by spiking potentials during the plateau phase of the ECA. Whereas the ECA has been recorded in humans both invasively and non-invasively (magnetogastrography-MGG), the ERA has never been detected non-invasively in humans before. In this paper, we report on our progress towards the non-invasive detection of ERA from the human stomach using a procedure that involves the application of principal component analysis to MGG recordings, which were acquired in our case from ten normal human patients using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Both pre- and post-prandial recordings were acquired for each patient and 20 min of recordings (10 min of pre-prandial and 10 min of post-prandial data) were analysed for each patient. The mean percentage of ECA slow waves that were found to exhibit spikes of suspected ERA origin was 41% and 61% for pre- and post-prandial recordings, respectively, implying a 47% ERA increase post-prandially (P < 0.0001 at a 95% confidence level). The detection of ERA in humans is highly encouraging and points to the possible use of non-invasive ERA recordings as a valuable tool for the study of human gastric disorders

  9. Database anomalous activities: Detection and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; Vavilis, S.; Etalle, S.; Petkovic, M.; Zannone, N.

    2013-01-01

    The disclosure of sensitive data to unauthorized entities is a critical issue for organizations. Timely detection of data leakage is crucial to reduce possible damages. Therefore, breaches should be detected as early as possible, e.g., when data are leaving the database. In this paper, we focus on

  10. Minimum Detectable Activity for Tomographic Gamma Scanning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, Ram [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Smith, Susan [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. M. [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For any radiation measurement system, it is useful to explore and establish the detection limits and a minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the radionuclides of interest, even if the system is to be used at far higher values. The MDA serves as an important figure of merit, and often a system is optimized and configured so that it can meet the MDA requirements of a measurement campaign. The non-destructive assay (NDA) systems based on gamma ray analysis are no exception and well established conventions, such the Currie method, exist for estimating the detection limits and the MDA. However, the Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique poses some challenges for the estimation of detection limits and MDAs. The TGS combines high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) with low spatial resolution image reconstruction techniques. In non-imaging gamma ray based NDA techniques measured counts in a full energy peak can be used to estimate the activity of a radionuclide, independently of other counting trials. However, in the case of the TGS each “view” is a full spectral grab (each a counting trial), and each scan consists of 150 spectral grabs in the transmission and emission scans per vertical layer of the item. The set of views in a complete scan are then used to solve for the radionuclide activities on a voxel by voxel basis, over 16 layers of a 10x10 voxel grid. Thus, the raw count data are not independent trials any more, but rather constitute input to a matrix solution for the emission image values at the various locations inside the item volume used in the reconstruction. So, the validity of the methods used to estimate MDA for an imaging technique such as TGS warrant a close scrutiny, because the pair-counting concept of Currie is not directly applicable. One can also raise questions as to whether the TGS, along with other image reconstruction techniques which heavily intertwine data, is a suitable method if one expects to measure samples whose activities

  11. Active Fault Detection Based on a Statistical Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper active fault detection of closed loop systems using dual Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera(YJBK) parameters is presented. Until now all detector design for active fault detection using the dual YJBK parameters has been based on CUSUM detectors. Here a method for design of a matched filter...

  12. Case-Based Multi-Sensor Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel G.; Long, Jidong

    2009-08-01

    Multi-sensor intrusion detection systems (IDSs) combine the alerts raised by individual IDSs and possibly other kinds of devices such as firewalls and antivirus software. A critical issue in building a multi-sensor IDS is alert-correlation, i.e., determining which alerts are caused by the same attack. This paper explores a novel approach to alert correlation using case-based reasoning (CBR). Each case in the CBR system's library contains a pattern of alerts raised by some known attack type, together with the identity of the attack. Then during run time, the alert streams gleaned from the sensors are compared with the patterns in the cases, and a match indicates that the attack described by that case has occurred. For this purpose the design of a fast and accurate matching algorithm is imperative. Two such algorithms were explored: (i) the well-known Hungarian algorithm, and (ii) an order-preserving matching of our own device. Tests were conducted using the DARPA Grand Challenge Problem attack simulator. These showed that the both matching algorithms are effective in detecting attacks; but the Hungarian algorithm is inefficient; whereas the order-preserving one is very efficient, in fact runs in linear time.

  13. Molecular detection by active Fano-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yifei; Guo, Zhongyi [School of Computer and Information, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The optical properties and sensing performances of the molecular sensors based on plasmonic Fano-resonance (PFR) nanostructures have been numerically investigated in detail. The on-resonance sensor, in which the Fano-resonance position is overlapping with the absorption-band of the detected molecules perfectly, reveals a powerful ability to detect the molecules with a low concentration or thin thickness. By the bias-modulation of a single-layer graphene, the Fano-resonance position of the nanostructures can be tuned effectively. On being modulated properly, the PFR sensor shows an ultrahigh performance because of the unprecedentedly high overlap of the Fano-resonance position with the absorption-band of molecules, which is enabling superior signal strength in the molecular detections based on their vibrational fingerprints. Our proposed strategy may enable the development of dynamic sensors and open exciting prospects for bio-sensing. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Limits of 2D-TCA in detecting BOLD responses to epileptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatamian, Yasha Borna; Fahoum, Firas; Gotman, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2D-TCA) is a relatively new functional MRI (fMRI) based technique that breaks blood oxygen level dependent activity into separate components based on timing and has shown potential for localizing epileptic activity independently of electroencephalography (EEG). 2D-TCA has only been applied to detect epileptic activity in a few studies and its limits in detecting activity of various forms (i.e. activation size, amplitude, and frequency) have not been investigated. This study evaluated 2D-TCA's ability to detect various forms of both simulated epileptic activity and EEG-fMRI activity detected in patients. When applied to simulated data, 2D-TCA consistently detected activity in 6min runs containing 5 spikes/run, 10 spikes/run, and one 5s long event with hemodynamic response function amplitudes of at least 1.5%, 1.25%, and 1% above baseline respectively. When applied to patient data, while detection of interictal spikes was inconsistent, 2D-TCA consistently produced results similar to those obtained by EEG-fMRI when at least 2 prolonged interictal events (a few seconds each) occurred during the run. However, even for such cases it was determined that 2D-TCA can only be used to validate localization by other means or to create hypotheses as to where activity may occur, as it also detects changes not caused by epileptic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-09-18

    Sep 18, 2015 ... microorganisms with all three enzymatic activities, thereby establishing these techniques as ... supplemented at 1% with vegetable oils, including olive (OLI) ..... cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil.

  16. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  17. Limits of detection in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Lower limits of detection (LLODs), frequently referred to simply as limits of detection and abbreviated as LODs, often appear in the literature of analytical chemistry - for numerous different methods of elemental and/or molecular analysis. In this chapter, one particular method of quantitative elemental analysis, that of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), is the subject discussed, with reference to LODs. Particularly in the literature of neutron activation analysis (NAA), many tables of 'interference-free' NAA LODs are available. Not all of these are of much use, because (1) for many the definition used for LOD is not clear, or reasonable, (2) for many, the analysis conditions used are not clearly specified, and (3) for many, the analysis conditions used are specified, but not very practicable for most laboratories. For NAA work, such tables of interference-free LODs are, in any case, only applicable to samples in which, at the time of counting, only one radionuclide is present to any significant extent in the activated sample. It is important to note that tables of INAA LODs, per se, do not exist - since the LOD for a given element, under stated analysis conditions, can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. For any given element, its INAA LOD will always be as large as, and usually much larger than, its tabulated 'interference-free' NAA LOD - how much larger depending upon the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. As discussed in this chapter, however, an INAA computer program exists that can calculate realistic INAA LODs for any elements of interest, in any kind of specified sample matrix, under any given set of analysis conditions

  18. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  19. [Detection of surface EMG signal using active electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Peng, Chenglin; Wu, Baoming; Wang, He

    2003-09-01

    Research of surface electromyogram(EMG) signal is important in rehabilitation medicine, sport medicine and clinical diagnosis, accurate detection of signal is the base of quantitative analysis of surface EMG signal. In this article were discussed how to reduce possible noise in the detection of surface EMG. Considerations on the design of electrode unit were presented. Instrumentation amplifier AD620 was employed to design a bipolar active electrode for use in surface EMG detection. The experiments showed that active electrode could be used to improve signal/noise ratio, reduce noise and detect surface EMG signal effectively.

  20. Advancing capabilities for detecting undeclared nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baute, J.

    2013-01-01

    When a country presents a consistent, transparent and predictable picture of its nuclear programme that is supported by the analysis of all information, IAEA inspectors do not need to go there as frequently for routine verification activities. Rather IAEA can redirect those resources to addressing safeguards issues in the state posing real proliferation concerns. The point is how to establish a coherent picture of a nuclear program and how to identify early warnings of safeguard breaches. A key element is the exploitation of all the information available (open sources, inspection report, satellite imagery, state declarations,...) through effective and quick information analysis. This document is made up of the slides of the presentation

  1. Fast and direct detection of neuronal activation with diffusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), Lab. Anatomical and Functional Neuroimaging, 91 - Orsay (France); Urayama, S.; Aso, T.; Hanakawa, T.; Fukuyama, H. [Kyoto Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Human Brain Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Over the last 30 years functional neuroimaging has emerged as a revolutionary path to study the brain and the mind. This has been possible because of significant advances mainly in two imaging modalities, namely Positron Emission Tomograph y (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Amazingly, although those two modalities are based on radically different physical approaches (detection of 1 3 radioactivity for the first one and nuclear magnetization for the second), both allo w brain activation images to be obtained through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the same principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism: Blood flow increases locally in activated brain regions. In the case of PET one uses H{sub 2}O radioactive water which is produced by using a cyclotron and injected to the subject vasculature. In activated brain regions the increase in blood flow leads to a local increase in the tissue radioactive water content detected and localized by the PE T camera. With MRI the hydrogen nuclei of brain endogenous water molecules are magnetized by a strong external magnetic field. In activated regions the increase in blood flow results in an increase of blood oxygenation which induces a slight perturbation of the magnetization relaxation properties of the water molecules around blood vessels detected by the MRI scanner (so called 'BOLD' effect). I n both approaches water is, thus, merely an indirect means to look at changes in cerebral blood flow which accompany brain activation, and although PET and BOLD f MRI have been extremely successful for the functional neuroimaging community, present well known limitations. While the coupling between neuronal activation, metabolism and blood flow has been verified in most instances including BOLD f MRI, the degree and the mechanism of coupling remains largely debated (Magistratt, Pellerin, Mangia) and may fail in some

  2. Bivariate Genomic Footprinting Detects Changes in Transcription Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjoon Baek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint. Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility. The algorithm, termed bivariate genomic footprinting (BaGFoot, efficiently detects TF activity. BaGFoot is robust to different accessibility assays (DNase-seq, ATAC-seq, all examined peak-calling programs, and a variety of cut bias correction approaches. BaGFoot reliably predicts TF binding and provides valuable information regarding the TFs affecting chromatin accessibility in various biological systems and following various biological events, including in cases where an absolute footprint cannot be determined.

  3. Stochastic Change Detection based on an Active Fault Diagnosis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on stochastic change detection applied in connection with active fault diagnosis (AFD). An auxiliary input signal is applied in AFD. This signal injection in the system will in general allow to obtain a fast change detection/isolation by considering the output or an err...

  4. Filtering the Unknown: Speech Activity Detection in Heterogeneous Video Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Wooters, Chuck; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the speech activity detection system that we used for detecting speech regions in the Dutch TRECVID video collection. The system is designed to filter non-speech like music or sound effects out of the signal without the use of predefined non-speech models. Because the system

  5. Active Detection for Exposing Intelligent Attacks in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Griffioen, Paul [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider approaches for detecting integrity attacks carried out by intelligent and resourceful adversaries in control systems. Passive detection techniques are often incorporated to identify malicious behavior. Here, the defender utilizes finely-tuned algorithms to process information and make a binary decision, whether the system is healthy or under attack. We demonstrate that passive detection can be ineffective against adversaries with model knowledge and access to a set of input/output channels. We then propose active detection as a tool to detect attacks. In active detection, the defender leverages degrees of freedom he has in the system to detect the adversary. Specifically, the defender will introduce a physical secret kept hidden from the adversary, which can be utilized to authenticate the dynamics. In this regard, we carefully review two approaches for active detection: physical watermarking at the control input, and a moving target approach for generating system dynamics. We examine practical considerations for implementing these technologies and discuss future research directions.

  6. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G [Instituto interuniversitario de investigacion en bioingenierIa y tecnologIa orientada al ser humano (I3BH), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Ed. 8E, Acceso N, 2a, planta 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ponce, J L [Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Fe de Valencia, Avenida Campanar n0. 51, 46009 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: yiye@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jgarciac@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jlmartinez@eln.upv.es, E-mail: geprabo@eln.upv.es, E-mail: drjlponce@ono.com

    2010-02-07

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 {+-} 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 {+-} 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  7. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G; Ponce, J L

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 ± 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 ± 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  8. Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance of reactive case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Molina Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods.A descriptive study that combines active (ACD, passive (PCD, and reactive (RCD case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia. Heads of households were interviewed and epidemiological surveys were conducted to assess malaria prevalence and identify potential risk factors. Sixteen primary cases, eight by ACD and eight by PCD were recruited for RCD. Using the RCD strategy, prevalence of 1% by microscopy (6/604 and 9% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR (52/604 were found. A total of 73 houses and 289 volunteers were screened leading to 41 secondary cases, all of them in peri-urban settings (14% prevalence. Most secondary cases were genetically distinct from primary cases indicating that there were independent occurrences. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species (76.3%, 71/93, most of them being asymptomatic (46/71. Urban and peri-urban neighborhoods had significant sociodemographic differences. Twenty-four potential breeding sites were identified, all in peri-urban areas. The predominant vectors for 1,305 adults were Anopheles nuneztovari (56,2% and An. Darlingi (42,5%. One An. nuneztovari specimen was confirmed naturally infected with P. falciparum by ELISA.This study found no evidence supporting the existence of urban malaria transmission in Quibdó. RCD strategy was more efficient for identifying malaria cases than ACD alone in areas where malaria transmission is variable and unstable. Incorporating parasite genotyping allows discovering hidden patterns of malaria transmission that cannot be detected otherwise. We propose to use the term "focal case" for those primary cases that

  9. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of cardiac magnetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nakayama

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG. The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.

  10. Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers William O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study

  11. Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices of industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, R.; Theobald, R.

    1995-01-01

    A range of decontaminated spices of industrial use have been examinated for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material [de

  12. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 7. Potential for small leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated in the sodium-water reactions, is being developed. Previous studies have revealed that the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s (equivalence water leak rate about 10 g/s) within 10 seconds in practical steam generators. In order to prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, however, it is necessary to detect smaller leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. In this study, in order to evaluate the detection sensitivity of the active method, the signal processing methods for emitter and receiver sound and the detection method for leakage within 1 g/s are investigated experimentally, using an SG full-sector model that simulates the actual SGs. A typical result shows that detection of 0.4 l/s air bubbles (equivalent water leak rate about 0.4 g/s) takes about 80 seconds, which is shorter than the propagation time of damage to neighboring tubes. (author)

  13. Moving Target Detection and Active Tracking with a Multicamera Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a systematic framework for Intelligence Video Surveillance System (IVSS with a multicamera network. The proposed framework consists of low-cost static and PTZ cameras, target detection and tracking algorithms, and a low-cost PTZ camera feedback control algorithm based on target information. The target detection and tracking is realized by fixed cameras using a moving target detection and tracking algorithm; the PTZ camera is manoeuvred to actively track the target from the tracking results of the static camera. The experiments are carried out using practical surveillance system data, and the experimental results show that the systematic framework and algorithms presented in this paper are efficient.

  14. Detection of person presence and its activity in the bathtub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnowski, Adam; Palinski, Arkadiusz; Koscinski, Piotr; Skalski, Lukasz; Skurczynska, Anna; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    A practical application of a bioimpedance technique for a detection of a bathing person is presented in the paper. It addresses the possibility of supervising people in the bathtub without voiding of their intimacy. The measurement system installed in a fiber-glass or a plastic bathtub is able to detect a presence of the bathing person, to estimate its activity and thus to detect potentially dangerous events. In the paper a principle of measurement, working prototype and measurements are presented. The proposed method can be useful for supporting and supervising bathing of elders, partially disabled or people with some health state risk during the bath and living alone.

  15. The importance of pheochromocytoma case detection in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Joshua M; Gyorffy, Janelle B; Colburn, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex, multi-system genetic disorder that is associated with an increased prevalence of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma compared to the general population, 1.0%-5.7% versus 0.2%-0.6%, respectively. A delay in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma diagnosis or undiagnosed pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, as seen in normotensive and asymptomatic patients, may portend a significant morbidity and mortality risk due to excess catecholamine secretion. Currently, there are no generally accepted guidelines of screening for pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas in asymptomatic individuals of this population with approaches and practices varying considerably between physicians. Emerging data suggest benefit in routine pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma screening of all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1. Herein, we present a case to highlight how routine case detection screening would have identified pheochromocytoma earlier in an active duty military member.

  16. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, Z.D.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  17. Novel approaches for single molecule activation and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Benfenati, Fabio; Torre, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    How can we obtain tools able to process and exchange information at the molecular scale In order to do this, it is necessary to activate and detect single molecules under controlled conditions. This book focuses on the generation of biologically-inspired molecular devices. These devices are based on the developments of new photonic tools able to activate and stimulate single molecule machines. Additionally, new light sensitive molecules can be selectively activated by photonic tools. These technological innovations will provide a way to control activation of single light-sensitive molecules, a

  18. RECENT SUSPECT CASES AND A PILOT DETECTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOZUBÍKOVÁ E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only very limited reports about the occurrence of the crayfish plague in Czechia. In recent years, mass mortalities of Astacus spp. with symptoms of possible crayfish plague were noticed in three streams in the country – two in Central Bohemia (1998-9 and one in Silesia (2004. Three dead individuals from the last outbreak were examined for the presence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, by observation of the presence of hyphae in their cuticle and by a PCR-based diagnostic method. In all three cases the detection was positive. Although causes of mass mortalities from two other localities lack such a direct confirmation, the indirect evidence supports the same conclusion. The main potential vector of A. astaci in Czechia is the American spiny-cheeck crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in large rivers of the western part of the country and in various isolated standing waters. Using the same molecular method, we investigated the presence of A. astaci in living O. limosus individuals from six localities (three running and three standing waters. The analysis indicated the presence of the pathogen in animals from five out of six investigated Orconectes populations. One of them is present in the stream where two European Astacus species had gone extinct in 1998-9. Our results suggest that the crayfish plague is still present in Czechia, and that populations of O. limosus represent a reservoir for the crayfish plague pathogen, which directly endangers populations of the native crayfish.

  19. Detecting rare variants in case-parents association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Fu Cheng

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs in detecting common variants (minor allele frequency ≥0.05 many suggested that rare variants also contribute to the genetic architecture of diseases. Recently, researchers demonstrated that rare variants can show a strong stratification which may not be corrected by using existing methods. In this paper, we focus on a case-parents study and consider methods for testing group-wise association between multiple rare (and common variants in a gene region and a disease. All tests depend on the numbers of transmitted mutant alleles from parents to their diseased children across variants and hence they are robust to the effect of population stratification. We use extensive simulation studies to compare the performance of four competing tests: the largest single-variant transmission disequilibrium test (TDT, multivariable test, combined TDT, and a likelihood ratio test based on a random-effects model. We find that the likelihood ratio test is most powerful in a wide range of settings and there is no negative impact to its power performance when common variants are also included in the analysis. If deleterious and protective variants are simultaneously analyzed, the likelihood ratio test was generally insensitive to the effect directionality, unless the effects are extremely inconsistent in one direction.

  20. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed open-quotes lock-inclose quotes amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound

  1. Localization-Aware Active Learning for Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Chieh-Chi; Lee, Teng-Yok; Sen, Pradeep; Liu, Ming-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Active learning - a class of algorithms that iteratively searches for the most informative samples to include in a training dataset - has been shown to be effective at annotating data for image classification. However, the use of active learning for object detection is still largely unexplored as determining informativeness of an object-location hypothesis is more difficult. In this paper, we address this issue and present two metrics for measuring the informativeness of an object hypothesis,...

  2. A novel bicistronic sensor vector for detecting caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Tatyana; Mouravlev, Alexandre; Young, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in pathological cell death of a wide range of human diseases. One of the most important biochemical markers of apoptosis is activation of caspase-3. Ability to detect caspase-3 activation early in the pathological process is important for determining the timing for interfering with apoptosis initiation and prevention of cell damage. Techniques allowing detection of caspase-3 activity at a single cell level show increased sensitivity, compared to biochemical assays; therefore, we developed a novel bicistronic caspase-3 sensor vector enabling detection of caspase-3 activity in individual cells. We employed green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter for caspase-3 activation in our constructs and assessed the functionality of the generated constructs in transiently transfected Neuro2A and HEK293 cells under basal conditions and following application of okadaic acid (OA) or staurosporine (STS) to induce apoptosis. To ensure responsiveness of the new sensor vector to active caspase-3, we co-transfected the sensor with plasmid(s) overexpressing active caspase-3 and quantified GFP fluorescence using a plate reader. We observed an increase in GFP expression in cells transfected with the new bicistronic caspase-3 sensor in response to both OA and STS. We also showed a significant increase in GFP fluorescence intensity in cells co-expressing the sensor with the plasmid(s) encoding active caspase-3. We generated a novel bicistronic caspase-3 sensor vector which relies on a transcription factor/response element system. The obtained sensor combines high sensitivity of the single cell level detection with the possibility of automated quantification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Smart DNA Tweezer for Detection of Human Telomerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowen; Wang, Lei; Li, Kan; Huang, Qihong; Jiang, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Reliable and accurate detection of telomerase activity is crucial to better understand its role in cancer cells and to further explore its function in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here, we construct a smart DNA tweezer (DT) for detection of telomerase activity. The DT is assembled by three specially designed single-stranded oligonucleotides: a central strand dually labeled with donor/acceptor fluorophores and two arm strands containing overhangs complementary to telomerase reaction products (TRPs). It can get closed through hybridization with TRPs and get reopen through strand displacement reaction by TRPs' complementary sequences. First, under the action of telomerase, telomerase binding substrates (TS) are elongated to generate TRPs ended with telomeric repeats (TTAGGG) n . TRPs hybridize with the two arm overhangs cooperatively and strain DT to closed state, inducing an increased fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency, which is utilized for telomerase activity detection. Second, upon introduction of a removal strand (RS) complementary to TRPs, the closed DT is relaxed to open state via the toehold-mediated strand displacement, inducing a decreased FRET efficiency, which is utilized for determination of TRP length distribution. The detection limit of telomerase activity is equivalent to 141 cells/μL for HeLa cells, and telomerase-active cellular extracts can be differentiated from telomerase-inactive cellular extracts. Furthermore, TRPs owning 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 telomeric repeats are identified to account for 25.6%, 20.5%, 15.7%, 12.5%, and 25.7%, respectively. The proposed strategy will offer a new approach for reliable, accurate detection of telomerase activity and product length distribution for deeper studying its role and function in cancer.

  4. Active neutron technique for detecting attempted special nuclear material diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.

    1979-01-01

    The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds

  5. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF 6 gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques

  6. Realistic limitations of detecting planets around young active stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current planet hunting methods using the radial velocity method are limited to observing middle-aged main-sequence stars where the signatures of stellar activity are much less than on young stars that have just arrived on the main-sequence. In this work we apply our knowledge from the surface imaging of these young stars to place realistic limitations on the possibility of detecting orbiting planets. In general we find that the magnitude of the stellar jitter is directly proportional to the stellar vsini. For G and K dwarfs, we find that it is possible, for models with high stellar activity and low stellar vsini, to be able to detect a 1 MJupiter mass planet within 50 epochs of observations and for the M dwarfs it is possible to detect a habitable zone Earth-like planet in 10s of observational epochs.

  7. Detection of efflux pump activity among clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To detect efflux pump activity (EPA) and screening a suspected efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) [1- (3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-piperazine (TFMBP)], which could help in reducing multi-drug resistance (MDR). Methods: Eighteen isolates, viz, 14 S. aureus, 2 S. lentus, 1 S. xylosus and 1 Micrococcus species from various ...

  8. Tansig activation function (of MLP network) for cardiac abnormality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Rahman, Muhammad Izzuddin Abd

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and it can cause a sudden death to the patient. In general, heart abnormality is the irregular electrical activity of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect heart abnormality activity through implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP network by using several training algorithms with Tansig activation function.

  9. Pro-active data breach detection: examining accuracy and applicability on personal information detected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available breaches but does not provide a clear indication of the level of personal information available on the internet since only reported incidents are taken into account. The possibility of pro-active automated breach detection has previously been discussed as a...

  10. Detection of Aspartic Proteinase Activities Using Gel Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani

    2017-01-01

    Gel zymography is a two-stage process where the proteins from the test sample are first separated by electrophoresis followed by the detection of the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. Many zymography procedures use sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with an appropriate substrate. The procedure described here uses native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the absence of both SDS and substrate. In order to visualize aspartic proteinase activity, the gel is impregnated in bovine hemoglobin at pH 3.0 for 15 min after the electrophoresis procedure. Subsequently, the gel is incubated in a humid container in the absence of hemoglobin for 1 h at 37 °C. At the end, the gel is stained with amido black and destained. Clear areas against a dark background corresponding to aspartic proteinase activities can be detected.

  11. Voice Activity Detection Using Fuzzy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Johny Elton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes support vector machine (SVM based voice activity detection using FuzzyEn to improve detection performance under noisy conditions. The proposed voice activity detection (VAD uses fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn as a feature extracted from noise-reduced speech signals to train an SVM model for speech/non-speech classification. The proposed VAD method was tested by conducting various experiments by adding real background noises of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR ranging from −10 dB to 10 dB to actual speech signals collected from the TIMIT database. The analysis proves that FuzzyEn feature shows better results in discriminating noise and corrupted noisy speech. The efficacy of the SVM classifier was validated using 10-fold cross validation. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method was compared with those of previous standardized VAD algorithms as well as recently developed methods. Performance comparison suggests that the proposed method is proven to be more efficient in detecting speech under various noisy environments with an accuracy of 93.29%, and the FuzzyEn feature detects speech efficiently even at low SNR levels.

  12. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, Kori Budlong; Stanbro, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  13. Detection of eosinophilic myocarditis using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murakami, Y.; Shimada, T.; Kashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inoue, S.-I.; Sugamori, T.; Katoh, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Maruyama, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by idiopathic eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and multiorgan dysfunction secondary to mature eosinophil infiltration. It is essential to diagnose myocardial involvement in the early stage of the disease when active myocarditis due to cardiotoxic substances from eosinophils is still taking place, but clinical tools for the diagnosis of myocardial lesions in patients without overt cardiac dysfunction are not yet available. We present a case of successful detection of myocarditis due to hypereosinophilic syndrome by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaascetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (author)

  14. Detection of eosinophilic myocarditis using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N.; Murakami, Y.; Shimada, T.; Kashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inoue, S.-I.; Sugamori, T.; Katoh, H.; Ishibashi, Y. [Shimane Medical Univ., The Fourth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Izumo City, Shimane (Japan); Maruyama, R. [Shimane Medical Univ., Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Izumo City, Shimane (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by idiopathic eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and multiorgan dysfunction secondary to mature eosinophil infiltration. It is essential to diagnose myocardial involvement in the early stage of the disease when active myocarditis due to cardiotoxic substances from eosinophils is still taking place, but clinical tools for the diagnosis of myocardial lesions in patients without overt cardiac dysfunction are not yet available. We present a case of successful detection of myocarditis due to hypereosinophilic syndrome by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaascetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (author)

  15. Verification of Minimum Detectable Activity for Radiological Threat Source Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Hannah; Myjak, Mitchell; Baciak, James; Detwiler, Rebecca; Seifert, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office is working to develop advanced technologies that will improve the ability to detect, localize, and identify radiological and nuclear sources from airborne platforms. The Airborne Radiological Enhanced-sensor System (ARES) program is developing advanced data fusion algorithms for analyzing data from a helicopter-mounted radiation detector. This detector platform provides a rapid, wide-area assessment of radiological conditions at ground level. The NSCRAD (Nuisance-rejection Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection) algorithm was developed to distinguish low-count sources of interest from benign naturally occurring radiation and irrelevant nuisance sources. It uses a number of broad, overlapping regions of interest to statistically compare each newly measured spectrum with the current estimate for the background to identify anomalies. We recently developed a method to estimate the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of NSCRAD in real time. We present this method here and report on the MDA verification using both laboratory measurements and simulated injects on measured backgrounds at or near the detection limits. This work is supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-12-X-00376. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.

  16. Towards a sensor for detecting human presence and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Benezeth , Yannick; Laurent , Hélène; Emile , Bruno; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a vision-based system for human detection and tracking in indoor environment allowing to collect higher level information on people activity. The developed presence sensor based on video analysis, using a static camera is ¯rst of all presented. Composed of three main steps, the ¯rst one consists in change detection using a background model updated at di®erent levels to manage the most common variations of the environment. A moving objects trac...

  17. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  18. Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A

    2017-06-12

    Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of elimination operations, as most malaria infections in these areas are symptomatic and onward transmission would be mitigated through health system strengthening; reactive case detection has minimal impact in these settings. In historically high-transmission areas, vector control and case management are crucial for limiting outbreak size, and the asymptomatic reservoir must be addressed through

  19. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (≈3 vs. ≈0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron "flash") where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique

  20. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (∼3 vs. ∼0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron 'flash') where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique

  1. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozani, Tsahi, E-mail: tgozani@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Stevenson, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons ({approx}3 vs. {approx}0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron 'flash') where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector

  2. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Household Contacts in Pondicherry: Active Case Finding Among New Smear Positive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar VA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The risk of transmission from the index case to its contacts is more in case of smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis cases. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment increases the risk of disease transmission to their contacts. Contact screening is important for early detection of transmission of infection. Thus, active case finding of TB is needed to identify the case yield among household contacts. This study will yield the burden of Tuberculosis among the household contact. Objective: To identify the TB suspect and estimate the prevalence of TB among household contacts. Material and Methods: A two stage cross study was done in 472 households of 157 ‘Index cases’ registered in the State Tuberculosis Unit, Puducherry. The study duration was one year and eight months. Data was entered and analyzed by using Epi_Info (Version 3.4.3 software package. Results: A total of 96 (20.3% symptomatic was found from the 472 households contacts who participated in this study. Out of 90 symptomatics, 70 (72.9% were symptomatic within two months of visit and 26 (27.1% were found to have symptoms after eight months. The overall prevalence of tuberculosis in symptomatic household contacts was 4.3% and all tuberculosis confirmed cases were found at the end of in second month only. Conclusion: Considering the prevalence tuberculosis among the symptomatic of household contact to be 4.3%, their investigation to rule out TB in earlier stages is a need. It may help prevent further spread of M. tuberculosis infection in the local community.

  3. SVM detection of epileptiform activity in routine EEG.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Routine electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important test in aiding the diagnosis of patients with suspected epilepsy. These recordings typically last 20-40 minutes, during which signs of abnormal activity (spikes, sharp waves) are looked for in the EEG trace. It is essential that events of short duration are detected during the routine EEG test. The work presented in this paper examines the effect of changing a range of input values to the detection system on its ability to distinguish between normal and abnormal EEG activity. It is shown that the length of analysis window in the range of 0.5s to 1s are well suited to the task. Additionally, it is reported that patient specific systems should be used where possible due to their better performance.

  4. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  5. Phosphatase activity tunes two-component system sensor detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Brian P; Palanki, Rohan; Dyulgyarov, Nikola; Hartsough, Lucas A; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-12

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the largest family of multi-step signal transduction pathways in biology, and a major source of sensors for biotechnology. However, the input concentrations to which biosensors respond are often mismatched with application requirements. Here, we utilize a mathematical model to show that TCS detection thresholds increase with the phosphatase activity of the sensor histidine kinase. We experimentally validate this result in engineered Bacillus subtilis nitrate and E. coli aspartate TCS sensors by tuning their detection threshold up to two orders of magnitude. We go on to apply our TCS tuning method to recently described tetrathionate and thiosulfate sensors by mutating a widely conserved residue previously shown to impact phosphatase activity. Finally, we apply TCS tuning to engineer B. subtilis to sense and report a wide range of fertilizer concentrations in soil. This work will enable the engineering of tailor-made biosensors for diverse synthetic biology applications.

  6. Sensor to detect endothelialization on an active coronary stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Arthur C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A serious complication with drug-eluting coronary stents is late thrombosis, caused by exposed stent struts not covered by endothelial cells in the healing process. Real-time detection of this healing process could guide physicians for more individualized anti-platelet therapy. Here we present work towards developing a sensor to detect this healing process. Sensors on several stent struts could give information about the heterogeneity of healing across the stent. Methods A piezoelectric microcantilever was insulated with parylene and demonstrated as an endothelialization detector for incorporation within an active coronary stent. After initial characterization, endothelial cells were plated onto the cantilever surface. After they attached to the surface, they caused an increase in mass, and thus a decrease in the resonant frequencies of the cantilever. This shift was then detected electrically with an LCR meter. The self-sensing, self-actuating cantilever does not require an external, optical detection system, thus allowing for implanted applications. Results A cell density of 1300 cells/mm2 on the cantilever surface is detected. Conclusions We have developed a self-actuating, self-sensing device for detecting the presence of endothelial cells on a surface. The device is biocompatible and functions reliably in ionic liquids, making it appropriate for implantable applications. This sensor can be placed along the struts of a coronary stent to detect when the struts have been covered with a layer of endothelial cells and are no longer available surfaces for clot formation. Anti-platelet therapy can be adjusted in real-time with respect to a patient's level of healing and hemorrhaging risks.

  7. Confirmation of identity and detection limit in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustina Tri Handayani; Slamet Wiyuniati; Tulisna

    2010-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) based on neutron capture by nuclides. Of the various possibilities of radionuclides that occur, radionuclides and gamma radiation which provides the identity of the element were analyzed and the best sensitivity should be determined. Confirmation for elements in sediment samples was done theoretically and experimentally. The result of confirmation shows that Al, V, Cr K, Na, Ca and Zn were analyzed based on radionuclides of Al-28, V-52, Cr-51 , K-42, Na-24, Ca-48, Zn-65. Elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Co were analyzed based on radionuclides of Mg-27, Mn-56, Fe-59, Co-60 through peak which the highest value of combined probability of radiation emission and efficiency. Cu can be analyzed through Cu-64 or Cu-66, but the second is more sensitive. Detection limit is determined at a certain measurement conditions carried out by a laboratory. Detection limit in the NAA is determined based on the Compton continue area by Curie method. The detection limit of Al, V, Ca, Mg, Mn, As, K, Na, Mg, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sc, and Zn in sediment samples are 240, 27, 4750, 2600, 21, 3.3 , 75, 1.4, 1.8, 0.5, 2.7, 29, 1, 0.05, and 37 ppm. Analysis of Cu in sediments which concentrations of 98.6 ppm, Cu-66 is not detected. Tests using pure standard solutions of Cu obtained detection limit of 0.12 µg, or 7.9 ppm in samples of 15 mg. In general, the detection limit obtained was higher than the detection limit of the reference, it was caused by the differences in the sample matrix and analytical conditions. (author)

  8. INTEGRAL detects renewed activity from IGR J11435-6109

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Chenevez, J.; Sguera, V.

    2015-01-01

    During a recent INTEGRAL public observation of Musca region, performed between 2015-12-11 17:54 and 2015-12-12 12:54 (UTC), renewed activity from the transient X-ray pulsar IGR J11435-6109 has been detected. The 22-60 keV IBIS/ISGRI flux corresponds to (10+/-1) mCrab with an effective exposure time...

  9. Quantifying Detection Probabilities for Proliferation Activities in Undeclared Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listner, C.; Canty, M.; Niemeyer, I.; Rezniczek, A.; Stein, G.

    2015-01-01

    International Safeguards is currently in an evolutionary process to increase effectiveness and efficiency of the verification system. This is an obvious consequence of the inability to detect the Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapons programme in the early 90s. By the adoption of the Programme 93+2, this has led to the development of Integrated Safeguards and the State-level concept. Moreover, the IAEA's focus was extended onto proliferation activities outside the State's declared facilities. The effectiveness of safeguards activities within declared facilities can and have been quantified with respect to costs and detection probabilities. In contrast, when verifying the absence of undeclared facilities this quantification has been avoided in the past because it has been considered to be impossible. However, when balancing the allocation of budget between the declared and the undeclared field, explicit reasoning is needed why safeguards effort is distributed in a given way. Such reasoning can be given by a holistic, information and risk-driven approach to Acquisition Path Analysis comprising declared and undeclared facilities. Regarding the input, this approach relies on the quantification of several factors, i.e., costs of attractiveness values for specific proliferation activities, potential safeguards measures and detection probabilities for these measures also for the undeclared field. In order to overcome the lack of quantification for detection probabilities in undeclared facilities, the authors of this paper propose a general verification error model. Based on this model, four different approaches are explained and assessed with respect to their advantages and disadvantages: the analogy approach, the Bayes approach, the frequentist approach and the process approach. The paper concludes with a summary and an outlook on potential future research activities. (author)

  10. Real-Time Rotational Activity Detection in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Muñoz, Gonzalo R.; Arenal, Ángel; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Rotational activations, or spiral waves, are one of the proposed mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF) maintenance. We present a system for assessing the presence of rotational activity from intracardiac electrograms (EGMs). Our system is able to operate in real-time with multi-electrode catheters of different topologies in contact with the atrial wall, and it is based on new local activation time (LAT) estimation and rotational activity detection methods. The EGM LAT estimation method is based on the identification of the highest sustained negative slope of unipolar signals. The method is implemented as a linear filter whose output is interpolated on a regular grid to match any catheter topology. Its operation is illustrated on selected signals and compared to the classical Hilbert-Transform-based phase analysis. After the estimation of the LAT on the regular grid, the detection of rotational activity in the atrium is done by a novel method based on the optical flow of the wavefront dynamics, and a rotation pattern match. The methods have been validated using in silico and real AF signals. PMID:29593566

  11. A Correlated Active Acoustic Leak Detection in a SFR Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joon; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Kim, Yong Il

    2009-01-01

    The methods of acoustic leak detection are active acoustic leak detection and passive acoustic leak detection. The methods for passive acoustic leak detection are already established, but because our goal is development of passive acoustic leak detection for detecting a leakage range of small and micro leak rates, it is difficult detecting a leak in steam generator using this developed passive acoustic leak detection. Thus the acoustic leak detection system is required to be able to detect wide range of water leaks. From this view point we need to develop an active acoustic leak detection technology to be able to detect intermediate leak rates

  12. Detecting sentinel lymph nodes in caner cases of lower and middle rectum following lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontshev, M.; Dimitrov, D.; Deliysky, T.; Tsarowska, T.; Slavova, M.; Dekova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The lymphoscintigraphy and the interoperative gamma probing for through detection of the marked with radiocolloid sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in the cases of patients having cancer in the lower and middle third of the rectum (CLMTR) are with minimum clinical experience in Bulgaria. The aim of the study is to examine the elaboration on the subject and introduction of nuclear medical methods for preoperative marking and representation of SLN and their interoperative finding thanks to gamma probing in the cases of CLMTR. This research covers 14 patients having CLMTR (3 females and 11 males) at the age of 55 - 80 (average 76,5), of whom 17 - 20 hours before the operation was carried out lymphoscintigraphy of two-headed SPECT gamma camera Toshiba CGA7200UI with 99mTc colloid applied transanal submycotic. The interoperative finding of SLN was made by the means of detection with manual gamma probe Silicone instruments. The lymphoscintigraphy visualized in 13 patients 11 SLN, and in one patient the examination was negative. The interoperative gamma sounding established the presence of activity in 12 SLN, 8 of them mezenterial and 4 of them - extramezenterial. The immunohistological examination of the biopsied 12 SLN found metastasis in two mezenterial SLN. In the rest 10 SLN there were no indications for metastatic process. The preliminary results show that the used from us nuclear medical methods are applicable for marking and finding of SLN in the cases of CLMTR aiming improvement the staging of the illness

  13. Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or community-level services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David

    2017-11-28

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed when symptomatic individuals seek care at healthcare facilities, and healthcare workers have a minimal role in promoting the health-seeking behaviour. However, some policy specialists believe the healthcare system could be more active in tuberculosis diagnosis to increase tuberculosis case detection. To evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection through improving access (geographical, financial, educational) to tuberculosis diagnosis at primary healthcare or community-level services. We searched the following databases for relevant studies up to 19 December 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2016; MEDLINE; Embase; Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index; BIOSIS Previews; and Scopus. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies comparing any intervention that aims to improve access to a tuberculosis diagnosis, with no intervention or an alternative intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We compared interventions using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included nine cluster-randomized trials, one individual randomized trial, and seven non-randomized controlled studies. Nine studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), six in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Pakistan), and two in South America (Brazil and Colombia); which are all high tuberculosis prevalence areas.Tuberculosis outreach

  14. Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, T M; Englezou, A; Gupta, J; Bacchetti, S; Reddel, R R

    1995-09-01

    Immortalization of human cells is often associated with reactivation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening. We examined whether telomerase activation is necessary for immortalization. All normal human fibroblasts tested were negative for telomerase activity. Thirteen out of 13 DNA tumor virus-transformed cell cultures were also negative in the pre-crisis (i.e. non-immortalized) stage. Of 35 immortalized cell lines, 20 had telomerase activity as expected, but 15 had no detectable telomerase. The 15 telomerase-negative immortalized cell lines all had very long and heterogeneous telomeres of up to 50 kb. Hybrids between telomerase-negative and telomerase-positive cells senesced. Two senescent hybrids demonstrated telomerase activity, indicating that activation of telomerase is not sufficient for immortalization. Some hybrid clones subsequently recommenced proliferation and became immortalized either with or without telomerase activity. Those without telomerase activity also had very long and heterogeneous telomeres. Taken together, these data suggest that the presence of lengthened or stabilized telomeres is necessary for immortalization, and that this may be achieved either by the reactivation of telomerase or by a novel and as yet unidentified mechanism.

  15. Activation Detection in fMRI Using Jeffrey Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2009-12-01

    A statistical test for detecting activated pixels in functional MRI (fMRI) data is proposed. For the derivation of this test, the fMRI time series measured at each voxel is modeled as the sum of a response signal which arises due to the experimentally controlled activation-baseline pattern, a nuisance component representing effects of no interest, and Gaussian white noise. The test is based on comparing the dimension of the voxels fMRI time series fitted data models with and without controlled activation-baseline pattern. The Jeffrey divergence is used for this comparison. The test has the advantage of not requiring a level of significance or a threshold to be provided.

  16. Detection of hidden explosives by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinnian; Guo Junpeng; Luo Wenyun; Wang Chuanshan; Fang Xiaoming; Yu Tailiu

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the method and principle for detection of hidden explosive by fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The method of detection of explosives by FNAA has the specific properties of simple determination equipments, high reliability, and low detecting cost, and would be beneficial to the applicability and popularization in the field of protecting and securing nation. The contents of nitrogen and oxygen in four explosives, more then ten common materials and TNT samples covered with soil, were measured by FNAA. 14 MeV fast neutrons were generated from (d, t) reaction with a 400 kV Cockcroft Walton type accelerator. The two-dimension distributions for nitro- gen and oxygen counting rates per unit mass of determined matters were obtained, and the characteristic area of explosives and non-explosives can be defined. By computer aided pattern recognition, the samples were identified with low false alarm or omission rates. The Monte-Carlo simulation indicates that there is no any radiation at 15 m apart from neutron source and is safe for irradiation after 1 h. It is suggested that FNAA may be potential in remote controlling for detection hidden explosive system with multi-probe large array. (authors)

  17. Einstein as Armchair Detective: The Case of Stimulated Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory and of gravity in the case of the general theory. It might be argued that the ... the radiation density p at different frequencies through. Planck's law. He assumes .... derive both Planck's law and Bohr's principle based on these hypotheses.

  18. System to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroev, M.; Korolev, Yu.; Lopatin, Yu.; Filonov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the development of the system to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method measuring delayed neutrons. As the neutron source the neutron generator was used. The neutron generator was controlled by the system. The detectors were developed on the base of the helium-3 counters. Each detector consist of 6 counters. Using a number of such detectors it is possible to verify materials stored in different geometry. There is an spectrometric scintillator detector in the system which gives an additional functional ability to the system. The system could be used to estimate the nuclear materials in waste, to detect the unauthorized transfer of the nuclear materials, to estimate the material in tubes [ru

  19. Consumers of leisure sports activities. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, contextual dynamics of society require new understandings of leisure available to the individual. The manner in which he intends to spend his free time may affect the quality of life, beneficial or not. We intend to identify the preferences of the population over 25 years in Iași city, for leisure practicing sport and physical activities in specialized institutions. The sample survey included 150 citizens of Iasi (75 male, 75 female, distributed by age ranges: 25-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64 years. They answered a questionnaire with 14 questions that focused customer profile (demographics: age, sex, the behavior of consumption (frequency of practicing sport and physical leisure activities, frequency of practicing sport and physical activities in sports clubs, preferences for various sport and physical activities. The results suggest that sport and physical activities play an important place in free time, preferences turning to programs and services offered by sports clubs and associations in the city. There are gender differences regarding: leisure sports (men devote more time to, but also include several sports activities in their free time than women; also, young people pay more attention to sports activities compared to subjects other intervals age; in sports (even if there are a number of common sports, the reasons underlying their practice (women prevail desire to lose weight and men wish to keep fit. The understanding that free time is becoming shorter and shorter and precious determines behavior directed towards ensuring the individual benefits: better health condition, relaxation and satisfaction.

  20. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  1. Detection of protease activity in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoes, Martijn; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are involved in a wide variety of biologically and medically important events. They are entangled in a complex network of processes that regulate their activity, which makes their study intriguing, but challenging. For comprehensive understanding of protease biology and effective drug discovery, it is therefore essential to study proteases in models that are close to their complex native environments such as live cells or whole organisms. Protease activity can be detected by reporter substrates and activity-based probes, but not all of these reagents are suitable for intracellular or in vivo use. This review focuses on the detection of proteases in cells and in vivo. We summarize the use of probes and substrates as molecular tools, discuss strategies to deliver these tools inside cells, and describe sophisticated read-out techniques such as mass spectrometry and various imaging applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  3. Active Fault Detection and Isolation for Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for active fault detection and isolation is proposed. In order to observe the failure hidden due to the normal operation of the controllers or the systems, an optimization problem based on minimization of test signal is used. The optimization based method imposes the normal and faulty...... models predicted outputs such that their discrepancies are observable by passive fault diagnosis technique. Isolation of different faults is done by implementation a bank of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) where the convergence criterion for EKF is confirmed by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method is applied...

  4. Direct Detection of Oil; Case History From Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaee, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Iran is one of the main petroleum producers and also one of the countries which experiences contemporary geophysical techniques in Middle East region. Main aim of this study is direct detection of oil hydrocarbons by a special geophysical technique. To accomplish that, FEM, TEM and IP integrated geophysical techniques were successfully applied to measure IP phase shift which might relate to existence of oil traps. Target penetration for this prospecting is about 6 kms

  5. Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga, Aniset; Moono, Petros; Stresman, Gillian; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Shiff, Clive

    2010-04-15

    Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most part are provided with adequate supplies of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as well as effective drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The tests are administered to all prior to treatment and appropriate records are kept. Data are obtained in a timely manner and distribution of this information is important for the effective management of malaria control operations. The work reported here involves combining the process of positive diagnoses in rural health centres (passive case detection) to help detect potential outbreaks of malaria and target interventions to foci where parasite reservoirs are likely to occur. Twelve rural health centres in the Choma and Namwala Districts were recruited to send weekly information of rapid malaria tests used and number of positive diagnoses to the Malaria Institute at Macha using mobile telephone SMS. Data were entered in excel, expressed as number of cases per rural health centre and distributed weekly to interested parties. These data from each of the health centres which were mapped using geographical positioning system (GPS) coordinates were used in a time sensitive manner to plot the patterns of malaria case detection in the vicinity of each location. The data were passed on to the appropriate authorities. The seasonal pattern of malaria transmission associated with local ecological conditions can be seen in the distribution of cases diagnosed. Adequate supplies of RDT are essential in health centres and the system can be expanded throughout the

  6. A Case of Malignant Pheochromocytoma Detected during Fertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Hagiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant pheochromocytoma in a 35-year-old Japanese woman during fertility treatment, successfully treated with surgical excision. The patient recovered without any postoperative problems, and plasma catecholamine levels normalized. At present, 18 months after the operation, there are no signs of relapse.

  7. Sub-surface defects detection of by using active thermography and advanced image edge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Wang, Gaochao

    2017-01-01

    Active or pulsed thermography is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) tool for inspecting the integrity and anomaly of industrial equipment. One of the recent research trends in using active thermography is to automate the process in detecting hidden defects. As of today, human effort has still been using to adjust the temperature intensity of the thermo camera in order to visually observe the difference in cooling rates caused by a normal target as compared to that by a sub-surface crack exists inside the target. To avoid the tedious human-visual inspection and minimize human induced error, this paper reports the design of an automatic method that is capable of detecting subsurface defects. The method used the technique of active thermography, edge detection in machine vision and smart algorithm. An infrared thermo-camera was used to capture a series of temporal pictures after slightly heating up the inspected target by flash lamps. Then the Canny edge detector was employed to automatically extract the defect related images from the captured pictures. The captured temporal pictures were preprocessed by a packet of Canny edge detector and then a smart algorithm was used to reconstruct the whole sequences of image signals. During the processes, noise and irrelevant backgrounds exist in the pictures were removed. Consequently, the contrast of the edges of defective areas had been highlighted. The designed automatic method was verified by real pipe specimens that contains sub-surface cracks. After applying such smart method, the edges of cracks can be revealed visually without the need of using manual adjustment on the setting of thermo-camera. With the help of this automatic method, the tedious process in manually adjusting the colour contract and the pixel intensity in order to reveal defects can be avoided. (paper)

  8. Telomerase Activity Detected by Quantitative Assay in Bladder Carcinoma and Exfoliated Cells in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fedriga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is one of the most determining factors for patient survival. The detection of telomerase activity is a potentially promising tool in the diagnosis of bladder and other types of cancer due to the high expression of this enzyme in tumor cells. We carried out a quantitative evaluation of telomerase activity in urine samples in an attempt to determine a cut-off capable of identifying cancer patients. Telomerase activity was quantified by fluorescence TRAP assay in urine from 50 healthy volunteers and in urine and bioptic tumor samples from 56 previously untreated bladder cancer patients and expressed in arbitrary enzymatic units (AEU. Telomerase activity in urine ranged from 0 to 106 AEU (median 0 in healthy donors and from 0 to 282 AEU (median 87 in patients with cancer. A telomerase expression higher than the cut off value determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was observed in 78% of cases, regardless of tumor grade and in 71% (15/21 of cases of nonassessable or negative cytology. The quantitative analysis of telomerase activity in urine enabled us to define cut-off values characterized by different sensitivity and specificity. Cytologic and telomerase determination, used sequentially, enabled us to detect about 90% of tumors.

  9. IAEA safeguards and detection of undeclared nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1996-03-01

    Verfication of State declarations is an essential feature of IAEA safeguards. The issue of completeness of the declaration of all nuclear material, nuclear activities and nuclear facilities arises only in full scope safeguards, like those pursuant to NPT. Concentrating on the accountability aspect of nuclear material, the NPT safeguards system has achieved a high level of objective and quantified performance. Some of the basic ideas of the drafters of INFCIRC/153 (corrected) have been stalled. Non-proliferation concerns demand also for a detection probability for undeclared nuclear activities. Following the example of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), advanced detection techniques are proposed, which go beyond the classical nuclear material accountability approach. Recent proposals for additional measures to strengthen IAEA safeguards conform to rules of NPT and related safeguards. Some proposals have been agreed generally, others can only be implemented on a voluntary basis between the State and the IAEA. The implementation will require additional resources and support for the IAEA. Great care is required to maintain the existing capability of the IAEA for a technically sound, independent, objective, and internationally acceptable judgement with available resources, and at the same time to change emphasis on certain elements of the existing safeguards system. (orig.)

  10. IAEA safeguards and detection of undeclared nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1996-03-01

    Verfication of State declarations is an essential feature of IAEA safeguards. The issue of completeness of the declaration of all nuclear material, nuclear activities and nuclear facilities arises only in full scope safeguards, like those pursuant to NPT. Concentrating on the accountability aspect of nuclear material, the NPT safeguards system has achieved a high level of objective and quantified performance. Some of the basic ideas of the drafters of INFCIRC/153 (corrected) have been stalled. Non-proliferation concerns demand also for a detection probability for undeclared nuclear activities. Following the example of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), advanced detection techniques are proposed, which go beyond the classical nuclear material accountability approach. Recent proposals for additional measures to strengthen IAEA safeguards conform to rules of NPT and related safeguards. Some proposals have been agreed generally, others can only be implemented on a voluntary basis between the State and the IAEA. The implementation will require additional resources and support for the IAEA. Great care is required to maintain the existing capability of the IAEA for a technically sound, independent, objective, and internationally acceptable judgement with available resources, and at the same time to change emphasis on certain elements of the existing safeguards system. (orig.).

  11. In situ autoradiographic detection of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, D.J.; Milman, G.; Osborne, C.; Shane, B.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the conversion of folate (pteroylmonoglutamate) to the polyglutamate forms (pteroylpolyglutamates) that are required for folate retention by mammalian cells. A rapid in situ autoradiographic assay for FPGS was developed which is based on the folate cofactor requirement of thymidylate synthase. Chinese hamster AUX B1 mutant cells lack FPGS activity and are unable to accumulate folate. As a result, the conversion of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine to thymidine via the thymidylate synthase reaction is impaired in AUX B1 cells and no detectable label is incorporated into DNA. In contrast, FPGS in wild-type Chinese hamster CHO cells causes folate retention and enables the incorporation of [6- 3 H]deoxyuridine into DNA. Incorporation may be detected by autoradiography of monolayer cultures or of colonies replica plated onto polyester discs. Introduction of Escherichia coli FPGS into AUX B1 cells restores the activity of the thymidylate synthase pathway and demonstrates that the E. coli FPGS enzyme can provide pteroylpolyglutamates which functions in mammalian cells

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the

  13. Apparatus and method for detecting contraband using fast neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Sawa, Z.P.; Shea, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of detecting contraband within an object under investigation. It comprises: generating a beam of case neutrons; irradiating the object with the beam of fast neutrons, the fast neutrons interacting with atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object to produce a gamma-ray spectrum having spectral lines characteristic of the elements contained within the object; measuring the spectral lines of the gamma-ray spectrum using a multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors judiciously positioned around the object; detecting the number of neutrons that pass through the object without interacting substantially with atomic nuclei within the object; determining the spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object from the measured gamma-ray spectrum obtained from the multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors and the number of neutrons that pass through the object; comparing the measured spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements within the object with known spatial and density distributions of atomic nuclei for elements characteristic of contraband; and determining that contraband is present within the object when the comparison indicates a substantial match

  14. Efficient examination to detect the location of cancer in cases with positive sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Yaginuma, Koji; Shibuya, Hiroko

    1993-01-01

    In order to localize cancers in 55 cases with positive sputum cytology, we examined chest CT and otolaryngeal findings, in addition to performing bronchoscopic examinations. Consequently, 30 cases had lung cancer, 5 had laryngopharyngeal cancer and 3 had cancer of the oral cavity. Otolaryngeal observation was useful for detection of these cancers of the upper respiratory tract. In 30 lung cancers, 23 were roentgenographically occult cancers. But, among these 23, 12 had positive findings on chest CT. CT was useful for the cases of roentgenographically occult lung cancer. Especially, CT was very effective for detection of small cancer lesions in the peripheral lung, which were undetectable bronchofiberscopically. Three of 20 cases, in which no cancers were detected after the initial examination, had cancer lesions 1-2 years later. These results suggest that CT, otolaryngeal observation and intensive follow-up of undetectable cases are useful for localizing cancer in cases with positive sputum cytology. (author)

  15. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis.

  16. Sonographic detection of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Won

    2006-01-01

    We report here on an extremely rare case of an intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst is rare disease entity and it nonspecific findings on sonography, so the diagnosis of the lesion is very difficult. However, during aspiration, if pus-like materials are aspirated from a thyroid cyst, we should consider the possibility of intrathyroidal branchial cleft cyst in the differential diagnosis

  17. Research into Plagiarism Cases and Plagiarism Detection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkur, M; Paršutins, S; Borisovs, A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of information technology intellectual property becomes especially valuable. This is one of the causes why the cases of the plagiarism appear more frequently in all vital sectors. Due to that, there is a growing need for different instruments for the protection and verification of copyright for finding plagiarism. Before checking the document for plagiarism, reviewing algorithms and approaches for searching plagiarism, you must know and understand what constitutes the plagiarism. T...

  18. Case detection rates of impetigo by gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakis, Kyriakos P; Tadros, Aline; Dimou, Anastasia; Karamanou, Marianna; Banaka, Fotini; Alexoudi, Iliana

    2012-06-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out (impetigo cases n=265, relative prevalence 5.3%, among 50,237 outpatients). Males predominated in childhood, adulthood and overall (OR 2.0) and exhibited a more protracted susceptibility. Impetigo was more prevalent in summer months. Lesions were located on the head and neck (65.4%), followed by 19.6% on an upper extremity and by 7.5% each on the trunk and a lower extremity.

  19. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  20. Efficacy of ultrasound elastography in detecting active myositis in children: can it replace MRI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berko, Netanel S.; Levin, Terry L. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Hay, Arielle [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Bronx, NY (United States); Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Miami, FL (United States); Sterba, Yonit; Wahezi, Dawn [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a rare yet potentially debilitating condition. MRI is used both for diagnosis and to assess response to treatment. No study has evaluated the performance of US elastography in the diagnosis of this condition in children. To assess the performance of compression-strain US elastography in detecting active myositis in children with clinically confirmed juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to compare its efficacy to MRI. Children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy underwent non-contrast MR imaging as well as compression-strain US elastography of the quadriceps muscles. Imaging findings from both modalities were compared to each other as well as to the clinical determination of active disease based on physical examination and laboratory data. Active myositis on MR was defined as increased muscle signal on T2-weighted images. Elastography images were defined as normal or abnormal based on a previously published numerical scale of muscle elastography in normal children. Muscle echogenicity was graded as normal or abnormal based on gray-scale sonographic images. Twenty-one studies were conducted in 18 pediatric patients (15 female, 3 male; age range 3-19 years). Active myositis was present on MRI in ten cases. There was a significant association between abnormal MRI and clinically active disease (P = 0.012). US elastography was abnormal in 4 of 10 cases with abnormal MRI and in 4 of 11 cases with normal MRI. There was no association between abnormal elastography and either MRI (P > 0.999) or clinically active disease (P > 0.999). Muscle echogenicity was normal in 11 patients; all 11 had normal elastography. Of the ten patients with increased muscle echogenicity, eight had abnormal elastography. There was a significant association between muscle echogenicity and US elastography (P < 0.001). The positive and negative predictive values for elastography in the determination of active myositis were 75% and 31

  1. Efficacy of ultrasound elastography in detecting active myositis in children: can it replace MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berko, Netanel S.; Levin, Terry L.; Hay, Arielle; Sterba, Yonit; Wahezi, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a rare yet potentially debilitating condition. MRI is used both for diagnosis and to assess response to treatment. No study has evaluated the performance of US elastography in the diagnosis of this condition in children. To assess the performance of compression-strain US elastography in detecting active myositis in children with clinically confirmed juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to compare its efficacy to MRI. Children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy underwent non-contrast MR imaging as well as compression-strain US elastography of the quadriceps muscles. Imaging findings from both modalities were compared to each other as well as to the clinical determination of active disease based on physical examination and laboratory data. Active myositis on MR was defined as increased muscle signal on T2-weighted images. Elastography images were defined as normal or abnormal based on a previously published numerical scale of muscle elastography in normal children. Muscle echogenicity was graded as normal or abnormal based on gray-scale sonographic images. Twenty-one studies were conducted in 18 pediatric patients (15 female, 3 male; age range 3-19 years). Active myositis was present on MRI in ten cases. There was a significant association between abnormal MRI and clinically active disease (P = 0.012). US elastography was abnormal in 4 of 10 cases with abnormal MRI and in 4 of 11 cases with normal MRI. There was no association between abnormal elastography and either MRI (P > 0.999) or clinically active disease (P > 0.999). Muscle echogenicity was normal in 11 patients; all 11 had normal elastography. Of the ten patients with increased muscle echogenicity, eight had abnormal elastography. There was a significant association between muscle echogenicity and US elastography (P < 0.001). The positive and negative predictive values for elastography in the determination of active myositis were 75% and 31

  2. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  3. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  4. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seethalakshmi; Menon, Thangam

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). 24/68 (35.29%) cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8%) patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  5. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00416173; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machin...

  6. Efficacy of ultrasound elastography in detecting active myositis in children: can it replace MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Netanel S; Hay, Arielle; Sterba, Yonit; Wahezi, Dawn; Levin, Terry L

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a rare yet potentially debilitating condition. MRI is used both for diagnosis and to assess response to treatment. No study has evaluated the performance of US elastography in the diagnosis of this condition in children. To assess the performance of compression-strain US elastography in detecting active myositis in children with clinically confirmed juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to compare its efficacy to MRI. Children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy underwent non-contrast MR imaging as well as compression-strain US elastography of the quadriceps muscles. Imaging findings from both modalities were compared to each other as well as to the clinical determination of active disease based on physical examination and laboratory data. Active myositis on MR was defined as increased muscle signal on T2-weighted images. Elastography images were defined as normal or abnormal based on a previously published numerical scale of muscle elastography in normal children. Muscle echogenicity was graded as normal or abnormal based on gray-scale sonographic images. Twenty-one studies were conducted in 18 pediatric patients (15 female, 3 male; age range 3-19 years). Active myositis was present on MRI in ten cases. There was a significant association between abnormal MRI and clinically active disease (P = 0.012). US elastography was abnormal in 4 of 10 cases with abnormal MRI and in 4 of 11 cases with normal MRI. There was no association between abnormal elastography and either MRI (P > 0.999) or clinically active disease (P > 0.999). Muscle echogenicity was normal in 11 patients; all 11 had normal elastography. Of the ten patients with increased muscle echogenicity, eight had abnormal elastography. There was a significant association between muscle echogenicity and US elastography (P myositis were 75% and 31%, respectively, with a sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 67%. Compression-strain US

  7. A Neuroanatomy Teaching Activity Using Case Studies and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for use in an introductory psychology course in which students collaborate and apply their neuroanatomy knowledge to three case studies. Provides a table with descriptions of and possible answers for the three case studies and discusses the students' responses. (CMK)

  8. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  9. Nanobeads-based assays. The case of gluten detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Bellucci, Stefano; Crescenzo, Roberta; Iozzino, Luisa; Staiano, Maria; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Varriale, Antonio; Rossi, Mose; D'Auria, Sabato

    2008-01-01

    In order to verify if the use of nanobeads of poly[phenylacetylene-(co-acrylic acid)] (PPA/AA) in the ELISA test would affect the immune-activity of the antibodies (Ab) and/or the activity of the enzymes used to label the Ab anti-rabbit IGg, in this work we immobilized the horse liver peroxidase labelled Ab anti-rabbit IGg onto PPA/AA nanobeads. The gluten test was chosen as the model to demonstrate the usefulness of these nanobeads in immunoassays. The synthesis of PPA/AA nanobeads was performed by a modified emulsion polymerization. Self-assembly of nanospheres with mean diameter equal to 200 nm was achieved by casting aqueous suspensions. The materials were characterized by traditional spectroscopic techniques, while the size and dispersion of the particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The obtained results show that the immobilization process of the Abs onto PPA/AA did not affect either the immune-response of the Abs or the functional activity of the peroxidase suggesting the usefulness of PPA/AA for the design of advanced nanobeads-based assays for the simultaneous screening of several analytes in complex media.

  10. People detection in crowded scenes using active contour models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pedestrians in real-world scenes is a daunting task, especially in crowded situations. Our experience over the last years has shown that active shape models (ASM) can contribute significantly to a robust pedestrian detection system. The paper starts with an overview of shape model approaches, it then explains our approach which builds on top of Eigenshape models which have been trained using real-world data. These models are placed over candidate regions and matched to image gradients using a scoring function which integrates i) point distribution, ii) local gradient orientations iii) local image gradient strengths. A matching and shape model update process is iteratively applied in order to fit the flexible models to the local image content. The weights of the scoring function have a significant impact on the ASM performance. We analyze different settings of scoring weights for gradient magnitude, relative orientation differences, distance between model and gradient in an experiment which uses real-world data. Although for only one pedestrian model in an image computation time is low, the number of necessary processing cycles which is needed to track many people in crowded scenes can become the bottleneck in a real-time application. We describe the measures which have been taken in order to improve the speed of the ASM implementation and make it real-time capable.

  11. Neutron activation analysis detection limits using 252Cf sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPrete, D.P.; Sigg, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed a neutron activation analysis (NAA) facility several decades ago using low-flux 252 Cf neutron sources. Through this time, the facility has addressed areas of applied interest in managing the Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications are unique because of the site's operating history and its chemical-processing facilities. Because sensitivity needs for many applications are not severe, they can be accomplished using an ∼6-mg 252 Cf NAA facility. The SRTC 252 Cf facility continues to support applied research programs at SRTC as well as other SRS programs for environmental and waste management customers. Samples analyzed by NAA include organic compounds, metal alloys, sediments, site process solutions, and many other materials. Numerous radiochemical analyses also rely on the facility for production of short-lived tracers, yielding by activation of carriers and small-scale isotope production for separation methods testing. These applications are more fully reviewed in Ref. 1. Although the flux [approximately2 x 10 7 n/cm 2 ·s] is low relative to reactor facilities, more than 40 elements can be detected at low and sub-part-per-million levels. Detection limits provided by the facility are adequate for many analytical projects. Other multielement analysis methods, particularly inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, can now provide sensitivities on dissolved samples that are often better than those available by NAA using low-flux isotopic sources. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, (a) it is a more cost-effective choice when its sensitivity is adequate than methods that require digestion and (b) it eliminates uncertainties that can be introduced by digestion processes

  12. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  13. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Lara, Camilo; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machine Learning approach. We plan to implement the proposed framework as a software prototype that will be tested as a component of the ALICE Grid middleware.

  14. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Andres; Lara, Camilo; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machine Learning approach. We plan to implement the proposed framework as a software prototype that will be tested as a component of the ALICE Grid middleware. (paper)

  15. Tuberculosis active case finding in Cambodia: a pragmatic, cost-effectiveness comparison of three implementation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard; Khim, Keovathanak; Boudarene, Lydia; Yoong, Joanne; Phalla, Chea; Saint, Saly; Koeut, Pichenda; Mao, Tan Eang; Coker, Richard; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2017-08-22

    Globally, almost 40% of tuberculosis (TB) patients remain undiagnosed, and those that are diagnosed often experience prolonged delays before initiating correct treatment, leading to ongoing transmission. While there is a push for active case finding (ACF) to improve early detection and treatment of TB, there is extremely limited evidence about the relative cost-effectiveness of different ACF implementation models. Cambodia presents a unique opportunity for addressing this gap in evidence as ACF has been implemented using different models, but no comparisons have been conducted. The objective of our study is to contribute to knowledge and methodology on comparing cost-effectiveness of alternative ACF implementation models from the health service perspective, using programmatic data, in order to inform national policy and practice. We retrospectively compared three distinct ACF implementation models - door to door symptom screening in urban slums, checking contacts of TB patients, and door to door symptom screening focusing on rural populations aged above 55 - in terms of the number of new bacteriologically-positive pulmonary TB cases diagnosed and the cost of implementation assuming activities are conducted by the national TB program of Cambodia. We calculated the cost per additional case detected using the alternative ACF models. Our analysis, which is the first of its kind for TB, revealed that the ACF model based on door to door screening in poor urban areas of Phnom Penh was the most cost-effective (249 USD per case detected, 737 cases diagnosed), followed by the model based on testing contacts of TB patients (308 USD per case detected, 807 cases diagnosed), and symptomatic screening of older rural populations (316 USD per case detected, 397 cases diagnosed). Our study provides new evidence on the relative effectiveness and economics of three implementation models for enhanced TB case finding, in line with calls for data from 'routine conditions' to be included

  16. Active link selection for efficient semi-supervised community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Jin, Di; Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Several semi-supervised community detection algorithms have been proposed recently to improve the performance of traditional topology-based methods. However, most of them focus on how to integrate supervised information with topology information; few of them pay attention to which information is critical for performance improvement. This leads to large amounts of demand for supervised information, which is expensive or difficult to obtain in most fields. For this problem we propose an active link selection framework, that is we actively select the most uncertain and informative links for human labeling for the efficient utilization of the supervised information. We also disconnect the most likely inter-community edges to further improve the efficiency. Our main idea is that, by connecting uncertain nodes to their community hubs and disconnecting the inter-community edges, one can sharpen the block structure of adjacency matrix more efficiently than randomly labeling links as the existing methods did. Experiments on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that our new approach significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of the efficiency of using supervised information. It needs ~13% of the supervised information to achieve a performance similar to that of the original semi-supervised approaches. PMID:25761385

  17. Lower detectable limit of sulfur by fast neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shani, G; Cohen, D [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1976-07-01

    For the purpose of air pollution research, the possibility of fast neutron activation analysis of sulfur was investigated. The only reaction that can be used for this purpose is S/sup 34/(n, p)P/sup 34/. A rabbit system was installed, synchronized with a 150 kV D-T neutron generator and an electronic analysing system. The whole system was operated so that the sample was irradiated for 10 sec and the 2.13 MeV ..gamma..-ray was counted for 10 sec. 5 samples were prepared containing sulfur from 0.5 to 0.1 g. Each measurement lasted 30 min and the activity was plotted as a function of sulfur weight. The relative error is increased very much when the amount of sulfur is below 0.1 g. This is what sets the lower detectable limit. Collection of more than 0.1 g of sulfur even during a long collection time means a very high SO/sub 2/ concentration in the air.

  18. Passive versus active hazard detection and avoidance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, D.; Mercier, G.; Hamel, J.-F.; Simard Bilodeau, V.; Woicke, S.; Alger, M.; Beaudette, D.

    2015-06-01

    Upcoming planetary exploration missions will require advanced guidance, navigation and control technologies to reach landing sites with high precision and safety. Various technologies are currently in development to meet that goal. Some technologies rely on passive sensors and benefit from the low mass and power of such solutions while others rely on active sensors and benefit from an improved robustness and accuracy. This paper presents two different hazard detection and avoidance (HDA) system design approaches. The first architecture relies only on a camera as the passive HDA sensor while the second relies, in addition, on a Lidar as the active HDA sensor. Both options use in common an innovative hazard map fusion algorithm aiming at identifying the safest landing locations. This paper presents the simulation tools and reports the closed-loop software simulation results obtained using each design option. The paper also reports the Monte Carlo simulation campaign that was used to assess the robustness of each design option. The performance of each design option is compared against each other in terms of performance criteria such as percentage of success, mean distance to nearest hazard, etc. The applicability of each design option to planetary exploration missions is also discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Active Case Finding (ACF of Tuberculosis in Slums Population in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hoseinpoor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background At present of the limitation of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB case finding, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF has risen. World Health Organization (WHO calls for research on TB screening among low-income countries because of the limitation of the passive case finding strategies. We aimed to evaluated Active Case Finding strategy for TB among the slums population in North of Iran (Gorgan city and comprise this procedure to Passive Case Finding. Materials and Methods We conducted a house-to-house survey from April 2016 to July 2016 by trained health volunteers for TB in ten urban slums of Gorgan. Individuals with TB symptoms were identified through targeted screening using a standardized questionnaire and investigated further for TB. Descriptive analyses were performed using Stata-12. Results During study period, of 22,741 individuals screened for TB, 112 (0.49% were identified as TB suspects; 95 suspects were evaluated for TB. TB was diagnosed in four individuals, representing 4.2% of those evaluated for TB as suspected cases. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 17.5 in 100.000 people in slums population of Gorgan. Of the four detected cases, three individuals had pulmonary TB that among them two cases had new smear-positive TB. Conclusion ACF could supplement current strategies to yield additional TB cases, lead to early diagnosis and better treatment.

  20. Full-signature real-time corrosion detection of underground casing pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Jiming; Lu, Mi; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Corrosion monitoring and early detection of pits and wall thinning for casing pipes are considerably important to gas and petroleum industries since the frequently occurring corrosion at the internal or external parts of those steel casing pipes used in underground gas storage or oil fields causes

  1. Evaluation and Uncertainty of a New Method to Detect Suspected Nuclear and WMD Activity: Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    The Atmospheric Technology Group at SRNL developed a new method to detect signals from Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) activities in a time series of chemical measurements at a downwind location. This method was tested with radioxenon measured in Russia and Japan after the 2013 underground test in North Korea. This LDRD calculated the uncertainty in the method with the measured data and also for a case with the signal reduced to 1/10 its measured value. The research showed that the uncertainty in the calculated probability of origin from the NK test site was small enough to confirm the test. The method was also wellbehaved for small signal strengths.

  2. Delayed Detection of Esophageal Intubation in Anesthesia Malpractice Claims: Brief Report of a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honardar, Marzieh R; Posner, Karen L; Domino, Karen B

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective case series analyzed 45 malpractice claims for delayed detection of esophageal intubation from the Anesthesia Closed Claims Project. Inclusion criteria were cases from 1995 to 2013, after adoption of identification of CO2 in expired gas to verify correct endotracheal tube position as a monitoring standard by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Forty-nine percent (95% confidence interval 34%-64%) occurred in the operating room or other anesthesia location where CO2 detection equipment should have been available. The most common factors contributing to delayed detection were not using, ignoring, or misinterpreting CO2 readings. Misdiagnosis, as with bronchospasm, occurred in 33% (95% confidence interval 20%).

  3. A case of cerebral cysticercosis detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosugi, Tetsuzo; Gondo, Masazumi; Kanamaru, Reizo; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Mihara, Tadahiro

    1983-01-01

    Cysticercosis is well known as a parasitic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system. A 60-year-old man, who once lived in the mainland of China in the 1940s, was admitted to the hospital complaining of the right motor weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed the right hemiparesis with increase of deep tendon reflexes and motor dysphasia. The skull x-ray films showed no abnormal finding, but many small fusiform calcifications were found in the x-ray films of soft tissues of the limbs. Brain CT demonstrated several small rounded and calcified high density areas and cystic low density areas in the parenchyma with a marked dilatation of the ventricular system. And a large cystic mass of the left fronto-parietal region compressed the body of the left lateral ventricle. After infusion of contrast medium, a small ring-enhanced density area in the frontal region was revealed. By a craniotomy, the large cyst, which had a bluish transparent wall, was totally extirpated. The nature of the cystic content was similar to that of the cerebro-spinal fluid. On histological examination of the cyst wall any scolex was not found, but papillary folds and typical three layers of cysticercosis were observed. The immunological testing for cysticercosis was positive on the serum of the patient. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. Wider applications of CT in clinical practice could discover more cases of cysticercosis in the recent situation of world wide communication of population. This report will be the first one of cysticercosis which mainly discussed about the findings of CT in the Japanese literature. (author)

  4. Unbalance detection in rotor systems with active bearings using self-sensing piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Ramakrishnan; Rinderknecht, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    Machines which are developed today are highly automated due to increased use of mechatronic systems. To ensure their reliable operation, fault detection and isolation (FDI) is an important feature along with a better control. This research work aims to achieve and integrate both these functions with minimum number of components in a mechatronic system. This article investigates a rotating machine with active bearings equipped with piezoelectric actuators. There is an inherent coupling between their electrical and mechanical properties because of which they can also be used as sensors. Mechanical deflection can be reconstructed from these self-sensing actuators from measured voltage and current signals. These virtual sensor signals are utilised to detect unbalance in a rotor system. Parameters of unbalance such as its magnitude and phase are detected by parametric estimation method in frequency domain. Unbalance location has been identified using hypothesis of localization of faults. Robustness of the estimates against outliers in measurements is improved using weighted least squares method. Unbalances are detected in a real test bench apart from simulation using its model. Experiments are performed in stationary as well as in transient case. As a further step unbalances are estimated during simultaneous actuation of actuators in closed loop with an adaptive algorithm for vibration minimisation. This strategy could be used in systems which aim for both fault detection and control action.

  5. Detection of skeletal muscle metastases on initial staging of lung cancer: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Marialuisa; Valente, Tullio; Somma, Francesco; de Rosa, Ilaria; Bifulco, Marco; Rea, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Estimation of skeletal muscle metastases (SMMs) at the time of diagnosis and/or initial staging of lung cancer. Retrospective evaluation of clinical charts and imaging data suggestive of SMMs of patients with histology-proved lung cancer over a 5-year period. SMMs were identified in 46 out of 1,754 patients. Single and multiple (62.9% of cases) SMMs were detected by total body multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). They were associated with poorly differentiated (43%) and advanced adenocarcinomas (52%) without clinically relevant symptoms and/or signs. Psoas and buttock muscles were most frequently involved (33.3%). MDCT findings consisted of well-defined homogeneously hyperdense oval masses (31%), lesions with ring-like enhancement and central hypoattenuation (68%), or large abscess-like necrotic lesions (24%). Sonography revealed well-defined hypoechoic masses (41.6%), ill-defined hypoechoic lesions (33.3%), or anechoic areas with a necrotic centre (25%). Positron emission tomography revealed that all SMMs were metabolically active. SMMs are uncommon but not negligible in lung cancer, with an estimated prevalence of 2.62% in our series. Although histology remains the recommended method, use of high-performance imaging techniques and increased clinical suspicion may improve their early detection. Efforts addressing their effect on the natural history of lung cancer are needed.

  6. Design of stepwise screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes based on costs and cases detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Bakker, Stephan J L; Buskens, Erik

    2015-09-01

    To provide insight into the trade-off between cost per case detected (CPCD) and the detection rate in questionnaire-based stepwise screening for impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. We considered a stepwise screening in which individuals whose risk score exceeds a predetermined cutoff value are invited for further blood glucose testing. Using individual patient data to determine questionnaire sensitivity and specificity and external sources to determine screening costs and patient response rates, we rolled back a decision tree to estimate the CPCD and the detection rate for all possible cutoffs on the questionnaire. We found a U-shaped relation between CPCD and detection rate, with high costs per case detected at very low and very high detection rates. Changes in patient response rates had a large impact on both the detection rate and the CPCD, whereas screening costs and questionnaire accuracy mainly impacted the CPCD. Our applied method makes it possible to identify a range of efficient cutoffs where higher detection rates can be achieved at an additional cost per detected patient. This enables decision makers to choose an optimal cutoff based on their willingness to pay for additional detected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  8. Screening of Active Lyssavirus Infection in Wild Bat Populations by Viral RNA Detection on Oropharyngeal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Juan E.; Avellón, Ana; Juste, Javier; Vera, Manuel; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain. PMID:11574590

  9. Integrated Detection and Prediction of Influenza Activity for Real-Time Surveillance: Algorithm Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, Armin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Cowling, Benjamin John; Timpka, Toomas

    2017-06-15

    Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat to communities worldwide. The rapidly growing availability of electronic "big data" from diagnostic and prediagnostic sources in health care and public health settings permits advance of a new generation of methods for local detection and prediction of winter influenza seasons and influenza pandemics. The aim of this study was to present a method for integrated detection and prediction of influenza virus activity in local settings using electronically available surveillance data and to evaluate its performance by retrospective application on authentic data from a Swedish county. An integrated detection and prediction method was formally defined based on a design rationale for influenza detection and prediction methods adapted for local surveillance. The novel method was retrospectively applied on data from the winter influenza season 2008-09 in a Swedish county (population 445,000). Outcome data represented individuals who met a clinical case definition for influenza (based on International Classification of Diseases version 10 [ICD-10] codes) from an electronic health data repository. Information from calls to a telenursing service in the county was used as syndromic data source. The novel integrated detection and prediction method is based on nonmechanistic statistical models and is designed for integration in local health information systems. The method is divided into separate modules for detection and prediction of local influenza virus activity. The function of the detection module is to alert for an upcoming period of increased load of influenza cases on local health care (using influenza-diagnosis data), whereas the function of the prediction module is to predict the timing of the activity peak (using syndromic data) and its intensity (using influenza-diagnosis data). For detection modeling, exponential regression was used based on the assumption that the beginning

  10. Active Surveillance of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy): Importance for Case Finding among Extra-domiciliary Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria L. N.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Sampaio, Gabriel A. A.; Nóbrega, Priscilla F. C.; Jeronimo, Ana K.; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M.; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Barbosa, James D.; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Souza, Marcia C. F.; Nobre, Maurício L.

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:23516645

  11. The passive and active periods for the intermittent use of an active sensor to detect an evasive target

    OpenAIRE

    Bache, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Your task is to detect a submarine with your active sonar. The submarine can hear your active sonar before you can detect him. If the submarine is fast enough he can evade you before you can detect him. How do you then detect him? If you are using your active sonar continuously you will not detect him. Likewise, if you are not using your sonar at all. In between those two extremes there is an optimum. We will find that optimum. Or said more precisely and general: In the same two dimensional r...

  12. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  13. A Novel Paramagnetic Substrate for Detecting Myeloperoxidase Activity in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Shazeeb

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bis-phenylamides and bis-hydroxyindolamides of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA(Gd are paramagnetic reducing substrates of peroxidases that enable molecular imaging of peroxidase activity in vivo. Specifically, gadolinium chelates of bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-DTPA (bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd have been used to image localized inflammation in animal models by detecting neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO activity at the inflammation site. However, in other preclinical disease models, bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd presents technical challenges due to its limited solubility in vivo. Here we report a novel MPO-sensing probe obtained by replacing the reducing substrate serotonin (5-HT with 5-hydroxytryptophan (HTrp. Characterization of the resulting probe (bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd in vitro using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzyme kinetic analysis showed that bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd (1 improves solubility in water; (2 acts as a substrate for both horseradish peroxidase and MPO enzymes; (3 induces cross-linking of proteins in the presence of MPO; (4 produces oxidation products, which bind to plasma proteins; and (5 unlike bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd, does not follow first-order reaction kinetics. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MR! in mice demonstrated that bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd was retained for up to 5 days in MPO-containing sites and cleared faster than bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd from MPO-negative sites. Bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd should offer improvements for MR! of MPO-mediated inflammation in vivo, especially in high-field MR!, which requires a higher dose of contrast agent.

  14. A novel paramagnetic substrate for detecting myeloperoxidase activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazeeb, Mohammed S; Xie, Yang; Gupta, Suresh; Bogdanov, Alexei A

    2012-01-01

    Bis-phenylamides and bis-hydroxyindolamides of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA(Gd)) are paramagnetic reducing substrates of peroxidases that enable molecular imaging of peroxidase activity in vivo. Specifically, gadolinium chelates of bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-DTPA (bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd)) have been used to image localized inflammation in animal models by detecting neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity at the inflammation site. However, in other preclinical disease models, bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd) presents technical challenges due to its limited solubility in vivo. Here we report a novel MPO-sensing probe obtained by replacing the reducing substrate serotonin (5-HT) with 5-hydroxytryptophan (HTrp). Characterization of the resulting probe (bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd)) in vitro using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzyme kinetic analysis showed that bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd) (1) improves solubility in water; (2) acts as a substrate for both horseradish peroxidase and MPO enzymes; (3) induces cross-linking of proteins in the presence of MPO; (4) produces oxidation products, which bind to plasma proteins; and (5) unlike bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd), does not follow first-order reaction kinetics. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mice demonstrated that bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd) was retained for up to 5 days in MPO-containing sites and cleared faster than bis-5HT-DTPA(Gd) from MPO-negative sites. Bis-HTrp-DTPA(Gd) should offer improvements for MRI of MPO-mediated inflammation in vivo, especially in high-field MRI, which requires a higher dose of contrast agent.

  15. Polysplenia Syndrome Detected after Chest Symptoms in Two Adult Patients: Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Güliz; Akpınar, Süha H.; Alıcıoğlu, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Polisplenia syndrome (PSS) is a rare subtype of heterotaxy syndrome and means ambiguous location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs with vascular anomalies and multiple spleens. We reported on the findings of computed tomography (CT) of PSS in adults, detected incidentally. Two woman underwent a CT examination of the thorax for different thoracic pathologies. There were common abnormalities such as hyparterial bronchi and absence of middle lobe fissure on CTscans suggesting heterotaxy syndrome. Therefore, the abdominal CTs were performed to detect the accompanying abdominal anomalies. Our two cases defined as PSS were diagnosed with multiple spleens in the normal location in the abdomen. The left-dominant liver and short pancreas with agenesis of the pancreatic tail and lateral part of the body were detected on CT scan. In the first case, the vascular abnormalities were as follows: variant entrance of the main portal vein into the liver and atypically located superior mesenteric vein (SMV) joining with the splenic vein to form the portal vein. In the second case, the preduodenal portal vein and hemiazygos continuation with interruption of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were the vascular anomalies. The bowels were malrotated in the second case. Although such cases are usually admitted as abdominal emergency, our two cases were detected during examinations for thoracic and cardiac pathologies. The knowledge and awareness of PSS can be helpful to diagnose pathology and plan surgical procedures

  16. Detection of activated platelets using activation-specific monoclonal antibody (SZ-51) in clinical disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Li Fugang; Li Jianyong; Ruan Changgeng

    1991-10-01

    A direct test for activated platelets in whole blood was developed by radioimmunoassay with 125 I labeled SZ-51, an antibody specific for an α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) that associates with the platelet surface during secretion. The assay had sufficient sensitivity to detect as few as 2% activated platelets. In 50 normal subjects, minimal GMP-140 molecules per platelet were expressed on the surface of circulating platelets. Ten patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had transiently increased expression of GMP-140 molecules during the bypass procedure, especially at the end of bypass. Evaluation of 18 patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF) has shown that the number of GMP-140 molecules on the platelet surface was closely related to the four different phases of EHF. In six patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the number of GMP-140 molecules changed with the procession of AMI and the highest occurred 48 h after AMI. The GMP-140 molecules were also increased in patients with asthma attack (n = 14), but not in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 11) and diabetic mellitus (n = 48). Taken together, these studies suggest that activated platelet can be reliably measured in whole blood using radiolabeled SZ-51 antibody and the detection of activated platelets is potentially useful in identifying patients with certain thrombotic disorders and others

  17. Evaluation of coexistence of cancer and active tuberculosis; 16 case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Çakar

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for cancer. Pulmonary TB and lung cancer(LC may mimic each other especially in the aspect of the clinical and radiological features. The aim of the study was to evaluate the features and risk factors of cases with coexistence cancer and active TB. Methodology: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with coexisting TB and cancer a period from 2009 to 2014. We evaluated demographic data, the ways diagnosis of TB cases, the location of TB and cancer, TB treatment results of the cases. Results: We recorded 374 TB cases in our dyspensary at this study period. In 16 (4% of these cases, a coexistence of cancer and TB was detected. The male/female ratio was 12/4. The mean age was 62,12 ± 15,13 years. There were TST results except three cases. There were ten pulmonary TB and six extra-pulmonary TB (four peripheral lymphadenopathy TB, one abdominal TB lymphadenopathy and one salivary gland TB. Cancer types were as follows; eight lung cancer, two breast cancer, one base of tongue, one endometrium cancer, one hypopharyngeal cancer, one stomach cancer, one bladder cancer and one maxillary cancer. Diagnosis of all cases was confirmed by bacteriologic and/or histopathological examination. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type of cancers. This rate was 9/16. All TB cases were new. There were risk factors out of two case in the cases. Five cases were died during TB treatment. Others completed TB treatment without any complication. Conclusions: In our study, the coexistence of LC and pulmonary TB was more common. The local immunity is deteriorated in cancer cases. If there is pulmonary infiltrates in lung or peripheral lymphadenopathy, we must search tuberculosis too out of metastatic lesion and other infectious diseases. We should not make delay in the diagnosis of active TB in cancer cases. Keywords: Coexistent, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis treatment

  18. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  19. Casing Pipe Damage Detection with Optical Fiber Sensors: A Case Study in Oil Well Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casing pipes in oil well constructions may suddenly buckle inward as their inside and outside hydrostatic pressure difference increases. For the safety of construction workers and the steady development of oil industries, it is critically important to measure the stress state of a casing pipe. This study develops a rugged, real-time monitoring, and warning system that combines the distributed Brillouin Scattering Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR and the discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG measurement. The BOTDR optical fiber sensors were embedded with no optical fiber splice joints in a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP rebar and the FBG sensors were wrapped in epoxy resins and glass clothes, both installed during the segmental construction of casing pipes. In situ tests indicate that the proposed sensing system and installation technique can survive the downhole driving process of casing pipes, withstand a harsh service environment, and remain intact with the casing pipes for compatible strain measurements. The relative error of the measured strains between the distributed and discrete sensors is less than 12%. The FBG sensors successfully measured the maximum horizontal principal stress with a relative error of 6.7% in comparison with a cross multipole array acoustic instrument.

  20. Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanga Aniset

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most part are provided with adequate supplies of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT as well as effective drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The tests are administered to all prior to treatment and appropriate records are kept. Data are obtained in a timely manner and distribution of this information is important for the effective management of malaria control operations. The work reported here involves combining the process of positive diagnoses in rural health centres (passive case detection to help detect potential outbreaks of malaria and target interventions to foci where parasite reservoirs are likely to occur. Methods Twelve rural health centres in the Choma and Namwala Districts were recruited to send weekly information of rapid malaria tests used and number of positive diagnoses to the Malaria Institute at Macha using mobile telephone SMS. Data were entered in excel, expressed as number of cases per rural health centre and distributed weekly to interested parties. Results These data from each of the health centres which were mapped using geographical positioning system (GPS coordinates were used in a time sensitive manner to plot the patterns of malaria case detection in the vicinity of each location. The data were passed on to the appropriate authorities. The seasonal pattern of malaria transmission associated with local ecological conditions can be seen in the distribution of cases diagnosed. Conclusions Adequate supplies of RDT are essential in

  1. Identification of Active Faults by Aerial Photograph Interpretation and Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Chang, C.J.; Choi, W.H.; Yun, K.H.; Park, D.H.; Shin, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is the technical memo of the research project entitled ''Development of Technology of Advanced Seismic Safety Assessment for NPP sites''. The purposes of this report are to describe analysis methods of photographic characteristics related with active faults, to identify active faults by aerial photograph interpretation and to review case studies. (author). 27 refs., 165 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A Storm

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts, Up (Jawbone, One (Fitbit, ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc., Tractivity (Kineteks Corp. and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia. Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  3. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  4. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been...

  5. Interest of the technical detection of the sentinel node applied to uterine cancers: about three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ech charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.; Ech charra, I.; Albertini, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The sentinel node technique (S.N.) was proposed in cervical cancers in order to optimise the diagnosis of metastases and the lymphatic micrometastases in the early stages while avoiding useless wide clearings out. The identification of this node is done by injection of a dye and/or a radioactive colloid and its ablation for pathological examination. Patients and methods We report the case of three patients followed for a uterine cancer having benefited from a lymphoscintigraphy before surgery. During the surgical procedure, the detection of the sentinel node was carried out after cervical injection of blue dye and using a gamma detection probe. Results The lymphoscintigraphy was positive for two cases with a positive detection for the three cases during the operation. The pathological study revealed a node metastasis for one case. The technical of the sentinel node applied to uterine cancers appears realizable essentially for uterine cancers of early stage (I). However the risk of false negative can be observed in advanced cancer (III), as it is the case of our patient having a negative lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusion The nuclear medicine is important in the detection of the sentinel node of various cancers, uterine cancer included, thus allowing an appropriate cardiologic management. (authors)

  6. Automatic reference selection for quantitative EEG interpretation: identification of diffuse/localised activity and the active earlobe reference, iterative detection of the distribution of EEG rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Xingyu; Ikeda, Akio; Nagamine, Takashi; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    EEG (Electroencephalograph) interpretation is important for the diagnosis of neurological disorders. The proper adjustment of the montage can highlight the EEG rhythm of interest and avoid false interpretation. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic reference selection method to identify a suitable reference. The results may contribute to the accurate inspection of the distribution of EEG rhythms for quantitative EEG interpretation. The method includes two pre-judgements and one iterative detection module. The diffuse case is initially identified by pre-judgement 1 when intermittent rhythmic waveforms occur over large areas along the scalp. The earlobe reference or averaged reference is adopted for the diffuse case due to the effect of the earlobe reference depending on pre-judgement 2. An iterative detection algorithm is developed for the localised case when the signal is distributed in a small area of the brain. The suitable averaged reference is finally determined based on the detected focal and distributed electrodes. The presented technique was applied to the pathological EEG recordings of nine patients. One example of the diffuse case is introduced by illustrating the results of the pre-judgements. The diffusely intermittent rhythmic slow wave is identified. The effect of active earlobe reference is analysed. Two examples of the localised case are presented, indicating the results of the iterative detection module. The focal and distributed electrodes are detected automatically during the repeating algorithm. The identification of diffuse and localised activity was satisfactory compared with the visual inspection. The EEG rhythm of interest can be highlighted using a suitable selected reference. The implementation of an automatic reference selection method is helpful to detect the distribution of an EEG rhythm, which can improve the accuracy of EEG interpretation during both visual inspection and automatic interpretation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM

  7. Atlantoaxial Ankylosis Detected on Neck CT Scans in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Rheynmatology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that principally affects the axial skeleton. The cervical spine is also vulnerable to this disease process and the characteristic feature of cervical involvement is atlantoaxial subluxation. However, only a few cases of atlantoaxial ankylosis have been reported to date. We report a case of atlantoaxial ankylosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with radiologic findings incidentally detected on neck CT scans.

  8. Atlantoaxial Ankylosis Detected on Neck CT Scans in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that principally affects the axial skeleton. The cervical spine is also vulnerable to this disease process and the characteristic feature of cervical involvement is atlantoaxial subluxation. However, only a few cases of atlantoaxial ankylosis have been reported to date. We report a case of atlantoaxial ankylosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with radiologic findings incidentally detected on neck CT scans.

  9. Minimum detectable activities of contamination control survey equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Baumann, B.L.; Johnson, M.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Instrumentation ampersand External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of the Health Physics Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has performed a series of tests to determine the ability of portable survey instruments used at Hanford to detect radioactive contamination at levels required by DOE 5480.11. This semi-empirical study combines instrumental, statistical, and human factors as necessary to derive operational detection limits. These threshold detection values have been compared to existing contamination control requirements, and detection deficiencies have been identified when present. Portable survey instruments used on the Hanford Site identify the presence of radioactive surface contamination based on the detection of α-, β-, γ-, and/or x-radiation. However, except in some unique circumstances, most contamination monitors in use at Hanford are configured to detect either α-radiation alone or β- and γ-radiation together. Testing was therefore conducted on only these two categories of radiation detection devices. Nevertheless, many of the results obtained are generally applicable to all survey instruments, allowing performance evaluations to be extended to monitoring devices which are exclusively γ- and/or x-ray- sensitive. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Family motivation card: An innovative tool for increasing case detection in a resource poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease, causing various physical disabilities and deformities. Even today, stigma leads to late detection of new cases. Household contacts are considered a primary focus for the spread of infection. To find new cases among household contacts of leprosy patients by providing a family motivation card (FMC) to each leprosy patient, thereby enabling early diagnosis and treatment leading to a decrease in disease and disability burden in the community. 100 patients diagnosed with leprosy (both new and old cases) were enrolled in the study. All patients were provided with a family motivation card. The purpose of giving the card was discussed in detail with each patient. New family contacts brought by old patients were examined thoroughly for the presence of leprosy. Digital color photographs were taken of all family contacts. Data analysis was done. 23 new cases of leprosy (15 (65%) MB and eight (35%) PB cases) were detected among family members of primary cases. Most cases belonged to the under 15 years (43.47%) and over 60 years (34.78%) age groups. Adoption of a simple, cheap yet effective strategy such as the FMC could act as a bridge between intensive case-finding approaches, such as the Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign (MLEC) and voluntary reporting.

  11. Biomarkers for the detection, prognois and evaluation of active tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinimukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    The global TS surveillance workshop aims to address the problems with current methods for the detection of TB, and tracking emergence of resistant strains. The purpose of the attached presentation is to review the current methods in the detection of pathogen biomarkers for TB and if that technology has promise for diagnosis of TB. A summary of three biomarkers and some data on their detection strategies is presented. Some of the work is from LANL work but much of it is derived from literature references on the subject.

  12. Generalized periodic EEG activity in two cases of neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghinah Renato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosyphilis is a recognized cause of epileptic seizures and cognitive impairment, but is not usually associated with the finding of generalized periodic activity in the EEG. We report two similar cases characterized by progressive cognitive impairment followed by partial complex seizures, in whom the EEG showed generalized periodic activity. Both cerebrospinal fluid and the response to penicillin therapy confirmed the diagnoses of neurosyphilis in the two cases. The finding of EEG generalized periodic activity in patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders is usually associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although there are other conditions, some of them potentially reversible, which may also present this EEG abnormality. Neurosyphilis has tended not to be included among them, and our present findings support the importance of first ruling out neurosyphilis in those patients with cognitive or behavioral disorders associated with generalized periodic epileptiform discharges.

  13. Using Logic Programming to Detect Activities in Pervasive Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2002-01-01

    activities an activity-driven computing infrastructure provides computational assistance to healthcare staff on mobile-and pervasive computing equipment. Assistance range from simple activities like fast log-in into the electronic patient medical record system to complex activities like signing for medicine...

  14. Avoiding misdiagnosis of imported malaria: screening of emergency department samples with thrombocytopenia detects clinically unsuspected cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänscheid, Thomas; Melo-Cristino, José; Grobusch, Martin P.; Pinto, Bernardino G.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis of imported malaria is not uncommon and even abnormal routine laboratory tests may not trigger malaria smears. However, blind screening of all thrombocytopenic samples might be a possible way to detect clinically unsuspected malaria cases in the accident and emergency

  15. Improving tuberculosis case detection in underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions with high disease burden: a case study of integrated control program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yan; Peng, Yong; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2017-11-29

    In the underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions of China, high tuberculosis (TB) burden and regional inequity in access to healthcare service increase the challenge of achieving the End TB goals. Among all the provinces, the highest TB burden is reported in Xinjiang, where ethnic minorities and older people have suffered most. However, current case-finding strategy is inadequate given the complex social determinants and suboptimal case detection rates. Thus, we developed an integrated TB control program to improve case detection and conducted a pilot in Xinjiang from 2014 to 2015. In this case study, we summarized the activities and key findings. We also shared the experiences and challenges of implementing interventions and provided recommendations to inform the TB control program in the future. The pilot interventions were implemented in one selected town in Yining based on local TB control programs. By applying tailor-made educational materials, outreach TB educational activities were conducted in diverse ways. In 22 Masjids, the trained imams promoted TB education to the Muslims, covering 20,440 person-times in 88 delivered preaching sessions. In seven schools, 1944 students were educated by the teachers and contributed to educating 6929 family members. In the village communities, 13,073 residents participated in household education and screening. Among them, 12,292 people aged under 65 years were investigated for suspicious pulmonary TB symptoms, where six TB patients were diagnosed out of 89 TB suspects; 781 older people were mobilized for screening directly by chest X-ray, where 10 patients were diagnosed out of 692 participants. Supportive healthcare system, multi-sectoral cooperation and multi-channel financing mechanism were the successful experiences of implementation. The interventions were proved to be more effective than the previous performance: the number of TB suspects consulting doctors and patients detected increased by 50% and 26%, respectively

  16. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  17. Activity-Based Detection and Bioanalytical Confirmation of a Fatal Carfentanil Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Cannaert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carfentanil, one of the most potent opioids known, has recently been reported as a contaminant in street heroin in the United States and Europe, and is associated with an increased number of life-threatening emergency department admissions and deaths. Here, we report on the application of a novel in vitro opioid activity reporter assay and a sensitive bioanalytical assay in the context of a fatal carfentanil intoxication, revealing the highest carfentanil concentrations reported until now. A 21-year-old male was found dead at home with a note stating that he had taken carfentanil with suicidal intentions. A foil bag and plastic bag labeled “C.50” were found at the scene. These bags were similar to a sample obtained by the Belgian Early Warning System on Drugs from a German darknet shop and to those found in the context of a fatality in Norway. Blood, urine and vitreous, obtained during autopsy, were screened with a newly developed in vitro opioid activity reporter assay able to detect compounds based on their μ-opioid receptor activity rather than their chemical structure. All extracts showed strong opioid activity. Results were confirmed by a bioanalytical assay, which revealed extremely high concentrations for carfentanil and norcarfentanil. It should be noted that carfentanil concentrations are typically in pg/mL, but here they were 92 ng/mL in blood, 2.8 ng/mL in urine, and 23 ng/mL in vitreous. The blood and vitreous contained 0.532 and 0.300 ng/mL norcarfentanil, respectively. No norcarfentanil was detected in urine. This is the first report where a novel activity-based opioid screening assay was successfully deployed in a forensic case. Confirmation and quantification using a validated bioanalytical procedure revealed the, to our knowledge, highest carfentanil concentrations reported in humans so far.

  18. A study of the transferability of influenza case detection systems between two large healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Wagner, Michael M; Cooper, Gregory F; Ferraro, Jeffrey P; Su, Howard; Gesteland, Per H; Haug, Peter J; Millett, Nicholas E; Aronis, John M; Nowalk, Andrew J; Ruiz, Victor M; López Pineda, Arturo; Shi, Lingyun; Van Bree, Rudy; Ginter, Thomas; Tsui, Fuchiang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and transferability of Bayesian case detection systems (BCD) that use clinical notes from emergency department (ED) to detect influenza cases. A BCD uses natural language processing (NLP) to infer the presence or absence of clinical findings from ED notes, which are fed into a Bayesain network classifier (BN) to infer patients' diagnoses. We developed BCDs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (BCDUPMC) and Intermountain Healthcare in Utah (BCDIH). At each site, we manually built a rule-based NLP and trained a Bayesain network classifier from over 40,000 ED encounters between Jan. 2008 and May. 2010 using feature selection, machine learning, and expert debiasing approach. Transferability of a BCD in this study may be impacted by seven factors: development (source) institution, development parser, application (target) institution, application parser, NLP transfer, BN transfer, and classification task. We employed an ANOVA analysis to study their impacts on BCD performance. Both BCDs discriminated well between influenza and non-influenza on local test cases (AUCs > 0.92). When tested for transferability using the other institution's cases, BCDUPMC discriminations declined minimally (AUC decreased from 0.95 to 0.94, pdetection performance in two large healthcare systems in two geographically separated regions, providing evidentiary support for the use of automated case detection from routinely collected electronic clinical notes in national influenza surveillance. The transferability could be improved by training Bayesian network classifier locally and increasing the accuracy of the NLP parser.

  19. Ability of Ultrasonography in Detection of Different Extremity Bone Fractures; a Case Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi, Farzad; Shayesteh Azar, Massoud; Montazer, Seyed Hossein; Chabra, Aroona; Heidari, Seyed Farshad; Khalilian, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Despite radiography being the gold standard in evaluation of orthopedic injuries, using bedside ultrasonography has several potential supremacies such as avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation, availability in pre-hospital settings, being extensively accessible, and ability to be used on the bedside. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of extremity bone fractures. This study is a case series study, which was prospectively conducted on multiple blunt trauma patients, who were 18 years old or older, had stable hemodynamic, Glasgow coma scale 15, and signs or symptoms of a possible extremity bone fracture. After initial assessment, ultrasonography of suspected bones was performed by a trained emergency medicine resident and prevalence of true positive and false negative findings were calculated compared to plain radiology. 108 patients with the mean age of 44.6 ± 20.4 years were studied (67.6% male). Analysis was done on 158 sites of fracture, which were confirmed with plain radiography. 91 (57.6%) cases were suspected to have upper extremity fracture(s) and 67 (42.4%) to have lower ones. The most frequent site of injuries were forearm (36.7%) in upper limbs and leg (27.8%) in lower limbs. Prevalence of true positive and false negative cases for fractures detected by ultrasonography were 59 (64.8%) and 32 (35.52%) for upper and 49 (73.1%) and 18 (26.9%) for lower extremities, respectively. In addition, prevalence of true positive and false negative detected cases for intra-articular fractures were 24 (48%) and 26 (52%), respectively. The present study shows the moderate sensitivity (68.3%) of ultrasonography in detection of different extremity bone fractures. Ultrasonography showed the best sensitivity in detection of femur (100%) and humerus (76.2%) fractures, respectively. It had low sensitivity in detection of in intra-articular fractures.

  20. Thalamocortical network activity enables chronic tic detection in humans with Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Shute

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging therapy for severe cases of TS. We studied two patients with TS implanted with bilateral Medtronic Activa PC + S DBS devices, capable of chronic recordings, with depth leads in the thalamic centromedian–parafascicular complex (CM-PF and subdural strips over the precentral gyrus. Low-frequency (1–10 Hz CM-PF activity was observed during tics, as well as modulations in beta rhythms over the motor cortex. Tics were divided into three categories: long complex, complex, and simple. Long complex tics, tics involving multiple body regions and lasting longer than 5 s, were concurrent with a highly detectable thalamocortical signature (average recall [sensitivity] 88.6%, average precision 96.3%. Complex tics were detected with an average recall of 63.9% and precision of 36.6% and simple tics an average recall of 39.3% and precision of 37.9%. The detections were determined using data from both patients.

  1. Thalamocortical network activity enables chronic tic detection in humans with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Jonathan B; Okun, Michael S; Opri, Enrico; Molina, Rene; Rossi, P Justin; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Foote, Kelly D; Gunduz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging therapy for severe cases of TS. We studied two patients with TS implanted with bilateral Medtronic Activa PC + S DBS devices, capable of chronic recordings, with depth leads in the thalamic centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM-PF) and subdural strips over the precentral gyrus. Low-frequency (1-10 Hz) CM-PF activity was observed during tics, as well as modulations in beta rhythms over the motor cortex. Tics were divided into three categories: long complex, complex, and simple. Long complex tics, tics involving multiple body regions and lasting longer than 5 s, were concurrent with a highly detectable thalamocortical signature (average recall [sensitivity] 88.6%, average precision 96.3%). Complex tics were detected with an average recall of 63.9% and precision of 36.6% and simple tics an average recall of 39.3% and precision of 37.9%. The detections were determined using data from both patients.

  2. Improved oxygen-activation method for determining water flow behind casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.C.; Scott, H.D.; Olesen, J.R.; Patton, G.L.; Mitchell, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on impulse activation which is a new oxygen-activation technique developed to detect vertical water flow and to provide a quantitative measure of water flow velocity and flow rate. Flow-loop measurements made over a wide range of water velocities are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Measurements of up- and downward channel flow were made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leak test well in Ada, OK, to demonstrate the technique in a controlled environment and to confirm that EPA requirements have been met. A major advantage of this method over previous procedures is that a measurement is a known zero-flow zone is not required. The impulse-activation technique has improved sensitivity to both low and high flow rates. In the EPA leak test well, the technique successfully discriminated between 0- and 1.4 ft/min flow conditions. The lowest quantified velocity was 1.8 ft/min or 10 BWPD, significantly below the EPA requirement of 3 ft/min. The upper limit of detection has not been determined by exceeds 137 ft/min. The water flow log (WFL SM ) measurement uses the impulse-activation technique and a Dual-Bust SM , thermal-decay-time (TDT SM ) tool to detect water flow behind casing. An important application of this measurement is testing for fluid migration in the wellbore as part of the mechanical integrity testing process for Class I and II disposal wells. The new oxygen-activation measurement was used in numerous production wells to identify the presence of water flow behind casing. Additional applications include the identification of open fractures in horizontal wells and the quantification of water flow in the tubing/casing annulus in injection and production wells

  3. A study of the transferability of influenza case detection systems between two large healthcare systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ye

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the accuracy and transferability of Bayesian case detection systems (BCD that use clinical notes from emergency department (ED to detect influenza cases.A BCD uses natural language processing (NLP to infer the presence or absence of clinical findings from ED notes, which are fed into a Bayesain network classifier (BN to infer patients' diagnoses. We developed BCDs at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (BCDUPMC and Intermountain Healthcare in Utah (BCDIH. At each site, we manually built a rule-based NLP and trained a Bayesain network classifier from over 40,000 ED encounters between Jan. 2008 and May. 2010 using feature selection, machine learning, and expert debiasing approach. Transferability of a BCD in this study may be impacted by seven factors: development (source institution, development parser, application (target institution, application parser, NLP transfer, BN transfer, and classification task. We employed an ANOVA analysis to study their impacts on BCD performance.Both BCDs discriminated well between influenza and non-influenza on local test cases (AUCs > 0.92. When tested for transferability using the other institution's cases, BCDUPMC discriminations declined minimally (AUC decreased from 0.95 to 0.94, p<0.01, and BCDIH discriminations declined more (from 0.93 to 0.87, p<0.0001. We attributed the BCDIH decline to the lower recall of the IH parser on UPMC notes. The ANOVA analysis showed five significant factors: development parser, application institution, application parser, BN transfer, and classification task.We demonstrated high influenza case detection performance in two large healthcare systems in two geographically separated regions, providing evidentiary support for the use of automated case detection from routinely collected electronic clinical notes in national influenza surveillance. The transferability could be improved by training Bayesian network classifier locally and increasing the

  4. Case studies: Mining and milling activities - South African facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.E.; Woude, S. van der

    2000-01-01

    The mining and milling of minerals is a very important industry in South Africa that employs more than 300,000 people. South Africa extracts minerals with naturally occurring radionuclides, amongst which uranium, monazite and zircon. Two case studies involving environmental restoration activities that are typically associated with mining and minerals processing are discussed. The first case study, Katdoringbos, describes the restoration of a contaminated site where scrap material originating from the mining and minerals processing facilities had been recycled. The other case study, Crown 4, deals with the restoration of a contaminated site where a mine tailings dam had been removed and the owner of the land wished to develop it for commercial exploitation. (author)

  5. Sleep spindle activity in double cortex syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.

  6. Minimum detectable activities for natural radionuclides for IRIS-XP airborne gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohera, Marcel; Sladek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    -XP installed on board was 'suspended' during the test flight above one geographical point for more than three minute for each altitude. Then, the data was applied to the MDA calculation under real flight conditions. The method developed by Currie was used as a basis for calculation of the minimum detectable activities in both cases. (author)

  7. INTEGRAL non detection of renewed activity from Terzan 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vovk, I.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The Globular Cluster Terzan5, was observed by the IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X instruments on-board INTEGRAL during the Galactic Bulge monitoring program (ATel #438) from 2011 October 25 at 17:15 to 2011 October 25 at 20:56 (UTC). No significant X-ray emission was detected in the direction of the Globula...

  8. Pulseless electrical activity during electroconvulsive therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalava Arun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arrhythmias resulting in cardiac arrest during electroconvulsive therapy have been reported. Most reported cases of cardiac arrest had asystole as the initial rhythm. Pulseless electrical activity as an initial rhythm of cardiac arrest during electroconvulsive therapy has never been reported. Also, thromboembolism after inflation of pneumatic tourniquet during lower limb surgery has been reported but never following tourniquet inflation during an electroconvulsive therapy. Case presentation We report a case involving an 81- year- old female who presented to us for an electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression and developed pulseless electrical activity immediately after electroconvulsive therapy. She was successfully resuscitated and was later found to have bilateral pulmonary emboli with a complete occlusion of the right lower lobe pulmonary artery. The source of embolus was from her left lower extremity deep venous thrombus, which we believe, got dislodged intraoperatively after inflation of pneumatic tourniquet. Our patient not only survived the massive pulmonary embolus, but also showed significant improvement in her mental status compared to her pre-admission level at the time of discharge to a sub-acute rehabilitation centre. Conclusion We recommend that patients who are elderly and at high risk of thromboembolism should selectively undergo a preoperative doppler ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis. Also, selective application of tourniquet in the upper limb, to monitor for seizure activity, would reduce the incidence of pulmonary thrombo-embolism as embolic events are significantly less from deep venous thromboses of upper extremities when compared to lower extremities.

  9. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. β-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for β-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonic...

  10. Robust Mpc for Actuator–Fault Tolerance Using Set–Based Passive Fault Detection and Active Fault Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI. In the class of MPC techniques, tubebased MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs.

  11. Detection of telomerase activity by the TRAP assay and its variants and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Telomerase activity is closely connected to problems of cellular immortality, proliferative capacity, differentiation, cancer and aging. Correspondingly, techniques for its detection have been essential for progress in telomere biology and are of still increasing importance in molecular diagnostics and therapy of cancer. This article reviews the development of the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and its various modifications as the most widespread assay to detect and measure telomerase activity. Alternative possibilities of telomerase activity detection are also discussed which make it possible to omit the PCR-mediated amplification of telomerase products. These approaches are based on recent advances in highly sensitive detection systems.

  12. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  13. [Costs estimation of tuberculosis cases detection. La Habana Vieja Municipality, Cuba. 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Pérez, Mariana; Gálvez González, Ana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto

    2007-01-01

    The Cuban Tuberculosis Control Program has been able to significantly reduce the tuberculosis cases incidence in all its forms. La Habana Vieja municipality has maintained the highest incidence in Havana City province during 5 years and one of the highest in the country. To estimate the cost of Tuberculosis cases detection in Habana Vieja municipality, in the year 2002. A descriptive retrospective study to estimate the costs with social perspective was carried out. The costs of cases detection and their departures in health facilities were considered. For patients with cough/expectoration > or =14 days (RS+14) the pocket expense and monetary losses for labour absences were considered. Costs were expressed in equivalent Cuban pesos to American dollars (1 CUC = 1 USD). Information from official records in health institutions and from interviews to workers and RS+14 was obtained. Social cost of tuberculosis cases detection for an RS+14 was in average 24,11 CUC, and institutional cost was 12,55; for clinical investigation 0.37; for sputum smear microscopy 2,25; for culture 7,05; for thorax X-ray 1,67; for notification 3,07; and for registering 0,36. The biggest costs were observed in sputum smear microscopies and cultures performance; salaries and reagents were the issues contributing more in that cost. The results obtained in this study could be extrapolated to other municipalities in the country with social and economic conditions similar to La Habana Vieja.

  14. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  15. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  16. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  17. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  18. Passive radiation detection using optically active CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosiek, Luke; Schalk, Patrick D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there have been a number of small-scale and hobbyist successes in employing commodity CMOS-based camera sensors for radiation detection. For example, several smartphone applications initially developed for use in areas near the Fukushima nuclear disaster are capable of detecting radiation using a cell phone camera, provided opaque tape is placed over the lens. In all current useful implementations, it is required that the sensor not be exposed to visible light. We seek to build a system that does not have this restriction. While building such a system would require sophisticated signal processing, it would nevertheless provide great benefits. In addition to fulfilling their primary function of image capture, cameras would also be able to detect unknown radiation sources even when the danger is considered to be low or non-existent. By experimentally profiling the image artifacts generated by gamma ray and β particle impacts, algorithms are developed to identify the unique features of radiation exposure, while discarding optical interaction and thermal noise effects. Preliminary results focus on achieving this goal in a laboratory setting, without regard to integration time or computational complexity. However, future work will seek to address these additional issues.

  19. Local Helioseismology of Emerging Active Regions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei; Ilonidis, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    Local helioseismology provides a unique opportunity to investigate the subsurface structure and dynamics of active regions and their effect on the large-scale flows and global circulation of the Sun. We use measurements of plasma flows in the upper convection zone, provided by the Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline developed for analysis of solar oscillation data obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to investigate the subsurface dynamics of emerging active region NOAA 11726. The active region emergence was detected in deep layers of the convection zone about 12 hours before the first bipolar magnetic structure appeared on the surface, and 2 days before the emergence of most of the magnetic flux. The speed of emergence determined by tracking the flow divergence with depth is about 1.4 km/s, very close to the emergence speed in the deep layers. As the emerging magnetic flux becomes concentrated in sunspots local converging flows are observed beneath the forming sunspots. These flows are most prominent in the depth range 1-3 Mm, and remain converging after the formation process is completed. On the larger scale converging flows around active region appear as a diversion of the zonal shearing flows towards the active region, accompanied by formation of a large-scale vortex structure. This process occurs when a substantial amount of the magnetic flux emerged on the surface, and the converging flow pattern remains stable during the following evolution of the active region. The Carrington synoptic flow maps show that the large-scale subsurface inflows are typical for active regions. In the deeper layers (10-13 Mm) the flows become diverging, and surprisingly strong beneath some active regions. In addition, the synoptic maps reveal a complex evolving pattern of large-scale flows on the scale much larger than supergranulation

  20. A rule-based electronic phenotyping algorithm for detecting clinically relevant cardiovascular disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Santiago; Rodríguez Tablado, Manuel; Ricci, Ricardo Ignacio; Terrasa, Sergio; Kopitowski, Karin

    2017-07-14

    The implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) is becoming increasingly common. Error and data loss reduction, patient-care efficiency increase, decision-making assistance and facilitation of event surveillance, are some of the many processes that EMRs help improve. In addition, they show a lot of promise in terms of data collection to facilitate observational epidemiological studies and their use for this purpose has increased significantly over the recent years. Even though the quantity and availability of the data are clearly improved thanks to EMRs, still, the problem of the quality of the data remains. This is especially important when attempting to determine if an event has actually occurred or not. We sought to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and agreement level of a codes-based algorithm for the detection of clinically relevant cardiovascular (CaVD) and cerebrovascular (CeVD) disease cases, using data from EMRs. Three family physicians from the research group selected clinically relevant CaVD and CeVD terms from the international classification of primary care, Second Edition (ICPC-2), the ICD 10 version 2015 and SNOMED-CT 2015 Edition. These terms included both signs, symptoms, diagnoses and procedures associated with CaVD and CeVD. Terms not related to symptoms, signs, diagnoses or procedures of CaVD or CeVD and also those describing incidental findings without clinical relevance were excluded. The algorithm yielded a positive result if the patient had at least one of the selected terms in their medical records, as long as it was not recorded as an error. Else, if no terms were found, the patient was classified as negative. This algorithm was applied to a randomly selected sample of the active patients within the hospital's HMO by 1/1/2005 that were 40-79 years old, had at least one year of seniority in the HMO and at least one clinical encounter. Thus, patients were classified into four groups: (1) Negative patients (2) Patients with Ca

  1. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Van't Hoog

    Full Text Available The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate.We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.0-5.9, but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85-3.7. Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.97 per 10 years increase, and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.73. Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79. Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively.HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV-uninfected women and the elderly are needed to improve TB case

  2. Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...

  3. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng

    2018-01-28

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  4. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Xu, Huijuan; Saenko, Kate; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  5. Sensitive detection of a small parathyroid adenoma using fluorocholine PET/CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padinhare-Keloth, Thanseer N. T. K.; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Sood, Ashwani; Kumar, Rajender; Behera, Arunanshu; Radotra, Bishan D.; Mittal, Bhagwant R. [PGIMER, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-06-15

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid adenoma in the majority of cases and diagnosis is usually made biochemically. Pre-surgical localization of parathyroid adenoma is essential to limit the extent of surgery and avoid missing them at ectopic sites. Anatomical and functional imaging are used for the localization, but may fail to identify the small and ectopic parathyroid adenoma. We present a case of small sized ectopic parathyroid adenoma at unusual location detected by F-18 fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT, where other imaging modalities failed. The post-operative histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic parathyroid adenoma.

  6. Technetium labelled plasminogen activator - a potential reagent for thrombus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsma-De Waal, J.H.; Boer, A.C. de; Cox, P.H.; Pillay, M.; Stassen, J.H.; Collen, D.

    1987-12-01

    The preparation of a technetium labelled plasminogen activator complex using a solid phase labelling technique is described. The labelled complex showed no significant loss of fibrinolytic activity in vitro and showed in vivo a rapid uptake in thrombi in an animal model and in human volunteer patients with known thrombi when injected into a vein draining to the thrombotic region. Systemic injection showed no uptake in the thrombi probably due to rapid sequestration of the complex by the liver.

  7. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF THE ACTIVITY OF A DOG

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe ,; Duhaut , Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces our preliminary work with assistance dogs. Even when dogs are very well trained some problems may occur in practice, typical examples are dog escaping or running after a cat. Our long term objective is to take advantage of the technology to increase the safety of the dog and its owner. Our first work focuses on the activity classification of the dog. This paper presents preliminary results for recognizing four types of activity: walk, run, lay and...

  8. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  9. Efficiency of Nested-PCR in Detecting Asymptomatic Cases toward Malaria Elimination Program in an Endemic Area of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Turki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect low parasite and asymptomatic malaria infections by means of three malaria diagnostic tests, in a low transmission region of Minab district, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.Blood samples of 200 healthy volunteers from Bagh-e-Malek area were evaluated using microscopic, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT and nested-PCR to inspect malaria parasite.The results showed no Plasmodium parasite in subjects by means of microscopy and RDT. However, 3 P. vivax positive samples (1.5% were discovered by Nested-PCR while microscopy and RDT missed the cases.Microscopy as the gold standard method and RDT correctly identified 98.5% of cases, and molecular analysis is sensitive and reliable, especially in the detection of "asymptomatic" infections for active case surveillance. Regarding the existence of asymptomatic malaria in endemic area of Hormozgan, Iran, nested-PCR could be considered as a sensitive tool to interrupt malaria transmission in the country, beside the microscopic and RDT methods.

  10. Efficiency of Nested-PCR in Detecting Asymptomatic Cases toward Malaria Elimination Program in an Endemic Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Habibollah; Raeisi, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Kianoosh; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Zoghi, Samaneh; Yeryan, Masoud; Abedi Nejad, Masoumeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Shekari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect low parasite and asymptomatic malaria infections by means of three malaria diagnostic tests, in a low transmission region of Minab district, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. Blood samples of 200 healthy volunteers from Bagh-e-Malek area were evaluated using microscopic, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and nested-PCR to inspect malaria parasite. The results showed no Plasmodium parasite in subjects by means of microscopy and RDT. However, 3 P. vivax positive samples (1.5%) were discovered by Nested-PCR while microscopy and RDT missed the cases. Microscopy as the gold standard method and RDT correctly identified 98.5% of cases, and molecular analysis is sensitive and reliable, especially in the detection of "asymptomatic" infections for active case surveillance. Regarding the existence of asymptomatic malaria in endemic area of Hormozgan, Iran, nested-PCR could be considered as a sensitive tool to interrupt malaria transmission in the country, beside the microscopic and RDT methods.

  11. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Iguchi, Atsuko; Matsuo, Chikashi; Otawa, Kouichi; Nakamura, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  12. Can iridology detect susceptibility to cancer? A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; El-Safadi, Samer; Brück, Friedel; Zygmunt, Marek; Hackethal, Andreas; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    This prospective case-control study aimed to investigate the value of iridology as a diagnostic tool in detecting some common cancers. One hundred ten (110) subjects were enrolled in the study: 68 subjects had histologically proven cancers of the breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, or colorectum, and 42 were control subjects. All subjects were examined by an experienced practitioner of iridology, who was unaware of their gender or medical details. He was allowed to suggest up to five diagnoses for each subject and his results were then compared with each subject's medical diagnosis to determine the accuracy of iridology in detecting malignancy. Iridology identified the correct diagnosis in only 3 cases (sensitivity, 0.04). Iridology was of no value in diagnosing the cancers investigated in this study.

  13. Examples of detection of water flow by oxygen activation on pulsed neutron logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Rosset, W.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upward flow of water in cased wellbores may be detected with pulsed neutron capture (PNC) and gamma ray (GR) tools. Water entering tubing, casing and flowing behind pipe may similarly be evaluated qualitatively. Gamma ray background anomalies in PNC data and elevation of GR tool response occur when water is flowing above threshold velocities and volumes. The technique requires logging the well under static and flow conditions or logging at different tools speeds in a flowing well. Oxygen activation results in increased gamma ray count rates at each detector. PNC far detector and GR well log curves from each log run (flowing well, static well) are overlain. The increases for each curve are offset from the point of water entry by a distance similar to tool source-detector spacing. These offsets in gamma increase are 15-20 ft. higher for the GR than for the PNC far detector and distinguish oxygen activation due to flowing water from common hot spots. The amount of gamma ray increase is controlled by the velocity of upward flow of water past the tool, the amount of water flowing, and the distance of the flow from the tool. Prior planning is important to gain usable information in flowing wells. The upward relative velocity imposes maximal and minimal tool speeds to produce significant gamma increases, and tool speed must be adjusted to optimize gamma changes. Use of the technique to answer actual production problems is illustrated with examples. Insight was gained which led to the correction of the problem in each case

  14. Perforated Meckel's diverticulitis complicating active Crohn's ileitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenter, Frank; Gervaz, Pascal; de Saussure, Philippe; McKee, Thomas; Morel, Philippe

    2009-01-13

    In Crohn's disease, the extension of active terminal ileitis into a Meckel's diverticulum is possible, but usually has no impact on clinical decision-making. We describe an original surgical approach in a young woman presenting with a combination of perforated Meckel's diverticulitis and active Crohn's ileitis. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, who was admitted for abdominal pain, fever and diarrhoea. CT scan demonstrated active inflammation of the terminal ileum, as well as a fluid collection in the right iliac fossa, suggesting intestinal perforation. Laparoscopy was performed and revealed, in addition to extensive ileitis, a 3 x 3 cm abscess in connection with perforated Meckel's diverticulitis. It was therefore possible to avoid ileocaecal resection by only performing Meckel's diverticulectomy; pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed the presence of transmural inflammation with granulomas and perforation of the diverticulum at its extremity. Crohn's disease of the ileum may be responsible for Meckel's diverticulitis and cause perforation which, in this case, proved to be a blessing in disguise and spared the patient an extensive small bowel resection.

  15. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM).

  16. Detecting Differential Transcription Factor Activity from ATAC-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio J. Tripodi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are managers of the cellular factory, and key components to many diseases. Many non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms affect transcription factors, either by directly altering the protein or its functional activity at individual binding sites. Here we first briefly summarize high-throughput approaches to studying transcription factor activity. We then demonstrate, using published chromatin accessibility data (specifically ATAC-seq, that the genome-wide profile of TF recognition motifs relative to regions of open chromatin can determine the key transcription factor altered by a perturbation. Our method of determining which TFs are altered by a perturbation is simple, is quick to implement, and can be used when biological samples are limited. In the future, we envision that this method could be applied to determine which TFs show altered activity in response to a wide variety of drugs and diseases.

  17. Congenital Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Atresia Detected by 64-Slice Computed Tomography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of coronary artery disorders, including intramyocardial coronary segments and coronary artery anomalies, can result in sudden cardiac death, especially in young adults. The detection of structural coronary artery abnormalities is important in the management of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Coronary artery anomalies occur in about 1% of the population. Congenital absence of left circumflex coronary artery (LCX is a very rare vascular anomaly, and few cases have been reported in the literature, with a frequency of only 0.003% in all patients who underwent coronary angiography. Although coronary catheterization is the gold standard for the evaluation of coronary arterial patency disease, noninvasive computed tomography (CT is considered the diagnostic method of choice for the detection and evaluation of coronary artery anomaly. Herein, we report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with exertional dyspnea and chest pain and who was studied at our emergency department with the final diagnosis of LCX atresia detected by 64-slice CT. She may be the first case of congenital LCX atresia proved by multislice CT.

  18. Detection of telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum using a nonradioactive method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiano Claudia C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, quick and sensitive method was used to detect telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay was modified using electrophoresis and staining with SYBR-green I to detect telomerase activity in a range of 10² to 10(7 parasites. This might be a useful way to ascertain telomerase activity in different types of nontumor cells.

  19. Is MR imaging useful for detecting prostate cancer in cases requiring repeat biopsy?. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hirotoshi; Takahata, Akiko; Goto, Mariko; Masunami, Terutoshi; Yuen, Sachiko; Yamada, Kei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting prostate cancer in cases requiring repeat biopsy. Twenty patients with negative first prostate biopsy were evaluated by T2-weighted images (T 2 W), diffusion weighted image (DWI), and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI at 1.5T prior to repeat biopsy. Eleven of the 20 also underwent MR imaging before initial biopsy. Cancer criteria were defined as an area of low signal intensity on T 2 W, high signal intensity on DWI, and early enhancement on dynamic MR imaging. We compared MR imaging findings with biopsy results. Prostate cancer was detected by repeat biopsy in nine of 20 patients. MR imaging demonstrated the cancer lesion in seven of the 9 patients whose biopsies were positive for cancer. MR imaging of 5 patients whose biopsies showed cancer also demonstrated cancer lesion previous to initial biopsy. Most cancers were detected in the anterior, apex, and far lateral areas. False-negative cases were low-grade cancers and had a few positive biopsy cores. In patients with repeat prostate biopsy, prior MR imaging may be valuable for detecting and localizing prostate cancer. (author)

  20. Activity Patterns and Pollution Exposure. A Case Study of Melbourne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, L.; Smith, N.; Trinidad, G.; Guo, J.

    2001-01-01

    In recent times there has been increasing interest in modelling policies to limit impacts of air pollution due to motor vehicles. Impacts of air pollution on human health and comfort depend on the relationship between the distribution of pollutants and the spatial distribution of the urban population. As emissions, weather conditions and the location of the population vary with time of day, day of month and season of the year, the problem is complex. Travel demand models with activity-based approaches and a focus on the overall structure of activity/travel relations, not only spatially, but temporally can make a valuable contribution. They are often used to estimate emissions due to the travel patterns of city populations but may equally be used to provide distributions of urban populations during the day. A case study for Melbourne, Australia demonstrates the use of activity data in the estimation of population exposure. Additionally the study shows some marked differences in activity between seasons and even greater the differences in effect of that activity on exposure to air pollution. Numbers of cities will have seasonal pollutant patterns similar to Melbourne and others will benefit from exploring such patterns

  1. Factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Dabaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly communicable diseases which claim the lives of millions in the world. Early case detection and prompt treatment cures the patients, breaks the transmission and improves the control program. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, south west Ethiopia. Method: Facility based cross sectional study design was employed in four directly observed treatment short course service providing public health centers. Three hundred eighty four patient folders were reviewed. In-depth interviews was conducted with 18 health care workers including heads of health centers, tuberculosis focal persons, clinicians, laboratory technicians, tuberculosis program coordinator and head of health office. Result: Significant number, 135(35.2% of tuberculosis suspects were not requested for microscopic examination of sputum smear, the laboratory results 21(8.4% of requested patients were not recorded in both patient folders and laboratory registers. Only 10 (4.4% of those examined and recorded were smearing positive. Participants described that the shortage and irregular supply of acid fast bacilli reagents and consumable, inadequate infrastructures, frequent electricity interruption, shortage of trained care providers, negligence of care providers, weakness of laboratory quality assurance system and poor health information use culture were major factors for low case identification. Conclusion: The resource shortage, electricity interruption, low commitment of care providers, weak quality assurance practice and poor health information use culture were major factors for low tuberculosis case identification and should be considered. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Case detection, Factors

  2. Community referral for presumptive TB in Nigeria: a comparison of four models of active case finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adejumo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a

  3. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post...

  4. Pitfalls using tributyrin agar screening to detect lipolytic activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The metagenomics approach is an efficient method for obtaining novel biocatalysts and useful genes from uncultured microorganisms within diverse environments. In this study, we constructed a metagenomic library using a South African deep mine biofilm sample. The library was screened for lipolytic activity using LB ...

  5. Detection of active bleeding from gastric antral vascular ectasia by capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Nagisa; Nakamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Chiharu; Kise, Yuya; Yamashiro, Satoshi; Kinjo, Fukunori; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) has been recognized as one of the important causes of occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis is typically made based on the characteristic endoscopic features, including longitudinal row of flat, reddish stripes radiating from the pylorus into the antrum that resemble the stripes on a watermelon. These appearances, however, can easily be misinterpreted as moderate to severe gastritis. Although it is believed that capsule endoscopy (CE) is not helpful for the study of the stomach with its large lumen, GAVE can be more likely to be detected at CE rather than conventional endoscopy. CE can be regarded as “physiologic” endoscopy, without the need for gastric inflation and subsequent compression of the vasculature. The blood flow of the ecstatic vessels may be diminished in an inflated stomach. Therefore, GAVE may be prominent in CE. We herein describe a case of active bleeding from GAVE detected by CE and would like to emphasize a possibility that CE can improve diagnostic yields for GAVE. PMID:23515703

  6. Factors associated with tuberculosis cases in Semarang District, Indonesia: case-control study performed in the area where case detection rate was extremely low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri Ratna; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Demura, Masashi; Katsuyama, Midori; Ota, Yoko; Tanii, Hideji; Higashi, Tomomi; Semadi, Ngakan Putu Djaja; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-01

    Indonesia is ranked as the 4th highest contributor to tuberculosis (TB) in the world. Semarang District in Central Java displays extremely low case detection rate (CDR), possibly contributing to the local prevalence of TB. A case-control study was performed to explore the factors that cause such low CDR. We recruited 129 TB cases and 83 controls that visited the same centers and were not diagnosed with TB. The cases had 7.5 ± 2.3 symptoms/person on average, indicating the delay in diagnosis because the controls only displayed 1.0 ± 1.7. The multiple logistic regression analysis comparing the cases/controls extracted following factors as a risk to have TB: farmer, close contact with TB patients, ignorance of whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was accepted or no, smoking, low income, a lot of people living in the same room, irregular hand wash before meals, not wash hands after blow, soil floor, and no sunlight and no ventilation in the house. Neither the cases nor the controls knew the symptoms and how to avoid TB infection, which probably caused the delay in diagnosis. It is difficult to change the current living conditions. Thus, the amendment of the community-based education program of TB seems to be required.

  7. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b) and...

  8. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  9. Detection of butane gas inhalation at 16days after hypoxic encephalopathy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takako; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Kento; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Saito, Takashi; Abe, Shuntaro; Nomura, Masakatsu; Kitagawa, Misa; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    In Japan, there are increasing reports of death by poisoning following butane abuse. To determine the specific cause of death in such cases, it is important to confirm the presence of fuel gas components in the body, although careful analysis is required because of their volatile properties. In most reported cases, the subject died suddenly during or immediately after butane aspiration. Thus, the butane concentration in the samples from the deceased should be relatively high. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man found with cardiopulmonary arrest, who then exhibited hypoxic encephalopathy for 16days in a hospital. At autopsy, we detected hypoxic encephalopathy, pneumonia, and ischemia-reperfusion injury of the myocardium, while the cause of cardiac arrest remained unclear. Toxicological analysis was then performed for fuel gas components in several specimens collected at autopsy. Results showed that n-butane and isobutane were detected in the adipose tissue at 16days after inhalation, indicating a role of butane gas inhalation as the cause of death. These data suggest that adipose tissue may be the most appropriate analysis sample to be collected at postmortem in cases where involvement of volatile and fat-soluble gas inhalation is suspected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting a Defective Casing Seal at the Top of a Bedrock Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sandra K; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain

    2016-03-01

    An improperly sealed casing can produce a direct hydraulic connection between two or more originally isolated aquifers with important consequences regarding groundwater quantity and quality. A recent study by Richard et al. (2014) investigated a monitoring well installed in a fractured rock aquifer with a defective casing seal at the soil-bedrock interface. A hydraulic short circuit was detected that produced some leakage between the rock and the overlying deposits. A falling-head permeability test performed in this well showed that the usual method of data interpretation is not valid in this particular case due to the presence of a piezometric error. This error is the direct result of the preferential flow originating from the hydraulic short circuit and the subsequent re-equilibration of the piezometric levels of both aquifers in the vicinity of the inlet and the outlet of the defective seal. Numerical simulations of groundwater circulation around the well support the observed impact of the hydraulic short circuit on the results of the falling-head permeability test. These observations demonstrate that a properly designed falling-head permeability test may be useful in the detection of defective casing seals. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Brain Activity in Patients With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Detected by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Kise, Norimoto; Hiratsuka, Munehisa; Kondo, Shunsuke; Uehara, Takayuki; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Ganaha, Akira; Suzuki, Mikio

    2017-05-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a focal dystonia. However, the detailed pathophysiology of SD remains unclear, despite the detection of abnormal activity in several brain regions. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiological background of SD. This is a case-control study. Both task-related brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging by reading the five-digit numbers and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measured by 150 T2-weighted echo planar images acquired without any task were investigated in 12 patients with adductor SD and in 16 healthy controls. The patients with SD showed significantly higher task-related brain activation in the left middle temporal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral primary motor area, bilateral premotor area, bilateral cerebellum, bilateral somatosensory area, right insula, and right putamen compared with the controls. Region of interest voxel FC analysis revealed many FC changes within the cerebellum-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex loop in the patients with SD. Of the significant connectivity changes between the patients with SD and the controls, the FC between the left thalamus and the left caudate nucleus was significantly correlated with clinical parameters in SD. The higher task-related brain activity in the insula and cerebellum was consistent with previous neuroimaging studies, suggesting that these areas are one of the unique characteristics of phonation-induced brain activity in SD. Based on FC analysis and their significant correlations with clinical parameters, the basal ganglia network plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Hierarchical Temporal Memory for Detecting Anomalous Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and...you up short—you were subconsciously predicting something else and were surprised by the mismatch” [3]. Notable neurobiologist Horace Barlow of the...malicious network activity is flagged as abnormal . That is, test data should present the N-HTM network with spatial-temporal patterns that do not match 46

  13. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Fontoura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination.We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment, using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH with the index case (n = 163, those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878, and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841. Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks.Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  14. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  15. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine

    2014-01-01

    in hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...... of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon measuring...

  16. Analysis of individual brain activation maps using hierarchical description and multiscale detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poline, J.B.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors propose a new method for the analysis of brain activation images that aims at detecting activated volumes rather than pixels. The method is based on Poisson process modeling, hierarchical description, and multiscale detection (MSD). Its performances have been assessed using both Monte Carlo simulated images and experimental PET brain activation data. As compared to other methods, the MSD approach shows enhanced sensitivity with a controlled overall type I error, and has the ability to provide an estimate of the spatial limits of the detected signals. It is applicable to any kind of difference image for which the spatial autocorrelation function can be approximated by a stationary Gaussian function

  17. Detection of the corrosion in reinforced concrete with GPR: the case study of the Park Guell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossa, Viviana; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Gonzalez-Drigo, Ramon; Caselles, Oriol; Clapes, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    Detection of corrosion is important in cultural heritage assessment. Many structures contain metallic targets embedded in masonry or mortar, and corrosion cab cause important damage. However, detection using non-destructive methods is difficult and highly localized, providing in most cases incomplete results. In order to obtain a more extended analysis, GPR was applied and evaluated to detect damage as consequence of corrosion. This technique is a non-destructive method that covers a large area of study while other methods are constrained to a small areas or specific points. Therefore, some controlled laboratory tests were designed to determine possible differences in radargrams obtained in the case of corroded and non-corroded targets. These analysis allowed to observe that the corrosion seems to increase the attenuation of the radar signal, being difficult to detect targets near the damaged bars. The results were applied to study the mosaic roofs in the Park Guell, in Barcelona. This park is one of the most important Modernista (Art Noveau) complex in Barcelona. It is characterized by structures with roofs and banks with tessellation. Some of these structures are most likely supported by metal elements, and seepage cause important damage observed over the tessellation. The objective of the study was to define the possible existence of those metallic targets, determining their location. And, in the case of existence of metallic elements, defining which are the zones more affected by corrosion. The results demonstrates the existence of metallic supports in many parts, as well as some defined areas that could be damaged. Acknowledgement: This work has been partially funded by the Spanish Government and by the European Commission with FEDER funds, through the research projects CGL2011-23621 and CGL2015-65913-P. The study is also a contribution to the EU funded COST Action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", to the working group 2.2.

  18. BRAD: Software for BRain Activity Detection from hemodynamic response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pidnebesna, Anna; Tomeček, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 156, March (2018), s. 113-119 ISSN 0169-2607 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S; GA ČR GA17-01251S; GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1611 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : deconvolution methods * functional magnetic resonance imaging * hemodynamic response * neuronal activity estimation * Wiener filtering Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.503, year: 2016

  19. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  20. Artifact detection in electrodermal activity using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Malia; Palumbo, Richard Vincent; Urbaneja, Alberto; Akcakaya, Murat; Huang, Jeannie; Kleckner, Ian R.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Quigley, Karen S.; Sejdic, Ervin; Goodwin, Matthew S.

    2017-05-01

    Electrodermal Activity (EDA) - a peripheral index of sympathetic nervous system activity - is a primary measure used in psychophysiology. EDA is widely accepted as an indicator of physiological arousal, and it has been shown to reveal when psychologically novel events occur. Traditionally, EDA data is collected in controlled laboratory experiments. However, recent developments in wireless biosensing have led to an increase in out-of-lab studies. This transition to ambulatory data collection has introduced challenges. In particular, artifacts such as wearer motion, changes in temperature, and electrical interference can be misidentified as true EDA responses. The inability to distinguish artifact from signal hinders analyses of ambulatory EDA data. Though manual procedures for identifying and removing EDA artifacts exist, they are time consuming - which is problematic for the types of longitudinal data sets represented in modern ambulatory studies. This manuscript presents a novel technique to automatically identify and remove artifacts in EDA data using curve fitting and sparse recovery methods. Our method was evaluated using labeled data to determine the accuracy of artifact identification. Procedures, results, conclusions, and future directions are presented.

  1. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  2. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  3. Mobile phones improve case detection and management of malaria in rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent introduction of mobile phones into the rural Bandarban district of Bangladesh provided a resource to improve case detection and treatment of patients with malaria. Methods During studies to define the epidemiology of malaria in villages in south-eastern Bangladesh, an area with hypoendemic malaria, the project recorded 986 mobile phone calls from families because of illness suspected to be malaria between June 2010 and June 2012. Results Based on phone calls, field workers visited the homes with ill persons, and collected blood samples for malaria on 1,046 people. 265 (25%) of the patients tested were positive for malaria. Of the 509 symptomatic malaria cases diagnosed during this study period, 265 (52%) were detected because of an initial mobile phone call. Conclusion Mobile phone technology was found to be an efficient and effective method for rapidly detecting and treating patients with malaria in this remote area. This technology, when combined with local knowledge and field support, may be applicable to other hard-to-reach areas to improve malaria control. PMID:23374585

  4. Neutron detection using Dy2O3 activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Mohamed, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of Dy 2 O 3 not only as thermal neutron activation detector but also as a fast neutron detector. For thermal neutrons, the half life of 165 Dy is measured to be (141 +- 6) min, its response to thermal neutrons is (2.18 +- 0.01) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for a 250 mg Dy 2 O 3 pellet. For fast neutrons the Dy 2 O 3 detector is placed within a 20 cm polyethylene sphere and its response is found to be (2.2 +- 0.1) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for 4 MeV neutrons and (2.10 +- 0.04) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for 14 MeV neutrons. For neutron dosimetry, its response is found to be (16.7 +- 0.4) cpm per mrem h -1 . (author)

  5. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J E; Diefenthäler, A P; Palma, J K

    2000-01-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographies (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e., 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5%). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in Santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact that neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made.

  6. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Weiss, Mitchell G; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. Randomized controlled trial. We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100) or standard of care (control group, n = 100). Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups. Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0); 94 (47%) were females, 106 (53%) were males, and 49 (24.5%) were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%). Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%). Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum samples. If confirmed in larger studies, instructional videos may have a substantial effect on the case yield using sputum microscopy and also molecular tests. This low-cost strategy should be considered as part of the efforts to control TB in resource-limited settings. Pan African

  7. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  8. Thermal neutron detection by activation of CaSO4:Dy + KBr thermoluminescent phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Muccillo, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) studies to detect thermal neutrons were performed in cold-pressed CaSO 4 :0,1%Dy + KBr samples. The detection is based on the self-irradiation of the CaSO 4 :Dy TL phosphor by the Br isotopes activated by exposure to a mixed neutron-gamma field. (Author) [pt

  9. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  10. Combining Benford's Law and machine learning to detect money laundering. An actual Spanish court case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal-Valero, Elena; Alvarez-Jareño, José A; Pavía, Jose M

    2018-01-01

    This paper is based on the analysis of the database of operations from a macro-case on money laundering orchestrated between a core company and a group of its suppliers, 26 of which had already been identified by the police as fraudulent companies. In the face of a well-founded suspicion that more companies have perpetrated criminal acts and in order to make better use of what are very limited police resources, we aim to construct a tool to detect money laundering criminals. We combine Benford's Law and machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, decision trees, neural networks, and random forests) to find patterns of money laundering criminals in the context of a real Spanish court case. After mapping each supplier's set of accounting data into a 21-dimensional space using Benford's Law and applying machine learning algorithms, additional companies that could merit further scrutiny are flagged up. A new tool to detect money laundering criminals is proposed in this paper. The tool is tested in the context of a real case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case of multiple hepatic abscesses detected by CT scan in the patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saburi, Yoshio; Shuto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Ryoko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Itoga, Takashi (Medical Coll. of Oita (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    A 34 year old man admitted to a hospital on 21 Feb. 1983 was diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A hematological complete remission was achieved by combination therapy of vincristine, prednisolone and L-asparaginase. However, he had been complaining of high fever and right hypochondralgia since early in Apr. 1983, and it was revealed that elevation of right diaphragm on chest X-ray. Therefore, he was also given several antibiotics (CPZ, TOB, LMOX, PIPC, LCM, AMK, MINO and GM) for complication of probable liver abscess. Remittent fever persisted in spite of as mentioned above various antibiotics. The multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan of the mid-abdomen as the low density lesions, but bacterial cultures detected no pathogens. His complaining of remittent fever and right hypochondralgia were improved by treatment with Miconazole during about one month, and decreasing in size and number of multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan. Though we could not determine clearly, but suspected that multiple hepatic abscesses were due to fungus infection, by reason of therapeutic result. Regarding the complication of hepatic abscesses with leukemia, 5 cases have been reported in Japan, and one case out of 5 cases were detected by CT scan. We thought that CT scans were useful procedures for early diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. Recently, the patient has continued complete remission hematologically.

  12. Detection of new paternal dystrophin gene mutations in isolated cases of dystrophinopathy in females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegoraro, E.; Wessel, H.B.; Schwartz, L.; Hoffman, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Schimke, R.N. (Kansas Univ. Medical Center, Kansas City (United States)); Arahata, Kiichi; Hayashi, Yukiko (National Institute of Neurosciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Stern, H. (Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Marks, H. (A.I. duPont Institute, Wilmington (United States)); Glasberg, M.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders and is caused by dystrophin deficiency. The disease is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait; however, recent biochemical and clinical studies have shown that many girls and women with a primary myopathy have an underlying dystrophinopathy, despite a negative family history for Duchenne dystrophy. These isolated female dystrophinopathy patients carried ambiguous diagnoses with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy) prior to biochemical detection of dystrophin abnormalities in their muscle biopsy. It has been assumed that these female dystrophinopathy patients are heterozygous carries who show preferential inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the normal dystrophin gene, although this has been shown for only a few X:autosome translocations and for two cases of discordant monozygotic twin female carriers. Here the authors study X-inactivation patterns of 13 female dystrophinopathy patients - 10 isolated cases and 3 cases with a positive family history for Duchenne dystrophy in males. They show that all cases have skewed X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood DNA. Of the nine isolated cases informative in the assay, eight showed inheritance of the dystrophin gene mutation from the paternal germ line. Only a single case showed maternal inheritance. The 10-fold higher incidence of paternal transmission of dystrophin gene mutations in these cases is at 30-fold variance with Bayesian predictions and gene mutation rates. Thus, the results suggest some mechanistic interaction between new dystrophin gene mutations, paternal inheritance, and skewed X inactivation. The results provide both empirical risk data and a molecular diagnostic test method, which permit genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this new category of patients. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Detection of behind casing water flow at an angle to the axis of a well borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the undesired flow of water in cement channels or voids behind the casing in a producing well are described. A source of high-energy neutrons (approx. 14 MeV) is placed inside the well borehole opposite the area to be investigated for cement channelling, and used to irradiate the area. An oxygen 16 nucleus is transmuted upon capture of an approximately 10 MeV neutron to radioactive nitrogen 16. This decays with a half life of 7.1 sec by emission of a beta particle and high energy gamma rays. With a sufficiently high flux of bombarding neutrons enough nitrogen 16 is created to be detected at a pair of longitudinally spaced detectors. This measurement can be used directly to indicate the speed of flow of water in the cement channels. However the volume flow rate can be determined from the detection of the high energy gamma rays from the decay of the nitrogen 16. If a pulsed neutron source is used a more accurate detection is provided. The angle of flow can be determined by suitable instrumentation. Full specifications are given. (U.K.)

  14. Skull metastases detecting on arterial spin labeling perfusion: Three case reports and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyeong H; Baek, Hye J; Cho, Soo B; Moon, Jin I; Choi, Bo H; Park, Sung E; An, Hyo J

    2017-11-01

    Detection of skull metastases is as important as detection of brain metastases because early diagnosis of skull metastases is a crucial determinant of treatment. However, the skull can be a blind spot for assessing metastases on routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, the finding of skull metastases on arterial spin labeling (ASL) has not been reported. ASL is a specific MRI sequence for evaluating cerebral blood flow using magnetized endogenous inflow blood. This study uses ASL as a routine sequence of brain MRI protocol and describes 3 clinical cases of skull metastases identified by ASL. The study also highlights the clinical usefulness of ASL in detecting skull metastases. Three patients with known malignancy underwent brain MRI to evaluate for brain metastases. All of the skull metastases were conspicuously depicted on routine ASL images, and the lesions correlated well with other MRI sequences. Three patients received palliative chemotherapy. Three patients are being followed up regularly at the outpatient department. The routine use of ASL may help to detect lesions in blind spots, such as skull metastases, and to facilitate the evaluation of intracranial pathologies without the use of contrast materials in exceptional situations.

  15. Detecting Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn; Mikulski, Rose; Tu, Chingkuang; Li, Ying; Wang, Hai; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Frost, Susan C.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Current research into the function of carbonic anhydrases in cell physiology emphasizes the role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases, such as carbonic anhydrase IX that has been identified in malignant tumors and is associated with extracellular acidification as a response to hypoxia. We present here a mass spectrometric method to determine the extent to which total carbonic anhydrase activity is due to extracellular carbonic anhydrase in whole cell preparations. The method is based on the biphasic rate of depletion of 18O from CO2 measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The slopes of the biphasic depletion are a sensitive measure of the presence of carbonic anhydrase outside and inside of the cells. This property is demonstrated here using suspensions of human red cells in which external carbonic anhydrase was added to the suspending solution. It is also applied to breast and prostate cancer cells which both express exofacial carbonic anhydrase IX. Inhibition of external carbonic anhydrase is achieved by use of a membrane impermeant inhibitor that was synthesized for this purpose, p-aminomethylbenzenesulfonamide attached to a polyethyleneglycol polymer. PMID:20417171

  16. Detection of Hodgkin Transformation in a Case of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabire Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter’s transformation (RT represents the development of high grade lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL. CLL/SLL may convert also to Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the so-called Hodgkin’s variant of Richter transformation. Histopathological proof is needed to confirm a definitive diagnosis. Patients with RT generally have a poor prognosis, with prompt recognition optimise clinical management. Whole-body PET scan with 18F-FDG can be used for detection of RT of CLL/SLL. We describe the case of 64-year-old woman with CLL/SLL who developed Hodgkin lymphoma detected with PET/CT.

  17. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background

  18. Individual polyp detection rate in routine daily endoscopy practice depends on case-mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffeld, R J L F; Liberov, B; Dekkers, P E P

    2015-07-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), a marker of endoscopic quality, is confounded by selection bias. It is not known what the ADR is in normal daily practice. To study the polyp detection rate (PDR) in different endoscopists in the course of years. All consecutive endoscopies of the colon done in 11 years were included. Endoscopies in the regular surveillance programme after polyp removal and after surgery because of colorectal cancer or diverticular disease were scored separately. The number of yearly procedures per endoscopist and presence of polyps, anastomoses, surveillance and cancer were noted. In the period of 11 years, 14,908 consecutive endoscopies of colon and rectum were done by four endoscopists. Two endoscopists had a significantly lower PDR than the other two (p case-mix of patients presented for endoscopy. This result debates the use of the ADR as quality indicator for individual endoscopists.

  19. A case of delayed cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangyuan Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted as for one month of repetitive dizziness and one episode of syncope. Electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and his Holter monitoring also showed sinus bradycardia with sinus arrest, sino-atrial block and a longest pause of 4.3 s. Then sick sinus syndrome and Adam-Stokes syndrome were diagnosed. Then a dual chamber pacemaker (Medtronic SDR303 was implanted and the parameters were normal by detection. The patient was discharged 1 week later with suture removed. Then 1.5 month late the patient was presented to hospital once again for sudden onset of chest pain with exacerbation after taking deep breath. Pacemaker programming showed both pacing and sensing abnormality with threshold of?5.0V and resistance of 1200?. Lead perforation was revealed by chest X-ray and confirmed by echocardiogram. Considering the fact that there was high risk to remove ventricular lead, spiral tip of previous ventricular lead was withdrew followed by implantation of a new ventricular active lead to the septum. Previous ventricular lead was maintained. As we know that the complications of lead perforation in the clinic was rare. Here we discuss the clinical management and the possible reasons for cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead.

  20. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during periods of extended high auroral activity: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liléo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from a case study of a plasma boundary crossing by the Cluster spacecraft during an extended period of high auroral activity. The boundary between the magnetotail lobe region of the Southern Hemisphere and the plasma sheet boundary layer, was characterized by intense electric and magnetic field variations, structured upward accelerated ion beams, narrow-scale large field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere, and a relatively sharp plasma density gradient.

    The observations are shown to be consistent with the concept of a multi-layered boundary with temporal and/or spatial variations in the different layers. H+ and O+ ion beams are seen to be accelerated upwards both by means of a field-aligned electric field and by magnetic pumping caused by large-amplitude and low-frequency electric field fluctuations. The peak energy of the ion beams may here be used as a diagnostic tool for the temporal evolution of the spatial structures, since the temporal changes occur on a time-scale shorter than the times-of-flight of the detected ion species.

    The case study also shows the boundary region to be mainly characterized by a coupling of the detected potential structures to the low ionosphere during the extended period of high auroral activity, as indicated by the intense field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere.

  1. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during periods of extended high auroral activity: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liléo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from a case study of a plasma boundary crossing by the Cluster spacecraft during an extended period of high auroral activity. The boundary between the magnetotail lobe region of the Southern Hemisphere and the plasma sheet boundary layer, was characterized by intense electric and magnetic field variations, structured upward accelerated ion beams, narrow-scale large field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere, and a relatively sharp plasma density gradient. The observations are shown to be consistent with the concept of a multi-layered boundary with temporal and/or spatial variations in the different layers. H+ and O+ ion beams are seen to be accelerated upwards both by means of a field-aligned electric field and by magnetic pumping caused by large-amplitude and low-frequency electric field fluctuations. The peak energy of the ion beams may here be used as a diagnostic tool for the temporal evolution of the spatial structures, since the temporal changes occur on a time-scale shorter than the times-of-flight of the detected ion species. The case study also shows the boundary region to be mainly characterized by a coupling of the detected potential structures to the low ionosphere during the extended period of high auroral activity, as indicated by the intense field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere.

  2. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  3. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data.

  4. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  5. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  6. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Physiology); Folkenborg, O. (Isotope-Pharmcy, Broenshoej (Denmark)); Selmer, J. (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)); Nielsen, N.T. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq {sup 111}In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.).

  7. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B.; Selmer, J.; Nielsen, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq 111 In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.)

  8. Detection of the weak γ activities from new neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Jicheng; Zhao Jinhua; Yang Yongfeng; Zheng Jiwen; Hu Qingyuan; Guo Tianrui

    2003-01-01

    Energic signals of γ rays detected by a HPGe γ detector were coincided with γ-ray, energy-loss signals detected by a 4πΔEβ detector. Then the coinciding β-ray spectra was anticoincided with timing logical signals of 511 keV γ ray created in positron annihilate, detected by a large BGO detector. This special coincidence-anticoincidence system has played an important role in the first observation of the new neutron-rich nuclide 209 Hg. It is shown that this is an effective method to detecting very weak γ-ray activities of neutron-rich isotope in an element-separation sample

  9. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, C.J. [Department of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital of the University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  10. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  11. Improving case detection of tuberculosis among children in Bangladesh: lessons learned through an implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP, the proportion of childhood tuberculosis (TB among all reported cases is only 3%. This is considerably lower compared to other high-burden countries. One of our previous studies identified substantial gaps at the primary care level related to capacity of service providers, supply of required logistics and community awareness about childhood TB. Therefore, we conducted an implementation study with the objectives to address those gaps. Methods This implementation research was designed with pre and post-test evaluation at selected primary care facilities in urban and rural areas. Three interventions were implemented: (1 Training on childhood TB management for all categories of service providers (2 mass awareness campaign among primary and secondary school students and their teachers, mothers of <5y children, religious and community leaders and (3 facilitation of logistics supply at the study facilities. Training was conducted following the national guideline. We developed posters, leaflets, flipcharts and organized folksongs and street dramas as awareness campaign strategy. Quarterly follow up meetings were held with the facility managers of the study clinics. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the baseline and end line alongside review of service statistics to compare the change in community awareness and case detection of childhood TB. Results Awareness regarding childhood TB among all target audience increased significantly showing better understanding of child TB symptoms, transmission, duration and treatment option. Overall proportion of TB case detection among children increased in all three sites compared to baseline as well as NTP estimate with relatively higher proportion in urban site. Majority of the children were suffering from extra-pulmonary TB and there were more female TB cases than male. However, supply and maintenance of necessary

  12. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O' Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  13. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation

  14. Correlation set analysis: detecting active regulators in disease populations using prior causal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chia-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of active causal regulators is a crucial problem in understanding mechanism of diseases or finding drug targets. Methods that infer causal regulators directly from primary data have been proposed and successfully validated in some cases. These methods necessarily require very large sample sizes or a mix of different data types. Recent studies have shown that prior biological knowledge can successfully boost a method's ability to find regulators. Results We present a simple data-driven method, Correlation Set Analysis (CSA, for comprehensively detecting active regulators in disease populations by integrating co-expression analysis and a specific type of literature-derived causal relationships. Instead of investigating the co-expression level between regulators and their regulatees, we focus on coherence of regulatees of a regulator. Using simulated datasets we show that our method performs very well at recovering even weak regulatory relationships with a low false discovery rate. Using three separate real biological datasets we were able to recover well known and as yet undescribed, active regulators for each disease population. The results are represented as a rank-ordered list of regulators, and reveals both single and higher-order regulatory relationships. Conclusions CSA is an intuitive data-driven way of selecting directed perturbation experiments that are relevant to a disease population of interest and represent a starting point for further investigation. Our findings demonstrate that combining co-expression analysis on regulatee sets with a literature-derived network can successfully identify causal regulators and help develop possible hypothesis to explain disease progression.

  15. 1. Detection of sodium leakages in sodium circuits. 2. Actions in case of potentially dangerous situations. 3. Actual case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.Th.

    1971-01-01

    It is of fundamental importance for sodium circuits to detect leakages as fast as possible. This is necessary both for small and large leakages. In case of large leakages the level of the free sodium surfaces will decrease quickly. Sodium vapour as well as Na 2 O and NaOH aerosols will cause an alarm of the intallated smoke detectors. With the exception of a leak in an oil-fired sodium heater we never had a large leak due to a rupture of a tube. It seems to us that small leakages, caused by pinholes or a crack are as dangerous for a sodium circuit as large leakage. Small leakages may remain undiscovered for a long time as practice has shown. During that time severe corrosion can occur even in a nitrogen atmosphere which has only a small concentration of oxygen and humidity. Simultaneously an increasing deterioriation by nitriding of the material which is in contact with the sodium vapour will happen probably. As a consequence of nitriding hardness and tensile strength will incease and elongation will be reduced. As observed, a complete rupture of the structural materil in the region of the leak is possible, due to the above-mentioned reasons. We have published some interesting observations we made after dismantling of the KNK steam generator prototype for post-operational metallurgical examinations. The detection of small leakages which may possibly remain unobserved within the thermal insulation during a longer period of time is of high importance with respect to safety of sodium circuits

  16. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generator. Pt. 5. Experiment for detection of bubbles using the SG full sector model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi

    1997-01-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damages and to maintain structural safety in steam generators (SG) of fast breeder reactors (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers. Therefore, an active acoustic method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated in the sodium-water reactions, it being developed. In this paper, the attenuation characteristics of sound attenuated by bubbles and influence of background noise are investigated experimentally by using an SG full sector model (diameter ratio about 1/1, height ratio about 1/7) simulating the actual SG. As an experimental result, the received sound attenuation for ten seconds was more than 10 dB from air bubble injection when injected bubble of 10 l/s (equivalence water leak rate about 10 g/s). The attenuation of sound are least affected by bubble injection position of heat exchanger tube bunch department. And the time was about 25 seconds till the sound attenuation became 10 dB in case of quantity of air bubble 1 l/s (equivalent water leak rate about 1 g/s). It is clarified that the background noise hardly influenced water leak detection performance as a result of having examined influence of background noise. (author)

  17. A novel approach for reliable detection of cathepsin S activities in mouse antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Alex; Kalbacher, Hubert; Maurer, Andreas; Beifuss, Brigitte; Bender, Annika; Schäfer, Andrea; Müller, Ricarda; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a eukaryotic protease mostly expressed in professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Since CTSS activity regulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and psoriasis as well as in cancer progression, there is an ongoing interest in the reliable detection of cathepsin S activity. Various applications have been invented for specific detection of this enzyme. However, most of them have only been shown to be suitable for human samples, do not deliver quantitative results or the experimental procedure requires technical equipment that is not commonly available in a standard laboratory. We have tested a fluorogen substrate, Mca-GRWPPMGLPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, that has been described to specifically detect CTSS activities in human APCs for its potential use for mouse samples. We have modified the protocol and thereby offer a cheap, easy, reproducible and quick activity assay to detect CTSS activities in mouse APCs. Since most of basic research on CTSS is performed in mice, this method closes a gap and offers a possibility for reliable and quantitative CTSS activity detection that can be performed in almost every laboratory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A case study of application of guided waves for detecting corrosion in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Javad; Safizadeh, Mir Saeed

    2012-05-01

    Every year noticeable amount of money is spent on fixing and replacing the damaged pipes which carry gas and fuel. Since there is a possibility for a catastrophic failure, knowing the proper time of this repair is of great importance. Because significant proportion of failures is due to wall thinning of pipes because of the corrosion, detecting the wall thinning has been a main part of nondestructive testing of pipes. There are wide variety of NDT techniques to detect this kind of defect such as conventional ultrasonic, eddy current, radiography etc. but some of these techniques, for example conventional ultrasonic needs the insulation of pipes removed and in some other cases such as radiography the test is not done at a reasonable speed. A new method of nondestructive testing of pipes which has the potential to test a long distance in a short period of time and does not need the whole insulation removed, has drawn a lot of attention. In this paper, the ability of ultrasonic guided waves for detecting corrosion in gas pipelines is experimentally investigated.

  19. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  20. One-Class Classification-Based Real-Time Activity Error Detection in Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Barnan; Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan C; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-08-01

    Caring for individuals with dementia is frequently associated with extreme physical and emotional stress, which often leads to depression. Smart home technology and advances in machine learning techniques can provide innovative solutions to reduce caregiver burden. One key service that caregivers provide is prompting individuals with memory limitations to initiate and complete daily activities. We hypothesize that sensor technologies combined with machine learning techniques can automate the process of providing reminder-based interventions. The first step towards automated interventions is to detect when an individual faces difficulty with activities. We propose machine learning approaches based on one-class classification that learn normal activity patterns. When we apply these classifiers to activity patterns that were not seen before, the classifiers are able to detect activity errors, which represent potential prompt situations. We validate our approaches on smart home sensor data obtained from older adult participants, some of whom faced difficulties performing routine activities and thus committed errors.

  1. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  2. On Combining Multiple-Instance Learning and Active Learning for Computer-Aided Detection of Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melendez Rodriguez, J.C.; Ginneken, B. van; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R.H.H.M.; Ayles, H.; Sanchez, C.I.

    2016-01-01

    The major advantage of multiple-instance learning (MIL) applied to a computer-aided detection (CAD) system is that it allows optimizing the latter with case-level labels instead of accurate lesion outlines as traditionally required for a supervised approach. As shown in previous work, a MIL-based

  3. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mhalu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB, and evaluated the acceptance of the video.Randomized controlled trial.We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100 or standard of care (control group, n = 100. Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups.Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0; 94 (47% were females, 106 (53% were males, and 49 (24.5% were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p <0.0001, an increase in volume of specimen defined as a volume ≥3ml (78%, 95% CI 68.6-85.7%, versus 45%, 95% CI 35.0-55.3%, p <0.0001, and specimens less likely to be salivary (14%, 95% CI 7.9-22.4%, versus 39%, 95% CI 29.4-49.3%, p = 0.0001. Older age, but not the HIV status or sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%. Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%.Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum

  4. A case of absence of the septum pellucidum accompanied with hydrocephalus and detected by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Komei; Kobayashi, Eiki; Yamamoto, Kunimitsu; Asakura, Tetsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    A case of absence of the septum pellucidum accompanied with hydrocephalus in 56 years-old woman who had complained headache, dizziness and numbness of left leg was reported. Absence of the septum pellucidum in this case had not been detected untill CT scan was performed. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed, then her complaints were cleared up. The discussion was limited as far as possible to absence of the septum pellucidum without agenesis of the corpus callosum with a few references. Encephalographic characteristics of absence of the septum pellucidum were firstly noted by Foster in 1935. The real prevelence should lie at about 1 : 400 in a sufficiently large encephalographical series, which should be an estimate between 2 and 3 per 100,000 of population. Encephalography, although, afflicts patients with headache, nausea and vomiting, moreover it accompanied with possible intracranial infection. The other hand, CT scan has cleared up these problems, we can perform it easily in any cases, and know about status of the septum pellucidum. Further examination for more distinct information are took by coronal section and ''high definition 5 mm slice thickness'' of CT scan. (author)

  5. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  6. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  7. Detection of Human Bocavirus DNA by Multiplex PCR Analysis: Postmortem Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Ziyade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family, which has been newly discovered to be associated with respiratory tract infections in children. There are many reports worldwide on the endemicity of this virus. Since it is relatively new, it is not routinely detected in clinical laboratory investigations. Case Report: We demonstrated that HBoV infection caused the death of a 5-month-old girl with a history of high fever and wheezing. Human bocavirus (HBoV 1/2/3/4 was found in a nasopharyngeal swab, paraffin-embedded lung tissue and stool samples by multiplex PCR methods using postmortem microbiological analysis. Conclusion: This case suggests that lower respiratory tract infections due to HBoV may cause severe and life-threatening diseases. Postmortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. To our knowledge, this report is the first document of a HBoV postmortem case in Turkey.

  8. Shifting the burden or expanding access to care? Assessing malaria trends following scale-up of community health worker malaria case management and reactive case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Winters, Anna; Cheelo, Sanford; Hamainza, Busiku; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Miller, John M; Bridges, Daniel J

    2017-11-02

    Malaria is a significant burden to health systems and is responsible for a large proportion of outpatient cases at health facilities in endemic regions. The scale-up of community management of malaria and reactive case detection likely affect both malaria cases and outpatient attendance at health facilities. Using health management information data from 2012 to 2013 this article examines health trends before and after the training of volunteer community health workers to test and treat malaria cases in Southern Province, Zambia. An estimated 50% increase in monthly reported malaria infections was found when community health workers were involved with malaria testing and treating in the community (incidence rate ratio 1.52, p malaria testing and treating in the community. These results suggest a large public health benefit to both community case management of malaria and reactive case detection. First, the capacity of the malaria surveillance system to identify malaria infections was increased by nearly one-third. Second, the outpatient attendance at health facilities was modestly decreased. Expanding the capacity of the malaria surveillance programme through systems such as community case management and reactive case detection is an important step toward malaria elimination.

  9. Limited role of gadolinium to detect active sacroiliitis on MRI in juvenile spondyloarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herregods, N.; Leus, A.; Verstraete, K.; Jans, L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent (Belgium); Jaremko, J.L. [University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Baraliakos, X. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Rheumazentrum Ruhrgebiet, Herne (Germany); Dehoorne, J. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study is to determine the added diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to routine non contrast-enhanced MRI to detect active sacroiliitis in clinically juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). A total of 80 children clinically suspected for sacroiliitis prospectively underwent MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints. Axial and coronal T1-weighted (T1), Short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and fat-saturated T1-weighted gadolinium-DTPA (Gd) contrast-enhanced (T1/Gd) sequences were obtained. The presence of bone marrow edema (BME), capsulitis, enthesitis, high intra-articular STIR signal, synovial enhancement and a global diagnostic impression of the MRI for diagnosis of sacroiliitis was recorded. STIR and T1/Gd sequences had 100 % agreement for depiction of BME, capsulitis and enthesitis. High intra-articular STIR signal was seen in 18/80 (22.5 %) patients, 15 (83 %) of whom also showed synovial enhancement in the T1/Gd sequence. Sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) for a clinical diagnosis of JSpA were similar for high STIR signal (SN = 33 %, SP = 85 %) and T1/Gd synovial enhancement (SN = 36 %, SP = 92 %). Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) for JSpA was twice as high for synovial enhancement than high STIR signal (4.5 compared to 2.2). Global diagnostic impression was similar (STIR: SN = 55 %, SP = 87 %, LR + =4.2; T1/Gd: SN = 55 %, SP = 92 %, LR + = 6.9). MRI without contrast administration is sufficient to identify bone marrow edema, capsulitis and retroarticular enthesitis as features of active sacroiliitis in juvenile spondyloarthritis. In selected cases when high STIR signal in the joint is the only finding, gadolinium-enhanced images may help to confirm the presence of synovitis. (orig.)

  10. Forecasting the new case detection rate of leprosy in four states of Brazil: A comparison of modelling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Blok (David); R.E. Crump (Ron E.); Sundaresh, R. (Ram); M. Ndeffo-Mbah (Martial); Galvani, A.P. (Alison P.); T.C. Porco (Travis C.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Brazil has the second highest annual number of new leprosy cases. The aim of this study is to formally compare predictions of future new case detection rate (NCDR) trends and the annual probability of NCDR falling below 10/100,000 of four different modelling approaches in four

  11. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  12. Does Education Matter for Entrepreneurship Activities? The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the innovation and technology progress, it is expected that in the near future there will be an increasing trend of jobs that require high qualifi- cations. There is a debate whether education is significantly increasing probabilities of earning higher wage for employees or whether higher education will increase probabilities of entrepreneurship performance. In post-conflict countries, entrepreneurial education does not have a significant impact on entrepreneurship performance, especially in Kosovo due to different factors. First, due to the structure of enterprises, as most of the enterprises are involved on trade activities; second, due to the level of macroeconomic development and, third, due to the lack of involvement of enterprises in EU knowledge and innovative projects, such as Erasmus and Horizon 2020. By using a probit model this paper analyses several factors, such as level of education, gender, marital status and health, for the case of Kosovo. Finally, it confirms empirically that currently the level of education does not seem to play an important role on entrepreneurship performance compared to other factors, such as gender and marital status.

  13. Analytical activity of the laboratory for detection of irradiated food in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Lehner, K.; Guzik, G.P.; Laubsztejn, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper activity of the Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Foods, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in 2005 is presented. In the presented period two new detection methods have been implemented: one is based on EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectrometry, while the other employs photostimulated luminescence released from a sample proving its radiation treatment. Statistics of the analyzed sample types and and the analytical methods applied is presented

  14. Laser-based optical activity detection of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, B.H.

    1987-08-01

    The optical activity detector (OAD) for HPLC is a selective detector for optically active substances including amino acids and proteins. Four free amino acids were resolved using cation-exchange chromatography followed by detection with refractive index detector (RI) for proline and threonine and the OAD to an ultraviolet absorbance detector (uv) for tyrosine and phenylalanine. Amino acid detection by refractive index is not sensitive and uv absorbance detects only three amino acids. Derivatization of amino acids to make them detectable by uv absorbance enhances the applicability of OA/uv for the determination of enantiomeric ratios. The separation of 16 dansyl-L-amino acids by RP-HPLC with detection by OA/uv is illustrated. Calculation of the specific rotation of 22 dansyl-L-amino acids shows that derivatization enhances the OA detectability of some amino acids but degrades that of others. RP-HPLC of proteins is a rapidly developing technique. Several researchers have reported the detection of multiple peaks when a pure protein is subjected to HPLC under certain conditions. These multiple peaks have been determined to be different conformations of the same protein. Since proteins are optically active, OA is a suitable detector. The RP-HPLC separation of conformers of soybean trypsin inhibitor is illustrated. Detection by OA/uv provides insights from the chromatogram unavailable from uv absorbance detection alone. In addition, identification of impurities is simplified with OA/uv. Specific rotations of the separated protein fractions show no significant change accompanying change in conformation. 163 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Detection Probability Is Influenced by Seasonal Activity of Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lesley S; Godwin, James C; Renshaw, Mark A; Larson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) holds great promise for conservation applications like the monitoring of invasive or imperiled species, yet this emerging technique requires ongoing testing in order to determine the contexts over which it is effective. For example, little research to date has evaluated how seasonality of organism behavior or activity may influence detection probability of eDNA. We applied eDNA to survey for two highly imperiled species endemic to the upper Black Warrior River basin in Alabama, US: the Black Warrior Waterdog (Necturus alabamensis) and the Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Importantly, these species have contrasting patterns of seasonal activity, with N. alabamensis more active in the cool season (October-April) and S. depressus more active in the warm season (May-September). We surveyed sites historically occupied by these species across cool and warm seasons over two years with replicated eDNA water samples, which were analyzed in the laboratory using species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. We then used occupancy estimation with detection probability modeling to evaluate both the effects of landscape attributes on organism presence and season of sampling on detection probability of eDNA. Importantly, we found that season strongly affected eDNA detection probability for both species, with N. alabamensis having higher eDNA detection probabilities during the cool season and S. depressus have higher eDNA detection probabilities during the warm season. These results illustrate the influence of organismal behavior or activity on eDNA detection in the environment and identify an important role for basic natural history in designing eDNA monitoring programs.

  16. Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records : use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wing, Kevin; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Smeeth, Liam; van Staa, Tjeerd P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827762; Klungel, Olaf H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Reynolds, Robert F; Douglas, Ian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to create a 'multidatabase' algorithm for identification of cholestatic liver injury using multiple linked UK databases, before (1) assessing the improvement in case ascertainment compared to using a single database and (2) developing a new single-database case-definition

  17. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyan, M N; Tay, Francis E H; Manimaran, M; Seah, K H W

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance

  18. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierlik, M., E-mail: m.gierlik@ncbj.gov.pl; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-21

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  19. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  20. Investigation on feasibility and detection limits for determination of coating film thickness by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Maoying; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Dida; Yang Zunyong; Yao Zhenqiang; Wang Mingqiu; Gao Dangzhong

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of coating film thickness by neutron activation was proposed in this paper. After Au, Al and Cu et al.films were activated with a Am-Be neutron source, the characteristic γ-rays emitted by the activated nuclides in the films were counted with a HPGe γ spectrometer. The detection limits of film thickness by using a nuclear reactor neutron source were deduced on the basis of the γ-ray counts and the Monte-Carlo simulated detection efficiencies. The possible detection limits are typically 4-5 orders of magnitude better than those by fluorescent X-ray method, which is currently widely used to determine coating film thickness. (authors)

  1. INTERACTIVE CHANGE DETECTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON ACTIVE LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  2. Detection of silent cells, synchronization and modulatory activity in developing cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Johannes J J; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Pires, Johny; Dassen, Valerie J; Berkhout, Janna A; Emperador Melero, Javier; Nadadhur, Aish G; Alevra, Mihai; Toonen, Ruud F; Heine, Vivi M; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Meredith, Rhiannon M

    2016-04-01

    Developing networks in the immature nervous system and in cellular cultures are characterized by waves of synchronous activity in restricted clusters of cells. Synchronized activity in immature networks is proposed to regulate many different developmental processes, from neuron growth and cell migration, to the refinement of synapses, topographic maps, and the mature composition of ion channels. These emergent activity patterns are not present in all cells simultaneously within the network and more immature "silent" cells, potentially correlated with the presence of silent synapses, are prominent in different networks during early developmental periods. Many current network analyses for detection of synchronous cellular activity utilize activity-based pixel correlations to identify cellular-based regions of interest (ROIs) and coincident cell activity. However, using activity-based correlations, these methods first underestimate or ignore the inactive silent cells within the developing network and second, are difficult to apply within cell-dense regions commonly found in developing brain networks. In addition, previous methods may ignore ROIs within a network that shows transient activity patterns comprising both inactive and active periods. We developed analysis software to semi-automatically detect cells within developing neuronal networks that were imaged using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Using an iterative threshold, modulation of activity was tracked within individual cells across the network. The distribution pattern of both inactive and active, including synchronous cells, could be determined based on distance measures to neighboring cells and according to different anatomical layers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Detection of underground mined voids using line electrode resistivity technique - case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.S.; Ziaie, F. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA))

    1991-06-01

    A new resistivity method was developed and tested in three phases; simulated model, similitude model, and field survey. This resistivity method was a combination of the Bristow arrangement and line electrode method. Three line electrodes were chosen so that the sinkhole electrode was emplaced at a far distance from the other two electrodes. Any of the two electrodes and the sinkhole electrode were activated and several resistivity profiles perpendicular to the line electrode prepared for different electrodes activation. Subsurface cavities caused resistivity anomalies which were interpreted to locate their sources (cavities) and estimate the depths and dimension of the cavities. A coal mine site employing the room and pillar mining system was selected to confirm the results of the laboratory. The results of the interpretation indicated that the entry with a dimension of 135 cm high and 5.40 m wide at a depth of 25.50 m can be detected by this method. The resolution of the detectability of this method proved a great success when compared to other resistivity techniques. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Can Remote Sensing Detect Aquifer Characteristics?: A Case Study in the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Thomas, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global water supply resiliency depends on groundwater, especially regions threatened by population growth and climate change. Aquifer characteristics, even as basic as confined versus unconfined, are necessary to prescribe regulations to sustainably manage groundwater supplies. A significant barrier to sustainable groundwater management exists in the difficulties associated with mapping groundwater resources and characteristics at a large spatial scale. This study addresses this challenge by investigating if remote sensing, including with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), can detect and quantify key aquifer parameters and characteristics. We explore this through a case study in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) of South America, validating our remote sensing-based findings against the best available regional estimates. The use of remote sensing to advance the understanding of large aquifers is beneficial to sustainable groundwater management, especially in a trans-boundary system, where consistent information exchange can occur within hydrologic boundaries instead of political boundaries.

  5. Early detection of myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma by computed tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thung-Lip; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Shih, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Huai-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Shan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Hsu, Kwan-Lih

    2017-02-10

    Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department. Under the impression of acute myocardial infarction, emergent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery occlusion. Revascularization was performed and coronary artery dissection was found after thrombus aspiration. Finally, the patient survived after coronary stenting. Perfusion defects of myocardium enhancement on CT after blunt chest trauma can be very helpful to suggest myocardial infarction and facilitate the decision making of emergent procedure. This valuable sign should not be missed during the initial interpretation.

  6. Stochastic modeling of a hazard detection and avoidance maneuver—The planetary landing case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) functionalities, thus the ability to recognize and avoid potential hazardous terrain features, is regarded as an enabling technology for upcoming robotic planetary landing missions. In the forefront of any landing mission the landing site safety assessment is an important task in the systems and mission engineering process. To contribute to this task, this paper presents a mathematical framework to consider the HDA strategy and system constraints in this mission engineering aspect. Therefore the HDA maneuver is modeled as a stochastic decision process based on Markov chains to map an initial dispersion at an arrival gate to a new dispersion pattern affected by the divert decision-making and system constraints. The implications for an efficient numerical implementation are addressed. An example case study is given to demonstrate the implementation and use of the proposed scheme

  7. Congenital abdominal dumbbell fashion neuroblastoma with invasion of spinal canal detected by ultrasonography - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiak, W.; Czarniak, P.; Swieton, D.; Piskunowicz, M.; Drozynska, E.; Szolkiewicz, A.

    2007-01-01

    A case of congenital abdominal dumbbell fashion neuroblastoma with invasion of the spinal canal detected by ultrasonography (US) is presented. A 3-week-old male neonate was admitted to the hospital with a palpable mass in the left lumbar region. Ultrasound examination was performed on the same day. It disclosed a pathologic mass filling the left side of the retroperitoneal space - displacing laterally and inferiorly the left kidney. The second part of the tumor was located above the Gerot's fascia in the muscles and infiltrated the tomography scanning confirmed the presence of solid masses in these locations. Urinary excretion of vanillin-mandelic acid (VMA) was within normal range, ferritin level was elevated (447 μg/ml). Bone scintigraphy showed metastases to the left clavicle. There were no changes in bone marrow. Diagnosis of an undifferentiated malignant neuroblastoma was established in histopathological examination. Spinal ultrasonography is highly recommended in neonates and infants with retroperitoneal tumors. (author)

  8. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anostario, M. Jr.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  9. Characteristics of cirrhosis undiagnosed during life: a comparative analysis of 73 undiagnosed cases and 149 diagnosed cases of cirrhosis, detected in 4929 consecutive autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Leth, Peter Mygind; Mårbjerg, Lone

    1991-01-01

    In 4929 consecutive autopsies performed during a period of 4 years, 222 cases (4.5%) of cirrhosis were found, of which 149 (3%) were detected while the patients were alive (diagnosed cirrhosis) and 73 (1.5%) were not detected while the patients were living (undiagnosed cirrhosis). Fifty-three of ......In 4929 consecutive autopsies performed during a period of 4 years, 222 cases (4.5%) of cirrhosis were found, of which 149 (3%) were detected while the patients were alive (diagnosed cirrhosis) and 73 (1.5%) were not detected while the patients were living (undiagnosed cirrhosis). Fifty......-three of the 73 undiagnosed patients appeared to be completely without signs of cirrhosis (silent cirrhosis). In the diagnosed group, 70% of patients died from hepatic causes, in contrast to 16% in the undiagnosed group. At autopsy, the following complications of cirrhosis were found more frequently...

  10. Rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water and water contamination case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Rolf A.; Lee, Jiyoung; Clark, Robert M.

    2011-12-01

    Water systems are inherently vulnerable to physical, chemical and biologic threats that might compromise a systems' ability to reliably deliver safe water. The ability of a water supply to provide water to its customers can be compromised by destroying or disrupting key physical elements of the water system. However, contamination is generally viewed as the most serious potential terrorist threat to water systems. Chemical or biologic agents could spread throughout a distribution system and result in sickness or death among the consumers and for some agents the presence of the contaminant might not be known until emergency rooms report an increase in patients with a particular set of symptoms. Even without serious health impacts, just the knowledge that a water system had been breached could seriously undermine consumer confidence in public water supplies. Therefore, the ability to rapidly detect contamination, especially microbiological contamination, is highly desirable. The authors summarize water contamination case studies and discuss a technique for identifying microbiological contamination based on ATP bioluminescence. This assay allows an estimation of bacterial populations within minutes and can be applied using a local platform. Previous ATP-based methods requires one hour, one liter of water, and has a sensitivity of 100000 cells for detection. The improved method discussed here is 100 times more sensitive, requires one-hundredth of the sample volume, and is over 10 times faster than standard method. This technique has a great deal of potential for application in situations in which a water system has been compromised.

  11. [Value of CT lymphangiography in the detection of lymphatic leakage: a report of nine cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, K; Aouaifia, A; Oudjit, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M; Legmann, P

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of CT lymphangiography to detect lymphatic leakage, especially at the thoracic level, prior to therapeutic intervention. Between 2004 and 2008, nine patients underwent lymphangiography, followed by CT for the evaluation of intractable lymphatic leakage in spite of optimal medical management. Patients included seven females and two males, with age ranging between 25 and 58 years. Lymphangiography was performed after unilateral or bilateral foot injection(s) of Lipiodol ultrafluid followed by standard radiographs of the chest and abdomen and CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The images were reviewed by two experienced radiologists. Lipiodol leakage was observed in six patients, while three patients showed evidence of lymphangiectasia of the abdominal and/or thoracic lymphatics. Spontaneous resolution of leakage after lymphangiography occurred in three cases. CT lymphangiography allows direct evaluation of lymphatics, from pelvis to chest, in order to detect the site of leakage at the origin of a chylous effusion and assist in its management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  12. Early detection of COPD: a case finding study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevoorde, Jan; Verbanck, Sylvia; Gijssels, Lieve; Schuermans, Daniel; Devroey, Dirk; De Backer, Joan; Kartounian, Jan; Vincken, Walter

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a population of general practice patients at risk for developing COPD. A further aim was to evaluate the presence of respiratory symptoms as a predictor for the diagnosis of COPD. This study was conducted by eight general practitioners (GP) in six semi-rural general practices. During two consecutive months all patients attending their GP were included if they met the following criteria: current smokers between 40 and 70 yr of age, and a smoking history of at least 15 pack-years. A questionnaire regarding smoking history, respiratory symptoms, exposure to dust or chemical fumes, and history of respiratory diseases was completed for all patients. Subjects without known COPD were invited for spirometric testing. Off the 146 general practice patients included, 17.1% already had an established COPD diagnosis. Screening by spirometry revealed a 46.6% prevalence of COPD. Underdiagnosis of COPD was more frequent in the younger age categories (40-49 Yr; 50-59 Yr). Objective wheezing was the only sign that was significantly more frequent in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients (Pfatigue than newly detected patients. Almost half of a general practice population of current smokers between 40 and 70 years of age, with a smoking history of at least 15 pack-years, was diagnosed with COPD, and roughly two thirds of these were newly detected as a result of the case finding programme.

  13. Verification of threshold activation detection (TAD) technique in prompt fission neutron detection using scintillators containing 19F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibczynski, P.; Kownacki, J.; Moszyński, M.; Iwanowska-Hanke, J.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Gójska, A.; Gierlik, M.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Jakubowska, E.; Kędzierski, G.; Kujawiński, Ł.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Carrel, F.; Ledieu, M.; Lainé, F.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study ⌀ 5''× 3'' and ⌀ 2''× 2'' EJ-313 liquid fluorocarbon as well as ⌀ 2'' × 3'' BaF2 scintillators were exposed to neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source and a Sodern Genie 16GT deuterium-tritium (D+T) neutron generator. The scintillators responses to β- particles with maximum endpoint energy of 10.4 MeV from the n+19F reactions were studied. Response of a ⌀ 5'' × 3'' BC-408 plastic scintillator was also studied as a reference. The β- particles are the products of interaction of fast neutrons with 19F which is a component of the EJ-313 and BaF2 scintillators. The method of fast neutron detection via fluorine activation is already known as Threshold Activation Detection (TAD) and was proposed for photofission prompt neutron detection from fissionable and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in the field of Homeland Security and Border Monitoring. Measurements of the number of counts between 6.0 and 10.5 MeV with a 252Cf source showed that the relative neutron detection efficiency ratio, defined as epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'', is 32.0% ± 2.3% and 44.6% ± 3.4% for front-on and side-on orientation of the BaF2, respectively. Moreover, the ⌀ 5'' EJ-313 and side-on oriented BaF2 were also exposed to neutrons from the D+T neutron generator, and the relative efficiency epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'' was estimated to be 39.3%. Measurements of prompt photofission neutrons with the BaF2 detector by means of data acquisition after irradiation (out-of-beam) of nuclear material and between the beam pulses (beam-off) techniques were also conducted on the 9 MeV LINAC of the SAPHIR facility.

  14. Neurolymphomatosis detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT scan - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czepczynski, R.; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, I.; Sowinski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoma involvement of the peripheral nerves is a rare clinical presentation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman with the defect of peripheral motor neuron admitted for PET/CT scan. The scan disclosed increased 18 F-FDG activity along the brachial and lumbar plexuses together with very intense 18 F-FDG uptake in the cervical lymph node masses. The diagnosis, based on the subsequent histopathologic lymph node examination, was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (authors)

  15. Trends in leprosy case detection in Rwanda, 1995–2011: analysis of 17 years of laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Uwimana

    2017-02-01

    Objective: We analysed laboratory records to assess trends in prevalence rates and case detection rates (CDRs in Rwanda. Methods: A retrospective review of detected leprosy cases from the records of the Rwanda National Reference Laboratory over a 17-year period (1995–2011 was conducted. Skin biopsy samples were analysed microscopically using Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to identify M. leprae. Results: Cumulatively, 266 suspected cases were reported between 1995 and 2011. Of the suspected cases, 77 (28.9% were laboratory confirmed as having leprosy. Among detected cases, 59 (76.6% were men and 18 (23.4% women. The male:female ratio was 3:1. There were 77 registered leprosy cases over the 17-year period of the study, and the prevalence rate was 0.005 per 10 000 population. A gradual decrease in the prevalence rate was observed from 0.015 per 10 000 population in 2003 to 0.003 per 10 000 population in 2010. From 1995 to 2011, the CDR did not exceed one per 10 000 population. Conclusion: This laboratory review demonstrates a declining trend in prevalence rates and CDR during the period of the study. Early case detection and a sustainable leprosy control programme remain the cornerstones of reducing the physical and socio-economic burden of leprosy in Rwanda.

  16. Amplified and in situ detection of redox-active metabolite using a biobased redox capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Gordonov, Tanya; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2013-02-19

    Redox cycling provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analyte detection. Previous studies have shown that diverse mediators/shuttles can engage in redox-cycling reactions with a biobased redox capacitor that is fabricated by grafting redox-active catechols onto a chitosan film. Here, we report that redox cycling with this catechol-chitosan redox capacitor can amplify electrochemical signals for detecting a redox-active bacterial metabolite. Specifically, we studied the redox-active bacterial metabolite pyocyanin that is reported to be a virulence factor and signaling molecule for the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that redox cycling can amplify outputs from various electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and differential pulse voltammetry) and can lower the detection limit of pyocyanin to 50 nM. Further, the compatibility of this biobased redox capacitor allows the in situ monitoring of the production of redox-active metabolites (e.g., pyocyanin) during the course of P. aeruginosa cultivation. We anticipate that the amplified output of redox-active virulence factors should permit an earlier detection of life-threatening infections by the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa while the "bio-compatibility" of this measurement approach should facilitate in situ study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial redox signaling.

  17. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid

    2016-03-28

    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  18. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naeem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1 mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV of quinolones; (2 plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3 chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV. In the case of

  19. A case of acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured aneurysm detected by postmortem angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Yajima, Daisuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2016-03-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is mostly caused by head trauma, but intrinsic causes also exist such as aneurysm rupture. We describe here a case involving a man in his 70s who was found lying on the bedroom floor by his family. CT performed at the hospital showed ASDH and a forensic autopsy was requested. Postmortem cerebral angiography showed dilatation of the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery, which coincided with the dilated part of the Sylvian fissure. Extravasation of contrast medium into the subdural hematoma from this site was suggestive of a ruptured aneurysm. Autopsy revealed a fleshy hematoma (total weight 110 g) in the right subdural space and findings of brain herniation. As indicated on angiography, a ruptured saccular aneurysm was confirmed at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. Obvious injuries to the head or face could not be detected on either external or internal examination, and intrinsic ASDH due to a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm was determined as the cause of death. One of the key points of forensic diagnosis is the strict differentiation between intrinsic and extrinsic onset for conditions leading to death. Although most subdural hematomas (SDH) are caused by extrinsic factors, forensic pathologists should consider the possibility of intrinsic SDH. In addition, postmortem angiography can be useful for identifying vascular lesions in such cases.

  20. Pulmonary intravascular lymphoma detected by FDG PET-CT: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, A A; Paganini, L; Biedak, P; Arma, J I; Dalurzo, M C L; Garcia-Monaco, R D

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare subtype of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its prognosis is poor in a high percentage of cases due to its insidious appearance and low clinical suspicion. Its diagnosis is usually only reached after an autopsy. It may affect different organs as a whole or only one organ. It is extremely rare that the lung is the only damaged organ. Its diagnosis depends of the clinician's suspicion and proper evaluation with imaging studies as well as correct selection of the organ to be biopsied. When detected on time, the treatment of choice is a combination of a series of chemotherapy associated to a monoclonal antibody (anti-CD20). We present the case of a male patient who underwent a positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2 deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) due to symptoms suggestive of a lymphoproliferative disease with no clear structural abnormalities. The images led to a diagnosis of pulmonary intravascular large B cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Botulinum Toxin Muscle Effect in Humans Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Qualitative Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Michael W; Villanueva, Mark; Creelman, Carly; Telhan, Gaurav; Nestor, Jaclyn; Hentel, Keith D; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P

    2017-12-01

    Although important for dosing and dilution, there are few data describing botulinum toxin (BT) movement in human muscle. To better understand BT movement within human muscle. Proof-of-concept study with descriptive case series. Outpatient academic practice. Five subjects with stroke who were BT naive with a mean age of 60.4 ± 14 years and time poststroke of 4.6 ± 3.7 years. Three standardized injections were given to the lateral gastrocnemius muscle (LGM): 2 contained 25 units (U) of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) in 0.25 mL of saline solution and the third 0.25 mL of saline solution only. The tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) was not injected in any subject. A leg magnetic resonance image was obtained at baseline, 2 months, and 3 months later with a 3.0 Tesla Siemens scanner. Three muscles, the LGM, lateral soleus muscle (LSM), and TAM, were manually outlined on the T2 mapping sequence at each time point. A histogram of T2 relaxation times (T2-RT) for all voxels at baseline was used to calculate a mean and standard deviation (SD) T2-RT for each muscle. Botulinum toxin muscle effect (BTME) at 2 months and 3 months was defined as a subject- and muscle-specific T2-RT voxel threshold ≥3 SD above the baseline mean at or near BT injection sites. BTME volume for each leg magnetic resonance imaging slice at 3 time points and 3 muscles for all subjects. One subject missed the 3-month scan, leaving 18 potential observations of BTME. Little to no BTME effect was seen in the noninjected TAM. A BTME was detected in the LGM in 13 of 18 possible observations, and no effect was detected in 5 observations. Possible BTME effect was seen in the LSM in 3 subjects due to either diffusion through fascia or needle misplacement. Volume of BTME, as defined here, appeared to be substantially greater than the 0.25-mL injection volume. This descriptive case series is among the first attempts to quantify BTME within human muscle. Our findings are preliminary and are limited by a few

  2. Detection of Cases of Noncompliance to Drug Treatment in Patient Forum Posts: Topic Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Redhouane; Foulquié, Pierre; Texier, Nathalie; Faviez, Carole; Burgun, Anita; Schück, Stéphane

    2018-03-14

    Medication nonadherence is a major impediment to the management of many health conditions. A better understanding of the factors underlying noncompliance to treatment may help health professionals to address it. Patients use peer-to-peer virtual communities and social media to share their experiences regarding their treatments and diseases. Using topic models makes it possible to model themes present in a collection of posts, thus to identify cases of noncompliance. The aim of this study was to detect messages describing patients' noncompliant behaviors associated with a drug of interest. Thus, the objective was the clustering of posts featuring a homogeneous vocabulary related to nonadherent attitudes. We focused on escitalopram and aripiprazole used to treat depression and psychotic conditions, respectively. We implemented a probabilistic topic model to identify the topics that occurred in a corpus of messages mentioning these drugs, posted from 2004 to 2013 on three of the most popular French forums. Data were collected using a Web crawler designed by Kappa Santé as part of the Detec't project to analyze social media for drug safety. Several topics were related to noncompliance to treatment. Starting from a corpus of 3650 posts related to an antidepressant drug (escitalopram) and 2164 posts related to an antipsychotic drug (aripiprazole), the use of latent Dirichlet allocation allowed us to model several themes, including interruptions of treatment and changes in dosage. The topic model approach detected cases of noncompliance behaviors with a recall of 98.5% (272/276) and a precision of 32.6% (272/844). Topic models enabled us to explore patients' discussions on community websites and to identify posts related with noncompliant behaviors. After a manual review of the messages in the noncompliance topics, we found that noncompliance to treatment was present in 6.17% (276/4469) of the posts. ©Redhouane Abdellaoui, Pierre Foulquié, Nathalie Texier, Carole

  3. Detection Thresholds of Falling Snow From Satellite-Borne Active and Passive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Johnson, Benjamin T.; Munchak, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earths surface in order to fully capture the global atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms for current and future missions includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations and falling snow events over land surfaces and lakes. In this paper, cloud resolving model simulations of lake effect and synoptic snow events were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W-band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR)Ku- and Ka-bands, and the GPM Microwave Imager. Eleven different nonspherical snowflake shapes were used in the analysis. Notable results include the following: 1) The W-band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM radars; 2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels (e.g., snow events with larger ice water paths and thicker clouds are easier to detect); 3) the snowflake microphysics (mainly shape and density)plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments; 4) with reasonable assumptions, the passive 166-GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to those of the GPM DPR Ku- and Ka-band radars with approximately 0.05 g *m(exp -3) detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1.0-mm * h(exp -1) melted snow rate. This paper provides information on the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in global estimates.

  4. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  5. [Purity Detection Model Update of Maize Seeds Based on Active Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-ya; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qi-bing

    2015-08-01

    Seed purity reflects the degree of seed varieties in typical consistent characteristics, so it is great important to improve the reliability and accuracy of seed purity detection to guarantee the quality of seeds. Hyperspectral imaging can reflect the internal and external characteristics of seeds at the same time, which has been widely used in nondestructive detection of agricultural products. The essence of nondestructive detection of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technique is to establish the mathematical model between the spectral information and the quality of agricultural products. Since the spectral information is easily affected by the sample growth environment, the stability and generalization of model would weaken when the test samples harvested from different origin and year. Active learning algorithm was investigated to add representative samples to expand the sample space for the original model, so as to implement the rapid update of the model's ability. Random selection (RS) and Kennard-Stone algorithm (KS) were performed to compare the model update effect with active learning algorithm. The experimental results indicated that in the division of different proportion of sample set (1:1, 3:1, 4:1), the updated purity detection model for maize seeds from 2010 year which was added 40 samples selected by active learning algorithm from 2011 year increased the prediction accuracy for 2011 new samples from 47%, 33.75%, 49% to 98.89%, 98.33%, 98.33%. For the updated purity detection model of 2011 year, its prediction accuracy for 2010 new samples increased by 50.83%, 54.58%, 53.75% to 94.57%, 94.02%, 94.57% after adding 56 new samples from 2010 year. Meanwhile the effect of model updated by active learning algorithm was better than that of RS and KS. Therefore, the update for purity detection model of maize seeds is feasible by active learning algorithm.

  6. High utility of active tuberculosis case finding in an Ethiopian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merid, Y; Woldeamanuel, Y; Abebe, M; Datiko, D G; Hailu, T; Habtamu, G; Assefa, G; Kempker, R R; Blumberg, H M; Aseffa, A

    2018-05-01

    Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen. The median age of these 372 persons was 23 years, 97% were male and 63% were from urban areas. Among those with a positive symptom screen, 8 (2%) were AFB sputum smear-positive and 31 (8%) were Xpert-positive. The point prevalence of pulmonary TB at the prison was 1748 per 100 000 persons. In multivariate analysis, persons with cough >4 weeks were more likely to have TB (OR 3.34, 95%CI 1.54-7.23). A high prevalence of TB was detected among inmates at a large Ethiopian prison. Active case finding using a cough symptom screen in combination with Xpert had high utility, and has the potential to interrupt transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in correctional facilities in low- and middle-income, high-burden countries.

  7. Microscopic polyangiitis complicated with ileal involvement detected by double-balloon endoscopy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Inoue, Satoko; Ono, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Yoshimura, Hajime; Imai, Yukihiro; Inokuma, Tetsuro

    2013-03-02

    Microscopic polyangiitis is characterized by pauci-immune, necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis and an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Although gastrointestinal involvement in microscopic polyangiitis is not rare, endoscopic observation of it is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of small intestinal involvement in microscopic polyangiitis detected and followed up by double-balloon endoscopy. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was transferred to our hospital for close examination of suspected small intestinal lymphoma. Retrograde double-balloon endoscopy revealed various forms of ulcers with redness and edema in the ileum. Histological findings suggested ischemic changes. Because mononeuritis multiplex and a fever spike appeared later, vasculitis was suspected. The perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titer was elevated. Nerve biopsy results suggested vasculitis. From these findings, microscopic polyangiitis was diagnosed. It was suggested that microscopic polyangiitis caused the intestinal involvement. Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide and oral predonisolone were started. After treatment, perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies decreased to the normal range. Retrograde double-balloon endoscopy after treatment showed ulcer scars and no ulcer. The cause of gastrointestinal involvement in microscopic polyangiitis is ischemia due to vasculitis. It is difficult to diagnose small-vessel vasculitis by endoscopic biopsy. Although histological evidence of microscopic polyangiitis is important, the treatment should not be delayed by repeating the biopsy, because such delay can result in adverse sequela.This case report shows that microscopic polyangiitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when small intestinal changes like those in the present case are observed by endoscopy.

  8. Sensitive detection of proteasomal activation using the Deg-On mammalian synthetic gene circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenting; Bonem, Matthew; McWhite, Claire; Silberg, Jonathan J; Segatori, Laura

    2014-04-08

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has emerged as a drug target for diverse diseases characterized by altered proteostasis, but pharmacological agents that enhance UPS activity have been challenging to establish. Here we report the Deg-On system, a genetic inverter that translates proteasomal degradation of the transcriptional regulator TetR into a fluorescent signal, thereby linking UPS activity to an easily detectable output, which can be tuned using tetracycline. We demonstrate that this circuit responds to modulation of UPS activity in cell culture arising from the inhibitor MG-132 and activator PA28γ. Guided by predictive modelling, we enhanced the circuit's signal sensitivity and dynamic range by introducing a feedback loop that enables self-amplification of TetR. By linking UPS activity to a simple and tunable fluorescence output, these genetic inverters will enable a variety of applications, including screening for UPS activating molecules and selecting for mammalian cells with different levels of proteasome activity.

  9. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  10. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  11. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  12. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  13. Online Detection of Peroxidase Using 3D Printing, Active Magnetic Mixing, and Spectra Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for online detection of peroxidase (POD using 3D printing, active magnetic mixing, fluidic control, and optical detection was developed and demonstrated in this study. The proposed POD detection system consisted of a 3D printing and active magnetic mixing based fluidic chip for online catalytic reaction, an optical detector with a fluidic flow cell for quantitative determination of the final catalysate, and a single-chip microcontroller based controller for automatic control of two rotating magnetic fields and four precise peristaltic pumps. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was used as research model and a linear relationship between the absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of 450 nm and the concentration of HRP of 1/4–1/128 μg mL−1 was obtained as A  =  0.257ln⁡(C + 1.425 (R2  = 0.976. For the HRP spiked pork tests, the recoveries of HRP ranged from 93.5% to 110.4%, indicating that this proposed system was capable of detecting HRP in real samples. It has the potential to be extended for online detection of the activity of other enzymes and integration with ELISA method for biological and chemical analysis.

  14. Cases of active infective endocarditis in a university hospital during a 10-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, H.; Yilmaz, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the features of patients with active infective endocarditis, and to identify causative microorganisms in blood and/or valve cultures. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of Istanbul University Cardiology Institute, Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised 22 patients with clinical evidence of the affliction who underwent operation between January 2001 and December 2010. Modified Duke Criteria was used for the diagnosis of the condition. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.68±18 years, and 12 (54.5%) were male. Native valve endocarditis was present in 13 (59.1%) cases and prosthetic valve endocarditis was present in 9 (40.9%). Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest underlying heart disease (n=12; 54.5%). None of patient was intravenous drug abuser and positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Operative mortality was 18% (n=4). Vegetation and abscess formation were detected in 19 (86.3%) cases. Blood culture positivity was 50% (n=11). Staphylococci was the most common causative micro-organism (n=4; 36.3%), followed by Streptococci (n=3; 27.3%), and 1 (9.1%) each for Enterococci, Brucella species, Candida albicans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Positive cultures from vegetations and tissue retrieved at the operation was not detected. Conclusion: Active IE remains a severe disease affecting the young population in our study and rheumatic heart disease continues to be the most underlying heart disease. Culture negativity was found to be very high and prior antibiotic therapy may be the prime reason.

  15. Cases of active infective endocarditis in a university hospital during a 10-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukates, E.; Gultekin, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the features of patients with active infective endocarditis, and to identify causative microorganisms in blood and/or valve cultures. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of Istanbul University Cardiology Institute, Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised 22 patients with clinical evidence of the affliction who underwent operation between January 2001 and December 2010. Modified Duke Criteria was used for the diagnosis of the condition. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.68+-18 years, and 12 (54.5%) were male. Native valve endocarditis was present in 13 (59.1%) cases and prosthetic valve endocarditis was present in 9 (40.9%). Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest underlying heart disease (n=12; 54.5%). None of patient was intravenous drug abuser and positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Operative mortality was 18% (n=4). Vegetation and abscess formation were detected in 19 (86.3%) cases. Blood culture positivity was 50% (n=11). Staphylococci was the most common causative micro-organism (n=4; 36.3%), followed by Streptococci (n=3; 27.3%), and 1 (9.1%) each for Enterococci, Brucella species, Candida albicans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Positive cultures from vegetations and tissue retrieved at the operation was not detected. Conclusion: Active IE remains a severe disease affecting the young population in our study and rheumatic heart disease continues to be the most underlying heart disease. Culture negativity was found to be very high and prior antibiotic therapy may be the prime reason. (author)

  16. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: a systematic comparison of EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basner, Mathias; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Kluge, Götz; Griefahn, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Polysomnography is the gold standard for investigating noise effects on sleep, but data collection and analysis are sumptuous and expensive. We recently developed an algorithm for the automatic identification of cardiac activations associated with cortical arousals, which uses heart rate information derived from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) channel. We hypothesized that cardiac activations can be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. Polysomnographic EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations were systematically compared using laboratory data of 112 subjects (47 male, mean ± SD age 37.9 ± 13 years), 985 nights and 23 855 aircraft noise events (ANEs). The probability of automatically detected cardiac activations increased monotonically with increasing maximum sound pressure levels of ANEs, exceeding the probability of EEG awakenings by up to 18.1%. If spontaneous reactions were taken into account, exposure–response curves were practically identical for EEG awakenings and cardiac activations. Automatically detected cardiac activations may be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. More investigations are needed to further validate the ECG algorithm in the field and to investigate inter-individual differences in its ability to predict EEG awakenings. This inexpensive, objective and non-invasive method facilitates large-scale field studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep

  17. Detectability of thermal signatures associated with active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Rathbun, J.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Spencer, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent study by Schmidt et al. (2011) suggests that Thera Macula, one of the “chaos regions” on Europa, may be actively forming over a large liquid water lens. Such a process could conceivably produce a thermal anomaly detectable by a future Europa orbiter or flyby mission, allowing for a direct verification of this finding. Here, we present a set of models that quantitatively assess the surface and subsurface temperatures associated with an actively resurfacing chaos region using constraints from Thera Macula. The results of this numerical study suggest that the surface temperature over an active chaos region can be as high as ∼200 K. However, low-resolution Galileo Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) observations indicate temperatures below 120 K over Thera Macula. This suggests that Thera Macula is not currently active unless an insulating layer of at least a few centimeters in thickness is present, or activity is confined to small regions, reducing the overall intensity of the thermal signature. Alternatively, Thera may have been cooling for at least 10–100 yr and still contain a subsurface lake, which can take ∼300,000 yr to crystallize. According to the present study, a more sensitive instrument capable of detecting anomalies ∼5 K above ambient could detect activity at Thera Macula even if an insulating layer of ∼50 cm is present.

  18. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generator. Sound attenuation due to bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Sakuma, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    In the steam generators (SG) of LMFBR, it is necessary to detect the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers as soon as it occurs. The active acoustic detection method has drawn general interest owing to its short response time and reduction of the influence of background noise. In this paper, the application of the active acoustic detection method for SG is proposed, and sound attenuation by bubbles is investigated experimentally. Furthermore, using the SG sector model, sound field characteristics and sound attenuation characteristics due to injection of bubbles are studied. It is clarified that the sound attenuation depends upon bubble size as well as void fraction, that the distance attenuation of sound in the SG model containing heat transfer tubes is 6dB for each two-fold increase of distance, and that emitted sound attenuates immediately upon injection of bubbles. (author)

  19. Improvement in minimum detectable activity for low energy gamma by optimization in counting geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma spectrometry for environmental samples of low specific activities demands low minimum detection levels of measurement. An attempt has been made to lower the gamma detection level of measurement by optimizing the sample geometry, without compromising on the sample size. Gamma energy of 50–200 keV range was chosen for the study, since low energy gamma photons suffer the most self-attenuation within matrix. The simulation study was carried out using MCNP based software “EffCalcMC” for silica matrix and cylindrical geometries. A volume of 250 ml sample geometry of 9 cm diameter is optimized as the best suitable geometry for use, against the in-practice 7 cm diameter geometry of same volume. An increase in efficiency of 10%–23% was observed for the 50–200 keV gamma energy range and a corresponding lower minimum detectable activity of 9%–20% could be achieved for the same.

  20. Effectively Using Social Media for Research: A LIGO Detection Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuver, Amber

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) made the first direct detection of gravitational waves on 14 Sep. 2015 and publically announced its findings on 11 Feb. 2016 in a press conference that coincided with the publication of the referred result. In the intervening 5 months, while the detection was being vetted and the paper written, the LIGO Laboratory and the LIGO Education and Public Outreach working group put together a multifaceted media campaign to explain the science and significance of the event to the public. Social media played a vital role in disseminating the news and educational products of the campaign. In the days leading up to the announcement, social media (Twitter and Facebook) was used to build buzz for the announcement. On the day of the announcement, original posts were carefully planned every 10-15 minutes to promote continued interest and prevent information overload. This campaign continued until the end of the month, with decreasing post frequency. Ultimately, over 70 million aggregated Twitter posts were made with at least one of the following hashtags: #gravitationalwaves, #LIGO, or #EinsteinWasRight. In the month following the announcement, the LIGO Facebook page reached 1.5 million people who shared information from the page over 7000 times. LIGO also made use of other forms of social media such as blog articles contributed by LIGO Scientific Collaboration members discussing different aspects of the discovery (from the science to personal experience), a Reddit ``Ask Me Anything'' (AMA) session where LIGO scientists were able to answer 90% of the 923 submitted questions in the allotted time, by collaborating with the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) to feature an educational image and caption on the detection, and an open, and still active, email address (question@ligo.org) where hundreds of questions submitted by the public have already been personally addressed. On behalf of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

  1. Unsupervised Object Modeling and Segmentation with Symmetry Detection for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yuan Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel unsupervised approach to detecting and segmenting objects as well as their constituent symmetric parts in an image. Traditional unsupervised image segmentation is limited by two obvious deficiencies: the object detection accuracy degrades with the misaligned boundaries between the segmented regions and the target, and pre-learned models are required to group regions into meaningful objects. To tackle these difficulties, the proposed approach aims at incorporating the pair-wise detection of symmetric patches to achieve the goal of segmenting images into symmetric parts. The skeletons of these symmetric parts then provide estimates of the bounding boxes to locate the target objects. Finally, for each detected object, the graphcut-based segmentation algorithm is applied to find its contour. The proposed approach has significant advantages: no a priori object models are used, and multiple objects are detected. To verify the effectiveness of the approach based on the cues that a face part contains an oval shape and skin colors, human objects are extracted from among the detected objects. The detected human objects and their parts are finally tracked across video frames to capture the object part movements for learning the human activity models from video clips. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives good performance on publicly available datasets.

  2. Telomerase Activity in Breast Tumor Tissues and its Possible use for Detection of Circulating Carcinoma Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimíčková, M.; Nekulová, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Vagundová, M.; Maláska, J.; Obermannová, R.; Lauerová, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2002), s. 98 ISSN 1211-8869. [Central European Conference on Human Tumor Markers /4./. 13.02.2003-16.02.2003, Karlovy Vary] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : telomerase activity * early detection of distant metastases * cancer reccurence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. A fast, sensitive and easy colorimetric assay for chitinase and cellulase activity detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Gaber, Yasser; Fraaije, Marco

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most of the current colorimetric methods for detection of chitinase or cellulase activities on the insoluble natural polymers chitin and cellulose depend on a chemical redox reaction. The reaction involves the reducing ends of the hydrolytic products. The Schales' procedure and the

  4. Rapid Active Assay for the Detection of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, Stephanie S; Turell, Michael J; Bailey, Charles L; Morozov, Victor N

    2008-01-01

    ... by detection of bound IgM molecules with functionalized magnetic beads as active labels. This assay takes only 15 minutes and has the same sensitivity as a commercially available human WNV IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  5. Malware Detection Based on Analysis of Activity of the Working Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Vaganov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is covered the practical implementation of a malware detection system by analyzing the activity of individual applications and workstation in general. A state vector consists of a set of parameters which are the most exposed to malicious programs. Target platforms are operating systems of Windows: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows Seven.

  6. Using an active contour method to detect bilge dumps from SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An automatic approach to detect bilge dumping in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over Southern African oceans is proposed. The approach uses a threshold-based algorithm and a region-based active contour model (ACM) algorithm to achieve...

  7. A highly sensitive technique for detecting catalytically active nanoparticles against a background of general workplace aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, N; Weis, F; Seipenbusch, M; Kasper, G; Binder, A

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique was studied using catalysis to specifically detect airborne nanoparticles in presence of background particles in the workplace air. Catalytically active nanoparticles produced by spark discharge were used as aerosol catalysts. According to these particles suitable catalytic test reactions were chosen and investigated by two different approaches: catalysis on airborne nanoparticles and catalysis on deposited nanoparticles. The results indicate that catalysis is applicable for the specific measurement of nanoparticles in the workplace air. Catalysis on airborne particles is suitable for the specific detection of very active nanoparticles, e.g. platinum or nickel, at high concentrations of about 10 7 /cm 3 . The approach of catalysis on deposited particles is better suited for nanoparticle aerosols at low concentrations, for slow catalytic reactions or less active nanoparticles like iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). On the basis of the experimental results detection limits in the range of μg or even ng were calculated which assure the good potential of catalysis for the specific detection of nanoparticles in the workplace air based on their catalytic activity.

  8. Extranuclear detection of histones and nucleosomes in activated human lymphoblasts as an early event in apoptosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabler, C.; Blank, N.; Hieronymus, T.; Schiller, M.; Berden, J.H.M.; Kalden, J.R.; Lorenz, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of histones and nucleosomes in cell lysates of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), fully activated lymphoblasts, or lymphoblasts after induction of apoptosis. METHODS: Each histone class (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) was detected by western

  9. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  10. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by WXGa-citrate scintigraphy. Cases of abnormal pulmonary WXGa uptake with normal chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Mikami, Riichiro; Ryujin, Yoshitada

    1985-04-01

    In this paper we report our recent experience indicating usefulness of WXGa-citrate scintigraphy in 4 cases with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These cases showed abnormal pulmonary WXGa uptake with normal chest radiographs. The first case with malignant lymphoma and the second one with lung cancer suffered from pulmonary infection following secondary immuno-insufficiency due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Pneumocystis carinii was suspected as causative agent in the first case, and gram negative bacilli in the second case. The third case with lung cancer developed radiation pneumonia after radiotherapy. The fourth case with acute bronchitis developed drug induced interstitial pneumonia presumably due to minocycline administration. It is concluded that WXGa-citrate scintigraphy is more sensitive for early detection of interstitial pneumonia than routine chest radiography.

  11. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang-Nhac Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS, that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers’ vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97

  12. Vehicle Mode and Driving Activity Detection Based on Analyzing Sensor Data of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dang-Nhac; Nguyen, Duc-Nhan; Nguyen, Thi-Hau; Nguyen, Ha-Nam

    2018-03-29

    In this paper, we present a flexible combined system, namely the Vehicle mode-driving Activity Detection System (VADS), that is capable of detecting either the current vehicle mode or the current driving activity of travelers. Our proposed system is designed to be lightweight in computation and very fast in response to the changes of travelers' vehicle modes or driving events. The vehicle mode detection module is responsible for recognizing both motorized vehicles, such as cars, buses, and motorbikes, and non-motorized ones, for instance, walking, and bikes. It relies only on accelerometer data in order to minimize the energy consumption of smartphones. By contrast, the driving activity detection module uses the data collected from the accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer of a smartphone to detect various driving activities, i.e., stopping, going straight, turning left, and turning right. Furthermore, we propose a method to compute the optimized data window size and the optimized overlapping ratio for each vehicle mode and each driving event from the training datasets. The experimental results show that this strategy significantly increases the overall prediction accuracy. Additionally, numerous experiments are carried out to compare the impact of different feature sets (time domain features, frequency domain features, Hjorth features) as well as the impact of various classification algorithms (Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Decision tree J48, K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine) contributing to the prediction accuracy. Our system achieves an average accuracy of 98.33% in detecting the vehicle modes and an average accuracy of 98.95% in recognizing the driving events of motorcyclists when using the Random Forest classifier and a feature set containing time domain features, frequency domain features, and Hjorth features. Moreover, on a public dataset of HTC company in New Taipei, Taiwan, our framework obtains the overall accuracy of 97.33% that is

  13. Case Study: Mini-Case Studies: Small Infusions of Active Learning for Large-Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloye, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the usage of case studies to be an excellent method for engaging students through stories. The author notes she developed a series of mini-case studies that can be implemented, with a little advance preparation, within a 10- to 15-minute window during lecture. What makes them "mini" case studies?…

  14. Not elementary: scientific detectives find industry innocent in most well-poisoning cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslawchuk, D.

    2001-01-01

    Oilfield activities are often cited as the source of contamination of water wells. A recent investigation by Alberta Environment Protection found that the problems are in fact due either to poor well maintenance, owner misuse of wells by pumping at a higher rate than their aquifer is capable of yielding, or deterioration due to the age of the wells. In 2000, only three water-well contamination cases were passed on to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for follow-ups with oil companies after environmental investigation; in 1999 there was only one case that merited further action after gas was found in a well. Government authorities urge proper construction of wells in the first place, to be followed by preventive maintenance, including testing two or three times a year for bacteriological quality and chemical contamination, regular water analysis, and periodic shock chlorination of the entire well depth, including the distribution system. According to the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) the biggest source of well water contamination is not oilfield activity but agricultural activity, specifically the spreading of nitrogen-based fertilizers and manure on farm land which can result in high levels of nitrate, ammonia and bacteria that impact on local soil, surface water, and groundwater. Pesticide spills, feedlots, animal yards, septic systems and water storage areas are other potential sources of contamination in heavily farmed areas. Garbage dumps and landfill sites also may be responsible for well water contamination. Two general types of monitoring for contamination are recommended: primary monitoring where there is potential for underground soil contamination that would not be visible if contamination were to occur, and secondary monitoring of groundwater quality on a broader scale when the likelihood of contamination is suspected. photos

  15. Evaluating the student activity meter : two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, S.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) domain, visualizations are attracting increased interest. In this paper, we present the Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner activities within online learning environments for learners and teachers to help increase awareness and to support

  16. Active traffic management case study: phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This study developed a systematic approach for using data from multiple sources to provide active traffic management : solutions. The feasibility of two active traffic management solutions is analyzed in this report: ramp-metering and real-time : cra...

  17. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  18. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A [Oak Ridge, TN; Fisher, Walter G [Knoxville, TN; Dees, H Craig [Knoxville, TN

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  19. The usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Jeon, D. S.; Yoo, S. D.; Lee, M. K.; Park, S. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.

    1998-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis may help to resolve difficult diagnostic problems such as discordance between sputum examinations and chest roentgenographic findings. We investigated the usefulness of 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Forty-six patients with suspected active pulmonary tuberculosis were studied with sputum smear of AFB, sputum AFB culture, chest X-ray and MIBI scan. MIBI image was obtained 15 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 370MBq(10mCi) 99m Tc-MIBI. In 16 patients of them Ga scans were performed in addition to MIBI scan. Repeated MIBI scans were done in 7 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis after 4∼6 months of antituberculous chemotherapy. Thirty-two patients were confirmed as active tuberculosis by sputum culture. Sensitivity of MIBI scan to active tuberculosis was 87.5%(28/32) and MIBI findings were negative in all of 14 patients with inactive disease. Focal uptake of MIBI was dense in the area that was strongly suggested active tuberculous lesions by chest roentgenogram. There was no discordance between MIBI and Ga image in 16 patients. But the uptake areas of Ga images were broader than that of MIBI images. After 4∼6 months of antituberculous treatment all repeated MIBI scans revealed negative findings except 1 patient with persistent active pulmonary tuberculosis due to drug resistance. MIBI scan could be used in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis as a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool

  20. MMP activity in the hybrid layer detected with in situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Nascimento, F D; Carrilho, M; Tersariol, I; Papa, V; Tjäderhane, L; Di Lenarda, R; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2012-05-01

    Dentinal proteases are believed to play an important role in the degradation of hybrid layers (HL). This study investigated the HL gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography and functional enzyme activity assay. The hypotheses were that HLs created by an etch-and-rinse adhesive exhibit active gelatinolytic activity, and MMP-2 and -9 activities in dentin increase during adhesive procedures. Etched-dentin specimens were bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1XT and restored with composite. Adhesive/dentin interface slices were placed on microscope slides, covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin, and observed with a multi-photon confocal microscope after 24 hrs. Human dentin powder aliquots were prepared and assigned to the following treatments: A, untreated; B, etched with 10% phosphoric acid; or C, etched with 10% phosphoric acid and mixed with Scotchbond 1XT. The MMP-2 and -9 activities of extracts of dentin powder were measured with functional enzyme assays. Intense and continuous enzyme activity was detected at the bottom of the HL, while that activity was more irregular in the upper HL. Both acid-etching and subsequent adhesive application significantly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate, for the first time, intrinsic MMP activity in the HL, and intense activation of matrix-bound MMP activity with both etching and adhesive application.

  1. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohiko Izumi

    Full Text Available Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots.Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed.Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2% were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5% were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%. The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households.Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission

  2. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Murase, Yoshiro; Tatsumi, Yuriko; Kayebeta, Aya; Watanabe, Yu; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots. Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed. Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2%) were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5%) were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%). The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households. Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission dynamics in an

  3. Understanding policy persistence-The case of police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari; Hoppe, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case - police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia. We sought to identify factors which may account for the continuation of this policy, in spite of counter-evidence and concerted advocacy. The analysis was conducted using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). We collated documents relating to NSW drug detection dog policy from 1995 to 2016, including parliamentary records (NSW Parliament Hansard), government and institutional reports, legislation, police procedures, books, media, and academic publications. Texts were then read, coded and classified against the core dimensions of the ACF, including subsystem actors and coalitions, their belief systems and resources and venues employed for policy debate. Three coalitions were identified as competing in the policy subsystem: security/law and order, civil liberties and harm reduction. Factors that aided policy stability were the continued dominance of the security/law and order coalition since they introduced the drug dog policy; a power imbalance enabling the ruling coalition to limit when and where the policy was discussed; and a highly adversarial policy subsystem. In this context even technical knowledge that dogs infringed civil liberties and increased risks of overdose were readily downplayed, leading to only incremental changes in implementation rather than policy cessation or wholesale revision. The analysis provides new insights into why the accumulation of new evidence and advocacy efforts can be insufficient to drive significant policy change. It poses a challenge for the evidence-based paradigm suggesting that in highly adversarial policy subsystems new evidence is unlikely to generate policy change without broader

  4. Detecting Internal Control Problems Based on COSO and Islamic Perspective: Case on SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Hidayah Suyoso Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The presence of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs has been able to be livelihoods sources and absorb more labor, even though it has a relative smaller contribution of additional value compared to the Large-scale Enterprises. The number of economic actors of SMEs spread across area from urban to rural. However, SMEs have faced several serious problems. These problems are caused by the unique characteristics of SMEs itself. First, lack of managerial skills due to limited human resources and lack of monitoring which it is rarely conducted by the manager or the owner. Second, lack of information and technology to carry out operations. Both problems have great impacts in lack of internal controls. Third, SMEs also face problems in developing business scale, limited access to capital to the banks and financial institutions due to the lack of transparency. Therefore, this research aimed to detect to what extent of the problems arising in the application and assessment of internal controls performed by SMEs.Method – The research employs descriptive qualitative research method through direct observation, interview and business documentation owned by the company. Research materials are 29 SMEs consisting of 19 trading SMEs and 10 service SMEs. All SMEs are located in Malang city. Detection of application and assessment of internal controls in this study is based on the COSO framework and the Islamic perspective.Result – Internal control activities indicators apply the five principles of COSO framework which focused on three layers. First layer is self-assessment control area. Second layer is environment control area and the third layer is independent control area. While the Islamic perspective is focused on the internal control of business activities based on the Qur'an and Hadith. The results derive from application and assessment based on COSO framework and Islamic perspectives are complementary in improving the practice of internal

  5. CASE METHOD. ACTIVE LEARNING METHODOLOGY TO ACQUIRE SIGNIFICANT IN CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Pizarro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology of cases in first year students of the Engineering Risk Prevention and Environment is applied. For this purpose a real case of contamination occurred at a school in the region of Valparaiso called "La Greda" is presented. If the application starts delivering an extract of the information collected from the media and they made a brief induction on the methodology to be applied. A plenary session, which is debate about possible solutions to the problem and establishing a relationship between the case and drives the chemistry program is then performed. Is concluded that the application of the case method, was a fruitful tool in yields obtained by students, since the percentage of approval was 75%, which is considerably higher than previous years.

  6. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  7. Machine Learning Detects Pan-cancer Ras Pathway Activation in The Cancer Genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Way

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Precision oncology uses genomic evidence to match patients with treatment but often fails to identify all patients who may respond. The transcriptome of these “hidden responders” may reveal responsive molecular states. We describe and evaluate a machine-learning approach to classify aberrant pathway activity in tumors, which may aid in hidden responder identification. The algorithm integrates RNA-seq, copy number, and mutations from 33 different cancer types across The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA PanCanAtlas project to predict aberrant molecular states in tumors. Applied to the Ras pathway, the method detects Ras activation across cancer types and identifies phenocopying variants. The model, trained on human tumors, can predict response to MEK inhibitors in wild-type Ras cell lines. We also present data that suggest that multiple hits in the Ras pathway confer increased Ras activity. The transcriptome is underused in precision oncology and, combined with machine learning, can aid in the identification of hidden responders. : Way et al. develop a machine-learning approach using PanCanAtlas data to detect Ras activation in cancer. Integrating mutation, copy number, and expression data, the authors show that their method detects Ras-activating variants in tumors and sensitivity to MEK inhibitors in cell lines. Keywords: Gene expression, machine learning, Ras, NF1, KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, pan-cancer, TCGA, drug sensitivity

  8. Detecting Activation in fMRI Data: An Approach Based on Sparse Representation of BOLD Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Guillen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple yet effective approach for detecting activated voxels in fMRI data by exploiting the inherent sparsity property of the BOLD signal in temporal and spatial domains. In the time domain, the approach combines the General Linear Model (GLM with a Least Absolute Deviation (LAD based regression method regularized by the pseudonorm l0 to promote sparsity in the parameter vector of the model. In the spatial domain, detection of activated regions is based on thresholding the spatial map of estimated parameters associated with a particular stimulus. The threshold is calculated by exploiting the sparseness of the BOLD signal in the spatial domain assuming a Laplacian distribution model. The proposed approach is validated using synthetic and real fMRI data. For synthetic data, results show that the proposed approach is able to detect most activated voxels without any false activation. For real data, the method is evaluated through comparison with the SPM software. Results indicate that this approach can effectively find activated regions that are similar to those found by SPM, but using a much simpler approach. This study may lead to the development of robust spatial approaches to further simplifying the complexity of classical schemes.

  9. Purity-activity relationships of natural products: the case of anti-TB active ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Chadwick, Lucas R; Lankin, David C; Zhang, Fangqiu; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-10-01

    The present study explores the variability of biological responses from the perspective of sample purity and introduces the concept of purity-activity relationships (PARs) in natural product research. The abundant plant triterpene ursolic acid (1) was selected as an exemplary natural product due to the overwhelming number yet inconsistent nature of its approximate 120 reported biological activities, which include anti-TB potential. Nine different samples of ursolic acid with purity certifications were obtained, and their purity was independently assessed by means of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). Biological evaluation consisted of determining MICs against two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IC50 values in Vero cells. Ab initio structure elucidation provided unequivocal structural confirmation and included an extensive 1H NMR spin system analysis, determination of nearly all J couplings and the complete NOE pattern, and led to the revision of earlier reports. As a net result, a sigmoid PAR profile of 1 was obtained, demonstrating the inverse correlation of purity and anti-TB bioactivity. The results imply that synergistic effects of 1 and its varying impurities are the likely cause of previously reported antimycobacterial potential. Generating PARs is a powerful extension of the routinely performed quantitative correlation of structure and activity ([Q]SAR). Advanced by the use of primary analytical methods such as qHNMR, PARs enable the elucidation of cases like 1 when increasing purity voids biological activity. This underlines the potential of PARs as a tool in drug discovery and synergy research and accentuates the need to routinely combine biological testing with purity assessment.

  10. Factors preventing early case detection for women affected by leprosy: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Victoria Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although leprosy can affect both sexes equally, it is globally reported that men are affected, or simply report, more often than females at the average ratio of 2:1. If cases are simply not being reported, women may be suffering in silence more often than men, and, therefore, understanding the social reasons for this in a number of countries could support the prevention of long-term disabilities caused as a result of leprosy. Objectives: The objective of this review is to recognise the current academic literature surrounding the potential factors for late diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, giving possible explanations for the 2:1 gender disparity observed in case detection globally. It is hoped that health practitioners will become more equipped to recognise these barriers and ensure they are doing whatever possible to encourage women to report the early symptoms of leprosy. Methods: The review used a systematic search process in order to identify gender-related publications using robust research, useful for gleaning a cross-cultural perception of issues women may confront on the prospect of a diagnosis of leprosy. Results: Identifying 12 publications from just five countries, the review found there to be four overarching areas which may be considered barriers more often faced by women: societal stigma; women’s dependence and low status; self-stigmatising attitudes; and the gender insensitivity of leprosy services. Conclusion: Stigma surrounding leprosy experienced from these four overarching areas can all be attributed to the later diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, in relation to their male counterparts. The need for future research surrounding the specific experience of women affected by leprosy is pressing. PMID:28853325

  11. SERS-active ZnO/Ag hybrid WGM microcavity for ultrasensitive dopamine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Nan, Haiyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Qin, Feifei; Manohari, A. Gowri; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Zhu; Shi, Zengliang; Ni, Zhenhua

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a potential neuro modulator in the brain which influences a variety of motivated behaviors and plays a key role in life science. A hybrid ZnO/Ag microcavity based on Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) effect has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of dopamine. Utilizing this effect of structural cavity mode, a Raman signal of R6G (5 × 10-3 M) detected by this designed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrate was enhanced more than 10-fold compared with that of ZnO film/Ag substrate. Also, this hybrid microcavity substrate manifests high SERS sensitivity to rhodamine 6 G and detection limit as low as 10-12 M to DA. The Localized Surface Plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and WGM-enhanced light-matter interaction mainly contribute to the high SERS sensitivity and help to achieve a lower detection limit. This designed SERS-active substrate based on the WGM effect has the potential for detecting neurotransmitters in life science.

  12. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  13. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  14. Development of active acoustic method for water leak detection of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2001-01-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated in the sodium-water reactions, is being developed. In this study, in order to evaluate the detection sensitivity of the active method, the signal processing methods for emitter and receiver and the detection method for leakage are investigated experimentally. In-water experiments performed by using an SG full-sector model that simulates the actual SGs. As an experimental result, the received sound attenuation for 10s was more than 10dB from air bubble injection when injected bubble of 10 l/s (equivalence water leak rate about 10 g/s.) The attenuation of sound are least affected by bubble injection position of heat transfer tubes bunch department. It is clarified that the background noise hardly influenced water leak detection performance as a result of having examined influence of background noise. (author)

  15. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  16. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 μm and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm 2 . The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  17. Non-detectable levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methylmercaptopurine in a patient treated with azathioprine: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D R; den Dulk, M O; Derijks, L J J; Gemmeke, E H K M; Hooymans, P M

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Azathioprine (AZA) is a thiopurine prodrug clinically used for immunosuppression in the treatment of auto-immune inflammatory diseases and in regimens of organ transplantations. The pharmacological action of AZA is based on the formation of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), which is metabolised into a variety of active thiopurine-nucleotide metabolites. We report the case of a 55 year old woman (bodyweight 30 kg) with chronic pancreatitis, weight loss, and progressive elevation of liver transaminases and serum amylase. Case description: The woman was treated with prednisolone (30 mg 1 dd; tapered 5 mg each week) and AZA (75 mg 1 dd; 5 weeks later 150 mg 1 dd). Despite good patient-compliance verified during hospital-stay, none of the active metabolites of AZA, 6-thioguanine-nucleotides (6TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotides (6MMPR), were detected in erythrocytes. After two months of treatment clinical improvement was achieved, but no normalisation of laboratory parameters. Subsequently, AZA was switched to 6-MP 75 mg 1 dd, and allopurinol 100 mg 1 dd was added. After one week the 6TGN level was 616 pmol/ 8 × 108 red blood cells (RBC), the 6MMPR level was 1319 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC. Two weeks later the 6TGN level was 1163 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC and the 6MMPR level 10015 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC. These 6TGN and 6MMPR levels were higher than the upper limits of the therapeutic ranges (500 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC and 5700 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC, respectively). Therefore, treatment with 6-MP was discontinued. A week later the 6TGN and 6MMPR levels decreased to 686 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC and 4027 pmol/ 8 × 108 RBC, respectively. Genotyping of the enzym thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) revealed a wild-type TPMT (*1/*1) genotype. Discussion: To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient who was not able to form detectable active thiopurine metabolites on the treatment with AZA. AZA is normally rapidly and almost completely converted to 6-MP and methylnitroimidazole

  18. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Faraji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each cost center, it determines different cost drivers. The results of our survey has detected that implementation of ABC system not only helps precise allocation of overhead costs but also helps internal management companies for better planning and control of production, making better decisions for company's profits.

  19. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  20. Interpretation of acid α-glucosidase activity in creatine kinase elevation: A case of Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitani, Yoshiki; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Kosuga, Motomichi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Ogata, Ayako; Tanaka, Fumiko; Takeshita, Eri; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nishino, Ichizo; Okuyama, Torayuki; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2018-05-16

    Diagnosis of Pompe disease is sometimes challenging because it exhibits clinical similarities to muscular dystrophy. We describe a case of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) with a remarkable reduction in activity of the acid α-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme, caused by a combination of pathogenic mutation and polymorphism variants resulting in pseudodeficiency in GAA. The three-year-old boy demonstrated asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation. Neither exon deletion nor duplication was detected on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of DMD. GAA enzyme activity in both dried blood spots and lymphocytes was low, at 11.7% and 7.7% of normal, respectively. However, genetic analysis of GAA detected only heterozygosity for a nonsense mutation (c.118C > T, p.Arg40 ∗ ). Muscle pathology showed no glycogen deposits and no high acid phosphatase activity. Hematoxylin-eosin staining detected scattered regenerating fibers; the fibers were faint and patchy on immunochemistry staining of dystrophin. The amount of dystrophin protein was reduced to 11.8% of normal, on Western blotting analysis. Direct sequencing analysis of DMD revealed hemizygosity for a nonsense mutation (c.72G > A, p.Trp24 ∗ ). The boy was diagnosed with BMD, despite remarkable reduction in GAA activity; further, he demonstrated heterozygosity for [p.Gly576Ser; p.Glu689Lys] polymorphism variants that indicated pseudodeficiency on another allele in GAA. Pseudodeficiency alleles are detected in approximately 4% of the Asian population; these demonstrate low activity of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), similar to levels found in Pompe disease. Clinicians should be careful in their interpretations of pseudodeficiency alleles that complicate diagnosis in cases of elevated creatine kinase. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TOURISM EXPENDITURE FOR SPORT ACTIVITIES: THE CASE OF MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanovcic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tourists’ spending is considered as one of the most important variables in the economic analysis of a destination’s tourism industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine what type of sport activities influence better sport tourists’ spending in Montenegro. Working on the sample of 197 tourist, our findings indicate that mountain related sport activities such as mountaineering, mountinbiking, rafting and kayaking influence positively sport tourists’ spending during their stay in Montenegro more than water beach sport activities. The contribution of this research is providing several possible directions for both destination and sport managers to improve existing sport activities related to mountain sport as well as to significantly improve beach sport activities in order increase the value and amounts generated by sport activities.

  2. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  3. Efficient voice activity detection in reverberant enclosures using far field microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm suitable for voice activity detection under reverberant conditions is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of far-filed microphones the proposed solution processes speech signals of highly-varying intensity and signal to noise ratio, that are contaminated with several echoes....... The core of the system is a pair of Hidden Markov Models, that effectively model the speech presence and speech absence situations. To minimise mis-detections an adaptive threshold is used, while a hang-over scheme caters for the intra-frame correlation of speech signals. Experimental results conducted...

  4. Subnanomole detection and quantitation of high specific activity 32P-nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, C.; Pappas, G.; Gill, W.J.; Kashdan, M.; Maniscalco, M.

    1991-01-01

    Microbore liquid chromatography utilizes conventional HPLC and ultraviolet detection principles to determine subnanomole mass quantities of biologically significant molecules. This system takes advantage of specifically designed microflow equipment to analyze ultraviolet absorbing species at the picomole range. 32P-labeled nucleotides are examples of compounds routinely used at picomole quantities that are extremely difficult to accurately quantify using standard mass measurement techniques. The procedure described in this paper has the capability of measuring nucleotides down to 10 pmol using commercially available microbore ultraviolet detection equipment. The technique can be used to accurately measure the specific activity of as little as 10 microCi of an aqueous 32P-nucleotide solution

  5. Application of HS-SPME-GC-MS method for the detection of active moulds on historical parchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Syguła-Cholewińska, Justyna; Del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this work was to analyse the profile of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted by moulds growing on parchment samples, in search of particular volatiles mentioned in the literature as indicators of active mould growth. First, the growth of various moulds on samples of parchment was assessed. Those species that showed collagenolytic activity were then inoculated on two types of media: samples of parchment placed on media and on media containing amino acids that are elements of the structure of collagen. All samples were prepared inside 20-ml vials (closed system). In the first case, the media did not contain any sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, or sulphur, i.e. parchment was the only nutrient for the moulds. A third type of sample was historical parchment prepared in a Petri dish without a medium and inoculated with a collagenolytically active mould (open system). The MVOCs emitted by moulds were sampled with the headspace-SPME method. Volatiles extracted on DVB/CAR/PDMS fibres were analysed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatograms were carried out in search of indicators of metabolic activity. The results showed that there are three groups of volatiles that can be used for the detection of active forms of moulds on parchment objects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to measure MVOCs emitted by moulds growing on parchment.

  6. Preliminary experiences with sentinel lymph node detection in cases of vulvar malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambo, Katalin; Schmidt, Erzsebet; Dehghani, Babak; Hartmann, Tamas; Bodis, Jozsef; Kornya, Laszlo; Tinneberg, Hans Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in vulvar malignancy. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the clinical significance of radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the management of vulvar neoplasms. Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma and two patients with malignant melanoma of the vulva were studied with 100 MBq technetium-99m nanocolloid (Sentiscint, OSSKI, Budapest) 1 day before surgery. The location of the sentinel lymph node was checked by a single-head gamma camera-computer system (MB 9200, Mediso, Budapest). Vulvectomy with bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed in each case. At lymphadenectomy, the sentinel lymph node was separately removed and histologically studied. Three of the ten patients had positive sentinel lymph nodes (micrometastasis). Five months later one of them had local recurrence of the vulvar cancer, and another had inguinal recurrence of the tumour 6 months postoperatively; the third patient was operated on only recently. Our preliminary results are impressive and suggest that lymphoscintigraphy is an easy and reliable method for detection of the sentinel lymph node in vulvar malignancy. (orig.)

  7. Detecting rickets in premature infants and treating them with calcitriol: experience from two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Li-Chien; Yek, Yung-Lee; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2012-08-01

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. Rickets is a bone disease characterized by growth retardation due to the expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate and a failure to mineralize bone. Consequently, the bone is soft and permits marked bending and distortion. Although the incidence of rickets in preterm infants is lower due to improvements in health care and nutrition, there are still infants at high risk for this disease. However, few reports are available regarding the treatment of rickets in premature infants. Furthermore, published case studies on experiences with using calcitriol as a potential therapeutic for rickets in premature infants are very rare. Herein, we describe the detection of rickets in premature infants and our experience with calcitriol treatment in two premature infants. We recommended the use of oral calcitriol at a dose of 0.03-0.125 μg/kg/day, in addition to an appropriate formula that provides an adequate amount of calcium and phosphate intake. One patient was prescribed calcitriol for 40 days and the other for 37 days. The two infants gradually recovered and were discharged without any obvious side effects. It is recommended that alkaline phosphatase levels be monitored within 1 month after birth in premature infants with a birth weight of <1000 g. Infants presenting with high alkaline phosphatase levels are candidates for a long bone survey. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Vision-based Detection of Acoustic Timed Events: a Case Study on Clarinet Note Onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzica, A.; van Gemert, J. C.; Liem, C. C. S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic events often have a visual counterpart. Knowledge of visual information can aid the understanding of complex auditory scenes, even when only a stereo mixdown is available in the audio domain, \\eg identifying which musicians are playing in large musical ensembles. In this paper, we consider a vision-based approach to note onset detection. As a case study we focus on challenging, real-world clarinetist videos and carry out preliminary experiments on a 3D convolutional neural network based on multiple streams and purposely avoiding temporal pooling. We release an audiovisual dataset with 4.5 hours of clarinetist videos together with cleaned annotations which include about 36,000 onsets and the coordinates for a number of salient points and regions of interest. By performing several training trials on our dataset, we learned that the problem is challenging. We found that the CNN model is highly sensitive to the optimization algorithm and hyper-parameters, and that treating the problem as binary classification may prevent the joint optimization of precision and recall. To encourage further research, we publicly share our dataset, annotations and all models and detail which issues we came across during our preliminary experiments.

  9. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  10. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  11. Time activity patterns: a case of south Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure modelling in south Durban is constrained by a lack of population specific time-activity patterns data. We argue that the application of time-activity patterns from elsewhere in the world in exposure modelling in south Durban would...

  12. Detection of focal epileptic activity using combined simultaneous electroencephalogram-functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Lu Guangming; Tian Lei; Sun Kanjian; Tan Qifu; Zhu Jianguo; Nie Cong; Hao Shaowei; Jiang Li; Liu Yijun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the brain activation of interictal epiletiform discharges (IEDs) and to localize the epileptogenic foci of epilepsy. Methods: The electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI data of 12 focal epileptic patients were acquired using a combination of EEG and functional MRI simultaneously. The IEDs onset time detected with EEG were set as the time parameters in an event- related paradigm of functional MRI analysis. The spatial and temporal characters of IEDs activation were analyzed in detail. In order to confirm the consistency of this method, all patients were scanned repeatedly and the results were correlated with clinical evaluation. Results: Of the 12 patients, valid data from EEG- fMRI were obtained from 10 patients in a total of 18 sessions. Compared with the structural foci, the epileptic foci localization results of eleven sessions were good, five sessions were fairly good, and two sessions were poor. The results obtained from six patients in two separate sessions were concordant, respectively. Moreover, thalamic activation was detected in ten sessions, cerebellar activation was detected in all sessions, and the deactivation was found in the default mode loci in nine sessions. Conclusion: The method of performing EEG and fMRI simultaneously can potentially be a useful tool in epilepsy research. (authors)

  13. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (pbody odor signals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters/graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengke; Lin, Zihan; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-07-05

    A novel fluorescent biosensor for protein kinase activity (PKA) detection was designed by applying double-strands DNA-hosted copper nanoclusters (dsDNA-CuNCs) and graphene oxide (GO). One DNA strand of the dsDNA consisted of two domains, one domain can hybridize with another complementary DNA strand to stabilize the fluorescent CuNCs and another domain was adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) aptamer. ATP aptamer of the dsDNA-CuNCs would be spontaneously absorbed onto the GO surface through π-π stacking interactions. Thus GO can efficiently quench the fluorescence (FL) of dsDNA-CuNCs through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the present of ATP, ATP specifically combined with ATP aptamer to form ATP-ATP aptamer binding complexes, which had much less affinity to GO, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the system. Nevertheless, in the presence of PKA, ATP could be translated into ADP and ADP could not combine with ATP aptamer resulting in the fluorescence quenching of dsDNA-CuNCs again. According to the change of the fluorescence signal, PKA activity could be successfully monitored in the range of 0.1-5.0 U mL -1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.039 U mL -1 . Besides, the inhibitory effect of H-89 on PKA activity was studied. The sensor was performed for PKA activity detection in cell lysates with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of lipoatrophy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, K.; Verweel, G.; Groot, R. de; Hartwig, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Much is unknown about its characteristics, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an objective case definition of the lipodystrophy syndrome. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. One

  16. Detection of hypoglycin A in the seeds of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and box elder (A. negundo) in New Zealand; the toxin associated with cases of equine atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R K; Hill, F I; Habyarimana, J A; Boemer, F; Votion, D M

    2016-05-01

    During April and May 2014 four horses aged between 5 months and 9 years, located in the Canterbury, Marlborough and Southland regions, presented with a variety of clinical signs including recumbency, stiffness, lethargy, dehydration, depression, and myoglobinuria suggestive of acute muscle damage. Two horses were subjected to euthanasia and two recovered. In all cases seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) or box elder (A. negundo) were present in the area where the horse had been grazing. The samaras (seeds) of some Acer spp. may contain hypoglycin A, that has been associated with cases of atypical myopathy in Europe and North America. To determine if hypoglycin A is present in the samaras of Acer spp. in New Zealand, samples were collected from trees throughout the country that were associated with historical and/or current cases of atypical myopathy, and analysed for hypoglycin A. Serum samples from the four cases and four unaffected horses were analysed for the presence of hypoglycin A, profiles of acylcarnitines (the definitive diagnosis for atypical myopathy) and activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase.Markedly elevated serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and increased concentrations of selected acylcarnitines were found in the case horses. Hypoglycin A was detected in the serum of those horses but not in the healthy controls. Hypoglycin A was detected in 10/15 samples of samaras from sycamore maple and box elder from throughout New Zealand. Cases of atypical myopathy were diagnosed on properties where samaras containing hypoglycin A were also found. Sycamore and box elder trees in New Zealand are a source of hypoglycin A associated with the development of atypical myopathy. If pastured horses present with clinical and biochemical signs of severe muscle damage then the environment should be checked for the presence of these trees. Horses should be prevented from grazing samaras from Acer spp. in the

  17. Social Enterprise Emergence from Social Movement Activism: The Fairphone Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O.P. Akemu (Ona); G.M. Whiteman (Gail); S.P. Kennedy (Steve)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEffectuation theory invests agency - intention and purposeful enactment - for new venture creation in the entrepreneurial actor(s). Based on the results of a 15-month in-depth longitudinal case study of Amsterdam-based social enterprise Fairphone, we argue that effectual entrepreneurial

  18. Conscientization and Third Space: A Case Study of Tunisian Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumlik, Habiba; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines, "Al Bawsala," a nongovernmental organization and a female cyber social activist, Amira Yahyaoui, in the aftermath of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution through the lens of adult education. The theoretical frameworks of conscientization and third space are employed to describe Yahyaoui's development of the watchdog…

  19. NEW APPROACHES IN DECEPTION DETECTION II. ACTIVE INTERVIEWING STRATEGIES AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytical evidence shows that behavioural indicators of deception are scant, poorly diagnostic and inconsistent. This has yielded a shift in deception detection research. Rather than passively scrutinising the communication sender to find tell-tale behavioural indicators of deception, the deception judge needs to (a adopt an active role by using interviewing techniques specifically designed to detect deception, or (b focus on contextual (rather than behavioural deception cues. In the previous paper (Masip & Herrero, 2015a, we reviewed the antecedents of this change in focus, as well as the theoretical grounding of the new approaches. Here we describe specific interviewing strategies for detecting deception, as well as the (still scant research on contextual deception indicia. In doing this, we hope to offer the reader a detailed perspective on the recent developments in this specific area of psychology and law.

  20. INTEGRAL/IBIS detects renewed activity from H 1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Sidoli, L.

    2014-01-01

    During a recent INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning observation (PI: A. Bazzano), started on 2014 January 19 at 07:51 UTC, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity from the transient system H 1417-624. The source H 1417-624 was detected at about 10 sigma in the IBIS map 18-40 keV, with a flux of 14....... H 1417-624 is a Be X-ray Transient (Apparao et al. 1980, A&A 89, 249; Grindlay et al. 1984, ApJ 276, 621) showing a neutron star spin period of 17.54 s and an orbital period of 42.12 days (Finger et al. 1996, A&A Supp. Ser. 120, 209). It was previously detected in 1994 and 1995 (during a strong type...

  1. Is Neural Activity Detected by ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces Task Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Wenzel

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs that are based on event-related potentials (ERPs can estimate to which stimulus a user pays particular attention. In typical BCIs, the user silently counts the selected stimulus (which is repeatedly presented among other stimuli in order to focus the attention. The stimulus of interest is then inferred from the electroencephalogram (EEG. Detecting attention allocation implicitly could be also beneficial for human-computer interaction (HCI, because it would allow software to adapt to the user's interest. However, a counting task would be inappropriate for the envisaged implicit application in HCI. Therefore, the question was addressed if the detectable neural activity is specific for silent counting, or if it can be evoked also by other tasks that direct the attention to certain stimuli.Thirteen people performed a silent counting, an arithmetic and a memory task. The tasks required the subjects to pay particular attention to target stimuli of a random color. The stimulus presentation was the same in all three tasks, which allowed a direct comparison of the experimental conditions.Classifiers that were trained to detect the targets in one task, according to patterns present in the EEG signal, could detect targets in all other tasks (irrespective of some task-related differences in the EEG.The neural activity detected by the classifiers is not strictly task specific but can be generalized over tasks and is presumably a result of the attention allocation or of the augmented workload. The results may hold promise for the transfer of classification algorithms from BCI research to implicit relevance detection in HCI.

  2. Fatal adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs detected by all-case post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miura, Yuji; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs is usually conducted on all patients in Japan. The present study investigates whether all-case post-marketing surveillance identifies fatal adverse drug reactions undetected before market entry. We examined fatal adverse drug reactions identified via all-case post-marketing surveillance by reviewing the disclosed post-marketing surveillance results, and determined the time points in which the fatal adverse drug reactions were initially reported by reviewing drug labels. We additionally scanned emergency alerts on the Japanese regulatory authority website to assess the relationship between all-case post-marketing surveillance and regulatory action. Twenty-five all-case post-marketing surveillances were performed between January 1999 and December 2009. Eight all-case post-marketing surveillances with final results included information on all fatal cases. Of these, the median number of patients was 1287 (range: 106-4998), the median number of fatal adverse drug reactions was 14.5 (range: 4-23). Of the 111 fatal adverse drug reactions detected in the eight post-marketing surveillances, only 28 (25.0%) and 22 (19.6%) were described on the initial global and the initial Japanese drug label, respectively, and 58 (52.3%) fatal adverse drug reactions were first described in the all-case post-marketing surveillance reports. Despite this, the regulatory authority issued only four warning letters, and two of these were prompted by case reports from the all-case post-marketing surveillance. All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs in Japan was useful for the rigorous compilation of non-specific adverse drug reactions, but it rarely detected clinically significant fatal adverse drug reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Policy and Concentration of Activities : The Case of Dutch Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.; Werker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical concentration of economic activities has been widely discussed. However, the insights into other kinds of concentration such as technological and organizational concentration have been scarce. Here, we analyze organizational, technological and geographical concentration of

  4. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION AND INFRARED REACTIVATION: A CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study evaluated the effectiveness and cost of removing trace organic contaminants and surrogates from drinking water by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The effect of multiple reactivations of spent GAC was also evaluated. Results indicated that reactivated GAC eff...

  5. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia--a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Dohn, Birthe

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  6. Laser-based optical activity detection of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The optical activity detector (OAD) for HPLC is a selective detector for optically active substances including amino acids and proteins. This study illustrates the use of the OAD in three related areas. Section I illustrates the separation of four free amino acids using cation-exchange chromatography. Detection by coupling the OAD to a refractive index detector (RI) for proline and threonine and the OAD to an ultraviolet absorbance detector (UV) for tyrosine and phenylalanine allows the calculation of enantiomeric (D/L) ratios of these amino acids without physical separation. Specific rotations of these four amino acids are also reported. Section II illustrates the separation of 16 dansyl-L-amino acids by RP-HPLC with detection by OA/UV. Section III illustrates the RP-HPLC separation of conformers of soybean trypsin inhibitor. Detection by OA/UV provides insights from the chromatogram unavailable for UV absorbance detection alone. In addition, identification of impurities is simplified with OA/UV. Specific rotations of the separated protein fractions show no significant change accompanying change in conformation.

  7. A Feasibility Study on Timber Damage Detection Using Piezoceramic-Transducer-Enabled Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, piezoelectric-based transducers and technologies have made significant progress towards structural health monitoring and damage evaluation for various metal and concrete structures. Timber is still commonly used as a construction material in practical engineering; however, there is a lack of research on the health monitoring of timber-based structures using piezoelectric-based transducers and methods. This paper conducts a feasibility study on timber damage detection using surface-mounted piezoelectric patches, which enable the stress-wave-based active sensing approach. Typical damage modes in timber frame structures, such as surface cracks and holes, were investigated in this study. In the active sensing approach, one piezoceramic transducer is used as an actuator to generate stress waves, which propagate along the surface of the timber structure, and other piezoceramic transducers function as sensors to detect the propagating stress waves. Defects, such as a crack or a hole, induce additional attenuation to the propagating stress wave. Based on this attenuation, the proposed method can detect the defects using the wavelet-packet-based damage index, demonstrating its implementation potential for real-time timber damage detection.

  8. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  9. Active Social Media Management: The Case of Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Amalia R.; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the demand for authentic personal interactions over social media, it is unclear how much firms should actively manage their social media presence. We study this question empirically in a health care setting. We show that active social media management drives more user-generated content. However, we find that this is due to an incremental increase in user postings from an organization's employees rather than from its clients. This result holds when we explore exogenous variation in socia...

  10. Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of human telomerase activity based on bio-barcode method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bangwei; Li, Xia; Wei, Qingli

    2010-07-15

    In the present study, an electrochemical method for highly sensitive detection of human telomerase activity was developed based on bio-barcode amplification assay. Telomerase was extracted from HeLa cells, then the extract was mixed with telomerase substrate (TS) primer to perform extension reaction. The extension product was hybridized with the capture DNA immobilized on the Au electrode and then reacted with the signal DNA on Au nanoparticles to form a sandwich hybridization mode. Electrochemical signals were generated by chronocoulometric interrogation of [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) that quantitatively binds to the DNA on Au nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction. This method can detect the telomerase activity from as little as 10 cultured cancer cells without the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of telomerase extension product. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Measuring its Activity in Serum and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Suzanne R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are bacterial protein toxins which are considered likely agents for bioterrorism due to their extreme toxicity and high availability. A new mass spectrometry based assay called Endopep MS detects and defines the toxin serotype in clinical and food matrices via toxin activity upon a peptide substrate which mimics the toxin's natural target. Furthermore, the subtype of the toxin is differentiated by employing mass spectrometry based proteomic techniques on the same sample. The Endopep-MS assay selectively detects active BoNT and defines the serotype faster and with sensitivity greater than the mouse bioassay. One 96-well plate can be analyzed in under 7 h. On higher level or "hot" samples, the subtype can then be differentiated in less than 2 h with no need for DNA.

  12. Multiple-channel detection of cellular activities by ion-sensitive transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Satoru; Shimada, Hideto; Motoyama, Yumi

    2018-04-01

    An ion-sensitive field-effect transistor to record cellular activities was demonstrated. This field-effect transistor (bio transistor) includes cultured cells on the gate insulator instead of gate electrode. The bio transistor converts a change in potential underneath the cells into variation of the drain current when ion channels open. The bio transistor has high detection sensitivity to even minute variations in potential utilizing a subthreshold swing region. To open ion channels, a reagent solution (acetylcholine) was added to a human-originating cell cultured on the bio transistor. The drain current was successfully decreased with the addition of acetylcholine. Moreover, we attempted to detect the opening of ion channels using a multiple-channel measurement circuit containing several bio transistors. As a consequence, the drain current distinctly decreased only after the addition of acetylcholine. We confirmed that this measurement system including bio transistors enables to observation of cellular activities sensitively and simultaneously.

  13. Visual attention based detection of signs of anthropogenic activities in satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-13

    With increasing deployment of satellite imaging systems, only a small fraction of collected data can be subject to expert scrutiny. We present and evaluate a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities in high-resolution commercial satellite imagery. The method filters image information using semantically oriented interest points by combining Harris corner detection and spatial pyramid matching. The idea is that anthropogenic structures, such as rooftop outlines, fence corners, road junctions, are locally arranged in specific angular relations to each other. They are often oriented at approximately right angles to each other (which is known as rectilinearity relation). Detecting the rectilinearity provides an opportunity to highlight regions most likely to contain anthropogenic activity. This is followed by supervised classification of regions surrounding the detected corner points as man-made vs. natural scenes. We consider, in particular, a search for anthropogenic activities in uncluttered areas. In this paper, we proposed and evaluated a two-tier approach to broad area search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Results from experiments on high-resolution ({approx}0.6m) commercial satellite image data showed the potential applicability of this approach and its ability of achieving both high precision and recall rates. The main advantage of combining corner-based cueing with general object recognition is that the incorporation of domain specific knowledge even in its more general form, such as presence of comers, provides a useful cue to narrow the focus of search for signs of anthropogenic activities. Combination of comer based cueing with spatial pyramid matching addressed the issue of comer categorization. An important practical issue for further research is optimizing the balance between false positive and false negative rates. While the results presented in the paper are encouraging, the problem of an automated broad area

  14. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  15. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC)

  16. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  17. On the definition of the detection limit for non-selective determination of low activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the latest published results, a detection limit which is easy to use in practical work without intensive consideration of counting statistics, is presented. The primary application of the given definition is the determination of gross activity. In the definition the error of the second kind as well as one-sided boundedness of the normal distribution are included. The results are given in graphical form. (orig.) [de

  18. Orthodontic management by functional activator treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Ortu, Eleonora; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Pietropaoli, Davide; Giannoni, Mario; Monaco, Annalisa

    2017-12-02

    Managing orthodontic treatment is often very difficult for the orthodontist. Many devices are used during the orthopedic phase of orthodontic treatment, always with different functions. We describe a case of orthodontic management treated with the Equilibrator O.S.A. device (equilibrator designed by Ovidi, Santi, and Aprile for Eptamed SRL; Cesena, Italy; www.eptamed.com ). A healthy 10-year-old white boy presented with a skeletal class II, division 1 malocclusion, molar class II, exhibiting an overjet of 7 mm prior to treatment. For treatment, we only used the Equilibrator O.S.A. device. We successfully treated an orthopedic/orthodontic case with a particular device that we describe here.

  19. Detection of low activities 90Sr and 137Cs in surface, subsoil and sewage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.; Isaev, A.; Kazymyrova, G.; Rudyk, O.; Khristenko, U.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the methodic of detection of volumetric activity of radionuclide 90 Sr in surface, subsoil and sewage waters on the basis of measurement of counting samples using beta-spectrometers SEB-01, produced by RPE 'Atom Komplex Prylad' (RPE 'AKP') and mathematical proceeding of spectra by software packages AKWin. At that, the time of receiving of result shortens, comparing to method of radiochemistry, from 14 days to 3 days. Activity measurement range of beta-spectrometers SEB-01 is 0.1-10 4 Bq/l, that by corresponding radionuclides concentration, allows providing control of water objects according to national norms of Ukraine (2 Bq/l). (authors)

  20. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseok Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  1. Incremental Activation Detection for Real-Time fMRI Series Using Robust Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI is a technique that enables us to observe human brain activations in real time. However, some unexpected noises that emerged in fMRI data collecting, such as acute swallowing, head moving and human manipulations, will cause much confusion and unrobustness for the activation analysis. In this paper, a new activation detection method for rt-fMRI data is proposed based on robust Kalman filter. The idea is to add a variation to the extended kalman filter to handle the additional sparse measurement noise and a sparse noise term to the measurement update step. Hence, the robust Kalman filter is designed to improve the robustness for the outliers and can be computed separately for each voxel. The algorithm can compute activation maps on each scan within a repetition time, which meets the requirement for real-time analysis. Experimental results show that this new algorithm can bring out high performance in robustness and in real-time activation detection.

  2. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-01-01

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts. PMID:27092510

  3. 76 FR 42129 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... is in the final phase of development with successful testing of a pilot version conducted in the 4th... will refer case specific issues to the Customer Assistance Office for USCIS for further research, and...

  4. Improved detection of electrical activity with a voltage probe based on a voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Niino, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2013-09-15

      One of the most awaited techniques in modern physiology is the sensitive detection of spatiotemporal electrical activity in a complex network of excitable cells. The use of genetically encoded voltage probes has been expected to enable such analysis. However, in spite of recent progress, existing probes still suffer from low signal amplitude and/or kinetics too slow to detect fast electrical activity. Here, we have developed an improved voltage probe named Mermaid2, which is based on the voltage-sensor domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis and Förster energy transfer between a pair of fluorescent proteins. In mammalian cells, Mermaid2 permits ratiometric readouts of fractional changes of more than 50% over a physiologically relevant voltage range with fast kinetics, and it was used to follow a train of action potentials at frequencies of up to 150 Hz. Mermaid2 was also able to detect single action potentials and subthreshold voltage responses in hippocampal neurons in vitro, in addition to cortical electrical activity evoked by sound stimuli in single trials in living mice.

  5. Flow cytometric-membrane potential detection of sodium channel active marine toxins: application to ciguatoxins in fish muscle and feasibility of automating saxitoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, Ronald; Woodle, Doug; Berger, Andrew; Dickey, Robert W; Jester, Edward; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Lewis, Richard; Hawryluk, Timothy; Hungerford, James

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins with a significant public health impact. Cytotoxicity assays have allowed the most sensitive means of detection of ciguatoxin-like activity without reliance on mouse bioassays and have been invaluable in studying outbreaks. An improvement of these cell-based assays is presented here in which rapid flow cytometric detection of ciguatoxins and saxitoxins is demonstrated using fluorescent voltage sensitive dyes. A depolarization response can be detected directly due to ciguatoxin alone; however, an approximate 1000-fold increase in sensitivity is observed in the presence of veratridine. These results demonstrate that flow cytometric assessment of ciguatoxins is possible at levels approaching the trace detection limits of our earlier cytotoxicity assays, however, with a significant reduction in analysis time. Preliminary results are also presented for detection of brevetoxins and for automation and throughput improvements to a previously described method for detecting saxitoxins in shellfish extracts.

  6. [Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    2002-08-01

    In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific

  7. Small, smooth, nonmobile cardiac myxoma detected by transesophageal echocardiography following recurrent cerebral infarction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuki; Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Monno, Koyuru; Nagashima, Koichi; Kurokawa, Sayaka; Osaka, Shunji; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Kamei, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-05-10

    Cardiac myxoma is known to cause repeated events of cerebral embolism. Soft and irregularly shaped myxomas with high mobility are associated with a higher occurrence of cerebral embolism. In contrast, nonmobile cardiac myxomas with a round regular shape are rarely considered to be a cause of cerebral embolism. In this case, we present a patient with recurrent cerebral embolism associated with a small and nonmobile cardiac myxoma of round regular shape. A 76-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with weakness in his right upper extremity. He had a history of right frontal lobe infarction in the previous month. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an area of hyperintensity in the left precentral gyrus, indicating acute cerebral infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function and no abnormalities. However, transesophageal echocardiography showed a small and nonmobile left atrial tumor with round regular shape attached to the ostium secundum of the atrial septum. Based on these findings, we diagnosed recurrent cerebral infarction due to embolization caused by left atrial myxoma, and cardiac tumor extraction was performed on hospitalization day 36. The excised tumor measured 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.5 cm and was diagnosed as cardiac myxoma by histologic examination. Even small and nonmobile cardiac myxomas with a round regular shape may cause recurrent cerebral infarction. The diagnosis of this type of atrial myxoma is elusive and transesophageal echocardiography was an effective method of detection. In a clinical situation, this type of cardiac myxoma may be overlooked as a cause of cerebral infarction.

  8. Use of an activity monitor to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Boston, Raymond C.; Farrar, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an activity monitor (AM) could be used to detect changes in activity in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with carprofen or a placebo. Design Randomized controlled trial. Animals 70 dogs with no clinically important abnormalities other than osteoarthritis for which they were not currently being treated. Procedures Dogs wore an AM continuously for 21 days. On days 8 through 21, the dogs were treated with carprofen (n = 35) or a placebo (35). Total activity counts for days 1 through 7 (baseline) were compared with total activity counts for days 15 through 21 (endpoint). The change in total activity count from baseline to endpoint was assessed within each treatment group as well as between groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to test for an association between treatment and percentage change in activity counts while controlling for other variables. Results For placebo-treated dogs, median baseline total activity count was not significantly different from median endpoint total activity count (1,378,408 vs 1,310,112, respectively). For dogs receiving carprofen, there was a significant increase in median activity count from baseline to endpoint (1,276,427 vs 1,374,133). When age and baseline activity counts were controlled for, dogs in the carpofen-treated group had a 20% increase in activity counts, compared with placebo-treated dogs (95% confidence interval, 10% to 26%). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that the AM used in the present study may be a valid outcome assessment tool for documenting improved activity associated with treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis. PMID:20590496

  9. Case study: Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course, EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    Learning for democratic citizenship has been the object of several projects supported by the European Commission, under the Socrates / Grundtvig 1.1. Action. Nonetheless only very few had the specific aim of exploring the relations between learning for democratic citizenship and non-formal adult...... for different professionals in education. Thirdly, the course is to be considered on the edge of non-formal and formal learning activities, as it is organized accordingly to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). Participants are awarded 3 ECTS points to be spent in a variety of learning and working...... contexts. Fourthly, the course has a point of reference in the political debate on active and democratic citizenship at European level. In particular, the course makes use of the conceptualization of competences for active and democratic citizenship developed by the European Union and the Council of Europe...

  10. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town, South Africa, 1948-1994: The impact of active tuberculosis case finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, S. M.; Andrews, J. R.; Bekker, L.-G.; Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. To evaluate screening coverage,

  11. Routine Breakers for Emotionally Active Learning: "A Case Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to present a typology of classroom activities which may serve as group driving dynamics to improve student attention in class. Human attention skills may have been shortened now and traditional ways of imparting knowledge should be modified (Soslau, 2015). As a consequence, this implies multi-tasking behaviour as users…

  12. Early Detection of Plant Equipment Failures: A Case Study in Just-in-Time Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Kim, Kyusung; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2001-01-01

    The development and testing of a model-based fault detection system for electric motors is briefly presented. The fault detection system was developed using only motor nameplate information. The fault detection results presented utilize only motor voltage and current sensor information, minimizing the need for expensive or intrusive sensors. Dynamic recurrent neural networks are used to predict the input-output response of a three-phase induction motor while using an estimate of the motor speed signal. Multiresolution (or wavelet) signal-processing techniques are used in combination with more traditional methods to estimate fault features for use in winding insulation and motor mechanical and electromechanical failure detection

  13. Early Detection of Plant Equipment Failures: A Case Study in Just-in-Time Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Kim, Kyusung; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2001-06-17

    The development and testing of a model-based fault detection system for electric motors is briefly presented. The fault detection system was developed using only motor nameplate information. The fault detection results presented utilize only motor voltage and current sensor information, minimizing the need for expensive or intrusive sensors. Dynamic recurrent neural networks are used to predict the input-output response of a three-phase induction motor while using an estimate of the motor speed signal. Multiresolution (or wavelet) signal-processing techniques are used in combination with more traditional methods to estimate fault features for use in winding insulation and motor mechanical and electromechanical failure detection.

  14. [Basic guidelines for detecting sedentarism and recommendations for physical activity in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Salgado, Juan José; Delgado-Martín, José Luis; Blanco-Iglesias, Orlando; Aldecoa-Landesa, Susana

    2015-03-01

    The detection of physical inactivity in adults, using simple and useful tools is primary objective in both public health and in clinical settings, since this risk factor is one of the major causes of non-communicable disease in the world, and is very prevalent in developed societies such as in Spain. Two validated instruments are described that are simple and useful for detecting and/or monitoring physical inactivity in adults: (i)the international physical activity questionnaire in its short version, and (ii)the pedometer to measure the number of steps taken in a day. Increased levels of physical activity are important for the primary prevention of some chronic diseases (coronary heart disease, type2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer) and to improve the quality of life. Medical personnel must determine the motivation level and the availability of patients and their families to change their behavior towards physical activity. Moderate-intensity physical activities have hardly any contraindications and the risks are few. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Explore objective clinical variables for detecting delirium in ICU patients: a prospective case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojiang; Lyu, Jie; An, Youzhong

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this case-control study is to explore clinical objective variables for diagnosing delirium of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. According to the method of prospective case-control study, critical adult postoperative patients who were transferred to ICU of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2015 to May 2016 and needed mechanical ventilation were included. After evaluating the Richmond agitation sedation scale score (RASS), the patients whose score were -2 or greater were sorted into two groups, delirium and non-delirium, according to the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Then these patients were observed by domestic multifunctional detector for electroencephalographic (EEG) variables such as brain lateralization, brain introvert, brain activity, brain energy consumption, focus inward, focus outward, cerebral inhibition, fatigue, sleep severity, sedation index, pain index, anxiety index, fidgety index, stress index and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) index which was named of perfusion index. Other variables including indexes of ICU blood gas analysis, which was consisted of variables of blood gas analysis, routine blood test and biochemistry, previous history and prognostic outcome was recorded. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Forty-three postoperative patients, who needed intensive care, were included. Eighteen were in delirium group and twenty-five in control group. Excluding the trauma, variables like gender, age, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, acute physiology and chronic health evaluationII(APACHEII) score, organ failure, dementia and emergency surgery didn't show any statistical significance between two groups. The trauma in delirious patients increased obviously compared with the control group (33.3% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.031). Except for the brain activity [122.47 (88.62, 154.21) vs. 89.40 (86.27, 115.97), P = 0.034], there were no statistical differences in

  16. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  17. How much is too little to detect impacts? A case study of a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Ignacio, Barbara L; Széchy, Maria T M; Viana, Mariana S; Curbelo-Fernandez, Maria P; Lavrado, Helena P; Junqueira, Andrea O R; Vilanova, Eduardo; Silva, Sérgio H G

    2012-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed to assess impacts on natural assemblages. Ideally, the potentially impacted site and multiple reference sites are sampled through time, before and after the impact. Often, however, the lack of information regarding the potential overall impact, the lack of knowledge about the environment in many regions worldwide, budgets constraints and the increasing dimensions of human activities compromise the reliability of the impact assessment. We evaluated the impact, if any, and its extent of a nuclear power plant effluent on sessile epibiota assemblages using a suitable and feasible sampling design with no 'before' data and budget and logistic constraints. Assemblages were sampled at multiple times and at increasing distances from the point of the discharge of the effluent. There was a clear and localized effect of the power plant effluent (up to 100 m from the point of the discharge). However, depending on the time of the year, the impact reaches up to 600 m. We found a significantly lower richness of taxa in the Effluent site when compared to other sites. Furthermore, at all times, the variability of assemblages near the discharge was also smaller than in other sites. Although the sampling design used here (in particular the number of replicates) did not allow an unambiguously evaluation of the full extent of the impact in relation to its intensity and temporal variability, the multiple temporal and spatial scales used allowed the detection of some differences in the intensity of the impact, depending on the time of sampling. Our findings greatly contribute to increase the knowledge on the effects of multiple stressors caused by the effluent of a power plant and also have important implications for management strategies and conservation ecology, in general.

  18. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-01

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air

  19. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-15

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air.

  20. Multiplex Cathepsin Zymography to Detect Amounts of Active Cathepsins K, L, S, and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Manu O

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are powerful proteases that can degrade other proteins, among which are the extracellular matrix proteins collagen and elastin. Multiplex cathepsin zymography is an assay that can quantify the amount of active cathepsins in a cell or tissue preparation. This method works for measuring the amounts of active cathepsins K, L, S, and V in a cell or tissue preparation without requiring the use of antibodies for specific identification which tremendously reduces cost. This chapter will demonstrate the utility and interpretation of this method with mammalian cells and tissue to quantify amounts of active cathepsins K, L, S, and V without complicating signals of the procathepsin. Multiplex cathepsin zymography has many advantages: (1) it separates cathepsins K, L, S, and V by electrophoretic migration distance, (2) allows visual confirmation of cathepsin identity, (3) does not detect procathepsins, and (4) can be quantified with densitometry.

  1. Combining Electromyography and Tactile Myography to Improve Hand and Wrist Activity Detection in Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie Jaquier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in prosthetics and assistive robotics in general, robust simultaneous and proportional control of dexterous prosthetic devices remains an unsolved problem, mainly because of inadequate sensorization. In this paper, we study the application of regression to muscle activity, detected using a flexible tactile sensor recording muscle bulging in the forearm (tactile myography—TMG. The sensor is made of 320 highly sensitive cells organized in an array forming a bracelet. We propose the use of Gaussian process regression to improve the prediction of wrist, hand and single-finger activation, using TMG, surface electromyography (sEMG; the traditional approach in the field, and a combination of the two. We prove the effectiveness of the approach for different levels of activations in a real-time goal-reaching experiment using tactile data. Furthermore, we performed a batch comparison between the different forms of sensorization, using a Gaussian process with different kernel distances.

  2. Quench Detection and Protection for High Temperature Superconducting Transformers by Using the Active Power Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanato, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    AC high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have been developed for transformers, motors and so on. Quench detection and protection system are essential for safety operations of the AC HTS facilities. The balance voltage method is universally used for the quench detection and protection, however especially for AC operations, the method has risks in terms of high voltage sparks. Because the method needs a voltage tap soldered to a midpoint of the coil winding and the AC HTS facilities generally operate at high voltages and therefore high voltage sparks may occur at the midpoint with no insulation. We have proposed the active power method for the quench detection and protection. The method requires no voltage tap on the midpoint of the coil winding and therefore it has in-built effectiveness for the AC HTS facilities. In this paper, we show that the method can detect the quench in an HTS transformer and moreover our proposed quench protection circuits which consist of thyristors are simple and useful for the AC HTS facilities.

  3. A robust high-throughput fungal biosensor assay for the detection of estrogen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Wagener, Karen; Yankova, Desislava; Eder, Stefanie; Möstl, Erich; Drillich, Marc; Rychli, Kathrin; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Estrogenic active compounds are present in a variety of sources and may alter biological functions in vertebrates. Therefore, it is crucial to develop innovative analytical systems that allow us to screen a broad spectrum of matrices and deliver fast and reliable results. We present the adaptation and validation of a fungal biosensor for the detection of estrogen activity in cow derived samples and tested the clinical applicability for pregnancy diagnosis in 140 mares and 120 cows. As biosensor we used a previously engineered genetically modified strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which contains the human estrogen receptor alpha and a reporter construct, in which β-galactosidase gene expression is controlled by an estrogen-responsive-element. The estrogen response of the fungal biosensor was validated with blood, urine, feces, milk and saliva. All matrices were screened for estrogenic activity prior to and after chemical extraction and the results were compared to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The biosensor showed consistent results in milk, urine and feces, which were comparable to those of the EIA. In contrast to the EIA, no sample pre-treatment by chemical extraction was needed. For 17β-estradiol, the biosensor showed a limit of detection of 1ng/L. The validation of the biosensor for pregnancy diagnosis revealed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of more than 97%. In conclusion, we developed and validated a highly robust fungal biosensor for detection of estrogen activity, which is highly sensitive and economic as it allows analyzing in high-throughput formats without the necessity for organic solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  5. Using activity-related behavioural features towards more effective automatic stress detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Giakoumis

    Full Text Available This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing.

  6. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms Based on Active and Passive Modes of QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Farka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Label-free immunosensors are well suited for detection of microorganisms because of their fast response and reasonable sensitivity comparable to infection doses of common pathogens. Active (lever oscillator and frequency counter and passive (impedance analyzer modes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM were used and compared for rapid detection of three strains of E. coli. Different approaches for antibody immobilization were compared, the immobilization of reduced antibody using Sulfo‑SMCC was most effective achieving the limit of detection (LOD 8 × 104 CFU·mL−1 in 10 min. For the passive mode, software evaluating impedance characteristics in real-time was developed and used. Almost the same results were achieved using both active and passive modes confirming that the sensor properties are not limited by the frequency evaluation method but mainly by affinity of the antibody. Furthermore, reference measurements were done using surface plasmon resonance. Effect of condition of cells on signal was observed showing that cells ruptured by ultrasonication provided slightly higher signal changes than intact microbes.

  7. Active acoustic leak detection in steam generator units of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriol, L.; Journeau, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    Steam generators (SG) of Fast Reactors can be subject to water leakage into the sodium secondary circuit, causing an exothermic chemical reaction with potential serious damage to plant. Within the framework of the European Fast Reactor project, the CEA has developed an active acoustic detection technique which, when used in parallel with passive acoustic detection, will lead to effective leak detection results in terms of reliability and false alarm rates. Whilst the passive method is based on the increase in acoustic noise generated by the reaction, the active method takes advantage of the acoustic attenuation by the hydrogen bubbles produced. The method has been validated: in water, during laboratory testing at the Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache; in sodium, at the ASB loop at Bensberg (Germany) and at AEA Dounreay (Scotland). Full analysis of the tests carried out on the SG of the Prototype Fast Reactor in 1994 during end-of-life testing should lead to reactor validation on the method. (authors)

  8. Optimizing Case-based detection performance in a multiview CAD system for mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samulski, M.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    When reading mammograms, radiologists combine information from multiple views to detect abnormalities. Most computer-aided detection (CAD) systems, however, use primitive methods for inclusion of multiview context or analyze each view independently. In previous research it was found that in

  9. Understanding environmental DNA detection probabilities: A case study using a stream-dwelling char Salvelinus fontinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Adam J. Sepulveda; Bradley B. Shepard; Stephen F. Jane; Andrew R. Whiteley; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA sampling (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting aquatic animals. Previous research suggests that eDNA methods are substantially more sensitive than traditional sampling. However, the factors influencing eDNA detection and the resulting sampling costs are still not well understood. Here we use multiple experiments to derive...

  10. Understanding environmental DNA detection probabilities: A case study using a stream-dwelling char Salvelinus fontinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Mckelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shepard, Bradley B.; Jane, Stephen F; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA sampling (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting aquatic animals. Previous research suggests that eDNA methods are substantially more sensitive than traditional sampling. However, the factors influencing eDNA detection and the resulting sampling costs are still not well understood. Here we use multiple experiments to derive independent estimates of eDNA production rates and downstream persistence from brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in streams. We use these estimates to parameterize models comparing the false negative detection rates of eDNA sampling and traditional backpack electrofishing. We find that using the protocols in this study eDNA had reasonable detection probabilities at extremely low animal densities (e.g., probability of detection 0.18 at densities of one fish per stream kilometer) and very high detection probabilities at population-level densities (e.g., probability of detection > 0.99 at densities of ≥ 3 fish per 100 m). This is substantially more sensitive than traditional electrofishing for determining the presence of brook trout and may translate into important cost savings when animals are rare. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature showing that eDNA sampling is a powerful tool for the detection of aquatic species, particularly those that are rare and difficult to sample using traditional methods.

  11. Spatiotemporal Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery: the Case Study of Karacabey Flooded Forest, Bursa, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, A. E.; Gencal, B.; Taş, İ.

    2017-11-01

    This short paper aims to detect spatiotemporal detection of land use/land cover change within Karacabey Flooded Forest region. Change detection analysis applied to Landsat 5 TM images representing July 2000 and a Landsat 8 OLI representing June 2017. Various image processing tools were implemented using ERDAS 9.2, ArcGIS 10.4.1, and ENVI programs to conduct spatiotemporal change detection over these two images such as band selection, corrections, subset, classification, recoding, accuracy assessment, and change detection analysis. Image classification revealed that there are five significant land use/land cover types, including forest, flooded forest, swamp, water, and other lands (i.e. agriculture, sand, roads, settlement, and open areas). The results indicated that there was increase in flooded forest, water, and other lands, while the cover of forest and swamp decreased.

  12. Retrieval Accuracy Assessment with Gap Detection for Case 2 Waters Chla Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. I.; Higa, H.; Kim, H.; Oki, K.; Oki, T.

    2016-12-01

    Inland lakes and coastal regions types of Case 2 Waters should be continuously and accurately monitored as the former contain 90% of the global liquid freshwater storage, while the latter provide most of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which is an important link in the global carbon cycle. The optical properties of Case 2 Waters are dominated by three optically active components: phytoplankton, non-algal particles (NAP) and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM). During the last three decades, researchers have proposed several algorithms to retrieve Chla concentration from the remote sensing reflectance. In this study, seven algorithms are assessed with various band combinations from multi and hyper-spectral data with linear, polynomial and power regression approaches. To evaluate the performance of the 43 algorithm combination sets, 500,000 remote sensing reflectance spectra are simulated with a wide range of concentrations for Chla, NAP and CDOM. The concentrations of Chla and NAP vary from 1-200 (mg m-3) and 1-200 (gm m-3), respectively, and the absorption of CDOM at 440 nm has the range of 0.1-10 (m-1). It is found that the three-band algorithm (665, 709 and 754 nm) with the quadratic polynomial (3b_665_QP) indicates the best overall performance. 3b_665_QP has the least error with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.2 (mg m-3) and a mean absolute relative error (MARE) of 0.7 %. The less accurate retrieval of Chla was obtained by the synthetic chlorophyll index algorithm with RMSE and MARE of 35.8 mg m-3 and 160.4 %, respectively. In general, Chla algorithms which incorporates 665 nm band or band tuning technique performs better than those with 680 nm. In addition, the retrieval accuracy of Chla algorithms with quadratic polynomial and power regression approaches are consistently better than the linear ones. By analyzing Chla versus NAP concentrations, the 3b_665_QP outperforms the other algorithms for all Chla concentrations and NAP concentrations above 40

  13. MR imaging of bone marrow metastasis in patients with neuroblastoma. Comparison between mass-screened cases and clinically detected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegawa, Kimio; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Ryuta; Nishiyama, Shoji; Mabuchi, Osamu; Muraji, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six patients with neuroblastoma who underwent bone marrow MRI were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of patients detected by mass screening (M group, n=55), and the second group of patients detected clinically (non-M group, n=21). Bone marrow metastasis was morphologically classified into two types, nodular type and diffuse type. We studied the incidence of bone marrow metastasis, relationship between the patterns of bone marrow metastasis and the presence of bone metastasis, and morphological changes of bone marrow metastasis after chemotherapy. In M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 7.3% (4 patients) and the patterns of bone marrow metastases were all nodular type not accompanied with bone metastasis and disappeared after chemotherapy. In non-M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 52.4% (11 patients). Bone marrow metastases had both patterns of metastasis. Forty-five per cent of diffuse type of bone marrow metastasis were accompanied with bone metastasis. All bone marrow metastases disappeared after chemotherapy, but in one of 11, there was recurrence of bone marrow metastasis. (author)

  14. Pattern Extraction Algorithm for NetFlow-Based Botnet Activities Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kozik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As computer and network technologies evolve, the complexity of cybersecurity has dramatically increased. Advanced cyber threats have led to current approaches to cyber-attack detection becoming ineffective. Many currently used computer systems and applications have never been deeply tested from a cybersecurity point of view and are an easy target for cyber criminals. The paradigm of security by design is still more of a wish than a reality, especially in the context of constantly evolving systems. On the other hand, protection technologies have also improved. Recently, Big Data technologies have given network administrators a wide spectrum of tools to combat cyber threats. In this paper, we present an innovative system for network traffic analysis and anomalies detection to utilise these tools. The systems architecture is based on a Big Data processing framework, data mining, and innovative machine learning techniques. So far, the proposed system implements pattern extraction strategies that leverage batch processing methods. As a use case we consider the problem of botnet detection by means of data in the form of NetFlows. Results are promising and show that the proposed system can be a useful tool to improve cybersecurity.

  15. Visual detection of Brucella in bovine biological samples using DNA-activated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Pal

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial disease, which, although affecting cattle primarily, has been associated with human infections, making its detection an important challenge. The existing gold standard diagnosis relies on the culture of bacteria which is a lengthy and costly process, taking up to 45 days. New technologies based on molecular diagnosis have been proposed, either through dip-stick, immunological assays, which have limited specificity, or using nucleic acid tests, which enable to identify the pathogen, but are impractical for use in the field, where most of the reservoir cases are located. Here we demonstrate a new test based on hybridization assays with metal nanoparticles, which, upon detection of a specific pathogen-derived DNA sequence, yield a visual colour change. We characterise the components used in the assay with a range of analytical techniques and show sensitivities down to 1000 cfu/ml for the detection of Brucella. Finally, we demonstrate that the assay works in a range of bovine samples including semen, milk and urine, opening up the potential for its use in the field, in low-resource settings.

  16. Watch-Dog: Detecting Self-Harming Activities From Wrist Worn Accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Pratool; Panwar, Anurag; Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Chellappan, Sriram

    2018-05-01

    In a 2012 survey, in the United States alone, there were more than 35 000 reported suicides with approximately 1800 of being psychiatric inpatients. Recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports indicate an upward trend in these numbers. In psychiatric facilities, staff perform intermittent or continuous observation of patients manually in order to prevent such tragedies, but studies show that they are insufficient, and also consume staff time and resources. In this paper, we present the Watch-Dog system, to address the problem of detecting self-harming activities when attempted by in-patients in clinical settings. Watch-Dog comprises of three key components-Data sensed by tiny accelerometer sensors worn on wrists of subjects; an efficient algorithm to classify whether a user is active versus dormant (i.e., performing a physical activity versus not performing any activity); and a novel decision selection algorithm based on random forests and continuity indices for fine grained activity classification. With data acquired from 11 subjects performing a series of activities (both self-harming and otherwise), Watch-Dog achieves a classification accuracy of , , and for same-user 10-fold cross-validation, cross-user 10-fold cross-validation, and cross-user leave-one-out evaluation, respectively. We believe that the problem addressed in this paper is practical, important, and timely. We also believe that our proposed system is practically deployable, and related discussions are provided in this paper.

  17. Active damage detection method based on support vector machine and impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ryuta; Mita, Akira

    2004-01-01

    An active damage detection method was proposed to characterize damage in bolted joints. The purpose of this study is to propose a damage detection method that can obtain the detailed information of the damage by creating feature vectors for pattern recognition. In the proposed method, the wavelet transform is applied to the sensor signals, and the feature vectors are defined by second power average of the amplitude. The feature vectors generated by experiments were successfully used as the training data for Support Vector Machine (SVM). By applying the wavelet transform to time-frequency analysis, the accuracy of pattern recognition was raised in both correlation coefficient and SVM applications. Moreover, the SVM could identify the damage with very strong discernment capability than others. Applicability of the proposed method was successfully demonstrated. (author)

  18. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Hwan Kim

    2003-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms

  19. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  20. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Hwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  1. Novel technologies for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities, materials and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whichello, Julian V.K.; Annese, Cynthia E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Division of Technical Support

    2008-07-01

    This paper will discuss the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Novel Technologies Project and its main goal of developing improved methods and technologies that will further enhance the detection of undeclared nuclear activities, materials and facilities. A major and fundamental task within the Project has been the development of methodologies and tools for identifying, documenting and utilizing nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) indicators and signatures (I and S) to facilitate a nuclear safeguards technology gap analysis. The outcome of this work will provide a basis for a novel range of methods and instruments, the development of which will contribute to the IAEA's overall objective of enhanced detection capabilities. (author)

  2. Discrimination and Assessment of Induced Seismicity in Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Lindsey, N.; Foxall, W.; Robertson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes induced by human activity have become a matter of heightened public concern during recent years. Of particular concern is seismicity associated with wastewater injection, which has included events having magnitudes greater than 5. The causes of the induced events are primarily changes in pore-pressure, fluid volume and perhaps temperature due to injection. Recent research in the US has focused on mid-continental regions having low rates of naturally-occurring seismicity, where induced events can be identified by relatively straightforward spatial and temporal correlation of seismicity with high-volume injection activities. Recent examples include events correlated with injection of wastewater in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Ohio, and long-term brine injection in the Paradox Valley in Colorado. Even in some of the cases where there appears at first sight to be a clear spatial correlation between seismicity and injection, it has been difficult to establish causality definitively. Here, we discuss methods to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. We concentrate our study on Southern California, where large numbers of wastewater injection wells are located in oil-producing basins that experience moderate to high rates of naturally-occurring seismicity. Using the catalog of high-precision CISN relocations produced by Hauksson et al. (BSSA, 2012), we aim to discriminate induced from natural events based on spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity occurrence characteristics and their relationships to injection activities, known active faults and other faults favorably oriented for slip under the tectonic stress field. Since the vast majority of induced earthquakes are very small, it is crucial to include all events above the detection threshold of the CISN in each area studied. In addition to exploring the correlation of seismicity to injection activities in time and space, we analyze variations in frequency-magnitude distributions, which can

  3. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  4. Fractal analysis of visual search activity for mass detection during mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathleen B; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hammond, Tracy; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) from 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven Radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers' visual scanning pattern was computed with the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the complexity of visual scanning pattern when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening is dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Frontal Theta Activity Supports Detecting Mismatched Information in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tengfei; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    During the comparison stage of visual working memory (VWM) processing, detecting the mismatch between the external sensory input and internal representations is a crucial cognitive ability for human, but the neural mechanism behind it remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the role of frontal theta power in detecting the mismatched information in VWM in a delayed matching task. A control task required to compare two simultaneously presented visual figures was also designed as a contrast to exclude the possibility that frontal theta activity just reflecting the non-memory-related behavioral conflicts. To better characterize the control mechanisms shaped by the frontal theta oscillation in human VWM, colored shapes were adopted as materials while both the task-relevant shape feature and task-irrelevant color feature could be mismatched. We found that the response times of participants were significantly delayed under the relevant- and irrelevant-mismatch conditions in both tasks and the conjunction-mismatch condition in delayed matching task. While our EEG data showed that increased frontal theta power was only observed under the relevant- and conjunction-mismatch conditions in the delayed matching task, but not the control task. These findings suggest that the frontal distributed theta activity observed here reflects the detection of mismatched information during the comparison stage of VWM, rather than the response-related conflicts. Furthermore, it is consistent with the proposal that theta-band oscillation can act as a control mechanism in working memory function so that the target-mismatched information in VWM could be successfully tracked. We also propose a possible processing structure to explain the neural dynamics underlying the mismatch detection process in VWM.

  6. Frontal Theta Activity Supports Detecting Mismatched Information in Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the comparison stage of visual working memory (VWM processing, detecting the mismatch between the external sensory input and internal representations is a crucial cognitive ability for human, but the neural mechanism behind it remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the role of frontal theta power in detecting the mismatched information in VWM in a delayed matching task. A control task required to compare two simultaneously presented visual figures was also designed as a contrast to exclude the possibility that frontal theta activity just reflecting the non-memory-related behavioral conflicts. To better characterize the control mechanisms shaped by the frontal theta oscillation in human VWM, colored shapes were adopted as materials while both the task-relevant shape feature and task-irrelevant color feature could be mismatched. We found that the response times of participants were significantly delayed under the relevant- and irrelevant-mismatch conditions in both tasks and the conjunction-mismatch condition in delayed matching task. While our EEG data showed that increased frontal theta power was only observed under the relevant- and conjunction-mismatch conditions in the delayed matching task, but not the control task. These findings suggest that the frontal distributed theta activity observed here reflects the detection of mismatched information during the comparison stage of VWM, rather than the response-related conflicts. Furthermore, it is consistent with the proposal that theta-band oscillation can act as a control mechanism in working memory function so that the target-mismatched information in VWM could be successfully tracked. We also propose a possible processing structure to explain the neural dynamics underlying the mismatch detection process in VWM.

  7. Quench detection and behaviour in case of quench in the ITER magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coatanea-Gouachet, M.

    2012-02-01

    The quench of one of the ITER magnet system is an irreversible transition from superconducting to normal resistive state, of a conductor. This normal zone propagates along the cable in conduit conductor dissipating a large power. The detection has to be fast enough to dump out the magnetic energy and avoid irreversible damage of the systems. The primary quench detection in ITER is based on voltage detection, which is the most rapid detection. The very magnetically disturbed environment during the plasma scenario makes the voltage detection particularly difficult, inducing large inductive components in the coils and voltage compensations have to be designed to discriminate the resistive voltage associated with the quench. A conceptual design of the quench detection based on voltage measurements is proposed for the three majors magnet systems of ITER. For this, a clear methodology was developed. It includes the classical hot spot criterion, the quench propagation study using the commercial code Gandalf and the careful estimation of the inductive disturbances by developing the TrapsAV code. Specific solutions have been proposed for the compensation in the three ITER magnet systems and for the quench detection parameters, which are the voltage threshold (in the range of 0.1 V - 0.55 V) and the holding time (in the range of 1-1.4 s). The selected values, in particular the holding time, are sufficiently high to ensure the reliability of the system and avoid fast safety discharges not induced by a quench, which is a classical problem. (author)

  8. Stepwise multiphoton activation fluorescence reveals a new method of melanin detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; Mega, Yair; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-06-01

    The stepwise multiphoton activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave mode near infrared (NIR) laser, reveals a broad spectrum extending from the visible spectra to the NIR and has potential application for a low-cost, reliable method of detecting melanin. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin are compared with conventional multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). By combining CRM with SMPAF, we can locate melanin reliably. However, we have the added benefit of eliminating background interference from other components inside mouse hair and skin. The melanin SMPAF signal from the mouse hair is a mixture of a two-photon process and a third-order process. The melanin SMPAF emission spectrum is activated by a 1505.9-nm laser light, and the resulting spectrum has a peak at 960 nm. The discovery of the emission peak may lead to a more energy-efficient method of background-free melanin detection with less photo-bleaching.

  9. Quantization and training of object detection networks with low-precision weights and activations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jie

    2018-01-01

    As convolutional neural networks have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in object recognition and detection, there is a growing need for deploying these systems on resource-constrained mobile platforms. However, the computational burden and energy consumption of inference for these networks are significantly higher than what most low-power devices can afford. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method to train object detection networks with low-precision weights and activations. The probability density functions of weights and activations of each layer are first directly estimated using piecewise Gaussian models. Then, the optimal quantization intervals and step sizes for each convolution layer are adaptively determined according to the distribution of weights and activations. As the most computationally expensive convolutions can be replaced by effective fixed point operations, the proposed method can drastically reduce computation complexity and memory footprint. Performing on the tiny you only look once (YOLO) and YOLO architectures, the proposed method achieves comparable accuracy to their 32-bit counterparts. As an illustration, the proposed 4-bit and 8-bit quantized versions of the YOLO model achieve a mean average precision of 62.6% and 63.9%, respectively, on the Pascal visual object classes 2012 test dataset. The mAP of the 32-bit full-precision baseline model is 64.0%.

  10. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  11. Developpement of a photoaffinity probe for the sensitive detection of matrix metallo-protease active forms from complex biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nury, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A new activity-based probe able to covalently modify the active site of proteases belonging to the matrix metallo-protease family (MMPs) has been developed in this thesis project. The probe was shown to behave as potent inhibitor of several MMPs, with nanomolar Ki values. This probe was also able to modify specifically only the free active site of MMPs, with particular high yields of cross-linking varying from 50 % to 11 %, depending of the MMPs tested. Using radioactivity as means of detection, this probe was able to detect active form of MMPs with a threshold of 1 femto-mole. Applied to the study of bronchoalveolar fluids (BAL) from mice exposed to nanoparticles by a lung aspiration protocol, this probe revealed the presence of the catalytic domain of MMP-12 under its active form, but not in control animals. When used to detect active form of MMPs from extracts obtained from human arteries of patient suffering from atherosclerosis, the probe was not able to detect such MMP active forms. Despite this negative result, the detection of active form of MMP in pathological fluid like BAL has never been reported before this work. Having validated this novel MMP activity-based probe, it will be possible to use it now for detecting MMPs from other pathological fluids or tissues extracts in which MMPs can be good markers of the pathology. (author) [fr

  12. Inversion Algorithms and PS Detection in SAR Tomography, Case Study of Bucharest City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dănişor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR tomography can reconstruct the elevation profile of each pixel based on a set of co-registered complex images of a scene. Its main advantage over classical interferometric methods consists in the capability to improve the detection of single persistent scatterers as well as to enable the detection of multiple scatterers interfering within the same pixel. In this paper, three tomographic algorithms are compared and applied to a dataset of 32 images to generate the elevation map of dominant scatterers from a scene. Targets which present stable proprieties over time - Persistent Scatterers (PS are then detected based on reflectivity functions reconstructed with Capon filtering.

  13. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis