WorldWideScience

Sample records for active biomass retention

  1. Waste activated sludge fermentation: effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory scale, room temperature, semi-continuous reactors were set-up to investigate the effect of solids retention time (SRT, equal to HRT hydraulic retention time) and biomass concentration on generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the non-methanogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) originating from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. It was found that VFA yields increased with SRT. At the longest SRT (10d), improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield from the influent COD (0.14g VFA-COD/g TCOD). It was also observed that under the same SRT, VFA yields increased when the biomass concentration decreased. At a 10d SRT the VFA yield increased by 46%, when the biomass concentration decreased from 13g/L to 4.8g/L. Relatively high nutrient release was observed during fermentation. The average phosphorus release was 17.3mg PO(4)-P/g TCOD and nitrogen release was 25.8mg NH(4)-N/g TCOD.

  2. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  3. Nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichgrebe, D.

    1992-09-01

    The AIF Research Project No 7698 was concerned with the nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass. A compact system for the nitrification was developed and optimized in the investigations. This is an over-dammed fixed bed reactor with structured packing elements and membrane gasification. The fixed bed reactor was successfully installed in a multi-stage compact plant on the laboratory scale for the biological treatment of dump trickled water. With the conclusion of the investigations, design data are available for the technical scale realisation of nitrification in fixed bed reactors. (orig.) [de

  4. Biosorption and retention of several actinide and fission-product elements by biomass from Mycobacterium phlei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouby, M.; MacCordick, H.J.; Billard, I.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of mobile, 5% w/w cell suspensions of Mycobacterium phlei have been examined for their capacity to adsorb and retain uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) cations from nitrate-buffered solutions at pH 1. Equilibrium conditions of sorption were attained after 3 hours for concentrations (C) in the range 0.015-18 mM cation and indicated a maximum specific adsorption capacity (Qe max ) of 182 μmol/g dry biomass for C ≥ 10 mM. NpO 2 + generally showed higher Qe values than UO 2 2+ at corresponding concentrations. Lixiviation tests with cation-loaded biomass in neutral and acidic media indicated that the extent of desorption did not vary extensively between pH 7 and pH 1 and did not exceed 3% for U and 1% for Np ions at pH 7 during 7-day periods of treatment. Analogous experiments with U-loaded biomass subjected to neutron activation prior to lixiviation enabled retention measurements for various fission-product isotopes produced in situ and showed that retention of 239 Np formed within the cellular matrix was >99% at pH 7 and ≥94% at pH 1. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2012-01-01

    Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics were added. Methane gas production replacement through solution of KOH (2 N as an absorber of CO 2 and bromine thymol blue as indicator was measured. Each batch was tested for 10 days. Results: Based on the findings, inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and tylosin were 8000, 9000, and 9000 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that with increasing concentrations of antibiotics, the produced biogas volume from biomass per unit weight is decreased. COD removal was 42-82 % due to long retention time and adsorption to flocks.

  6. Phosphorus fractions, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils ...

  7. Impacts of post-harvest slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there is widespread interest in using forest-derived biomass as a source of bioenergy. While conventional timber harvesting generally removes only merchantable tree boles, harvesting biomass feedstock can remove all forms of woody biomass (i.e., live and dead standing woody vegetation, downed woody debris, and stumps) resulting in a greater loss of biomass and nutrients as well as more severe habitat alteration. To investigate the potential impacts of this practice, this study examined the initial impacts (pre- and post-harvest) of various levels of slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P), in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Treatments examined included three levels of slash retention, whole-tree harvest (WTH), 20% slash retention (20SR), and stem-only harvest (SOH), factored with three levels of green-tree retention, no trees retained (NONE), dispersed retention (DISP), and aggregate retention (AGR). Slash retention was the primary factor affecting post-harvest biomass and nutrient stocks, including woody debris pools. Compared to the unharvested control, stocks of biomass, carbon, and nutrients, including N, Ca, K, and P, in woody debris were higher in all treatments. Stem-only harvests typically contained greater biomass and nutrient stocks than WTH, although biomass and nutrients within 20SR, a level recommended by biomass harvesting guidelines in the US and worldwide, generally did not differ from WTH or SOH. Biomass in smaller-diameter slash material (typically 2.5-22.5 cm in diameter) dominated the woody debris pool following harvest regardless of slash retention level. Trends among treatments in this diameter range were generally similar to those in the total woody debris pool. Specifically, SOH contained significantly greater amounts of biomass than WTH while 20SR was not different from either WTH or

  8. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  9. Impact of various storage conditions on enzymatic activity, biomass components and conversion to ethanol yields from sorghum biomass used as a bioenergy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigdon, Anne R; Jumpponen, Ari; Vadlani, Praveen V; Maier, Dirk E

    2013-03-01

    With increased mandates for biofuel production in the US, ethanol production from lignocellulosic substrates is burgeoning, highlighting the need for thorough examination of the biofuel production supply chain. This research focused on the impact storage has on biomass, particularly photoperiod-sensitive sorghum biomass. Biomass quality parameters were monitored and included biomass components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, along with extra-cellular enzymatic activity (EEA) responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation and conversion to ethanol yields. Analyses revealed dramatic decreases in uncovered treatments, specifically reduced dry matter content from 88% to 59.9%, cellulose content from 35.3% to 25%, hemicellulose content from 23.7% to 16.0% and ethanol production of 0.20 to 0.02gL(-1) after 6months storage along with almost double EEA activities. In contrast, biomass components, EEA and ethanol yields remained relatively stable in covered treatments, indicating covering of biomass during storage is essential for optimal substrate retention and ethanol yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera; Cohen, Gerald; Schaefer, Mandy; Boehringer, Falko; Tepel, Martin; Kunkel, Desiree; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2014-08-01

    Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. Mononuclear leucocytes isolated from buffy coats of healthy volunteers were isolated, lysed and incubated with NADH in the presence of plasma from healthy controls and patients with CKD-5D. Furthermore, the leucocytes were lysed and incubated in the presence of uraemic retention solute of interest and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized as the strongest inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (90% of DPI inhibition). Surprisingly, none of the uraemic retention solutes we investigated was found to increase NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, plasma from patients with CKD-5D before dialysis caused significantly higher inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity compared with plasma from healthy subjects. However, this effect was significantly decreased in plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis. The results of this study show that uraemic retention solutes modulated the activity of the NADPH oxidase. The results of this study might be the basis for the development of inhibitors applicable as drug in the situation of increased oxidative stress. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Biological significance of dead biomass retention trait in Mediterranean Basin species: an analysis between different successional niches and regeneration strategies as functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M J; Santana, V M

    2015-11-01

    Standing dead biomass retention is considered one of the most relevant fuel structural traits to affect plant flammability. However, very little is known about the biological significance of this trait and its distribution between different functional groups. Our aim was to analyse how the proportion of dead biomass produced in Mediterranean species is related to the successional niche of species (early-, mid- and late-successional stages) and the regeneration strategy of species (seeders and resprouters). We evaluated biomass distribution by size classes and standing dead biomass retention in nine dominant species from the Mediterranean Basin in different development stages (5, 9, 14 and 26 years since the last fire). The results revealed significant differences in the standing dead biomass retention of species that presented a distinct successional niche or regeneration strategy. These differences were restricted to the oldest ages studied (>9 years). Tree and small tree resprouters, typical in late-successional stages, presented slight variations with age and a less marked trend to retain dead biomass, while seeder shrubs and dwarf shrubs, characteristic of early-successional stages, showed high dead biomass loads. Our results suggest that the species that tend to retain more dead branches are colonising species that may promote fire in early-successional stages. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera

    2014-01-01

    chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized......BACKGROUND: Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased...... inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. METHODS: Mononuclear leucocytes...

  13. Biomass - Activities and projects in 2002; Biomasse Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2002. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities carried out under the Biomass Research Programme in 2002 and describes the various projects that were active during the year. The situation concerning energy supply from biomass is discussed and figures are presented on its share in total Swiss energy consumption. Three categories of biomass use are presented - burning, fermentation of wastes and biofuels. >From each of these categories, several pilot and demonstration projects are described that cover a wide range of technologies and research activities, ranging from the pre-processing of biogenic wastes through to the optimisation of biogas-based combined heat and power installations and the operational economics of compact biogas installations. The report is completed with lists of research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects.

  14. Pathways to URM Retention: IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-05-01

    As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one

  15. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  16. Combustion characteristics and retention-emission of selenium during co-firing of torrefied biomass and its blends with high ash coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Habib; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Abbas, Qumber; Zhou, Chuncai

    2017-12-01

    The combustion characteristics, kinetic analysis and selenium retention-emission behavior during co-combustion of high ash coal (HAC) with pine wood (PW) biomass and torrefied pine wood (TPW) were investigated through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and laboratory-based circulating fluidized bed combustion experiment. Improved ignition behavior and thermal reactivity of HAC were observed through the addition of a suitable proportion of biomass and torrefied. During combustion of blends, higher values of relative enrichment factors in fly ash revealed the maximum content of condensing volatile selenium on fly ash particles, and depleted level in bottom ash. Selenium emission in blends decreased by the increasing ratio of both PW and TPW. Higher reductions in the total Se volatilization were found for HAC/TPW than individual HAC sample, recommending that TPW have the best potential of selenium retention. The interaction amongst selenium and fly ash particles may cause the retention of selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  18. Impact of oxy-fuel combustion gases on mercury retention in activated carbons from a macroalgae waste: effect of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Anton, M A; Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Díaz-Somoano, M; Suarez-Ruíz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ruiz, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the different sorption behaviors of mercury species on activated carbons in the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and the effect of high quantities of water vapor on the retention process. The work evaluates the interactions between the mercury species and a series of activated carbons prepared from a macroalgae waste (algae meal) from the agar-agar industry in oxy-combustion atmospheres, focussing on the role that the high concentration of water in the flue gases plays in mercury retention. Two novel aspects are considered in this work (i) the impact of oxy-combustion gases on the retention of mercury by activated carbons and (ii) the performance of activated carbons prepared from biomass algae wastes for this application. The results obtained at laboratory scale indicate that the effect of the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons on mercury capture is not as important as that of reactive gases, such as the SOx and water vapor present in the flue gas. Mercury retention was found to be much lower in the oxy-combustion atmosphere than in the O2+N2 (12.6% O2) atmosphere. However, the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to form oxidized mercury (Hg2+) amounted to 60%, resulting in an enhancement of mercury retention in the flue gas desulfurization units and a reduction in the amalgamation of Hg0 in the CO2 compression unit. This result is of considerable importance for the development of technologies based on activated carbon sorbents for mercury control in oxy-combustion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial soil respiration response to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in aspen-dominated forests of the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Valerie J.; Bradford, John B.; Slesak, Robert A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest management practices are increasingly designed to optimize novel objectives, such as maximizing biomass feedstocks and/or maintaining ecological legacies, but many uncertainties exist regarding how these practices influence forest carbon (C) cycling. We examined the responses of soil respiration (Rs) to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in an effort to empirically assess their impacts on C cycling. We measured Rs and soil microclimatic variables over four growing seasons following implementation of these management practices using a fully replicated, operational-scale experiment in aspen-dominated forests in northern Minnesota. Treatments included three levels of biomass removal within harvested areas: whole-tree harvest (no slash deliberately retained), 20% slash retained, and stem-only harvest (all slash retained), and two levels of green-tree retention: 0.1 ha aggregate or none. The relative amount of biomass removed had a negligible effect on Rs in harvested areas, but treatment effects were probably obscured by heterogeneous slash configurations and rapid post-harvest regeneration of aspen in all of the treatments. Discrete measurements of Rs and soil temperature within green-tree aggregates were not discernible from surrounding harvested areas or unharvested control stands until the fourth year following harvest, when Rs was higher in unharvested controls than in aggregates and harvested stands. Growing season estimates of Rs showed that unharvested control stands had higher Rs than both harvested stands and aggregates in the first and third years following harvest. Our results suggest that retention of larger forest aggregates may be necessary to maintain ecosystem-level responses similar to those in unharvested stands. Moreover, they highlight the innate complexity of operational-scale research and suggest that the initial impacts of biomass harvest on Rs may be indiscernible from traditional harvest in systems where incidental

  20. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  1. Microbial community distribution and activity dynamics of granular biomass in a CANON reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez-Padín, Jose; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

     (Lgranule)-1 d-1. Anammox activity was registered between 400 and 1000 μm depth inside the granules. The nitrogen removal capacity of the studied sequencing batch reactor containing the granular biomass was of 0.5 g N L-1 d-1. This value is similar to the mean nitrogen removal rate obtained from...... calculations based on in- and outflow concentrations. Information obtained in the present work allowed the establishment of a simple control strategy based on the measurements of NH4+ and NO2- in the bulk liquid and acting over the dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid and the hydraulic retention...

  2. Study on pore structure properties of steam activated biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Fei; Wang, Qinchao; Lu, Ping [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China). School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Wheat straw and rice husk chars were prepared in a fixed bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (673, 873 and 1,073K) and different pyrolysis procedure. The steam activated chars were also prepared in a fixed bed reactor at the following conditions: activation temperature is 1,073K, the flow rate of N{sub 2} is 5L/min, and N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O molar ratio is 1:1. The specific surface area, pore structure and micro-morphology of different kinds of prepared biomass chars were measured by NOVA1000e analysis instrument and JSM-5610LV scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Results indicated that the internal structure was improved significantly by steam activation through enlarging the specific surface area and enriching the porosity. The wheat straw char prepared by both rapid pyrolysis at 873K and activation by steam is better than others, whose DR surface area increases from 3.10 to 1099.99m{sup 2}/g. The N{sub 2} adsorption volume of steam activated biomass chars has been significant promoted.

  3. Biomass derived graphene-like activated and non-activated porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these carbon materials confirm their promising characteristics for supercapacitor applications. ... Graphene; biomass; supercapacitor; porous carbon; energy storage. 1. .... activated carbon sheets, 2 g of starch and 1 g of pluronic F127.

  4. Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Ordogh, M.

    1978-06-01

    Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32 P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 10 2 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  5. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  6. Retention of gaseous fission products by pure and modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Cejnar, F.

    1975-01-01

    The results are reported of research into Czechoslovak-made activated carbon Desorex DB-2 and Supersorbon HS-1 and their retention properties. Krypton, xenon and helium of spectral purity were used in the investigation. The effect of surface impregnation was also studied on the retention efficiency of the activated carbon. It was found that the impregnation with alkali metal fluorides, such as RbF and CsF favourably affected the retention properties of the activated carbon as concerns gaseous fission products. (L.O.)

  7. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Asghar Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to survey the antibiotics effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin on anerobic wastewater treatment process. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics we...

  8. Thermo-Chemical Conversion of Microwave Activated Biomass Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmina, I.; Kolmickovs, A.; Valdmanis, R.; Vostrikovs, S.; Zake, M.

    2018-05-01

    Thermo-chemical conversion of microwave activated wheat straw mixtures with wood or peat pellets is studied experimentally with the aim to provide more effective application of wheat straw for heat energy production. Microwave pre-processing of straw pellets is used to provide a partial decomposition of the main constituents of straw and to activate the thermo-chemical conversion of wheat straw mixtures with wood or peat pellets. The experimental study includes complex measurements of the elemental composition of biomass pellets (wheat straw, wood, peat), DTG analysis of their thermal degradation, FTIR analysis of the composition of combustible volatiles entering the combustor, the flame temperature, the heat output of the device and composition of the products by comparing these characteristics for mixtures with unprocessed and mw pre-treated straw pellets. The results of experimental study confirm that mw pre-processing of straw activates the thermal decomposition of mixtures providing enhanced formation of combustible volatiles. This leads to improvement of the combustion conditions in the flame reaction zone, completing thus the combustion of volatiles, increasing the flame temperature, the heat output from the device, the produced heat energy per mass of burned mixture and decreasing at the same time the mass fraction of unburned volatiles in the products.

  9. Biomass - Activities and projects in 2004; Biomasse - Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D; Guggisberg, B

    2005-07-01

    This annual report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the Swiss research programme on biomass and its efficient use both as a source of heat and electrical power and as a fuel. Work done and results obtained in the year 2004 are looked at. Topics covered include combustion and gasification of wood, the fermentation of biogenic wastes and developments in the bio-fuels area. Several projects in each of these areas are discussed. National co-operation with various universities, private organisations and other federal offices is discussed, as are contributions made to symposia and exhibitions in the biomass area. International co-operation within the framework of International Energy Agency (IEA) tasks is mentioned. Various pilot and demonstration projects in the combustion, gasification and fermentation areas are listed and discussed.

  10. Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Paul T.; Reed, Anton R.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass waste in the form of biomass flax fibre, produced as a by-product of the textile industry was processed via both physical and chemical activation to produce activated carbons. The surface area of the physically activated carbons were up to 840 m 2 g -1 and the carbons were of mesoporous structure. Chemical activation using zinc chloride produced high surface area activated carbons up to 2400 m 2 g -1 and the pore size distribution was mainly microporous. However, the process conditions of temperature and zinc chloride concentration could be used to manipulate the surface area and porosity of the carbons to produce microporous, mesoporous and mixed microporous/mesoporous activated carbons. The physically activated carbons were found to be a mixture of Type I and Type IV carbons and the chemically activated carbons were found to be mainly Type I carbons. The development of surface morphology of physically and chemically activated carbons observed via scanning electron microscopy showed that physical activation produced activated carbons with a nodular and pitted surface morphology whereas activated carbons produced through chemical activation had a smooth surface morphology. Transmission electron microscopy analysis could identify mesopore structures in the physically activated carbon and microporous structures in the chemically activated carbons

  11. Retention of elemental 131I by activated carbons under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1984-09-01

    Under simulated accident conditions (maximum temperature: 130 0 C) no significant difference was found in the retention of I-131 loaded as elemental iodine, by various fresh and aged commercial activated carbons. In all the cases, the I-131 passing through deep beds of activated carbon was in a non-elemental form. It is concluded that a minimum retention of 99.99% for elemental radioiodine, as required by the RSK guidelines for PWR accident filters, can be equally well achieved with various commercial activated carbons. (orig.) [de

  12. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  13. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  15. Structured Activities in Perceptual Training to Aid Retention of Visual and Auditory Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, James W.; And Others

    The experimental program in structured activities in perceptual training was said to have two main objectives: to train children in retention of visual and auditory images and to increase the children's motivation to learn. Eight boys and girls participated in the program for two hours daily for a 10-week period. The age range was 7.0 to 12.10…

  16. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  17. Effect of service aging on iodine retention of activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River reactor confinement systems are continuously operated offgas cleanup systems whose components include moisture separators, HEPA filters, and halogen adsorber beds of activated charcoal. Charcoal is removed from the system periodically and subjected to a variety of physical, chemical, and iodine penetration tests to ensure that the system will perform within specification in the event of an accidental release of activity from the reactor. Tests performed on the charcoals include pH measurement of water extracts, particle size distribution, ignition temperature, high-temperature (180 0 C) iodine penetration, and iodine penetration in an intense radiation field at high humidity. Charcoals used in the systems include carbon Types 416 (unimpregnated), G-615 (impregnated with 2 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI), and GX-176 (impregnated with 1 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI). Performance data are presented and compared

  18. Preparation of activated Carbons from extracted waste biomass by chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteva, V.; Nickolov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Novel biomass precursors for the production of activated carbons (ACs) were studied. ACs were prepared from extracted coffee husks and extracted spent ground coffee - separately or as mixtures with 10, 20 and 30 mass % Bulgarian lignite coal. Activation by potassium hydroxide was employed for all samples. The results obtained show that the surface and porous parameters of the ACs depend on the nature of the initial materials used. The specific surface areas (BET) and the microporosities of ACs obtained from extracted spent ground coffee mixed with 20 mass % Bulgarian lignite coals, are greater than those of the ACs from extracted coffee husks. It is likely that the reason for this result is the chemical composition of the precursors. The coffee husks have less lignin and more holocellulose. The latter undergoes more significant destructive changes in the process of chemical activation. On the contrary, waste ground coffee precursors contain more lignin and less holocellulose. As a result, after the chemical activation, the carbons prepared from extracted spent ground coffee exhibit better porous parameters and higher specific surface areas. key words: activated carbons, extraction, waste biomass

  19. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  20. [Effects of different application rates of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in cucumber continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-peng; Ning, Tang-yuan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shu-min; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of CaCN2 combined with cucumber straw retention on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) , soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping system. Four treatments were used in this study as follows: CK (null CaCN2), CaCN2-90 (1350 kg CaCN2 . hm-2) CaCN2-60 (900 kg CaCN2 . hm-2), CaCN2-30 (450 kg CaCN2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, compared with the other treatments, CaCN2-90 treatment significantly decreased SMBC in 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling stage, but increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer after early-fruit stage. Compared with CK, CaCN2 increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer at late-fruit stage, and increased SMBN in 0-10 cm soil layer at mid- and late-fruit stages, however there was no significant trend among CaCN2 treatments in the first year (2012), while in the second year (2013) SMBN increased with the increasing CaCN2 amount after mid-fruit stage. CaCN2 increased straw decaying and nutrients releasing, and also increased soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CaCN2-90 could accelerate straw decomposition. Compared with CK, CaCN2 effectively increased soil urease, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The soil urease activity increased while the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased with the increase of CaCN2, and CaCN2-60 could significantly improve catalase activity. Soil organic matter, urease activity and catalase activity had significant positive correlations with SMBC and SMBN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated to SMBC and SMBN. Our findings indicated that CaCN2 application at 900 kg . hm-2 combined with cucumber straw retention could effectively improve soil environment, alleviating the soil obstacles under the cucumber continuous cropping system.

  1. Adsorption characteristics of SO{sub 2}, NO by steam activated biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Fei; Shu, Tong; Wang, Kuan; Lu, Ping [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China). School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Wheat straw and rice husk collected from the suburb of Nanjing, China, were prepared to different kinds of steam activated biomass-based chars, and the adsorption characteristics of the biomass-based chars was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. The specific surface area and pore structure of different biomass chars were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis instrument at 77K. The effects of biomass type, pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, activation temperature and concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO on the adsorption efficiency of SO{sub 2}, NO were analyzed. The results indicated that the steam activation has significant effects on the specific surface area, total pore volume and micro-morphology of biomass chars by improving the internal structure. The adsorption efficiency of SO{sub 2}, NO increased with the decreasing of SO{sub 2}, NO concentration in the experimental range. The optimal condition of char preparation (873K, fast pyrolysis) and steam activation (1,073K) was proposed based on the adsorption efficiency and adsorption volume of SO{sub 2}, NO. It builds a theoretical basis for industrial applications of biomass.

  2. [Effects of altitudes on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in alpine-gorge regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Fu Zhong; Yang, Wan Qin; Xu, Zhen Feng; Tani, Bo; Wang, Bin; Li, Jun; Chang, Chen Hui

    2016-04-22

    In order to understand the variations of soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities with the change of altitude, a field incubation was conducted in dry valley, ecotone between dry valley and mountain forest, subalpine coniferous forest, alpine forest and alpine meadow from 1563 m to 3994 m of altitude in the alpine-gorge region of western Sichuan. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and the activities of invertase, urease and acid phosphorus were measured in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities showed the similar tendency in soil organic layer. They increased from 2158 m to 3028 m, then decreased to the lowest value at 3593 m, and thereafter increased until 3994 m in the alpine-gorge region. In contrast, the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in mineral soil layer showed the trends as, the subalpine forest at 3028 m > alpine meadow at 3994 m > montane forest ecotone at 2158 m > alpine forest at 3593 m > dry valley at 1563 m. Regardless of altitudes, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in soil organic layer than in mineral soil layer. The soil microbial biomass was significantly positively correlated with the activities of the measured soil enzymes. Moreover, both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, organic carbon, and total nitrogen. The activity of soil invertase was significantly positively correlated with soil phosphorus content, and the soil acid phosphatase was so with soil phosphorus content and soil temperature. In brief, changes in vegetation and other environmental factors resulting from altitude change might have strong effects on soil biochemical properties in the alpine-gorge region.

  3. Chaotic....!! Active and Engaged. Effects of an active learning classroom on student retention and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific literacy has been defined as the foremost challenge of this decade (AAAS, 2012). The Geological Society of American in its position statement postis that due to the systemic nature of the discipline of earth science, it is the most effective way to engage students in STEM disciplines. Given that the most common place for exposure to earth sciences is at the freshman level for non majors, we decided to transform a freshman introductory geology course to an active, student centered course, using an inquiry based approach. Our focus was to ensure the students saw the earth sciences as broadly applicative field, and not an esoteric science. To achieve this goal, we developed a series of problems that required the students to apply the concepts acquired through their self guided learning into the different topics of the course. This self guided learning took the form of didactic content uploaded into the learning management system (the various elements used to deliver the content were designed video clips, short text based lectures, short formative assessments, discussion boards and other web based discovery exercises) with the class time devoted to problem solving. A comparison of student performance in the active learning classroom vs. a traditional classroom as measured on a geoscience concept inventory (the questions were chosen by a third party who was not teaching either courses) showed that the the students in the active learning classroom scored 10% higher on the average in comparison to the traditional class. In addition to this heightened performance, the students in the active classroom also showed a higher degree of content retention 8 weeks after the semester had ended. This session will share the design process, some exercises and efficacy data collected.

  4. Electron transport system activity of microfouling material: Relationships with biomass parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Tulaskar, A.; Wagh, A.B.

    (ETS). The ETS activity ranged from 720 to 1374 ~kg 0@d2@@ dm@u2@@ d@u-1@@. Microfouling biomass and ETS activity of microfouling material increased with the immersion period. ETS activity was significantly correlated with dry weight, organic carbon...

  5. [Effects of bio-crust on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in copper mine tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Yang, Gui-de; Sun, Qing-ye

    2009-09-01

    Bio-crust is the initial stage of natural primary succession in copper mine tailings. With the Yangshanchong and Tongguanshan copper mine tailings in Tongling City of Anhui Province as test objects, this paper studied the soil microbial biomass C and N and the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease under different types of bio-crust. The bio-crusts improved the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in the upper layer of the tailings markedly. Algal crust had the best effect in improving soil microbial biomass C and N, followed by moss-algal crust, and moss crust. Soil microflora also varied with the type of bio-crust. No'significant difference was observed in the soil enzyme activities under the three types of bio-crust. Soil alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase and urease activities, but negatively correlated with soil pH. In addition, moss rhizoid could markedly enhance the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in moss crust rhizoid.

  6. Relationship among Phosphorus Circulation Activity, Bacterial Biomass, pH, and Mineral Concentration in Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Adhikari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of phosphorus circulation in the soil is necessary to enhance phosphorus availability to plants. Phosphorus circulation activity is an index of soil’s ability to supply soluble phosphorus from organic phosphorus in the soil solution. To understand the relationship among phosphorus circulation activity; bacterial biomass; pH; and Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations (described as mineral concentration in this paper in agricultural soil, 232 soil samples from various agricultural fields were collected and analyzed. A weak relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed in all soil samples (R2 = 0.25, and this relationship became significantly stronger at near-neutral pH (6.0–7.3; R2 = 0.67. No relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed at acidic (pH < 6.0 or alkaline (pH > 7.3 pH. A negative correlation between Fe and Al concentrations and phosphorus circulation activity was observed at acidic pH (R2 = 0.72 and 0.73, respectively, as well as for Ca at alkaline pH (R2 = 0.64. Therefore, bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration should be considered together for activation of phosphorus circulation activity in the soil. A relationship model was proposed based on the effects of bacterial biomass and mineral concentration on phosphorus circulation activity. The suitable conditions of bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration for phosphorus circulation activity could be estimated from the relationship model.

  7. Optimisation and significance of ATP analysis for measuring active biomass in granular activated carbon filters used in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of active microbial biomass in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in water treatment was developed to facilitate studies on the interactions between adsorption processes and biological activity in such filters. High-energy sonication at a power

  8. Landsat Imagery-Based Above Ground Biomass Estimation and Change Investigation Related to Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is a significant indicator for substance accumulation and forest succession, and a spatiotemporal biomass map would provide valuable information for forest management and scientific planning. In this study, Landsat imagery and field data cooperated with a random forest regression approach were used to estimate spatiotemporal Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Fuyang County, Zhejiang Province of East China. As a result, the AGB retrieval showed an increasing trend for the past decade, from 74.24 ton/ha in 2004 to 99.63 ton/ha in 2013. Topography and forest management were investigated to find their relationships with the spatial distribution change of biomass. In general, the simulated AGB increases with higher elevation, especially in the range of 80–200 m, wherein AGB acquires the highest increase rate. Moreover, the forest policy of ecological forest has a positive effect on the AGB increase, particularly within the national level ecological forest. The result in this study demonstrates that human activities have a great impact on biomass distribution and change tendency. Furthermore, Landsat image-based biomass estimates would provide illuminating information for forest policy-making and sustainable development.

  9. Effect of Technetium-99 sources on its retention in low activity waste glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Lukens, Wayne; Kruger, Albert A.

    2018-05-01

    Small-scale crucible melting tests on simulated waste glass were performed with technetium-99 (Tc-99) introduced as different species in a representative low activity waste simulant. The glass saw an increase in Tc-99 retention when TcO2•2H2O and various Tc-minerals containing reduced tetravalent Tc were used compared to tests in which pertechnetate with heptavalent Tc was used. We postulate that the increase of Tc retention is likely caused by different reaction paths for Tc incorporation into glass during early stages of melting, rather than the low volatility of reduced tetravalent Tc compounds, which has been a generally accepted idea. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms relevant to the effect of reduced Tc compounds on Tc incorporation into or volatilization from the glass melt.

  10. Effect of Technetium-99 Sources on Its Retention in Low Activity Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2018-05-01

    Small-scale crucible melting tests on simulated waste glass were performed with technetium-99 (Tc-99) introduced as different species in a representative low activity waste simulant. The glass saw an increase in Tc-99 retention when TcO2∙2H2O and various Tc-minerals containing reduced tetravalent Tc were used compared to tests in which pertechnetate with hexavalent Tc was used. We postulate that the increase of Tc retention is likely caused by different reaction paths for Tc incorporation into glass during early stages of melting, rather than the low volatility of reduced tetravalent Tc compounds, which has been a generally accepted idea. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms relevant to the effect of reduced Tc compounds on Tc incorporation into or volatilization from glass melt.

  11. Changes in Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass after Revegetation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshui Ren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzymes and microbes are central to the decomposition of plant and microbial detritus, and play important roles in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus biogeochemistry cycling at the ecosystem level. In the present study, we characterized the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass in revegetated (with Taxodium distichum (L. Rich. and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. versus unplanted soil in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR, in order to quantify the effect of revegetation on the edaphic microenvironment after water flooding in situ. After revegetation, the soil physical and chemical properties in revegetated soil showed significant differences to those in unplanted soil. The microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus in soils of T. distichum were significantly higher than those in C. dactylon and unplanted soils, respectively. The microbial biomass nitrogen in revegetated T. distichum and C. dactylon soils was significantly increased by 273% and 203%, respectively. The enzyme activities of T. distichum and C. dactylon soils displayed no significant difference between each other, but exhibited a great increase compared to those of the unplanted soil. Elements ratio (except C/N (S did not vary significantly between T. distichum and C. dactylon soils; meanwhile, a strong community-level elemental homeostasis in the revegetated soils was found. The correlation analyses demonstrated that only microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus had a significantly positive relationship with soil enzyme activities. After revegetation, both soil enzyme activities and microbial biomasses were relatively stable in the T. distichum and C. dactylon soils, with the wooded soil being more superior. The higher enzyme activities and microbial biomasses demonstrate the C, N, and P cycling and the maintenance of soil quality in the riparian zone of the TGDR.

  12. Influence of aging on the retention of CH3131I by various empregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1986-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are equipped with iodine filters containing impregnated activated carbons to keep the release of airborne radioiodine as low as reasonably achievable. Impregnated activated carbons are known to age, i.e. to deteriorate in performance with respect to the retention of radioiodine, particularly in iodine filters that are continuously operated (e.g. containment exhaust air filters of pressurized water reactors). The aging of carbons in iodine filters is essentially due to the adsorption of organic compounds (e.g. solvents) and of inorganic compounds (e.g. Osub(x), SO 2 , NOsub(x)). In the first case the effective surface of the carbon is lowered. In the second case reactions with carbon as well as with the impregnant can occur. In iodine filters various impregnated activated carbons are used differing e.g. in base material, grain size and impregnant. In recent years new impregnated activated carbons were developed. Therefore, investigations are performed to provide comparative data on the aging of a variety of commercial impregnated activated carbons from several countries under relevant conditions. The data relate to the retention of methyl iodide (CH 3 I-131). The investigations cover the aging of 15 different impregnated activated carbons in the containment exhaust air of a typical German pressurized water reactor over periods of up to 9 months

  13. Assessment of microbial activity and biomass in different soils exposed to nicosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Šantrić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the herbicide nicosulfuron on the abundance of cellulolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, activity of β-glucosidase and protease enzymes, and microbial phosphorus biomass were examined. A laboratory bioassay was set up on two types of agricultural soils differing in physicochemical properties. The following concentrations were tested: 0.3, 0.6, 3.0 and 30.0 mg a.i./kg of soil. Samples were collected 3, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days after treatment with nicosulfuron. The results showed that nicosulfuron significantly reduced the abundance of cellulolytic microorganisms in both soils, as well as microbial biomass phosphorus in sandy loam soil. The herbicide was found to stimulate β-glucosidase and protease activity in both types of soil and microbial biomass phosphorus in loamy soil. Proteolytic microorganisms remained unaffected by nicosulfuron.

  14. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  15. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  16. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Shen

    Full Text Available Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L. field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer, FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition. The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological

  17. Microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activities of urban soils in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Markert, Bernd; Shen, Wenming; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2011-07-01

    To promote rational and sustainable use of soil resources and to maintain the urban soil quality, it is essential to assess urban ecosystem health. In this study, the microbiological properties of urban soils in Beijing and their spatial distribution patterns across the city were evaluated based on measurements of microbial biomass carbon and urease and invertase activities of the soils for the purpose of assessing the urban ecosystem health of Beijing. Grid sampling design, normal Kriging technique, and the multiple comparisons among different land use types were used in soil sampling and data treatment. The inherent chemical characteristics of urban soils in Beijing, e.g., soil pH, electronic conductivity, heavy metal contents, total N, P and K contents, and soil organic matter contents were detected. The size and diversity of microbial community and the extent of microbial activity in Beijing urban soils were measured as the microbial biomass carbon content and the ratio of microbial biomass carbon content to total soil organic carbon. The microbial community health measured in terms of microbial biomass carbon, urease, and invertase activities varied with the organic substrate and nutrient contents of the soils and were not adversely affected by the presence of heavy metals at p urban soils influenced the nature and activities of the microbial communities.

  18. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  19. Biomass and enzyme activity of two soil transects at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tscherko, D.; Bölter, M.; Beyer, L.; Chen, J.; Elster, Josef; Kandeler, E.; Kuhn, D.; Blume, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2003), s. 34-47 ISSN 1523-0430 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/94/0156; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Maritime Antarctica * microbial soil biomass * enzyme activity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2003

  20. Impact of dehydration of purslane on retention of bioactive molecules and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Niharika; Debnath, Sukumar

    2015-10-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has several health benefits, such as it reduces risk of CVD, obesity and diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different drying on retention of bioactive molecules, such as omega-3 fatty acids, total phenolic content and antiradical activity of purslane. Five different dehydration methods including microwave (100 MW, 5 min), tray, vacuum, low temperature low humidity, infrared were used at 55-60 °C for 5-7 h for dehydration of purslane. Three solvents, viz. water, ethanol and methanol were used for extraction of bioactive molecules from purslane. Total polyphenol content, antiradical activity and rehydration ratio of the bioactive molecules were determined. Results revealed that total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), total polyphenol content and antiradical activity were found to retain in the dried purslane in the range of (47.9-59.9 %), (42.5-50 %), (188-408GAE/100 g) and (33.0-88.8 mg/100 g) respectively. The highest values of ALA, total polyphenol content and antiradical activity were found to obtain in the vacuum dried sample. Rehydration ratio was found in the range of 3.2-4.3 and vacuum dried purslane showed maximum rehydration. It could be concluded that vacuum dehydration of purslane is an effective method for retention of bioactive molecules and good rehydration behaviour of dried purslane.

  1. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  2. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Zhang Hua; He Pinjing; Yao Qian; Shao Liming

    2010-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using activated sludge biomass. The effects of acid pretreatment of the biomass, initial pH, biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Proton consumption during the removal process and the reducing capacity of sludge biomass were studied. The results show that acid pretreatment could significantly improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency and increase Cr(VI) reducing capacity by 20.4%. Cr(VI) removal was remarkably pH-dependent; lower pH (pH = 1, 2) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction while higher pH (pH = 3, 4) favored sorption of the converted Cr(III). Lower Cr(VI) concentration as well as higher biomass concentration could accelerate Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) reduction was not the only reason for proton consumption in the removal process. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model could successfully simulate Cr(VI) removal except under higher pH conditions (pH = 3, 4).

  3. A trap activation model for hydrogen retention and isotope exchange in some refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Our recently-developed Local Mixing Model (LMM) has been successful in describing and predicting the properties of hydrogen retention and isotope exchange for a variety of refractory materials. For some materials, however, the detailed predictions of the LMM are not observed. A Trap Activation Model (TAM) is proposed here to account for the observed departures from the LMM. Comparison of experimental room temperature saturation depth profiles for H + →Si with the predictions of TAM suggests that the hydrogen traps are multiple-vacancy complexes in this system. The observed profiles result from a beam-induced competition between trap creation/annihilation and H-trapping/detrapping. (orig.)

  4. Development of biomass in a drinking water granular active carbon (GAC) filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Silvana; Boller, Markus; Köster, Oliver; Helbing, Jakob; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    Indigenous bacteria are essential for the performance of drinking water biofilters, yet this biological component remains poorly characterized. In the present study we followed biofilm formation and development in a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter on pilot-scale during the first six months of operation. GAC particles were sampled from four different depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) and attached biomass was measured with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. The attached biomass accumulated rapidly on the GAC particles throughout all levels in the filter during the first 90 days of operation and maintained a steady state afterward. Vertical gradients of biomass density and growth rates were observed during start-up and also in steady state. During steady state, biomass concentrations ranged between 0.8-1.83 x 10(-6) g ATP/g GAC in the filter, and 22% of the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed. Concomitant biomass production was about 1.8 × 10(12) cells/m(2)h, which represents a yield of 1.26 × 10(6) cells/μg. The bacteria assimilated only about 3% of the removed carbon as biomass. At one point during the operational period, a natural 5-fold increase in the influent phytoplankton concentration occurred. As a result, influent assimilable organic carbon concentrations increased and suspended bacteria in the filter effluent increased 3-fold as the direct consequence of increased growth in the biofilter. This study shows that the combination of different analytical methods allows detailed quantification of the microbiological activity in drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engagement, compliance and retention with a gamified online social networking physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jillian; Edney, Sarah; Maher, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Health behaviour interventions delivered via online social networks are an increasingly popular approach to addressing lifestyle-related health problems. However, research to date consistently reports poor user engagement and retention. The current study examined user engagement, compliance and retention with Active Team-a gamified physical activity intervention delivered by via an online Facebook application. Associations between engagement and participant (n = 51) demographic and team characteristics (sex, age, education and team size) were examined, as well as temporal trends in engagement during the 50-day intervention. Analyses revealed significant associations between both engagement (p = <0.001) and gamification (p = 0.04) with education, with participants in the middle education category appearing to have the highest rates of engagement and use of gamification features. Gender was also related to engagement, with males demonstrating the highest use of the intervention's gamification features (p = 0.004). Although compliance was consistently high for the duration, engagement declined steadily throughout the intervention. Engagement peaked on Wednesdays, coinciding with the delivery of a customised email reminder. Findings reveal individual differences in engagement with Active Team, highlighting a need to tailor interventions to the target audience. Gamification features may enhance engagement amongst males, who are traditionally recognised as a difficult demographic group to engage. Finally, the use of customised, periodic push reminders delivered by email may enhance user engagement by drawing them back to the intervention and helping to sustain intervention behaviours.

  6. Facile Chemical Access to Biologically Active Norcantharidin Derivatives from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Galkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reductive amination of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF was used to implement the transition from bio-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF to pharmaceuticals. The synthesized bis(aminomethylfurans were utilized as building blocks for the construction of new derivatives with structural cores of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. Using the one-pot procedure, which included the Diels–Alder reaction followed by hydrogenation of the double bond, bio-derived analogues of the anticancer drug norcantharidin were obtained. The cyclization process was diastereoselective, and resulted in the formation of tricyclic products with the endo configuration. Analysis of cytotoxycity for the resulting tricyclic amine-containing compounds showed an increase of anticancer activity as compared with the unsubstituted norcantharimide.

  7. Biomass Normandie. Activity report 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taudiere, Francois; Chevalier Banville, Sandrine; Fleury, Mathieu; Amichi, Monique; Brunet, Florence; Clave, Marie-France; Clairouin, Bruno; Cousin, Stephane; Farcy, Alexandre; Guilet, Marie; Heude, Belinda; Lamy, Francoise; Lefrancois, Guillaume; Marie, Nicolas; Pennequin, Jimmy; Ravelli, Gwennaelle; Rio, Claire; Garnier, Jacques; Horn, Michel; L'orphelin, Rudy; Genissel, Daniel; Antoine, Paul; Calberg-Ellen, Paul; Savary, Jean-Francois; Charrier, Sophie; Marti, Yves

    2013-01-01

    With slight differences from one year to another, each annual activity report proposes data and comments on activities related to the development of wood-energy, to waste management and valorisation (heating plants development and supply, perspectives), to studies performed by the regional waste observatory (waste collection and processing, organic waste mobilisation, and so on) and by the regional Energy Climate Observatory, or actions undertaken in the field of energy management. It presents and indicates the content of various related communications and publications, indicates the different studies and works performed during the year on various topics (biological wastes and processes, wood-energy development, animation and survey, training and education, communication actions), and also presents a management report

  8. A Case Study of URM Retention through IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2012-12-01

    , focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in Earth system science. Through a three-phase structure of activities, the program addresses major barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one-on-one mentoring, and a facilitated virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report a reduced sense of isolation, an increased sense of community, and a higher level of confidence about their ability to succeed in their chosen field. As of August 2012, 189 students have participated in the program. 60 of those students are currently enrolled in a PhD. program. Another 35 have completed their PhD and are actively engaged in the ESS workforce.

  9. Cellulase activities in biomass conversion: measurement methods and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Maki, Miranda; Leung, Kam Tin; Mao, Canquan; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-12-01

    Cellulose, the major constituent of all plant materials and the most abundant organic molecule on the Earth, is a linear biopolymer of glucose molecules, connected by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose requires mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases (cellobiohydrolases), and β-glucosidases acting in a synergistic manner. In biopolymer hydrolysis studies, enzyme assay is an indispensable part. The most commonly used assays for the individual enzymes as well as total cellulase activity measurements, including their advantages and limitations, are summarized in this review article. In addition, some novel approaches recently used for enzyme assays are summarized.

  10. Microbial biomass and activity in subsurface sediments from Vejen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Winding, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Subsurface sediment samples were collected from 4 to 31 m below landsurface in glacio-fluvial sediments from the Quaternary period. The samples were described in terms of pH, electrical conductivity, chloride concentration, organic matter content, and grain size distribution. Viable counts...... for mineralization of 14C-labelled compounds varied from 0.2 to 2.3 × 10−3 ml/(dpm · day) for acetate, and from 0 to 2.0 × 10−3 ml/(dpm · day) for phenol. Sediment texture influenced the total number of bacteria and potential for mineralization; with increasing content of clay and silt and decreasing content of sand...... a single abiotic parameter that could explain the variation of size and activity of the microbial population. The microbial data obtained in these geologically young sediments were compared to literature data from older sediments, and this comparison showed that age and type of geological formation might...

  11. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  12. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  13. Biomass of active microorganisms is not limited only by available carbon in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmullina, Aliia

    2017-04-01

    Microbial activity is generally limited by carbon (C) availability. The easily available substrate release by roots creates so called "hotspots" in the rhizosphere that drives microbial activity removing C limitation. We simulated a gradient of root exudates by glucose addition at different concentrations to stimulate the activation of microbial biomass (MB). Glucose was added at the rates lower than MB (5, 10, 25 and 50%) and at the rates similar or higher than MB (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400%). During incubation CO2 efflux was measured by conductometry, the size of active MB and specific growth rate were estimated by substrate-induced growth response method. We tested a hypothesis that glucose addition exceeding 100% MB is able to activate major fraction of soil microbial community. Addition of glucose at concentrations higher than 5% decreased specific growth rate, demonstrating the shift of microbial community from r-strategy to K-strategy. The percentage of active MB grew up by the increase of glucose concentration. The treatment with glucose at 100% presented a dramatic shift in the activation of MB up to 14%. Contrary to our hypothesis, further increase in glucose rate caused moderate stimulation of active MB up to 22% of total MB. Furthermore, glucose addition above 200% did not increase the fraction of active biomass indicating glucose oversaturation and possible limitation by other nutrients. The results suggest that despite the fact that C is the most important limitation factor, limitless C supply is not able to activate MB up to 100%. Thus, if the rhizosphere is limited by nutrients, the fraction of active biomass remains at low level despite an excess of available C.

  14. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made...... with biomass, while FDA hydrolysis in the sludge failed to show any such correlation. Conversion factors of 3 mg ATP/g dw, 300 mg O2/h g dw and 0.4 A/h (mg dw/ml) for ATP, OUR and FDA methods, respectively, were calculated. When the methods were applied for in situ determinations in four different wastewater...... plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  15. Aggregation and retention of human urokinase type plasminogen activator in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir N

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretion of recombinant proteins in yeast can be affected by their improper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequent elimination of the misfolded molecules via the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway. Recombinant proteins can also be degraded by the vacuolar protease complex. Human urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA is poorly secreted by yeast but the mechanisms interfering with its secretion are largely unknown. Results We show that in Hansenula polymorpha overexpression worsens uPA secretion and stimulates its intracellular aggregation. The absence of the Golgi modifications in accumulated uPA suggests that aggregation occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletion analysis has shown that the N-terminal domains were responsible for poor uPA secretion and propensity to aggregate. Mutation abolishing N-glycosylation decreased the efficiency of uPA secretion and increased its aggregation degree. Retention of uPA in the endoplasmic reticulum stimulates its aggregation. Conclusions The data obtained demonstrate that defect of uPA secretion in yeast is related to its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulation of uPA within the endoplasmic reticulum disturbs its proper folding and leads to formation of high molecular weight aggregates.

  16. Dynamic relationships between microbial biomass, respiration, inorganic nutrients and enzyme activities: informing enzyme based decomposition models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl L Moorhead

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We re-examined data from a recent litter decay study to determine if additional insights could be gained to inform decomposition modeling. Rinkes et al. (2013 conducted 14-day laboratory incubations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum or white oak (Quercus alba leaves, mixed with sand (0.4% organic C content or loam (4.1% organic C. They measured microbial biomass C, carbon dioxide efflux, soil ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, and β-glucosidase (BG, β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG, and acid phosphatase (AP activities on days 1, 3, and 14. Analyses of relationships among variables yielded different insights than original analyses of individual variables. For example, although respiration rates per g soil were higher for loam than sand, rates per g soil C were actually higher for sand than loam, and rates per g microbial C showed little difference between treatments. Microbial biomass C peaked on day 3 when biomass-specific activities of enzymes were lowest, suggesting uptake of litter C without extracellular hydrolysis. This result refuted a common model assumption that all enzyme production is constitutive and thus proportional to biomass, and/or indicated that part of litter decay is independent of enzyme activity. The length and angle of vectors defined by ratios of enzyme activities (BG/NAG versus BG/AP represent relative microbial investments in C (length, and N and P (angle acquiring enzymes. Shorter lengths on day 3 suggested low C limitation, whereas greater lengths on day 14 suggested an increase in C limitation with decay. The soils and litter in this study generally had stronger P limitation (angles > 45˚. Reductions in vector angles to < 45˚ for sand by day 14 suggested a shift to N limitation. These relational variables inform enzyme-based models, and are usually much less ambiguous when obtained from a single study in which measurements were made on the same samples than when extrapolated from separate studies.

  17. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  18. Sorption of PAHs and PCBs to activated carbon: coal versus biomass-based quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstaetter, Katja; Eek, Espen; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly popular method for pollutant immobilization, and the AC material can be made of biomass or coal/fossil feedstock. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are differences between pollutant sorption to biomass and coal-based AC in the presence and absence of sediment. Through N(2) and CO(2) adsorption to probe surface area and pore size it was shown that the biomass-based AC had a stronger dominance of narrow pores in the size range 3.5-15Šthan the anthracite-based material. In the absence of sediment, sorption isotherms for the probe compounds pyrene and PCB-101 showed stronger sorption for the biomass-based AC (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 8.15 for pyrene; 9.91 for PCB-101) than for the anthracite-based one (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 7.20 and 9.70, respectively). In the presence of sediment, the opposite trend was observed, with the stronger sorption for anthracite-based AC. Thus, the presence of competing and/or pore-blocking sediment constituents reduces sorption to a larger extent for biomass-derived AC (factor of 5 for pyrene to almost 100 for PCB-101) than for anthracite-based AC (no reduction for pyrene to factor of 5 for PCB-101). This difference is tentatively attributed to the difference in pore size distribution, narrow pores being more prone to clogging, and could have implications for remediation feasibility with AC from different sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of low energy sonication treatment for granular activated carbon colonizing biomass assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, G; Bernasconi, M; Antonelli, M

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at optimizing a low energy sonication (LES) treatment for granular activated carbon (GAC)-colonizing biomass detachment and determination, evaluating detachment efficiency and the effects of ultrasound exposure on bacterial cell viability. GAC samples were collected from two filters fed with groundwater. Conventional heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and fluorescence microscopy with a double staining method were used to evaluate cell viability, comparing two LES procedures, without and with periodical bulk substitution. A 20 min LES treatment, with bulk substitution after cycles of 5 min as maximum treatment time, allowed to recover 87%/100% of attached biomass, protecting detached bacteria from ultrasound damaging effects. Observed viable cell inactivation rate was 6.5/7.9% cell/min, with membrane-compromised cell damage appearing to be even higher (11.5%/13.1% cell/min). Assessing bacterial detachment and damaging ultrasound effects, fluorescence microscopy turned out to be more sensitive compared to conventional HPC. The optimized method revealed a GAC-colonizing biomass of 9.9 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 1 and 8.8 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 2, 2 log lower than reported in literature. The difference between the two GAC-colonizing biomasses is higher in terms of viable cells (46.3% of total cells in plant 1 GAC-colonizing biomass compared to the 33.3% in plant 2). Studying influent water contamination through multivariate statistical analyses, apossible combined toxic and genotoxic effect of chromium VI and trichloroethylene was suggested as a reason for the lower viable cell fraction observed in plant 2 GAC-colonizing population.

  20. Responses of protists with different feeding habits to the changes of activated sludge conditions: a study based on biomass data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Changes of protists, which were categorized into different functional groups primarily according to their feeding habits, in two full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems experiencing sludge bulking were investigated over a period of 14 months. Protist biomass represented 3.7% to 5.2% of total biomass on average under normal sludge conditions, and the percentage increased significantly (p protists. On the other hand, the bactivorous protists represented more than 96% of total protist biomass, and the biomass of this group, particularly the attached ciliates, increased significantly (p < 0.05) when sludge bulking occurred. The significant increase of the attached ciliates may have possibly facilitated the growth of filamentous bacteria through selectively preying on non-filamentous bacteria and further exacerbated sludge bulking. The redundancy analysis and correlation analysis results showed that the biomass changes of the attached ciliates were primarily related to the sludge volume index and to some extent related to five-day biochemical oxygen demand loading and hydraulic retention time.

  1. Spontaneous and UV-induced variations in the activity of biomass synthesis in Candida utilis haploid and diploid strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, T.F.; Lin'kova, M.A.; Lobacheva, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Candida utilis diploid strains have greater variations induced by UV irradiation in the activity of biomass synthesis as compared with the parent haploid culture. Clones with an activity of the synthesis greater that the mean population one appear more frequently in the diploid strains. Mathematical analysis has confirmed the significance of the results and the hypothesis according to which the frequency of variants more active in biomass synthesis rises after the action of UV

  2. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@ polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akherul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite nanofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy; UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  3. Evaluation of anti-GERD activity of gastro retentive drug delivery system of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Trilochan; Panda, Prasana K; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2010-08-01

    The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of the gastroretentive system of Itopride hydrochloride. In this research, we have formulated floating hydrogel-based microspheres employing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas forming agent dispersed in alginate matrix. In vitro characterizations such as drug content, particle size, and drug release were carried out. GI motility was determined by administration of charcoal meal to rats. Results demonstrated that prepared microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface, good loading efficiency, and excellent buoyancy. The gastro retentive dosage form of itiopride demonstrated significant antacid, anti-ulcer, and anti-GERD activity after 12 hours in comparison with the conventional dosage form.

  4. Improvement of biomass production and glucoamylase activity by Candida famata using factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Aissa, Imen; Hassad, Nahla; Farh, Dhaker; Bakhrouf, Amina; Achour, Sami

    2016-07-01

    To improve biomass production and glucoamylase activity (GA) by Candida famata, culture conditions were optimized. A 2(3) full factorial design (FFD) with a response surface model was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of pH (X1 ), time of cultivation (X2 ), and starch concentration (X3 ) on the biomass production and enzyme activity. A total of 16 experiments were conducted toward the construction of an empiric model and a first-order equation. It was found that all factors (X1 , X2 , and X3 ) and their interactions were significant at a certain confidence level (P production and GA of C. famata. Under this optimized medium, the experimental biomass production and GA obtained were 1.8 ± 0.54 g/L and 0.078 ± 0.012 µmol/L/Min, about 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, higher than those in basal medium. The (R(2) ) coefficients obtained were 0.997 and 0.990, indicating an adequate degree of reliability in the model. Approximately 99% of validity of the predicted value was achieved. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Asymptotic Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Bio-Mass Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of some parameters significant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the non-isothermal nth order distributed activation energy model (DAEM using the Gamma distribution and discusses the special case for the positive integer value of the scale parameter (λ, i.e. the Erlang distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order, and the shape and rate parameters of the Gamma distribution. Influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Gamma distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis. Mathematically, the effect of parameters on numerical solution is also used for predicting the behaviour of the unpyrolysized fraction of biomass with respect to temperature. Analysis of the mathematical model is based upon asymptotic expansions, which leads to the systematic methods for efficient way to determine the accurate approximations. The proposed method, therefore, provides a rapid and highly effective way for estimating the kinetic parameters and the distribution of activation energies.

  6. Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Min; Jin, Ze-Xin; Hagedorn, Frank; Li, Mai-He

    2014-11-01

    Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-jobi growing in mixture on native soils, with M. micrantha being infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (+180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.

  7. Dosing of anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors with cobalt: Impact of cobalt retention on methanogenic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Fermoso, Fernando G.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of dosing a metal limited anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a metal pulse on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge has thus far not been successfully modeled. The prediction of this effect is crucial in order to optimize the strategy for metal dosage and to prevent unnecessary losses of resources. This paper describes the relation between the initial immobilization of cobalt in anaerobic granular sludge cobalt dosage into the reactor and the evolution of methanogenic activity during the subsequent weeks. An operationally defined parameter (A0· B0) was found to combine the amount of cobalt immobilized instantaneously upon the pulse (B0) and the amount of cobalt immobilized within the subsequent 24. h (A0). In contrast with the individual parameters A0 and B0, the parameter A0· B0 correlated significantly with the methanogenic activity of the sludge during the subsequent 16 or 35. days. This correlation between metal retention and activity evolution is a useful tool to implement trace metal dosing strategies for biofilm-based biotechnological processes. © 2010.

  8. Acculturation Influences Postpartum Eating, Activity, and Weight Retention in Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chantel L; Tate, Deborah F; Schaffner, Andrew; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen Erickson; Diamond, Molly; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Sanchez, Teresa; Mercado, Adrian; Hagobian, Todd; Phelan, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Low-income Hispanic women experience elevated rates of high postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which is an independent risk factor for lifetime obesity. Sociocultural factors might play an important role among Hispanic women; however, very few studies have examined this association. The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between acculturation and maternal diet, physical activity, and PPWR. This is a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 282 Hispanic women participating in the FitMoms/Mamás Activas study, a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of primarily an internet-based weight control program, in reducing PPWR among low-income women. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association of acculturation with diet quality, physical activity, and PPWR at study entry. A total of 213 (76%) women had acculturation scores reflecting Mexican orientation or bicultural orientation, whereas 69 (24%) had scores that represented assimilation to Anglo culture. Women who were more acculturated had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower HEI scores, and lower physical activity levels than women who were less acculturated (p acculturation and PPWR in that for every 1-unit increase in acculturation score, PPWR increased, on average, by 0.80 kg. Higher acculturation was associated with poorer diet and physical activity behaviors and greater PPWR.

  9. Assessing the Effects of Individual Augmentation (IA) on Active Component Navy Enlisted and Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fricker, Jr., Ronald D; Buttrey, Samuel E

    2008-01-01

    .... Retention rates were compared in three different ways: aggregate comparisons, comparisons by individual demographic categories, and comparisons based on standard statistical modeling techniques (logistic regression...

  10. Bacterial diversity and active biomass in full-scale granular activated carbon filters operated at low water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarela, Outi E; Härkki, Heli A; Palmroth, Marja R T; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2015-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration enhances the removal of natural organic matter and micropollutants in drinking water treatment. Microbial communities in GAC filters contribute to the removal of the biodegradable part of organic matter, and thus help to control microbial regrowth in the distribution system. Our objectives were to investigate bacterial community dynamics, identify the major bacterial groups, and determine the concentration of active bacterial biomass in full-scale GAC filters treating cold (3.7-9.5°C), physicochemically pretreated, and ozonated lake water. Three sampling rounds were conducted to study six GAC filters of different operation times and flow modes in winter, spring, and summer. Total organic carbon results indicated that both the first-step and second-step filters contributed to the removal of organic matter. Length heterogeneity analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes illustrated that bacterial communities were diverse and considerably stable over time. α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Nitrospira dominated in all of the GAC filters, although the relative proportion of dominant phylogenetic groups in individual filters differed. The active bacterial biomass accumulation, measured as adenosine triphosphate, was limited due to low temperature, low flux of nutrients, and frequent backwashing. The concentration of active bacterial biomass was not affected by the moderate seasonal temperature variation. In summary, the results provided an insight into the biological component of GAC filtration in cold water temperatures and the operational parameters affecting it.

  11. Deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S.J., E-mail: sjnoh@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S.; Byeon, W.J.; Shin, H.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Eui [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.K. [Nuclear Fusion Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We present the first experimental results of the deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy (ARAA) under development in Korea. For the in-situ measurement of desorbed gases from samples immediately after irradiation, a thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) system clustered with an inductively coupled plasma ion source has been built. Samples were and were not irradiated with helium ions at energies of 1.4, 3.5, and 5.0 keV and then continuously irradiated with 1.7-keV deuterium ions. TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation and after exposure to air for one week. The amount of desorbed deuterium is the largest for the sample without helium irradiation from the TDS results measured in situ immediately after irradiation. Further, the amount of desorbed deuterium is significantly lowered when the helium energy is increased to 3.5 keV with no significant changes thereafter, indicating that the layer formed by implanted helium at near or deeper than the stopping range for 1.7-keV deuterium ions effectively acts as a barrier against deuterium diffusion into the depth. Because of the strong diffusivity of deuterium into the ambient atmosphere, the amounts of desorbed deuterium are greatly reduced for the samples without helium irradiation and with 1.4-keV helium irradiation after exposure to air for one week. In addition, our deuterium results for the ARAA are also compared with the results for F82H by other authors. - Highlights: •The first result of the deuterium retention and desorption in an ARAA is presented. •The ARAA was irradiated with helium and then continuously irradiated with deuterium. •TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation. •TDS measurements were performed after exposure to air for one week. •The effects of helium irradiation and exposure to air were investigated.

  12. Soil Microbial Biomass, Basal Respiration and Enzyme Activity of Main Forest Types in the Qinling Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  13. Response of the soil microbial community and soil nutrient bioavailability to biomass harvesting and reserve tree retention in northern Minnesota aspen-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera E. Lewandowski; Jodi A. Forrester; David J. Mladenoff; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2016-01-01

    Intensive forest biomass harvesting, or the removal of harvesting slash (woody debris from tree branches and tops) for use as biofuel, has the potential to negatively affect the soil microbial community (SMC) due to loss of carbon and nutrient inputs from the slash, alteration of the soil microclimate, and increased nutrient leaching. These effects could result in...

  14. Soil microbial biomass, activity and community composition along altitudinal gradients in the High Arctic (Billefjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kotas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique and fragile High Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to global climate warming. The elucidation of factors driving microbial distribution and activity in arctic soils is essential for a comprehensive understanding of ecosystem functioning and its response to environmental change. The goals of this study were to investigate microbial biomass and activity, microbial community structure (MCS, and their environmental controls in soils along three elevational transects in the coastal mountains of Billefjorden, central Svalbard. Soils from four different altitudes (25, 275, 525 and 765 m above sea level were analyzed for a suite of characteristics including temperature regimes, organic matter content, base cation availability, moisture, pH, potential respiration, and microbial biomass and community structure using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs. We observed significant spatial heterogeneity of edaphic properties among transects, resulting in transect-specific effects of altitude on most soil parameters. We did not observe any clear elevation pattern in microbial biomass, and microbial activity revealed contrasting elevational patterns between transects. We found relatively large horizontal variability in MCS (i.e., between sites of corresponding elevation in different transects, mainly due to differences in the composition of bacterial PLFAs, but also a systematic altitudinal shift in MCS related to different habitat preferences of fungi and bacteria, which resulted in high fungi-to-bacteria ratios at the most elevated sites. The biological soil crusts on these most elevated, unvegetated sites can host microbial assemblages of a size and activity comparable to those of the arctic tundra ecosystem. The key environmental factors determining horizontal and vertical changes in soil microbial properties were soil pH, organic carbon content, soil moisture and Mg2+ availability.

  15. Soil microbial biomass, activity and community composition along altitudinal gradients in the High Arctic (Billefjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Šantrůčková, Hana; Elster, Josef; Kaštovská, Eva

    2018-03-01

    The unique and fragile High Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to global climate warming. The elucidation of factors driving microbial distribution and activity in arctic soils is essential for a comprehensive understanding of ecosystem functioning and its response to environmental change. The goals of this study were to investigate microbial biomass and activity, microbial community structure (MCS), and their environmental controls in soils along three elevational transects in the coastal mountains of Billefjorden, central Svalbard. Soils from four different altitudes (25, 275, 525 and 765 m above sea level) were analyzed for a suite of characteristics including temperature regimes, organic matter content, base cation availability, moisture, pH, potential respiration, and microbial biomass and community structure using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). We observed significant spatial heterogeneity of edaphic properties among transects, resulting in transect-specific effects of altitude on most soil parameters. We did not observe any clear elevation pattern in microbial biomass, and microbial activity revealed contrasting elevational patterns between transects. We found relatively large horizontal variability in MCS (i.e., between sites of corresponding elevation in different transects), mainly due to differences in the composition of bacterial PLFAs, but also a systematic altitudinal shift in MCS related to different habitat preferences of fungi and bacteria, which resulted in high fungi-to-bacteria ratios at the most elevated sites. The biological soil crusts on these most elevated, unvegetated sites can host microbial assemblages of a size and activity comparable to those of the arctic tundra ecosystem. The key environmental factors determining horizontal and vertical changes in soil microbial properties were soil pH, organic carbon content, soil moisture and Mg2+ availability.

  16. Phosphorus uptake by decomposing leaf detritus: effect of microbial biomass and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; Newbold, J D; Webster, J R; Ferren, L A; Perkins, R E

    1984-12-01

    The dominant energy source in small woodland streams is the allochthonous input of leaves. Utilization of this energy source by stream biota establishes the patterns of secondary productivity and nutrient uptake in these ecosystems. Although leaf inputs support much of the production of macroinvertebrates and higher consumers in streams, microbes are the critical link between these organisms and the leaf resource, much of which is undigestible by higher organisms. A number of studies have indicated that stream macroinvertebrates preferentially select leaves with greater levels of microbial activity. Rates of microbial activity associated with decomposing leaves were shown to be dependent on the supply of P in one woodland stream. In other streams, leaf decomposition has been shown to be nutrient limited as well. Thus, as in many other ecosystems, maintenance of high levels of production in streams is dependent on retention and efficient recycling of nutrients. Uptake of P by microbes colonizing leaves is an important mechanism for nutrient retention in small woodland streams. In these systems, numerous debris collections efficiently retard downstream movement of particulate materials, especially decomposing leaves. Uptake of dissolved, easily transportable forms of P by microbes attached to decomposing leaves increases P retention in streams. The more rapid the rate of P uptake onto decomposing leaves for a given P supply, the shorter the P uptake length and the more times an atom of P is utilized within a given stream reach. In this study the authors examined the temporal patterns of P uptake during the early stages of leaf decomposition in streams. Patterns of P uptake were compared to patterns of other measurements of microbial activity to identify the effect of microbial succession or conditioning of leaves on P uptake. 22 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  17. Finding Biomass Degrading Enzymes Through an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyan; Delafield, Daniel G.; Wang, Zhe; You, Jianlan; Wu, Si

    2017-04-01

    The microbial secretome, known as a pool of biomass (i.e., plant-based materials) degrading enzymes, can be utilized to discover industrial enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Proteomics approaches have been applied to discover novel enzyme candidates through comparing protein expression profiles with enzyme activity of the whole secretome under different growth conditions. However, the activity measurement of each enzyme candidate is needed for confident "active" enzyme assignments, which remains to be elucidated. To address this challenge, we have developed an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP) that systematically correlates protein-level enzymatic activity patterns and protein elution profiles using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. The ACPP optimized a high performance anion exchange separation for efficiently fractionating complex protein samples while preserving enzymatic activities. The detected enzymatic activity patterns in sequential fractions using microplate-based assays were cross-correlated with protein elution profiles using a customized pattern-matching algorithm with a correlation R-score. The ACPP has been successfully applied to the identification of two types of "active" biomass-degrading enzymes (i.e., starch hydrolysis enzymes and cellulose hydrolysis enzymes) from Aspergillus niger secretome in a multiplexed fashion. By determining protein elution profiles of 156 proteins in A. niger secretome, we confidently identified the 1,4-α-glucosidase as the major "active" starch hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.96) and the endoglucanase as the major "active" cellulose hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.97). The results demonstrated that the ACPP facilitated the discovery of bioactive enzymes from complex protein samples in a high-throughput, multiplexing, and untargeted fashion.

  18. Brief review: Preparation techniques of biomass based activated carbon monolith electrode for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, Erman; Taslim, Rika

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrode made from a biomass material using the hydrolytic pressure or the pelletization technique of pre-carbonized materials is one of standard reported methods. Several steps such as pre-carbonization, milling, chemical activation, hydraulic press, carbonization, physical activation, polishing and washing need to be accomplished in the production of electrodes by this method. This is relatively a long process that need to be simplified. In this paper we present the standard method and proceed with the introduction to several alternative methods in the synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrodes. The alternative methods were emphasized on the selection of suitable biomass materials. All of carbon electrodes prepared by different methods will be analyzed for physical and electrochemical properties. The density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology are examples for physical study and specific capacitance was an electrochemical properties that has been analysed. This alternative method has offered a specific capacitance in the range of 10 to 171 F/g.

  19. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  20. Analysis and co-ordination of the activities concerning gasification of biomass. Summary country report, Denmark and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoholm, P.; Olsen, A.

    1996-11-01

    The analysis summarises the coordination of activities concerning the gasification of biomass in Denmark and Norway. The total quantity of available biomass for energy production in Denmark corresponds to ca. 115 PJ of which ca. 40% is utilized - and this constitutes ca. 6% of the country's total energy consumption. The resulting energy from biomass is currently mostly used for heating purposes utilizing small wood/straw household or farm stoves in addition to ca. 100 district heating systems. There is a tendency to use biomass fuels for electric power production as in the case of all major waste incineration plants and about 10 fully or partly wood/straw-fired cogeneration plants which are found within the range of 2 -20 MWe. A table shows details of all Danish biomass gasification plants and information is given on the types of biomass, under the titles of residue products and energy crops, most relevant to energy production in Denmark. Data is presented on the consumption of renewable energy in Denmark, recalculated in fuel equivalents, and Danish national energy policy and related legislation are described. Information on Norway's use of biomass as fuel is given under the headings of primary consumption, biomass sources and use, legislation, and brief evaluations of commercial gasification plants, pilot and demonstration plants, and laboratory plants and studies. It has recently been decided to speed up the development of small-scale gasification plants for combined heat and electricity production using biomass as fuel in Denmark. Total Norwegian energy consumption is 25% higher than Denmark's, and biomass fuels cover only 3.6% of this. (ARW) 32 refs

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10 -3 up to 10 4 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  2. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  3. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobyl'skij, A.I.; Khizanishvili, A.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  4. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  5. Synergistic retention strategy of RGD active targeting and radiofrequency-enhanced permeability for intensified RF & chemotherapy synergistic tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Pei; He, Yaping; Bo, Xiaowan; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Dandan; Chen, Hangrong; Xu, Huixiong

    2016-08-01

    Despite gaining increasing attention, chelation of multiple active targeting ligands greatly increase the formation probability of protein corona, disabling active targeting. To overcome it, a synergistic retention strategy of RGD-mediated active targeting and radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field-enhanced permeability has been proposed here. It is validated that such a special synergistic retention strategy can promote more poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based capsules encapsulating camptothecin (CPT) and solid DL-menthol (DLM) to enter and retain in tumor in vitro and in vivo upon exposure to RF irradiation, receiving an above 8 fold enhancement in HeLa retention. Moreover, the PLGA-based capsules can respond RF field to trigger the entrapped DLM to generate solid-liquid-gas (SLG) tri-phase transformation for enhancing RF ablation and CPT release. Therefore, depending on the enhanced RF ablation and released CPT and the validated synergistic retention effect, the inhibitory outcome for tumor growth has gained an over 10-fold improvement, realizing RF ablation & chemotherapy synergistic treatment against HeLa solid tumor, which indicates a significant promise in clinical RF ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of ammonia modified and conventionally activated biomass based carbons as CO2 adsorbents in postcombustion conditions

    OpenAIRE

    González Plaza, Marta; García López, Susana; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Pevida García, Covadonga

    2011-01-01

    Low cost carbons obtained from biomass residues, olive stones and almond shells, were evaluated as CO2 adsorbents in postcombustion conditions (low CO2 partial pressure). These carbons were prepared from biomass chars by means of two different methods: physical activation with CO2 and amination. All the prepared carbons present a high CO2 adsorption capacity at 303 K, although carbons developed from almond shells show a superior CO2/N2 selectivity (lower N2 adsorption) than those obtained fro...

  7. Antioxidative activity, moisture retention, film formation, and viscosity stability of Auricularia fuscosuccinea, white strain water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wayne C; Hsueh, Chiu-Yen; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study showed that both water extracts (WAF-W) and ethanol extracts (EAF-W) of Auricularia fuscosuccinea (Montagne) Farlow, white strain (AF-W) demonstrated significantly stronger antioxidative effects than did commercially available Tremella fuciformis sporocarp extracts (WSK; with the exception of EAF-W in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity levels). The moisture retention capacity of WAF-W is as potent as that of sodium hyaluronate (SHA), but less than that of WSK. No corrugation or fissures were observed in WAF-W film; only the SHA and WSK films demonstrated such effects in low-moisture conditions. The WAF-W solution also exhibited stable viscosity at high temperatures, indicating that the WAF-W film was more stable compared with the SHA and WSK films. WAF-W induced no adverse effects when a hen's egg test was performed on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This study demonstrated that WAF-W exhibits excellent potential as a topical material for skin moisturizing and anti-aging effects.

  8. Ceruloplasmin Oxidation, a Feature of Parkinson's Disease CSF, Inhibits Ferroxidase Activity and Promotes Cellular Iron Retention

    KAUST Repository

    Olivieri, S.

    2011-12-14

    Parkinson\\'s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by oxidative stress and CNS iron deposition. Ceruloplasmin is an extracellular ferroxidase that regulates cellular iron loading and export, and hence protects tissues from oxidative damage. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we investigated ceruloplasmin patterns in the CSF of human Parkinson\\'s disease patients. Parkinson\\'s disease ceruloplasmin profiles proved more acidic than those found in healthy controls and in other human neurological diseases (peripheral neuropathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer\\'s disease); degrees of acidity correlated with patients\\' pathological grading. Applying an unsupervised pattern recognition procedure to the two-dimensional electrophoresis images, we identified representative pathological clusters. In vitro oxidation of CSF in two-dimensional electrophoresis generated a ceruloplasmin shift resembling that observed in Parkinson\\'s disease and co-occurred with an increase in protein carbonylation. Likewise, increased protein carbonylation was observed in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF, and the same modification was directly identified in these samples on ceruloplasmin. These results indicate that ceruloplasmin oxidation contributes to pattern modification in Parkinson\\'s disease. From the functional point of view, ceruloplasmin oxidation caused a decrease in ferroxidase activity, which in turn promotes intracellular iron retention in neuronal cell lines as well as in primary neurons, which are more sensitive to iron accumulation. Accordingly, the presence of oxidized ceruloplasmin in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF might be used as a marker for oxidative damage and might provide new insights into the underlying pathological mechanisms.

  9. Natural gas adsorption on biomass derived activated carbons: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Usman D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon materials are good candidates for natural gas storage due excellent textural properties that are easy to enhance and modify. Natural gas is much cleaner fuel than coal and other petroleum derivatives. Storage of natural gas on porous sorbents at lower pressure is safer and cheaper compared to compressed and liquefied natural gas. This article reviews some works conducted on natural gas storage on biomass based activated carbon materials. Methane storage capacities and deliveries of the various sorbents were given. The effect of factors such as surface area, pore characteristic, heat of adsorption, packing density on the natural gas storage capacity on the activated carbons are discussed. Challenges, improvements and future directions of natural gas storage on porous carbonaceous materials are highlighted.

  10. Inhibitory effect of vanillin on cellulase activity in hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-09-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material produces a wide variety of inhibitory compounds, which strongly inhibit the following enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Vanillin is a kind of phenolics derived from degradation of lignin. The effect of vanillin on cellulase activity for the hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in detail. The results clearly showed that vanillin can reversibly and non-competitively inhibit the cellulase activity at appropriate concentrations and the value of IC50 was estimated to be 30 g/L. The inhibition kinetics of cellulase by vanillin was studied using HCH-1 model and inhibition constants were determined. Moreover, investigation of three compounds with similar structure of vanillin on cellulase activity demonstrated that aldehyde group and phenolic hydroxyl groups of vanillin had inhibitory effect on cellulase. These results provide valuable and detailed information for understanding the inhibition of lignin derived phenolics on cellulase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the heterotrophic biomass and the endogenous residue of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Abdellah; Dold, Peter; Gadbois, Alain; Déléris, Stéphane; Houweling, Dwight; Comeau, Yves

    2012-03-01

    The activated sludge process generates an endogenous residue (X(E)) as a result of heterotrophic biomass decay (X(H)). A literature review yielded limited information on the differences between X(E) and X(H) in terms of chemical composition and content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The objective of this project was to characterize the chemical composition (x, y, z, a, b and c in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)P(b)S(c)) of the endogenous and the active fractions and EPS of activated sludge from well designed experiments. To isolate X(H) and X(E) in this study, activated sludge was generated in a 200L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic particulate matter, allowed the generation of a sludge composed essentially of two fractions: heterotrophic biomass X(H) and an endogenous residue X(E), the nitrifying biomass being negligible. The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of X(H) and X(E) were respectively 68% and 32% in run 1 (MBR at 5.2 day SRT) and 59% and 41% in run 2 (MBR at 10.4 day SRT). The endogenous residue was isolated by subjecting the MBR sludge to prolonged aerobic batch digestion for 3 weeks, and was characterized in terms of (a) elemental analysis for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; and (b) content of EPS. The MBR sludge was characterized using the same procedures (a and b). Knowing the proportions of X(H) and X(E) in this sludge, it was possible to characterize X(H) by back calculation. Results from this investigation showed that the endogenous residue had a chemical composition different from that of the active biomass with a lower content of inorganic matter (1:4.2), of nitrogen (1:2.9), of phosphorus (1

  12. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  13. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  14. Reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is not responsible for sodium retention in nephrotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Thiesson, H C; Jensen, B L

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In mineralocorticoid target cells 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) converts glucocorticoids into non-active metabolites thereby protecting the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from stimulation by glucocorticoids. In nephrotic syndrome, a decreased activity of 11betaHSD2...... has been suggested to allow glucocorticoids to stimulate MR, thereby contributing to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in the puromycin aminonucleoside model of nephrotic syndrome in rats. METHODS: Complete sodium and potassium intakes and excretions (faeces and urine) were measured in rats......)] to suppress endogenous glucocorticoids in the proteinuric stage during active sodium retention. RESULTS: Nephrotic rats developed proteinuria, positive sodium balance, decreased plasma aldosterone concentration, and decreased urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio. 11betaHSD2 mRNA expression was down-regulated but protein...

  15. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schäfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389 were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass.

  16. Earthworms facilitate the stabilization of pelletized dewatered sludge through shaping microbial biomass and activity and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Cui, Guangyu; Huang, Kui; Chen, Xuemin; Li, Fusheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of earthworms on microbial features during vermicomposting of pelletized dewatered sludge (PDS) was investigated through comparing two degradation systems with and without earthworm E isenia fetida involvement. After 60 days of experimentation, a relatively stable product with low organic matter and high nitrate and phosphorous was harvested when the earthworms were involved. During the process, earthworms could enhance microbial activity and biomass at the initial stage and thus accelerating the rapid decomposition of PDS. The end products of vermicomposting allowed the lower values of bacterial and eukaryotic densities comparison with those of no earthworm addition. In addition, the presence of earthworms modified the bacterial and fungal diversity, making the disappearances of some pathogens and specific decomposing bacteria of recalcitrant substrates in the vermicomposting process. This study evidences that earthworms can facilitate the stabilization of PDS through modifying microbial activity and number and community during vermicomposting.

  17. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  18. Activated Biomass-derived Graphene-based Carbons for Supercapacitors with High Energy and Power Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, SungHoon; Myung, Yusik; Kim, Bit Na; Kim, In Gyoo; You, In-Kyu; Kim, TaeYoung

    2018-01-30

    Here, we present a facile and low-cost method to produce hierarchically porous graphene-based carbons from a biomass source. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbons were produced through continuous sequential steps such as the formation and transformation of glucose-based polymers into 3D foam-like structures and their subsequent carbonization to form the corresponding macroporous carbons with thin graphene-based carbon walls of macropores and intersectional carbon skeletons. Physical and chemical activation was then performed on this carbon to create micro- and meso-pores, thereby producing hierarchically porous biomass-derived graphene-based carbons with a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 3,657 m 2  g -1 . Owing to its exceptionally high surface area, interconnected hierarchical pore networks, and a high degree of graphitization, this carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in ionic liquid electrolyte. A supercapacitor constructed with this carbon yielded a maximum energy density of 74 Wh kg -1 and a maximum power density of 408 kW kg -1 , based on the total mass of electrodes, which is comparable to those of the state-of-the-art graphene-based carbons. This approach holds promise for the low-cost and readily scalable production of high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on UASB biomass activity and dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Tushar; Mungray, Alka A; Mungray, Arvind K

    2017-02-01

    The accumulation of the nanowastes in the wastewater treatment plants has raised several concerns; therefore, it is an utmost priority to study the nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in such systems. In this work, the effect of TiO 2 NPs on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) microflora and their photocatalytic effect on dewatered sludge were studied. We observed 99.98% removal of TiO 2 NPs by sludge biomass within 24 h, though negligible toxicity was found up to 100 mg/L TiO 2 concentration on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), volatile fatty acid and biogas generation. The low toxicity corresponds to the agglomeration of TiO 2 NPs in UASB sludge. Alterations in dewatered sludge biochemical composition and increase in cell damage were observed upon exposure to sunlight as evidenced by FTIR and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Results suggest the negligible toxicity of TiO 2 NPs on UASB biomass activity; however, once exposed to open environment and sunlight, they may exert detrimental effects.

  20. [Study on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon in greenland irrigated with reclaimed water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Neng; Hou, Zhen-An; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Peng, Chi; Liu, Wen

    2012-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of soils might be changed under the long-term reclaimed water irrigation. Its effects on soil biological activities have received great attentions. We collected surface soil samples from urban green spaces and suburban farmlands of Beijing. Soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), five types of soil enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, dehydrogenase and catalase) and physicochemical indicators in soils were measured subsequently. SMBC and enzyme activities from green land soils irrigated with reclaimed water were higher than that of control treatments using drinking water, but the difference is not significant in farmland. The SMBC increased by 60.1% and 14.2% than those control treatments in 0-20 cm soil layer of green land and farmland, respectively. Compared with their respective controls, the activities of enzymes in 0-20 cm soil layer of green land and farmland were enhanced by an average of 36.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Investigation of SMBC and enzyme activities decreased with increasing of soil depth. Significantly difference was found between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer in green land. Soil biological activities were improved with long-term reclaimed water irrigation in Beijing.

  1. Chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosols and their CCN activity: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijun; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yu; Shang, Dongjie; Du, Zhoufei; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM 1 ) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events. With the growth of the ultrafine particles, the organic fraction of PM 1 increased significantly. The ratio of oxygen to carbon (O:C), which had an average value of 0.23±0.04, did not show an obvious enhancement, indicating that a significant chemical aging process of the biomass-burning aerosols was not observed during the course of events. This finding might have been due to the fact that the biomass-burning events occurred in the late afternoon and grew during the nighttime, which is associated with a low atmospheric oxidation capacity. On average, organics and black carbon (BC) were dominant in the biomass-burning aerosols, accounting for 60±10% and 18±3% of PM 1 . The high organic and BC fractions led to a significant suppression of particle hygroscopicity. Comparisons among hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA)-derived, cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc)-derived, and aerosol mass spectrometer-based hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values were consistent. The mean κ values of biomass-burning aerosols derived from both HTDMA and CCNc measurements were approximately 0.1, regardless of the particle size, indicating that the biomass-burning aerosols were less active. The burst in particle count during the biomass-burning events resulted in an increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation (SS)=0.2-0.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Teaching Activities Done by Using Activity Based Posters on the Students' Academic Achievements, Retention Levels in Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ismail; Eker, Cevat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether the activity based posters have an effect of on the ninth class students' academic achievements and the retention levels in their learning. The research was carried out with 60 students at one of the state schools in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey in 2015-2016 academic year.…

  3. The Relationship between Curricular Physical Activity and College Retention after the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    College retention has become increasingly important for many reasons. Individuals who attain bachelor's degrees, on average, have higher earning power and more career options than individuals with only a high school degree. Higher education institutes also benefit when students are retained and graduate. With the most recent budget crisis, higher…

  4. 76 FR 71040 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Record Retention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... with soy protein. The records required to be retained by Sec. 101.82(c)(2)(ii)(B) are the records, e.g... Requirements for the Soy Protein and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Health Claim AGENCY: Food and Drug... notice solicits comments on the record retention requirements for the soy protein and coronary heart...

  5. Soil respiration, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity in switchgrass stands under nitrogen fertilization management and climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, S.; Li, J.; de Koff, J.; Celada, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Wang, G.; Guo, C.

    2016-12-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), as a model bioenergy crop, received nitrogen fertilizers for increasing its biomass yields. Studies rarely investigate the interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and climate warming on soil microbial activity and carbon cycling in switchgrass cropping systems. Enhanced nitrogen availability under fertilization can alter rates of soil organic matter decomposition and soil carbon emissions to the atmosphere and thus have an effect on climate change. Here, we assess soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activities in two switchgrass stands with no fertilizer and 60 lbs N / acre. Soils were incubated at 15 ºC and 20 ºC for 180-day. Dry switchgrass plant materials were added to incubation jars and the 13C stable isotopic probing technique was used to monitor soil CO2 respiration derived from relatively labile litter and indigenous soil. Measurements of respiration, δ13C of respiration, microbial biomass carbon and exoenzyme activity were performed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180. Soil respiration rate was greater in the samples incubated at 20 ºC as compared to those incubated at 15 ºC. Exoenzyme activities were significantly altered by warming, litter addition and nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant interactive effect of nitrogen fertilization and warming on the proportion of CO2 respired from soils such that nitrogen fertilization enhanced warming-induced increase by 12.0% (Pmineralization. Fertilization increased soil microbial biomass carbon at both temperatures (9.0% at 15 ºC and 14.5% at 20 ºC). Our preliminary analysis suggested that warming effects on enhanced soil respiration can be further increased with elevated fertilizer input via greater microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity. In addition to greater biomass yield under N fertilization, this study informs potential soil carbon loss from stimulated soil respiration under nitrogen fertilization and warming in

  6. The interaction between dietary Fe, Cu and stress in Cu-67 retention and serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellett, L.; Kattelmann, K.; Zinn, K.; Trokey, D.; Forrester, I.; Gordon, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of dietary Fe and stress on Cu-67 retention and serum Cp activity in the rat. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. Male Sprague Dawley weanling rats were fed AIN-76 diets ad lib containing 0.8 ppm Cu (CuD) or 5.7 ppm Cu (CuA) with 22.5 ppm Fe (FeA) or 280 ppm Fe (FeE). After 19 days, one-half of the animals of each treatment were stressed by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml turpentine/100 gm body weight. Forty-eight hours later, animals were gavaged with Cu-67 and counted over a 7 day period in a whole body high resolution gamma counter. Cu-67 retention was 20% higher in CuD rats compared to CuA rats. There were no significant effects caused by Fe or stress or the interaction between these variables on Cu-67 retention. In rats fed FeE-CuA diets, serum Cp activity was significantly depressed compared to rats fed FeA-CuA diets. These reductions in the acute phase protein Cp, were 85% and 70% in nonstressed and stressed rats, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the negative interaction effects of excess Fe on Cu utilization does not occur at the site of Cu absorption, but within the body and specifically in the liver

  7. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of landscape structure and human modifications on insect biomass and bat foraging activity in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragh G Threlfall

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are often located in biologically diverse, productive regions. As such, urbanization may have dramatic consequences for this diversity, largely due to changes in the structure and function of urban communities. We examined the influence of landscape productivity (indexed by geology, housing density and vegetation clearing on the spatial distribution of nocturnal insect biomass and the foraging activity of insectivorous bats in the urban landscape of Sydney, Australia. Nocturnal insect biomass (g and bat foraging activity were sampled from 113 sites representing backyard, open space, bushland and riparian landscape elements, across urban, suburban and vegetated landscapes within 60 km of Sydney's Central Business District. We found that insect biomass was at least an order of magnitude greater within suburban landscapes in bushland and backyard elements located on the most fertile shale influenced geologies (both p<0.001 compared to nutrient poor sandstone landscapes. Similarly, the feeding activity of bats was greatest in bushland, and riparian elements within suburbs on fertile geologies (p = 0.039. Regression tree analysis indicated that the same three variables explained the major proportion of the variation in insect biomass and bat foraging activity. These were ambient temperature (positive, housing density (negative and the percent of fertile shale geologies (positive in the landscape; however variation in insect biomass did not directly explain bat foraging activity. We suggest that prey may be unavailable to bats in highly urbanized areas if these areas are avoided by many species, suggesting that reduced feeding activity may reflect under-use of urban habitats by bats. Restoration activities to improve ecological function and maintain the activity of a diversity of bat species should focus on maintaining and restoring bushland and riparian habitat, particularly in areas with fertile geology as these were key bat

  9. Influence of landscape structure and human modifications on insect biomass and bat foraging activity in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, Caragh G; Law, Bradley; Banks, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Urban landscapes are often located in biologically diverse, productive regions. As such, urbanization may have dramatic consequences for this diversity, largely due to changes in the structure and function of urban communities. We examined the influence of landscape productivity (indexed by geology), housing density and vegetation clearing on the spatial distribution of nocturnal insect biomass and the foraging activity of insectivorous bats in the urban landscape of Sydney, Australia. Nocturnal insect biomass (g) and bat foraging activity were sampled from 113 sites representing backyard, open space, bushland and riparian landscape elements, across urban, suburban and vegetated landscapes within 60 km of Sydney's Central Business District. We found that insect biomass was at least an order of magnitude greater within suburban landscapes in bushland and backyard elements located on the most fertile shale influenced geologies (both plandscapes. Similarly, the feeding activity of bats was greatest in bushland, and riparian elements within suburbs on fertile geologies (p = 0.039). Regression tree analysis indicated that the same three variables explained the major proportion of the variation in insect biomass and bat foraging activity. These were ambient temperature (positive), housing density (negative) and the percent of fertile shale geologies (positive) in the landscape; however variation in insect biomass did not directly explain bat foraging activity. We suggest that prey may be unavailable to bats in highly urbanized areas if these areas are avoided by many species, suggesting that reduced feeding activity may reflect under-use of urban habitats by bats. Restoration activities to improve ecological function and maintain the activity of a diversity of bat species should focus on maintaining and restoring bushland and riparian habitat, particularly in areas with fertile geology as these were key bat foraging habitats.

  10. ELECTRICITY-FREE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BIOMASS IN BORNEO TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Sasaki,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared from biomass of Borneo island (wood charcoal, peat, and coconut husk by using an electricity–free furnace, of which the energy source was exclusively wood charcoal. This furnace was comprised of two parts, an inner vessel equipped with water inlet for steam activation and an outer shell as a heating part for the inner vessel. The inside temperature of the inner vessel was able to reach over 1000 oC. Peat and wood charcoal were converted to AC by carbonization followed by steam activation, and the specific BET surface areas of resultant ACs were 889 m2/g and 749 m2/g, respectively. A mobile apparatus for water purification was newly designed and fabricated with the resultant AC, together with a white quartz sand, which is called keranggas in Kalimantan. The CODOH of both polluted creek water by the University of Palangka Raya and Kahayan River water were remarkably decreased by the purification with the designed apparatus from 20.0 mgO/L to 0.93 mgO/L, and 18.2 mgO/L to 0.74 mgO/L, respectively. Thus, the newly designed furnace and purification apparatus were shown to be highly effective tools to produce a promising agent for water purification and to produce clarified water without use of electricity, respectively.

  11. Characterization and Activation Study of Black Chars Derived from Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolyzed at Very High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The State of Tennessee, in partnership with the University of Tennessee (UT) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has created the RevV! Manufacturing voucher program to help Tennessee manufacturers gain access to the world-class resources at ORNL. As a part of this program, ORNL was working with Proton Power, Inc. (PPI), a rapidly growing company located in Lenoir City, Tennessee. PPI has developed a patented renewable energy system that uses biomass and waste sources to produce inexpensive hydrogen gas or synthetic fuels which are economically competitive with fossil fuels. The pyrolysis process used by PPI in their manufacturing chain generates significant amounts of black carbon char as by-product. The scope of ORNL collaboration with PPI was assessing the black carbon char as a potential feedstock for activated carbon production, as this could be a potentially new revenue stream. During 2015-2016 ORNL received eight char samples from PPI and characterized their initial properties, simulated their physical activation by carbon dioxide, prepared gram-size samples of physically activated carbons, and characterized their surface and porosity properties. This report presents a summary of the work methods employed and the results obtained in the collaborative project between ORNL and PPI.

  12. Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Trögl, Josef; Frouz, Jan; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Valášková, Vendula; Merhautová, Věra; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Herinková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 9 (2008), s. 2107-2115 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : enzyme activity * lignocellulose * microbial biomass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.926, year: 2008

  13. Biomass derived graphene-like activated and non-activated porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphene-like activated and non-activated carbon nanostructures were synthesized from various natural sources like sugar, rice husk and jute. These carbon nanostructures were characterized using SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, surface area and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical studies of these ...

  14. Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Biomass Pyrolysis Using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order and the scale parameters of the Rayleigh distribution. The influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Rayleigh distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis.

  15. Production of high activity Aspergillus niger BCC4525 β-mannanase in Pichia pastoris and its application for mannooligosaccharides production from biomass hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnpicharnchai, Piyanun; Pinngoen, Waraporn; Teanngam, Wanwisa; Sornlake, Warasirin; Sae-Tang, Kittapong; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2016-12-01

    A cDNA encoding β-mannanase was cloned from Aspergillus niger BCC4525 and expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71. The secreted enzyme hydrolyzed locust bean gum substrate with very high activity (1625 U/mL) and a relatively high k cat /K m (461 mg -1 s -1  mL). The enzyme is thermophilic and thermostable with an optimal temperature of 70 °C and 40% retention of endo-β-1,4-mannanase activity after preincubation at 70 °C. In addition, the enzyme exhibited broad pH stability with an optimal pH of 5.5. The recombinant enzyme hydrolyzes low-cost biomass, including palm kernel meal (PKM) and copra meal, to produce mannooligosaccharides, which is used as prebiotics to promote the growth of beneficial microflora in animals. An in vitro digestibility test simulating the gastrointestinal tract system of broilers suggested that the recombinant β-mannanase could effectively liberate reducing sugars from PKM-containing diet. These characteristics render this enzyme suitable for utilization as a feed additive to improve animal performance.

  16. Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Run-Hong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial Community Activity And Plant Biomass Are Insensitive To Passive Warming In A Semiarid Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, N. J.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive biogeochemical and nutrient cycling through the production of extracellular enzymes that facilitate organic matter decomposition and the flux of large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Although dryland ecosystems occupy over 40% of land cover and are projected to expand due to climate change, much of our current understanding of these processes comes from mesic temperate ecosystems. Understanding the responses of these globally predominant dryland ecosystems is therefore important yet complicated by co-occurring environmental changes. For example, the widespread and pervasive transition from grass to woody dominated landscapes is changing the hydrology, fire regimes, and carbon storage potential of semiarid ecosystems. In this study, we used a novel passive method of warming to conduct a warming experiment with added plant debris as either woodchip or biochar, to simulate different long-term carbon additions that accompany woody plant encroachment in semiarid ecosystems. The response of heterotrophic respiration, plant biomass, and microbial activity was monitored bi-annually. We hypothesized that the temperature manipulations would have direct and indirect effects on microbial activity. Warmer soils directly reduce the activity of soil extracellular enzymes through denaturation and dehydration of soil pores and indirectly through reducing microbe-available substrates and plant inputs. Overall, reduction in extracellular enzyme activity may reduce decomposition of coarse woody debris and potentially enhance soil carbon storage in semiarid ecosystems. For all seven hydrolytic enzymes examined as well as heterotrophic respiration, there was no consistent or significant response to experimental warming, regardless of seasonal climatic and soil moisture variation. The enzyme results observed here are consistent with the few other experimental results for warming in semiarid ecosystems and indicate that the controls over soil

  18. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Three-dimensional porous activated carbon derived from loofah sponge biomass for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Li; Chen, Jing-Ran; Zheng, Guang-Ping; Yang, Jing-He; Guan, Xin-Xin; Liu, Pu; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Biomass carbon source is generally cheap, environmentally friendly and readily available in high quality and quantity. In this work, a series of loofah sponge-derived activated carbon (SAC-x) with hierarchical porous structures are prepared by KOH chemical activation and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The pore size can be easily controllable by changing the dosage of KOH. The optimized material (SAC-4) exhibits a high specific capacitance of 309.6 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in the three-electrode system using 6 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor based on SAC-4 exhibits a high energy density of 16.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 160.0 W kg-1 using 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. These remarkable results demonstrate the exciting commercial potential of SAC-x for high-performance supercapacitor applications due to their high specific surface area, appropriately porous structure, and the trace heteroatom (O and N) functionalities.

  20. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  1. Product quality optimization in an integrated biorefinery: Conversion of pistachio nutshell biomass to biofuels and activated biochars via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Işıtan, Seçil; Ceylan, Selim; Topcu, Yıldıray; Hintz, Chloe; Tefft, Juliann; Chellappa, Thiago; Guo, Jicheng; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis temperature key variable in manipulating biofuel quality. • Pyrolysis temperature does not impact activated biochar surface area. • Activation temperature key variable to optimize surface area of pistachio biochar. • Statistical model accurately predicts surface area of biochar, especially above 600 m"2/g. - Abstract: An economically viable transition to a renewable, sustainable energy future hinges on the ability to simultaneously produce multiple high value products from biomass precursors. Though there is considerable literature on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels and biochars, there are few holistic examinations that seek to understand trade-offs between biofuel quality and the associated pyrolysis conditions on activated carbons made from the resulting biochars. Using an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis, this study probes the impact of pyrolysis and activation temperature on surface areas and pore volumes for 28 carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Activation temperature has the largest single impact of any other variable; increasing the temperature from 800 to 900 °C leads to an increase in surface area of more than 300 m"2/g. Contrary to some prior results, pyrolysis temperature has minimal effect on the resulting surface area and pore volume, suggesting that optimizing the temperature at which biofuels are extracted will have little impact on carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Increasing pyrolysis temperature increases methane formation but decreases gaseous hydrocarbons. Bio-oil obtained at lower pyrolysis temperatures shows fewer oxygenated compounds, indicating a greater stability, but higher pyrolysis temperatures maximize production of key biorefinery intermediaries such as furans. By analyzing data in such a holistic manner, it may be possible to optimize the production of biofuels and activated carbons from biomass by minimizing the amount of raw materials and energy necessary to maximize

  2. Intercropping Between Achillea millefolium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. and its effects on essential oil yield, biomass and anti-microbial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arashiro, Munique Polito; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Ziroldo, Débora Fernanda; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Sartor, Claudenice Francisca Providelo; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Patroni, Sandra Sanches; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Oliveira, Pérsio Sandir D'; EMBRAPA; Cortez, Lúcia Elaine Elaine Ranieri; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR

    2011-01-01

    The rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and the yarrow (Achillea millefolium) are medicinal aromatic herbs and produce essential oil. Current experiment evaluated the effect of intercropping between two species in biomass and essential oil yield and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of rosemary. After the plants’ culture and harvest, the biomass and the essential oil yields of the dry leaves and flowers were obtained by steam water distillation. Data of biomass and essential oil y...

  3. Renal sodium retention in cirrhotic rats depends on glucocorticoid-mediated activation of mineralocorticoid receptor due to decreased renal 11beta-HSD-2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesson, Helle; Jensen, Boye L; Bistrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of the renal glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2) during liver cirrhosis may allow activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by glucocorticoids and contribute to sodium retention. We tested this hypothesis in male Wistar...... rats with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites 7 wk after bile duct ligation (BDL). Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA, protein, and activity were significantly decreased in decompensated rats. The urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio was reduced by 40%. Renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNA and immunostaining...... were only slightly affected. Complete metabolic studies, including fecal excretion, showed that the BDL rats had avid renal sodium retention. Treatment of the BDL rats with dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid production, normalized total sodium balance and renal sodium excretion...

  4. Microbial biomass and biological activity of soils and soil-like bodies in coastal oases of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D. A.; Marfenina, O. E.; Kudinova, A. G.; Lysak, L. V.; Mergelov, N. S.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Lupachev, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The method of luminescent microscopy has been applied to study the structure of the microbial biomass of soils and soil-like bodies in East (the Thala Hills and Larsemann Hills oases) and West (Cape Burks, Hobbs coast) Antarctica. According to Soil Taxonomy, the studied soils mainly belong to the subgroups of Aquic Haploturbels, Typic Haploturbels, Typic Haplorthels, and Lithic Haplorthels. The major contribution to their microbial biomass belongs to fungi. The highest fungal biomass (up to 790 μg C/g soil) has been found in the soils with surface organic horizons in the form of thin moss/lichen litters, in which the development of fungal mycelium is most active. A larger part of fungal biomass (70-98%) is represented by spores. For the soils without vegetation cover, the accumulation of bacterial and fungal biomass takes place in the horizons under surface desert pavements. In the upper parts of the soils without vegetation cover and in the organic soil horizons, the major part (>60%) of fungal mycelium contains protective melanin pigments. Among bacteria, the high portion (up to 50%) of small filtering forms is observed. A considerable increase (up to 290.2 ± 27 μg C/g soil) in the fungal biomass owing to the development of yeasts has been shown for gley soils (gleyzems) developing from sapropel sediments under subaquatic conditions and for the algal-bacterial mat on the bottom of the lake (920.7 ± 46 μg C/g soil). The production of carbon dioxide by the soils varies from 0.47 to 2.34 μg C-CO2/(g day). The intensity of nitrogen fixation in the studied samples is generally low: from 0.08 to 55.85 ng C2H4/(g day). The intensity of denitrification varies from 0.09 to 19.28 μg N-N2O/(g day).

  5. Modeling of the pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature increases using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Verdugo, Antonio; Goos, Elke; Arrieta-Sanagustín, Jorge; García-Hernando, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature profiles is modeled. • The model is based on a simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model. • 4 biomasses are analyzed in TGA with parabolic and exponential temperature increases. • Deviations between the model prediction and TGA measurements are under 5 °C. - Abstract: A modification of the simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model is proposed to simulate the pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature increases. The pyrolysis of pine wood, olive kernel, thistle flower and corncob was experimentally studied in a TGA Q500 thermogravimetric analyzer. The results of the measurements of nine different parabolic and exponential temperature increases for each sample were employed to validate the models proposed. The deviation between the experimental TGA measurements and the estimation of the reacted fraction during the pyrolysis of the four samples under parabolic and exponential temperature increases was lower than 5 °C for all the cases studied. The models derived in this work to describe the pyrolysis of biomass with parabolic and exponential temperature increases were found to be in good agreement with the experiments conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer.

  6. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  7. Effect of subacute poisoning with bifenthrin on locomotor activity, memory retention, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, B; Borzecki, A; Jodlowska-Jedrych, B

    2015-02-01

    Bifenthrin (BIF) is a pyrethroid (PYR) insecticide. The target point for PYR's toxic action are voltage sensitive sodium channels in the central nervous system (CNS). Intoxication with PYRs results in motor activity impairment and death in insects. Although PYRs are considered to be safe for mammals, there were numerous cases of pyrethroid poisoning in humans, animals and pets described. The general population is chronically exposed to PYRs via grain products, dust and indoor air. Therefore new questions arise: whether PYRs act in a dose-additive fashion in the course of subacute poisoning, are there other target organs (but brain) for BIF and if there is one common mechanism of its' toxic action in different organs. The objective of this work was to characterize the effect of BIF at the doses of 4 or 8 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 28 consecutive days on memory and motor activity, hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in mice. BIF at the doses of 8 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg of body mass was administered i.p. daily to the mice for 28 consecutive days. Motor function was measured on day 1, 7, 14 and 28 and memory retention was tested in a passive avoidance task on day 2, 7, 14 and 28. BIF significantly impaired memory retention on day 2. BIF decreased locomotor activity at every stage of the experiment in a single dose depending manner. No behavioral cumulative effect was observed. Subacute poisoning with the higher dose of BIF caused anaemia, elevated white blood cell count (WBC), elevated alanine transaminase (ALT), superoxide dismuthase (SOD), and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Lymphocyte infiltrates were visualized in the livers. subacute poisoning with BIF decreases locomotor activity in a single dose proportionate manner. BIF damages also the liver and alters blood morphology. The possible common mechanism of these effects can be oxidative stress.

  8. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  9. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  10. Behaviour of biopolymeric substances in the activated sludge of an MBR system working with high hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Eugenio; Pérez, Jorge I; Gómez, Miguel A

    2017-10-15

    This study was undertaken to analyse the activated sludge of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the behaviour of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) as well as their biopolymers composition, in the activated sludge of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and their influence on membrane fouling were analysed. For the experiment an experimental fullscale MBR working with real urban wastewater at high hydraulic retention time with a variable sludge-retention time (SRT) was used. The MBR system worked in denitrification/nitrification conformation at a constant flow rate (Q = 0.45 m 3 /h) with a recirculation flow rate of 4Q. The concentrations of SMP in the activated sludge were lower than the concentrations of EPS over the entire study, with humic substances being the main components of the two biopolymers. SMP and, more specifically, SMP carbohydrates, were the most influential biopolymers in membrane fouling, while for EPS and their components, no relation was found with fouling. The SRT and temperature were the operational variables that most influenced the SMP and EPS concentration, causing the increase of SRT and temperature a lower concentration in both biopolymers, although the effect was not the same for all the components, particularly for the EPS carbohydrates, which increased with longer SRTs. Both operational variables were also the ones most influential on the concentration of organic matter of the effluent, due to their effect on the SMP. The volatile suspended solid/total suspended solid (VSS/TSS) ratio in the activated sludge can be applied as a good indicator of the risk of membrane fouling by biopolymers in MBR systems.

  11. Suitability of adsorption isotherms for predicting the retention capacity of active slag filters removing phosphorus from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2009-01-01

    Active slag filters are an emerging technology for removing phosphorus (P) from wastewater. A number of researchers have suggested that adsorption isotherms are a useful tool for predicting P retention capacity. However, to date the appropriateness of using isotherms for slag filter design remains unverified due to the absence of benchmark data from a full-scale, field filter operated to exhaustion. This investigation compared the isotherm-predicted P retention capacity of a melter slag with the P adsorption capacity determined from a full-scale, melter slag filter which had reached exhaustion after five years of successfully removing P from waste stabilization pond effluent. Results from the standard laboratory batch test showed that P adsorption correlated more strongly with the Freundlich Isotherm (R(2)=0.97, Pretention capacity of 0.014 gP/kg slag; markedly lower than the 1.23 gP/kg slag adsorbed by the field filter. Clearly, the result generated by the isotherm bears no resemblance to actual field capacity. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed porous, reactive secondary minerals on the slag granule surfaces from the field filter which were likely created by weathering. This slow weathering effect, which generates substantial new adsorption sites, is not accounted for by adsorption isotherms rendering them ineffective in slag filter design.

  12. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs.

  13. Respiration, microbial biomass and soil phosphatase activity in two agroecosystems and one forest in Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuellins Durango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate some microbiological and biochemical characteristics, a comparative study was carried out, as related to 3 different land uses in Ultisols located in Grano de Oro, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Three soil management systems were selected (two agroecosystems, coffee and coffee-banana and forest. In each farm, 4 composite soil samples were collected, on which microbial biomass and respiration, and phosphatase enzyme activity analysis were performed. The microbial biomass in forest was statistically higher (423 mg C kg-1 compared to those in agroecosystems coffee and coffee-banana (77 and 111 mg C kg-1 respectively. Microbial respiration did not show differences due to land management (580, 560 and 570 μg CO2 g-1.day-1 in coffee, coffee-banana and forest systems, respectively. It was also determined that the enzyme phosphatase activity in forest soils was statistically higher (4432 μg p-NP g-1.h-1. The data suggest that soil conditions in the forest favor greater microbial activity and phosphatase biomass, as compared to agricultural systems.

  14. Genome-centric metatranscriptomes and ecological roles of the active microbial populations during cellulosic biomass anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yangyang; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Cai, Mingwei; Lee, Patrick K H

    2018-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion for biogas production is used worldwide in treatment processes to recover energy from carbon-rich waste such as cellulosic biomass, the activities and interactions among the microbial populations that perform anaerobic digestion deserve further investigations, especially at the population genome level. To understand the cellulosic biomass-degrading potentials in two full-scale digesters, this study examined five methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from the digesters that anaerobically digested cellulose or xylan for more than 2 years under 35 or 55 °C conditions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were used to capture the active microbial populations in each enrichment culture and reconstruct their meta-metabolic network and ecological roles. 107 population genomes were reconstructed from the five enrichment cultures using a differential coverage binning approach, of which only a subset was highly transcribed in the metatranscriptomes. Phylogenetic and functional convergence of communities by enrichment condition and phase of fermentation was observed for the highly transcribed populations in the metatranscriptomes. In the 35 °C cultures grown on cellulose, Clostridium cellulolyticum -related and Ruminococcus -related bacteria were identified as major hydrolyzers and primary fermenters in the early growth phase, while Clostridium leptum -related bacteria were major secondary fermenters and potential fatty acid scavengers in the late growth phase. While the meta-metabolism and trophic roles of the cultures were similar, the bacterial populations performing each function were distinct between the enrichment conditions. Overall, a population genome-centric view of the meta-metabolism and functional roles of key active players in anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass was obtained. This study represents a major step forward towards understanding the microbial functions and interactions at population genome level during the

  15. Comparison of biomass from integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating recalcitrant organics: Importance of attached biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Xue, Jinkai; Zhang, Yanyan; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-15

    This study compared microbial characteristics and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment performance of five types of microbial biomass (MBBR-biofilm, IFAS-biofilm, IFAS-floc, MBR-aerobic-floc, and MBR-anoxic-floc) cultivated from three types of bioreactors (MBBR, IFAS, and MBR) in batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, acid extractable fraction (AEF), and naphthenic acids (NAs) removals efficiencies were distinctly different between suspended and attached bacterial aggregates and between aerobic and anoxic suspended flocs. MBR-aerobic-floc and MBR-anoxic-floc demonstrated COD removal efficiencies higher than microbial aggregates obtained from MBBR and IFAS, MBBR and IFAS biofilm had higher AEF removal efficiencies than those obtained using flocs. MBBR-biofilm demonstrated the most efficient NAs removal from OSPW. NAs degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the carbon number and NA cyclization number according to UPLC/HRMS analysis. Mono- and di-oxidized NAs were the dominant oxy-NA species in OSPW samples. Microbial analysis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) indicated that the bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was significantly higher in the batch bioreactors with suspended flocs than in those with biofilm, the NSR gene abundance in the MBR-anoxic bioreactor was significantly lower than that in aerobic batch bioreactors, and denitrifiers were more abundant in the suspended phase of the activated sludge flocs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antibacterial activity of Mondia whitei adventitious roots and ex vitro-grown somatic embryogenic-biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Baskaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mondia whitei (Hook.f. Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE and antibacterial activities. Adventitious roots derived from 2.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatments and ex vitro-grown plants derived from meta-topolin riboside (mTR and IAA treatments gave the best AChE and antibacterial activities. The in vitro-established M. whitei and ex vitro biomass have comparable ability to function as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and antibacterial agents, and can be used as potent bioresources in traditional medicine

  17. Thermal remote sensing of active vegetation fires and biomass burning events [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Wooster; Gareth Roberts; Alistair M.S. Smith; Joshua Johnston; Patrick Freeborn; Stefania Amici; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing is widely used in the detection, study, and management of biomass burning occurring in open vegetation fires. Such fires may be planned for land management purposes, may occur as a result of a malicious or accidental ignition by humans, or may result from lightning or other natural phenomena. Under suitable conditions, fires may spread rapidly...

  18. Soil microbial biomass, activity and community composition along altitudinal gradients in the High Arctic (Billefjorden, Svalbard)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotas, P.; Šantrůčková, H.; Elster, Josef; Kaštovská, E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2018), s. 1879-1894 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015075 Grant - others:GA MŠk LM2010009 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ecosystem * High Arctic * soil microbial biomass Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2016

  19. Glucuronic Acid Derivatives in Enzymatic Biomass Degradation: Synthesis and Evaluation of Enzymatic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Errico, Clotilde

    An essential tool for biotechnology companies in enzyme development for biomass delignification is the access to well-defined model substrates. A deeper understanding of the enzymes substrate specificity can be used to address and optimize enzyme mixtures towards natural, complex substrates. Hence...

  20. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  1. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-07-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  2. Transient Catalytic Activity of Calcined Dolomitic Limestone in a Fluidized Bed during Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal; Svoboda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 4065-4071 ISSN 0887-0624 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidized- bed gasification * woody biomass * limestone Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.091, year: 2016

  3. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  4. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  5. Seasonal and diel variability in dissolved DNA and in microbial biomass and activity in a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; Deflaun, M.F.; Jeffrey, W.H.; David, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Dissolved DNA and microbial biomass and activity parameters were measured over a 15-month period at three stations along a salinity gradient in Tampa Bay, Fla. Dissolved DNA showed seasonal variation, with minimal values in December and January and maximal values in summer months (July and August). This pattern of seasonal variation followed that of particulate DNA and water temperature and did not correlate with bacterioplankton (direct counts and [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation) or phytoplankton (chlorophyll α and 14 CO 2 fixation) biomass and activity. Microautotrophic populations showed maxima in the spring and fall, whereas microheterotrophic activity was greatest in late summer (September). Both autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial activity was greatest at the high estuarine (low salinity) station and lowest at the mouth of the bay (high salinity station), irrespective of season. Dissolved DNA carbon and phosphorus constituted 0.11 +/- 0.05% of the dissolved organic carbon and 6.6 +/- 6.5% of the dissolved organic phosphorus, respectively. Strong diel periodicity was noted in dissolved DNA and in microbial activity in Bayboro Harbor during the dry season. A noon maximum in primary productivity was followed by an 8 p.m. maximum in heterotrophic activity and a midnight maximum in dissolved DNA. This diel periodicity was less pronounced in the wet season, when microbial parameters were strongly influenced by episodic inputs of freshwater

  6. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  7. Dynamics of microbial biomass and respiratory activity during late summer in a site of Arctic Kongsfjorden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2014-06-01

    The Kongsfjorden was affected by inflow of Atlantic water as well as glacier melt water runoff (Cottier et al., 2005. The experiment comprised 5 samplings performed during a 7 day period in MDI station. For each sampling, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature and conductivity (salinity were recorded along the water column with a PNF-300 profiler and a SeaBird Electronics SBE-911 plus profiler, respectively . Water samples were taken at five different depths (surface, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m to determine nutrients, particulate organic carbon, prokaryotes and phytoplankton biomass, and community respiration. In addition, prokaryotes sunk with the particulate matter were studied into the sediment trap positioned in the MDI during the period between June and September 2013. The latter assessment allowed us to determine the flow of prokaryotes, conveyed from organic matter sinking, throughout the summer. Due to melting of the glaciers in the surface water of the study site, there were sediment loads which strongly limited light penetration and low irradiance (~0.7% E0+ at 5 meters below the surface. Along the water column the intrusion of the salty and warm Atlantic water was visible in the study site and the warm core was at about 25 m depth. PO4 concentrations ranged between 0.43 (surface and 1 µM (100 m and in general the values increased from surface to bottom. NH4, NO2 and NO3 significantly changed along the vertical and with time and varied between 0.39 and 5.05µM, 0.01 and 0.67µM, 0.001 and 4.18µM, respectively. Prokaryotic abundances and cell volumes ranged between 5.6 and 15.9 E+05 cells ml-1 and 0.033 and 0.093 µm3, respectively. These latter parameters showed a peak at 25 m depth in the core of incoming Atlantic water. This evidence was not determined in chlorophyll a (range 0.034-1.102 mg m-3, where the highest values were determined at the surface and 5 m depth. Speculations will be made on the variability of the fluxes of carbon

  8. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Type of Ligno-Cellulose and Cellulose Biomass on Yield, Specific Surface Area and Mechanical Resistance of Active Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Pohořelý, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, there are many contaminated agricultural soils due to anthropogenic activity and geogenic origin. The contaminated biomass of plants grown on the contaminated soils needs to be appropriately disposed of to prevent the re-releace of heavy metals into the environment. One way of processing contaminated biomass is pyrolysis, where the heavy metals are concentrated in biochar (active coal). This can be applied to soil where it improves the physical properties. The aim of ...

  9. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renella, Giancarlo [Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)], E-mail: giancarlo.renella@unifi.it; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo [Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck. - Organo-mineral amendment and revegetation of a gold mine spoil increased microbial activity but did not increase microbial species richness.

  10. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck. - Organo-mineral amendment and revegetation of a gold mine spoil increased microbial activity but did not increase microbial species richness

  11. Left temporal alpha band activity increases during working memory retention of pitches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Jensen, O.

    2010-01-01

    The functional role and regional specificity of similar to 10 Hz alpha band activity remains of debate. Alpha band activity is strongly modulated in visual working memory tasks and it has been proposed to subserve resource allocation by disengaging task-irrelevant regions. It remains unknown if

  12. Infected Donor Biomass and Active Feeding Increase Waterborne Transmission of Ichthyophonus sp. to Rainbow Trout Sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S E; Kocan, R M

    2016-06-01

    The precise nature of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission among wild fishes has eluded description for over a century. Transmission among piscivores is direct, via ingestion of infected prey, but there is also evidence for waterborne transmission between infected and uninfected individuals. Transmission among planktivores is believed to be via a waterborne infectious cell, but definitive proof of this mechanism has not been forthcoming. To explore possible mechanisms of transmission we used Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model system and examined the consequence of housing infected donor fish with uninfected (sentinel) fish, without physical contact. We examined two variables linked to transmission: (1) feeding and nonfeeding sentinel fish, and (2) biomass of infected donor fish. Specific-pathogen free sentinel trout were placed in fine-mesh baskets suspended in tanks containing varying numbers of larger Ichthyophonus-infected donor fish and held for 10 weeks, during which time they were examined by in vitro explant culture for the presence of Ichthyophonus. Treatment groups consisted of fed and unfed sentinels housed with infected donors of increasing biomass. After 10 weeks infection prevalence in fed sentinels was significantly higher than in unfed sentinels, and Ichthyophonus was detected earlier in fed fish than in unfed fish. There was no correlation between infection prevalence and donor biomass in fed sentinels, but there was a strong correlation between infection prevalence and increasing donor biomass in unfed sentinels. These data suggest that Ichthyophonus is maintained in wild fish populations by two distinct mechanisms: (1) waterborne infectious cells ingested directly from the water by planktivores, and (2) both infected prey and waterborne infectious cells ingested by piscivores. Received November 13, 2015; accepted February 13, 2016.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  14. Modelling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakova, Nadezhda; Petkov, Venko; Mihailov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an essential preliminary step in a gasifier. The first step in modelling the pyrolysis process of biomass is creating a model for the chemical processes taking place. This model should describe the used fuel, the reactions taking place and the products created in the process. The numerous different polymers present in the organic fraction of the fuel are generally divided in three main groups. So, the multistep kinetic model of biomass pyrolysis is based on conventional multistep devolatilization models of the three main biomass components - cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Numerical simulations have been conducted in order to estimate the influence of the heating rate and the temperature of pyrolysis on the content of the virgin biomass, active biomass, liquid, solid and gaseous phases at any moment. Keywords: kinetic models, pyrolysis, biomass pyrolysis.

  15. Colonization Habitat Controls Biomass, Composition, and Metabolic Activity of Attached Microbial Communities in the Columbia River Hyporheic Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Noah; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Stegen, James C.; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Larget, Bret R.; Roden, Eric E.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2017-06-09

    Hydrologic exchange plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling within the hyporheic zone (the interface between river water and groundwater) of riverine ecosystems. Such exchange may set limits on the rates of microbial metabolism and impose deterministic selection on microbial communities that adapt to dynamically changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources. This study examined the response of attached microbial communities (in situcolonized sand packs) from groundwater, hyporheic, and riverbed habitats within the Columbia River hyporheic corridor to “cross-feeding” with either groundwater, river water, or DOC-free artificial fluids. Our working hypothesis was that deterministic selection duringin situcolonization would dictate the response to cross-feeding, with communities displaying maximal biomass and respiration when supplied with their native fluid source. In contrast to expectations, the major observation was that the riverbed colonized sand had much higher biomass and respiratory activity, as well as a distinct community structure, compared with those of the hyporheic and groundwater colonized sands. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed a much higher proportion of certain heterotrophic taxa as well as significant numbers of eukaryotic algal chloroplasts in the riverbed colonized sand. Significant quantities of DOC were released from riverbed sediment and colonized sand, and separate experiments showed that the released DOC stimulated respiration in the groundwater and piezometer colonized sand. These results suggest that the accumulation and degradation of labile particulate organic carbon (POC) within the riverbed are likely to release DOC, which may enter the hyporheic corridor during hydrologic exchange, thereby stimulating microbial activity and imposing deterministic selective pressure on the microbial community composition.

    IMPORTANCEThe influence of river water

  16. Analysis of the Retention and Affiliation Factors Affecting the Active and Reserve Naval Nurse Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Messmer, Scott J; Pizanti, Kimberly A

    2007-01-01

    ...) an empirical analysis to analyze characteristics of those who are retained in the active Naval Nurse Corps and those who affiliate with the reserve Naval Nurse Corps using multivariate logit regressions...

  17. Semantic Information Activated during Retrieval Contributes to Later Retention: Support for the Mediator Effectiveness Hypothesis of the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has proposed that tests enhance retention more than do restudy opportunities because they promote the effectiveness of mediating information--that is, a word or concept that links a cue to a target (Pyc & Rawson, 2010). Although testing has been shown to promote retention of mediating information that participants were asked…

  18. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  19. The Leadership Institute for Active Aging: A Volunteer Recruitment and Retention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura; Steele, Jack; Thompson, Estina; D'heron, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    The Leadership Institute for Active Aging, an approach to recruiting and retaining volunteers over 50, provides training focused on community resources, aging, self-worth, and volunteering and internships in community-based organizations involving health and social services. Exit interviews and program evaluations affirmed that the leadership…

  20. Dosing of anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors with cobalt: Impact of cobalt retention on methanogenic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Bartacek, Jan; Manzano, Ramon; van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dosing a metal limited anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a metal pulse on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge has thus far not been successfully modeled. The prediction of this effect is crucial in order to optimize

  1. Kinetic studies of the retention of radioactive gases by activated carbon adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, V.

    1989-01-01

    A bimolecular reaction model containing the physico-chemical parameters of the adsorption process has been developed to describe the kinetics of a continuously operating adsorption column. An analytical solution of the model was found for low inlet gas concentrations and a cascade-type numerical method was used for calculations at higher inlet concentrations. When calculating accumulation and break-through curves using the cascade method the results show a strong concentration dependence at higher inlet concentrations but with decreasing concentration the curves asymptotically tend to the curve calculated by the analytical solution which is not concentration-dependent. Adsorption and desorption rate constants (K F and K B ) and active site concentration (A o ) were determined by fitting theoretical curves on experimentally measured break-through curves. The values of K F , K B , and A o were 3x10 3 cm 3 mol -1 s -1 , 2.5x10 -4 s -1 and 2.3x10 -3 mol cm -3 , respectively, for the system composed of methyl-iodine vapor as adsorbate and granuled activated carbon as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms measured under dynamic conditions and at various temperatures were of Langmuir-type. From the temperature-dependence of the kinetic parameters the activation energy was calculated by the help of the Arrhenius-equation and the process was found exotherm with an activation energy of 67 KJ mol -1 (16 kcal mol -1 )

  2. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  3. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  4. Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix L Figueroa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence associated to Photosystem II is being used to evaluate photosynthetic activity of microalgae grown in different types of photobioreactors; however, controversy on methodology is usual. Several recommendations on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate electron transport rate and productivity of microalgae grown in thin-layer cascade cultivators and methacrylate cylindrical vessels are included. Different methodologies related to the measure of photosynthetic activity in microalgae are discussed: (1 measurement of light absorption, (2 determination of electron transport rates versus irradiance and (3 use of simplified devices based on pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorescence as Junior PAM or Pocket PAM with optical fiber and optical head as measuring units, respectively. Data comparisons of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence by using these devices and other PAM fluorometers as Water-PAM in the microalga Chlorella sp. (Chlorophyta are presented. Estimations of carbon production and productivity by transforming electron transport rate to gross photosynthetic rate (as oxygen evolution using reported oxygen produced per photons absorbed values and carbon photosynthetic yield based on reported oxygen/carbon ratio are also shown. The limitation of ETR as estimator of photosynthetic and biomass productivity is discussed. Low cost:quality PAMs can promote monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in algal biotechnology to estimate the photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity.

  5. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high-OM). The cul......Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high......-OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial......) and an endocellulase activity of 44.2 +/- 1.1 nmol g(-1) h(-1). (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Impact of the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR Effect and Cathepsins Levels on the Activity of Polymer-Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Rajora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-drug conjugates have demonstrated clinical potential in the context of anticancer therapy. However, such promising results have, to date, failed to translate into a marketed product. Polymer-drug conjugates rely on two factors for activity: (i the presence of a defective vasculature, for passive accumulation of this technology into the tumour tissue (enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect and (ii the presence of a specific trigger at the tumour site, for selective drug release (e.g., the enzyme cathepsin B. Here, we retrospectively analyse literature data to investigate which tumour types have proved more responsive to polymer-drug conjugates and to determine correlations between the magnitude of the EPR effect and/or expression of cathepsin B. Lung, breast and ovarian cancers showed the highest response rate (30%, 47% and 41%, respectively for cathepsin-activated conjugates and 31%, 43%, 40%, across all conjugates. An analysis of literature data on cathepsin content in various tumour types showed that these tumour types had high cathepsin content (up to 3835 ng/mg for lung cancer, although marked heterogeneity was observed across different studies. In addition, these tumour types were also reported as having a high EPR effect. Our results suggest that a pre-screening of patient population could bring a more marked clinical benefit.

  7. Immobilized enzyme reactor chromatography: Optimization of protein retention and enzyme activity in monolithic silica stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besanger, Travis R.; Hodgson, Richard J.; Green, James R.A.; Brennan, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Our group recently reported on the application of protein-doped monolithic silica columns for immobilized enzyme reactor chromatography, which allowed screening of enzyme inhibitors present in mixtures using mass spectrometry for detection. The enzyme was immobilized by entrapment within a bimodal meso/macroporous silica material prepared by a biocompatible sol-gel processing route. While such columns proved to be useful for applications such as screening of protein-ligand interactions, significant amounts of entrapped proteins leached from the columns owing to the high proportion of macropores within the materials. Herein, we describe a detailed study of factors affecting the morphology of protein-doped bioaffinity columns and demonstrate that specific pH values and concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) can be used to prepare essentially mesoporous columns that retain over 80% of initially loaded enzyme in an active and accessible form and yet still retain sufficient porosity to allow pressure-driven flow in the low μL/min range. Using the enzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), we further evaluated the catalytic constants of the enzyme entrapped in capillary columns with different silica morphologies as a function of flowrate and backpressure using the enzyme reactor assay mode. It was found that the apparent activity of the enzyme was highest in mesoporous columns that retained high levels of enzyme. In such columns, enzyme activity increased by ∼2-fold with increases in both flowrate (from 250 to 1000 nL/min) and backpressure generated (from 500 to 2100 psi) during the chromatographic activity assay owing to increases in k cat and decreases in K M , switching from diffusion controlled to reaction controlled conditions at ca. 2000 psi. These results suggest that columns with minimal macropore volumes (<5%) are advantageous for the entrapment of soluble proteins for bioaffinity and bioreactor chromatography

  8. Study of arsenic and molybdenum retention in organism during hydrotherapy by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Mannou, B.; Pepin, D.; Fauquert, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    At La Bourboule (France), arsenic and molybdenum are contained in high concentrations in the spring water used for hydrotherapy. Thermal neutron activation analysis was applied to determine arsenic and molybdenum penetration into the organism for the first time. The results obtained with children, men and rabbits are similar. The chronology of the absorption of arsenic and molybdenum in blood and urine during the treatment is in good accordance with the medical therapeutic observations. (author) 10 refs.; 10 figs.; 10 tabs

  9. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan, E-mail: manasrray@rediffmail.com

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ► Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ► Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ► Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ► Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ► Cooking with biomass

  10. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt ser473 and p-Akt thr308 ) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ► Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ► Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ► Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ► Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ► Cooking with biomass increases cancer risk in

  11. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  12. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related...... to thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... of these activities has been fruitful. The two- stage gasifier was developed for gasification aiming at decentralised cogeneration of heat and power. The development ranged from lap-top scale equipment to a fully automatic plant with more than 2000 hours of operation. Compared to most other gasification processes...

  13. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  14. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Retention efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from agricultural by-products activated carbon and biochar under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscione, Aline; Ramos, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The immobilization of inorganic contaminants by using biochar in soils has played an increasingly important role and it is seen as an attractive alternative for the remediation of heavy metals. Although, the production of activated carbon (CA) from agricultural by-products has received special attention, the activation of the the organic source has been studied in order to increase its porposity, surface area and chemical polarity, resulting in higher adsorption of metals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BC and CA samples, obtained from a eucalyptus husks and cane sugar bagasse after activation with 20% phosphoric acid and pyrolyzed at 450oC in the retention of Zn, Cd and Pb using contaminated individual solutions. The experiment was performed using samples of activated carbon of eucalyptus husk (CCA), eucalyptus husk biochar (BC), activated carbon of sugar cane bagasse (CBA) and sugar cane bagasse biochar (BB) previously treated with Zn, Cd (range of tested solution from 0.1 up to 12 mmol L-1) and Pb (from 0.1 up 50 mmol L-1) which were submitted to stirring with ammonium acetate solution at pH 4.9 for 48 h. The results obtained were adjusted with Langmuir desorptiom isotherms. The pH of the resulting solution, were the meatls were analyse, was measure and remained in the range 4.9 - 5.0. The lower pH found in activated samples (range 2.4-2.5) resulted in larger desorption of metals than the biochar samples (pH of 9.7 for BC and 7.0 for BB). This result is surprising since for the biochar samples it was expected that any precipated metals were dissolved by the desorption solution in addition to metals released by ion exchange. Although the desorption results of activated samoels is still unclear, hich we belive may be explaibed by some adicitonal insterumental analysis, biochar samples showed better potential for application in contaminated soils than the previous.

  16. Pilot study of Alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) for treatment of urinary clot retention in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, Chad R; Ordonez, Maria A; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Araujo, Juan; Walsh, Rhonda; Baudin, Vania; Lee, Daniel; Badani, Ketan K; Gupta, Mantu; Landman, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    The management of urinary clot retention and hematuria involves manual irrigation with sterile water or normal saline via a Foley catheter followed by continuous bladder irrigation. Irrigation may become difficult because of the formation of dense blood clots. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA/Alteplase) may be a useful pharmacological agent to improve the efficacy of manual irrigation of large, dense clots. The goal of the current study was to compare t-PA to sterile water for clot irrigation in an in vitro model. In vitro models of clot retention were created using 500-cc urinary leg bags each filled with 80 cc of unpreserved whole blood from a healthy volunteer. Each model was incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 hours to allow clot formation. Four models each with 25 mL solution of t-PA at concentrations of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL were evaluated and compared to a control (25 mL sterile water). Models were instilled with solution (t-PA or control) and incubated for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C, and then irrigated with sterile water via 18F Foley by a blinded investigator. Three separate experiments were conducted, and statistical analysis was performed comparing various irrigation parameters. Clot evacuation with 25 mL of t-PA at a concentration of 2 mg/mL (50 mg) was significantly easier (p = 0.05) and faster (p < 0.05) than the sterile water control. The mean time for clot evacuation in this model was 2.7 minutes for t-PA solution 2 mg/mL versus 7.3 minutes for the control (p < 0.05). Compared to the control, irrigation with t-PA solution 2 mg/mL also required less irrigant (180 mL vs. 500 mL) (p < 0.05) for complete evacuation. There was a similar trend in efficacy for the lower doses of t-PA, but this was not statistically significant. In this in vitro study, a single 25 mL instillation of t-PA solution 2 mg/mL is significantly better than sterile water alone for clot evacuation. In vivo animal studies are pending.

  17. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  18. Effect of operational factors on bioregeneration of binary phenol and 4-chlorophenol-loaded granular activated carbon using PVA-immobilized biomass cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kwok-Yii; Adnan, Rohana; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Seng, Chye-Eng

    2017-09-01

    The effects of dry biomass density in cryogel beads, shaking speed and initial concentration ratio of phenol to 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) on the bioregeneration efficiencies of binary phenol and 4-CP-loaded granular activated carbon (GAC) for phenol and 4-CP, respectively, were investigated under the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results revealed higher bioregeneration efficiencies of binary-loaded GAC for phenol and 4-CP at higher dry biomass density but moderate shaking speed. The optimum dry biomass density in cryogel beads and shaking speed for use in bioregeneration were found to be 0.01 g/mL and 250 rpm, respectively. With respect to the initial phenol to 4-CP concentration ratio, the bioregeneration efficiencies were lower under increasing phenol and 4-CP initial concentrations, respectively, with the effect being more conspicuous under increasing 4-CP concentration. Higher bioregeneration efficiencies were achieved with the use of immobilized rather than suspended biomasses.

  19. Ice Nucleation Activity of Black Carbon and Organic Aerosol Emitted from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauker, A. M.; Schill, G. P.; Hill, T. C. J.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) must be present in clouds warmer than approximately -36 °C for initial ice crystal formation to occur. Although rare, they modify the lifetime, albedo and precipitation rates of clouds. Black carbon (BC) particles are present in the upper troposphere, and have been implicated as possible INPs, but recent research has not led to a consensus on their importance as INPs. Biomass burning is known to be a source of INPs as well as a major contributor to BC concentrations. Preliminary research from both prescribed burns (Manhattan, Kanas) and wildfires (Boise, Idaho and Weldon, Colorado), using the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CSU-CFDC) coupled to a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), suggest that BC contributed ≤ 10% to INP concentrations in biomass burning conditions. To evaluate the identity of non-BC as an INP, filters were collected downwind from the same prescribed burns and wildfires, and particles re-suspended in water were subjected to the immersion freezing method to quantify INP concentrations. The contributions of biological and total organic species to INP concentrations were determined through heat and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatments. Total INPs ranged from 0.88 - 31 L-1 air at -20 °C with 82 - 99 % of the INPs at that temperature being organic (i.e., deactivated by H2O2 digestion). Results are consistent with CSU-CFDC-SP2 derived rBC INP contributions from the same fires. The results from the study also support previous findings that prescribed burns and wildfires produce plumes enriched in INPs.

  20. Contrasting effects of ammonium and nitrate additions on the biomass of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate to ammonium ratios in nitrogen (N compounds in wet atmospheric deposits have increased over the recent past, which is a cause for some concern as the individual effects of nitrate and ammonium deposition on the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities are still poorly defined. We established a field experiment and applied ammonium (NH4Cl and nitrate (NaNO3 at monthly intervals over a period of 4 years. We collected soil samples from the ammonium and nitrate treatments and control plots in three different seasons, namely spring, summer, and fall, to evaluate the how the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities responded to the ammonium (NH4Cl and nitrate (NaNO3 applications. Our results showed that the total contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs decreased by 24 and 11 % in the ammonium and nitrate treatments, respectively. The inhibitory effects of ammonium on Gram-positive bacteria (G+ and bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF PLFA contents ranged from 14 to 40 % across the three seasons. We also observed that the absolute activities of C, N, and P hydrolyses and oxidases were inhibited by ammonium and nitrate, but that nitrate had stronger inhibitory effects on the activities of acid phosphatase (AP than ammonium. The activities of N-acquisition specific enzymes (enzyme activities normalized by total PLFA contents were about 21 and 43 % lower in the ammonium and nitrate treatments than in the control, respectively. However, the activities of P-acquisition specific enzymes were about 19 % higher in the ammonium treatment than in the control. Using redundancy analysis (RDA, we found that the measured C, N, and P hydrolysis and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities were positively correlated with the soil pH and ammonium contents, but were negatively correlated with the nitrate contents. The PLFA biomarker contents were positively

  1. Contrasting effects of ammonium and nitrate additions on the biomass of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Zou, Hong-Tao; Kou, Liang; Yang, Yang; Wen, Xue-Fa; Li, Sheng-Gong; Wang, Hui-Min; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2017-10-01

    The nitrate to ammonium ratios in nitrogen (N) compounds in wet atmospheric deposits have increased over the recent past, which is a cause for some concern as the individual effects of nitrate and ammonium deposition on the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities are still poorly defined. We established a field experiment and applied ammonium (NH4Cl) and nitrate (NaNO3) at monthly intervals over a period of 4 years. We collected soil samples from the ammonium and nitrate treatments and control plots in three different seasons, namely spring, summer, and fall, to evaluate the how the biomass of different soil microbial communities and enzyme activities responded to the ammonium (NH4Cl) and nitrate (NaNO3) applications. Our results showed that the total contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) decreased by 24 and 11 % in the ammonium and nitrate treatments, respectively. The inhibitory effects of ammonium on Gram-positive bacteria (G+) and bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) PLFA contents ranged from 14 to 40 % across the three seasons. We also observed that the absolute activities of C, N, and P hydrolyses and oxidases were inhibited by ammonium and nitrate, but that nitrate had stronger inhibitory effects on the activities of acid phosphatase (AP) than ammonium. The activities of N-acquisition specific enzymes (enzyme activities normalized by total PLFA contents) were about 21 and 43 % lower in the ammonium and nitrate treatments than in the control, respectively. However, the activities of P-acquisition specific enzymes were about 19 % higher in the ammonium treatment than in the control. Using redundancy analysis (RDA), we found that the measured C, N, and P hydrolysis and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were positively correlated with the soil pH and ammonium contents, but were negatively correlated with the nitrate contents. The PLFA biomarker contents were positively correlated with soil

  2. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  3. Influence of soil management practices and substrate availability on microbial biomass and its activities in some haplic luvisols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedel, Jurgen K [University Hohenheeim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Soil microbial biomass and activities are sensitive indicators of management effects. Higher contents of microbial biomass and higher activities, for example, are found with crop rotations in contrast to bare fallow and mono culture systems. The main reason for these differences is a higher input of crop and root residues in crop rotation systems, leading to more microbial available substrate. The objectives of this study were to describe indices for microbial available substrate in arable soils depending on management practices, and to relate them with soil microbial biomass and activities. At two locations (Muttergarten and hinger Hof near the University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, SW-Germany), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents and microbial activities were measured in haplic Luviosls. As indices for microbial available substrate, water soluble organic carbon compounds in soils were determined and decomposable young soil organic matter was calculated from organic fertilizers and crop and root residues using empirical decomposition functions. Higher ATP contents and microbial activities were observed along with organic fertilization (liquid cattle manure) than with mineral fertilization. Shallow cultivation with a rotary cultivator led to higher values of microbial properties in the upper part of the Ap horizon than ploughing. Soil microbial parameters were higher in plots under a rape-cereals crop rotation, compared to a legumes-cereals crop rotation. Microbial biomass and its activities were related more closely to decomposable young soil organic matter than to soil humus content or to any other soil property. Water soluble organic carbon compounds did not prove as an indicator of microbial available substrate. [Spanish] La biomasa y la actividad microbianas son indicadores sensibles de los efectos del manejo del suelo. Por ejemplo, con la rotacion de cultivos se obtiene un contenido y una actividad mayores de la biomasa microbiana en contraste con el simple

  4. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  5. The determination of iodine in cheese by neutron activation combined with separation of iodine by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbye, P.I.; Augustson, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Iodine has been determined in Norwegian cheese by combination of neutron activation and subsequent separation of radioiodine ( 128 I) by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8 anion exchange resin. Iodine may be detected down to 5ng in terms of absolute amounts. In terms of concentration the detection limit was 10ppb. Results showed a precision of 5 percent at a concentration level of 1ppm. (Auth.)

  6. Moisture absorption and retention properties, and activity in alleviating skin photodamage of collagen polypeptide from marine fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xue, Changhu; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Jingfeng; Bao, Yuming; Bu, Lin; Sun, Jiang; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Collagen polypeptides were prepared from cod skin. Moisture absorption and retention properties of collagen polypeptides were determined at different relative humidities. In addition, the protective effects of collagen polypeptide against UV-induced damage to mouse skin were evaluated. Collagen polypeptides had good moisture absorption and retention properties and could alleviate the damage induced by UV radiation. The action mechanisms of collagen polypeptide mainly involved enhancing immunity, reducing the loss of moisture and lipid, promoting anti-oxidative properties, inhibiting the increase of glycosaminoglycans, repairing the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibres, and maintaining the ratio of type III to type I collagen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on the associated removal of pollutants from coal-firing flue gas using biomass activated carbon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cuiping; Yuan, Wanli [Qingdao Univ., Shandong (China). Electrical and Mechanical Engineering College; Qi, Haiying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A pilot-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg from flue gas (real flue gases of an heating boiler house) at various operating conditions, including operating temperature and activated carbon materials. Excellent SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg removal efficiency was achieved with the multi-layer design with carbons pellets. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed clearly decreased as the operating temperature was increased due to the decrease of physisorption performance. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency measured at the second layer adsorption bed was very higher when the particle carbon impregnated with NH{sub 3}. The higher amounts of Hg absorbed by cotton-seed-skin activated carbon (CSAC) were mainly contributed by chlorinated congeners content. The simultaneously removal of SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}/Hg was optimization characterized with different carbon layer functions. Overall, The alkali function group and chloride content in CSAC impelled not only the outstanding physisorption but also better chemisorptions. The system for simultaneously removal of multi-pollutant-gas with biomass activated carbon pellets in multi-layer reactor was achieved and the removal results indicated was strongly depended on the activated carbon material and operating temperature.

  8. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  9. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  10. Improving physical activity, mental health outcomes, and academic retention in college students with Freshman 5 to Thrive: COPE/Healthy Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Arcoleo, Kimberly; Shaibi, Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    To assess the preliminary effects of a new course entitled Freshman 5 to Thrive/COPE Healthy Lifestyles on the cognitive beliefs, knowledge, mental health outcomes, healthy lifestyle choices, physical activity, and retention of college freshmen. Measures included demographics, nutrition knowledge, healthy lifestyle beliefs, healthy lifestyle perceived difficulty, healthy lifestyle choices, Beck Youth Inventories-II (anxiety, depression, anxiety, and destructive behavior), step count via pedometer, and college retention. The experimental COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) group had greater intentions to live a healthy lifestyle (p = .02) versus the comparison group. COPE students also significantly increased their physical activity (p = .003) from baseline to postintervention and had a higher college retention rate than students who did not take the course. In addition, there was a significant decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms in COPE students whose baseline scores were elevated. The Freshman 5 to Thrive Course is a promising intervention that can be used to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviors and improve mental health outcomes in college freshmen. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  12. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  13. Retention of Viability of Salmonella in Sucrose as Affected by Type of Inoculum, Water Activity, and Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A; Kelly, Christine A; Ortega, Ynes R

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (a w ) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at a w 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C. Retention of viability was clearly favored in sucrose stored at 5°C compared with 25°C, regardless of level or type of inoculum or a w . Survival at 5°C was not affected by a w . Initial high-inoculum counts of 5.18 and 5.25 log CFU/g of dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 and 0.54, respectively) stored for 52 weeks at 5°C decreased by 0.56 and 0.53 log CFU/g; counts decreased by >4.18 and >4.25 log CFU/g in samples stored at 25°C. Inactivation rates in wet-inoculated sucrose were similar to those in dry-inoculated sucrose; however, a trend toward higher persistence of Salmonella in dry- versus wet-inoculated sucrose suggests there was a higher proportion of cells in the wet inoculum with low tolerance to osmotic stress. Survival patterns were similar in sucrose initially containing a low level of Salmonella (2.26 to 2.91 log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from low-inoculated sucrose stored at 5°C for 52 weeks regardless of type of inoculum or a w and from dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.54) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24) stored at 25°C for 12 and 26 weeks, respectively. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of sucrose intended for use as an ingredient in foods not subjected to a treatment that would be lethal to Salmonella.

  14. Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities for hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities are identified for hydrolysis of ionic liquid (IL) pretreated poplar and switchgrass; hemicellulase rich substrates with amorphous cellulose. Enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans were expressed and purified: an endoglucanase (EG) a cellobiohydrolase (CBH)...

  15. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  16. Application of the NDHA model to describe N2O dynamics in activated sludge mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo-Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.

    A pseudo-mechanistic model describing three biological nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways was calibrated for an activated sludge mixed culture biomass treating municipal wastewater with laboratory-scale experiments. The model (NDHA) comprehensively describes N2O produci...

  17. Effects of lead contamination on soil enzymatic activities, microbial biomass, and rice physiological indices in soil-lead-rice (Oryza sativa L.) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lu S; Liao, Min; Chen, Cheng L; Huang, Chang Y

    2007-05-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) treatment on the soil enzymatic activities, soil microbial biomass, rice physiological indices and rice biomass were studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Six levels of Pb viz. 0(CK), 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 mg/kg soil were applied in two types of paddy soils. The results showed that Pb treatment had a stimulating effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) at low concentration and an inhibitory influence at higher concentration. The degree of influence on enzymatic activities and Cmic by Pb was related to the clay and organic matter contents of the soils. When the Pb treatment was raised to the level of 500 mg/kg, ecological risk appeared both to soil microorganisms and plants. The results also revealed a consistent trend of increased chlorophyll contents and rice biomass initially, maximum at a certain Pb treatment, and then decreased gradually with the increase in Pb concentration. Pb was effective in inducing proline accumulation and its toxicity causes oxidative stress in rice plants. Therefore, it was concluded that soil enzymatic activities, Cmic and rice physiological indices, could be sensitive indicators to reflect environmental stress in soil-lead-rice system.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen and Water on Soil Enzyme Activity and Soil Microbial Biomass in Stipa baicalensis Steppe,Inner Mongolia of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, eight nitrogen treatments were applied at 0 g·m -2(N0, 1.5 g·m -2(N15, 3.0 g·m -2(N30, 5.0 g·m -2(N50, 10.0 g·m -2(N100, 15.0 g·m -2(N150, 20.0 g·m -2(N200, 30.0 g·m -2(N300 as NH 4 NO 3 and adding water to simulate summer rainfall of 100 mm, the interactive experiment was set to explore the effects of nitrogen and water addition in Stipa baicalensis steppe on soil nutrients, enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass. The results showed that the nitrogen and water addition changed soil physico-chemical factors obviously, the content of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen increased along with the increasing of application rate of nitrogen, on the contrary, the soil pH value had decreasing trend. Appropriate application of nitrogen could enhance the activity of urease and catalase but decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase. Nitrogen and water addition had significant effect on soil microbial biomass C and N. Higher level of N fertilizer significantly reduced microbial biomass C, and the microbial biomass N was on the rise with the application rate of nitrogen. The addition of water could slow the inhibition of nitrogen to microorganism and increase the microbial biomass C and N. A closed relationship existed in soil nutrient, activities of soil enzyme and soil microbial biomass C and N. The significantly positive correlation existed between total N, organic C, nitrate N and catalase, significantly negative correlation between nitrate N, ammonium N, total N and polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass N was significantly positive correlated with total N, nitrate N, ammonium N, catalase, phosphatase, and was negative correlated with polyphenol oxidase. Microbial biomass C was significantly positive correlated with polyphenol oxidase, and was negative correlated with catalase.

  19. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  20. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  1. Removal of p-Nitrophenol Using Persulfate Activated by Biochars Prepared from Different Biomass Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chenfei; LI Yumeng; FENG Haiyao; JIA Shumin; XUE Ruijie; LI Gang; WANG Guoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three biochars from wheat straw(WSC),chicken manure(CMC) and rice husk(RHC) were prepared as persulfate(PS) activators for p-nitropheol(PNP) removal.RHC exhibitted the best adsorption performance,followed by WSC and CMC,which was consistant with the surface area value.PS addition further promoted the PNP removal,indicating that a synergistic effect existed in the biochar/PS combined system.The composition and textual properties of biochar had a significant effect on the reactivity of activator and the function groups containing oxgygen or nitrogen might play important roles in the reaction.WSC could perform efficiently over a pH range from 4.4 to 10.4.The decrease in activation performance in cycle experiments was possiblely related to the loss of oxgygen-containing groups.

  2. Metaproteome analysis to determine the metabolically active part of a thermophilic microbial community producing biogas from agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanreich, Angelika; Heyer, Robert; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Pioch, Markus; Reichl, Udo; Klocke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biogas production. A lot of information about the taxonomic structure and enzymatic potential of such communities has been collected by a variety of gene-based approaches, yet little is known about which of all the assumable metabolic pathways are active throughout the process of biogas formation. To tackle this problem, we established a protocol for the metaproteomic analysis of samples taken from biogas reactors fed with agricultural biomass. In contrast to previous studies where an anaerobic digester was fed with synthetic wastewater, the complex matrix in this study required the extraction of proteins with liquid phenol and the application of paper bridge loading for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were subjected to nanoHPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for characterization. Several housekeeping proteins as well as methanogenesis-related enzymes were identified by a MASCOT search and de novo sequencing, which proved the feasibility of our approach. The establishment of such an approach is the basis for further metaproteomic studies of biogas-producing communities. In particular, the apparent status of metabolic activities within the communities can be monitored. The knowledge collected from such experiments could lead to further improvements of biogas production.

  3. Biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural induce formation of messenger RNP granules and attenuate translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Kawai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Izawa, Shingo

    2013-03-01

    Various forms of stress can cause an attenuation of bulk translation activity and the accumulation of nontranslating mRNAs into cytoplasmic messenger RNP (mRNP) granules termed processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) in eukaryotic cells. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from lignocellulosic biomass, inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as stressors. Since there is no report regarding their effects on the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules, here we investigated whether furfural and HMF cause the assembly of yeast P-bodies and SGs accompanied by translational repression. We found that furfural and HMF cause the attenuation of bulk translation activity and the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, a combination of furfural and HMF induced the remarkable repression of translation initiation and SG formation. These findings provide new information about the physiological effects of furfural and HMF on yeast cells, and also suggest the potential usefulness of cytoplasmic mRNP granules as a warning sign or index of the deterioration of cellular physiological status in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  4. Spatial distribution of microbial biomass, activity, community structure, and the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federle, T W; Ventullo, R M; White, D C

    1990-12-01

    The vertical distribution of microbial biomass, activity, community structure and the mineralization of xenobiotic chemicals was examined in two soil profiles in northern Wisconsin. One profile was impacted by infiltrating wastewater from a laundromat, while the other served as a control. An unconfined aquifer was present 14 meters below the surface at both sites. Biomass and community structure were determined by acridine orange direct counts and measuring concentrations of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA). Microbial activity was estimated by measuring fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, thymidine incorporation into DNA, and mixed amino acid (MAA) mineralization. Mineralization kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) were determined at each depth. Except for MAA mineralization rates, measures of microbial biomass and activity exhibited similar patterns with depth. PLFA concentration and rates of FDA hydrolysis and thymidine incorporation decreased 10-100 fold below 3 m and then exhibited little variation with depth. Fungal fatty acid markers were found at all depths and represented from 1 to 15% of the total PLFAs. The relative proportion of tuberculostearic acid (TBS), an actinomycete marker, declined with depth and was not detected in the saturated zone. The profile impacted by wastewater exhibited higher levels of PLFA but a lower proportion of TBS than the control profile. This profile also exhibited faster rates of FDA hydrolysis and amino acid mineralization at most depths. LAS was mineralized in the upper 2 m of the vadose zone and in the saturated zone of both profiles. Little or no LAS biodegradation occurred at depths between 2 and 14 m. LAE was mineralized at all depths in both profiles, and the mineralization rate exhibited a similar pattern with depth as biomass and activity measurements. In general, biomass and biodegradative activities were much lower in groundwater than in soil samples obtained

  5. Optimization of biomass production of a mutant of Yarrowia lipolytica with an increased lipase activity using raw glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Galvagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica accumulates oils and is able to produce extracellular lipases when growing in different carbon sources including glycerol, the principal by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study, biomass production of a novel mutant strain of Y. lipolytica was statistically optimized by Response Surface Methodology in media containing biodiesel-derived glycerol as main carbon source. This strain exhibited distinctive morphological and fatty acid profile characteristics, and showed an increased extracellular lipase activity. An organic source of nitrogen and the addition of 1.0 g/l olive oil were necessary for significant lipase production. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Statistical Designs were employed for screening and optimization of fermentation in shaken flasks cultures, and the maximum values obtained were 16.1 g/l for biomass and 12.2 Units/ml for lipase, respectively. Optimized batch bioprocess was thereafter scaled in aerated bioreactors and the values reached for lipase specific activity after 95 % of the glycerol had been consumed, were three-fold higher than those obtained in shaken flasks cultures. A sustainable bioprocess to obtain biomass and extracellular lipase activity was attained by maximizing the use of the by-products of biodiesel industry.Optimización de la producción de biomasa usando glicerol crudo, de una cepa mutante de Yarrowia lipolytica con actividad incrementada de lipasa. La levadura Yarrowia lipolytica acumula aceites y produce una lipasa extracelular al crecer en diferentes fuentes de carbono, entre ellas el glicerol, principal subproducto de la creciente industria del biodiésel. En el presente trabajo, se optimizó mediante la metodología de superficies de respuesta la producción de biomasa de una nueva cepa mutante de Y. lipolytica, empleando medios con glicerol derivado de la industria del biodiésel como principal fuente de carbono. Esta cepa presentó caracter

  6. Physiologically active hydrogel (in situ gel of sparfloxacin and its evaluation for ocular retention using gamma scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the structure and physiological barrier of eye, only 1% of instilled dose is available for action on the corneal surface. In this work, we developed and evaluated chitosan (pH sensitive and gellan gum (ion sensitive in situ gel of sparfloxacin to improve precorneal residence time. Materials and Methods: A protocol for radiolabeling of sparfloxacin with Tc-99m was optimized to study the ocular retention using gamma scintigraphy technique. Results: The clear formulation was developed. In vitro release showed a sustained and prolonged release compared to plain eye drop solution. Dynamic and static gamma scintigraphy showed better retention than plain eye drops. The ocular tolerance test (hen′s egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test and infra-red study showed that the formulation is nonirritant and can be used as ocular vehicle. Conclusion: Radiolabel protocol for sparfloxacin was successfully developed and evaluated on ocular retention studies of developed in situ gel. The developed in situ gel is non irritant and can go further with clinical evaluation.

  7. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihui; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system.

  8. Organic cultivation of Ashwagandha with improved biomass and high content of active Withanolides: Use of Vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Baldev; Ohri, Puja; Wang, Jia; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Kaur, Arvinder

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment. In view of these, we attempted to recruit Vermicompost (Vcom, 20-100%) as an organic fertilizer of choice during the sowing and growing phases of Ashwagandha plants. We report that (i) pre-soaking of seeds for 12 h in Vermicompost leachate (Vcom-L) and Vermicompost tea (Vcom-T) led to higher germination, (ii) binary combination of pre-soaking of seeds and cultivation in Vcom (up to 80%) resulted in further improvement both in germination and seedling growth, (iii) cultivated plants in the presence of Vcom+Vcom-L showed higher leaf and root mass, earlier onset of flowering and fruiting and (iv) leaves from the Vcom+Vcom-L cultivated plants showed higher level of active Withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N), Withanolide A (Wil-A) and Withaferin A (Wi-A) and showed anticancer activities in cell culture assays. Taken together, we report a simple and inexpensive method for improving the yield and pharmaceutical components of Ashwagandha leaves.

  9. Managing retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990).

  10. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  11. Removal of mercury ion from aqueous solution by activated carbons obtained from biomass and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Yardim, F. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey); Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Razvigorova, M.; Minkova, V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad.G.Bonchev, str. bl. 9, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-06-20

    The adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution at 293 K by activated carbons obtained from apricot stones, furfural and coals was studied. Adsorption studies were performed under the varying conditions of time of treatment, metal ion concentration and pH. The process of adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. The removal of Hg(II) increased with the increase of pH of the solution from 2 to 5 and remained constant up to pH 10. Desorption studies were preformed.

  12. Application of microbial biomass and activity measures to assess in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, T.J.; Herbes, S.E.; Palumbo, A.V.; Pfiffner, S.M.; Mackowski, R.; Ringelberg, D.; White, D.C.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of chlorinated solvent remediation in the subsurface can be a significant problem given uncertainties in estimating the total mass of contaminants present. If the remediation technique is a biological activity, information on the progress and success of the remediation may be gained by monitoring changes in the mass and activities of microbial populations. The in situ bioremediation demonstration at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to test the effectiveness of methane injection for the stimulation of in sediments. Past studies have shown the potential for degradation by native microbial populations. The design and implementation of the SRS Integrated Demonstration is described in this volume. A control phase without treatment was followed by a phase withdrawing air. The next phase included vacuum extraction plus air injection into the lower horizontal well located below the water table. The next period included the injection of 1% methane in air followed by injection of 4% methane in air. Based on the literature, it was hypothesized that the injection of methane would stimulate methanotrophic populations and thus accelerate biological degradation of TCE. Measuring the success of bioremediation is a complex effort that includes monitoring of changes in microbial populations associated with TCE degradation. These monitoring efforts are described in this paper and in related papers in this volume

  13. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  14. Physiological responses of biomass allocation, root architecture, and invertase activity to copper stress in young seedlings from two populations of Kummerowia stipulacea (maxim.) Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luan; Pan, Yuxue; Lv, Wei; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, we hypothesize that mine (metallicolous) populations of metallophytes form a trade-off between the roots and shoots when under copper (Cu) stress to adapt themselves to heavy metal contaminated habitats, and thus, differ from normal (non-metallicolous) populations in biomass allocation. To test the hypothesis, two populations of the metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea, one from an ancient Cu mine (MP) and the other from a non-contaminated site (NMP), were treated with Cu(2+) in hydroponic conditions. The results showed that MP plants had higher root/shoot biomass allocation and more complicated root system architecture compared to those of the NMP plants when under Cu stress. The net photosynthetic capacity was more inhibited in the NMP plants than in the MP plants when under Cu stress. The sugar (sucrose and hexose) contents and acid invertase activities of MP plants were elevated while those in NMP plants were inhibited after Cu treatment. The neutral/alkaline invertase activities and sucrose synthase level showed no significant differences between the two populations when under Cu stress. The results showed that acid invertase played an important role in biomass allocation and that the physiological responses were beneficial for the high root/shoot biomass allocation, which were advantageous during adaptive evolution to Cu-enriched mine soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aggregate size and architecture determine biomass activity for one-stage partial nitritation and anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    to the inoculation and operation of the reactors. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on aggregate sections to quantify AerAOB and AnAOB, as well as to visualize the aggregate architecture. The activity balance of the aggregates was calculated as the nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR), i...... and nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic space in these granules consisted of AerAOB- and AnAOB-specific EPS. Large B aggregates were...... thin film-like nitrite sinks (NARR,

  16. Tea waste biomass activated carbon electrode for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and fluoride by capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Mahendra S; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive deionization is promising less energy based desalination technique to achieve pure water. In the present study microporous activated carbon was prepared from tea waste biomass by chemical and thermal modification. Further TWBAC was used for preparation of the electrode. The TWBAC electrode was applied in the self-made CDI set up for simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and fluoride (F) form mixed feed solution of Cr(VI) and F. The performance of TWBAC electrode was found effective for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and F from mixed feed solution. The maximum electrosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and F were found 0.77 and 0.74 mg g -1 for 10 mg L -1 and 2.83 and 2.49 mg g -1 for 100 mg L -1 mixed feed solution respectively. The higher removal of Cr(VI) was found due to the electrosorption selectivity of the divalent CrO 4 2- is higher than that of the monovalent F - . Multicomponent isotherm modeling and kinetic study were carried out in this study. TWBAC CDI electrode could be useful for treatment of a low concentrated Cr(VI) and F containing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt for supercapacitors and oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Jin, Xin; Wang, Linan; Sun, Mengjia; Tang, Yang; Chen, Yongmei; Sun, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaojin; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-07-01

    Biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt (denoted as NPACCo) was prepared by one-pot pyrolysis of pomelo peel with melamine, cobalt nitrate and potassium hydroxide, followed by acid leaching. NPACCo possesses high content of quaternary-N (2.5%) and pyridinic-N (1.7%), co-existences of amorphous and short-range ordered carbon, high specific surface area and pore structure with majority of micropores and small mesopores. As electrode material of supercapacitors, NPACCo exhibits high specific capacitance and good rate capability. At ultrahigh rate of 50 A g-1 (135 mA cm-2), the capacitance of NPACCo remains 246 F g-1, which is 6.3, 1.9 and 3.2 times as high as that of other three materials (PC, PAC and NPAC). The as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor of NPACCo delivers high energy density, high power density and excellent cycling stability. With respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), NPACCo exhibits high onset potential (0.87 V), high half-wave potential (0.78 V), excellent methanol tolerance and low yield of H2O2. The ORR properties of NPACCo are comparable or superior to those of commercial Pt/C. This investigation of pomelo peel-based NPACCo would be valuable for development of both supercapacitor and ORR.

  18. Fluctuation of microbial activities after influent load variations in a full-scale SBR. Recovery of the biomass after starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Angela; Draper, Patricia; Etchebehere, Claudia [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Quimica y Facultad de Ciencias

    2009-10-15

    Due to variations in the production levels, a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for post-treatment of tannery wastewater was exposed to low and high ammonia load periods. In order to study how these changes affected the N-removal capacity, the microbiology of the reactor was studied by a diverse set of techniques including molecular tools, activity tests, and microbial counts in samples taken along 3 years. The recover capacity of the biomass was also studied in a lab-scale reactor operated with intermittent aeration without feeding for 36 days. The results showed that changes in the feeding negatively affected the nitrifying community, but the nitrogen removal efficiencies could be restored after the concentration stress. Species substitution was observed within the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter predominated initially, and after an ammonia overload period, Nitrosomonas nitrosa and Nitrospira became dominant. Some denitrifiers, with nirS related to Alicycliphilus, Azospirillum, and Marinobacter nirS, persisted during long-term reactor operation, but the community fluctuated both in composition and in abundance. This fluctuating community may better resist the continuous changes in the feeding regime. Our results showed that a nitrifying-denitrifying SBR could be operated with low loads or even without feeding during production shut down periods. (orig.)

  19. Reduction of oxidative cellular damage by overexpression of the thioredoxin TRX2 gene improves yield and quality of wine yeast dry active biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Joaquim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, adapted to anaerobic must fermentations, suffer oxidative stress when they are grown under aerobic conditions for biomass propagation in the industrial process of active dry yeast production. Oxidative metabolism of sugars favors high biomass yields but also causes increased oxidation damage of cell components. The overexpression of the TRX2 gene, coding for a thioredoxin, enhances oxidative stress resistance in a wine yeast strain model. The thioredoxin and also the glutathione/glutaredoxin system constitute the most important defense against oxidation. Trx2p is also involved in the regulation of Yap1p-driven transcriptional response against some reactive oxygen species. Results Laboratory scale simulations of the industrial active dry biomass production process demonstrate that TRX2 overexpression increases the wine yeast final biomass yield and also its fermentative capacity both after the batch and fed-batch phases. Microvinifications carried out with the modified strain show a fast start phenotype derived from its enhanced fermentative capacity and also increased content of beneficial aroma compounds. The modified strain displays an increased transcriptional response of Yap1p regulated genes and other oxidative stress related genes. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like Sod1p, Sod2p and catalase are also enhanced. Consequently, diminished oxidation of lipids and proteins is observed in the modified strain, which can explain the improved performance of the thioredoxin overexpressing strain. Conclusions We report several beneficial effects of overexpressing the thioredoxin gene TRX2 in a wine yeast strain. We show that this strain presents an enhanced redox defense. Increased yield of biomass production process in TRX2 overexpressing strain can be of special interest for several industrial applications.

  20. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Slade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA surrogate particles exposed to OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR. Levoglucosan (LEV, 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC, and potassium sulfate (KS serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC or inorganic ions

  1. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  2. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  3. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  4. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M.; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  6. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous inorganic/organic particles representative of biomass burning: water activity, freezing temperatures, nucleation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Daniel A; Rigg, Yannick J

    2011-02-10

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. Here we report on homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients of aqueous droplets serving as surrogates of biomass burning aerosol. Micrometer-sized (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/levoglucosan droplets with mass ratios of 10:1, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and aqueous multicomponent organic droplets with and without (NH(4))(2)SO(4) under typical tropospheric temperatures and relative humidities are investigated experimentally using a droplet conditioning and ice nucleation apparatus coupled to an optical microscope with image analysis. Homogeneous freezing was determined as a function of temperature and water activity, a(w), which was set at droplet preparation conditions. The ice nucleation data indicate that minor addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the aqueous organic droplets renders the temperature dependency of water activity negligible in contrast to the case of aqueous organic solution droplets. The mean homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient derived from 8 different aqueous droplet compositions with average diameters of ∼60 μm for temperatures as low as 195 K and a(w) of 0.82-1 is 2.18 × 10(6) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with predictions of the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory when taking predictive uncertainties into account. However, the presented ice nucleation data indicate that the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory overpredicts the freezing temperatures by up to 3 K and corresponding ice nucleation rate coefficients by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude. A shift of 0.01 in a(w), which is well within the uncertainty of typical field and laboratory relative humidity measurements, brings experimental and predicted freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice

  9. Bacterial biomass and activity in the deep waters of the eastern Atlantic—evidence of a barophilic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, J. W.; Eardly, D.

    1997-09-01

    Bacterial biomass and activity were investigated in deep waters at two sites in the eastern Atlantic, of similar depth (4560-4800 m), but varying in their nutritional status. The Northern (N) site was eutrophic and subject to a strong seasonal input of surface derived organic matter (phytodetritus) to the sediment. The Southern (S) site was oligotrophic. Deep water at this site does not appear to receive any strong seasonal input. Bacterial numbers in the deep water column at the N site showed no significant seasonal variation but were greater than those at the S site. Deep water bacteria were typically small and free-living. From biovolume determinations, it was estimated that mean concentrations of bacterial organic carbon at depths greater than 500 m were 0.12 (0.03-0.29) μg C 1 -1 and 0.02 (0.01-0.04) μg C 1 -1 at the N and S sites, respectively. Rates of thymidine and leucine incorporation were used as indicators of bacterial activity. Bacterial communities in water in contact with the sediment (SCW; sediment contact water) at both sites (but especially at the S site) were strongly barophilic at in situ temperatures (2.5-4.1°C). The barophilic response of thymidine incorporation was enhanced when SCW samples from the N site were incubated at 11.5°C. It is proposed that this result indicated an elevating effect of pressure on cardinal temperatures and that the SCW community was obligately psychrophilic when unpressurised. Comparison of cell-specific incorporation rates determined under in situ conditions showed bacteria in the SCW to have levels of activity comparable with bacteria from a depth of 150 m. Thymidine incorporation rates were highest in SCW samples taken at the N site in May 1988 and September 1989. Thymidine incorporation by SCW samples taken immediately before (10 April 1994) the main spring-bloom-associated deposition of phytodetritus was significantly lower and comparable with that determined for the oligotrophic S site. The attributes

  10. Biomass for energy. Danish solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Information is given on a number of typical and recently established plants of all types and sizes, for converting the main Danish biomass resources (manures, straw and wood derived from agricultural activities and forestry)into energy. Danish biomass resources and energy and environmental policies are described. In Denmark there is a very wide range of technologies for converting biomass into energy, and these are clarified. In addition, performance data from a number of plants fuelled with biomass fuels are presented. The course of further developments within this field is suggested. The text is illustrated with a considerable number of coloured photographs and also with graphs and diagrams. (ARW)

  11. Medium activity long-lived nuclear waste; microbial paradise or hadean environment - Evaluation of biomass and impact on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Libert, M.

    2010-01-01

    near-field biogeochemistry without detailed knowledge of kinetic parameters: The first approach is a mass balance which considers the masses of both the oxidizing and the reducing agents in a single waste cell. In the simplest case only nitrates, sulphates and Fe(0) are considered; nitrates are reduced to N 2 , sulphates to S 2- , and all Fe is oxidised to Fe 3 O 4 , the latter generating hydrogen gas. Of the produced H 2 , 25% serves to reduce nitrates and 55% to reduce sulphates. Further mass balance calculations are underway that consider the direct reaction of nitrates with Fe(0), a reaction for which very little relevant information is available. It is know that nitrate solutions may inhibit corrosion, but they are also known to react with iron. Furthermore, Fe(III), initially present in the engineered barrier or in the host rock and produced as a consequence of Fe(II) oxidation by O 2 during waste cell opening, will also be considered. The second approach combines the previous one with a quantification of free energies, which in turn can be used to form microbial biomass according to the simple relationship 1 g per 64 kJ. With balanced stoichiometric reactions and thermodynamic data at pH 12 first estimates indicate a production of 0.7 kg of biomass per waste container. This is significantly higher than what has been estimated for high-level waste cells, where bacterial activity was modelled to be essentially limited to the first 100 years, when the system is partially characterised by the presence of O 2 . However, these preliminary calculations assume that all nutrients are simultaneously bioavailable and that the energy requirement for microbial biomass production at low pH can be used as a first estimate for higher pH setting. Ongoing work will be presented that considers parameter uncertainties using a Monte Carlo approach, results which allow assessing the upper and lower limits of bacterial production. These values can then be used to quantify the

  12. A Comparison of Producer Gas, Biochar, and Activated Carbon from Two Distributed Scale Thermochemical Conversion Systems Used to Process Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or characterized with regards to chemical properties, possible uses, and markets. This paper characterizes the producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon of a 700 kg h−1 prototype gasification system and a 225 kg h−1 pyrolysis system used to process coniferous sawmill and forest residues. Producer gas from sawmill residues processed with the gasifier had higher energy content than gas from forest residues, with averages of 12.4 MJ m−3 and 9.8 MJ m−3, respectively. Gases from the pyrolysis system averaged 1.3 MJ m−3 for mill residues and 2.5 MJ m−3 for forest residues. Biochars produced have similar particle size distributions and bulk density, but vary in pH and carbon content. Biochars from both systems were successfully activated using steam activation, with resulting BET surface area in the range of commercial activated carbon. Results are discussed in the context of co-locating these systems with forest industry operations.

  13. Assessment of radical scavenging, whitening and moisture retention activities of Panax ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles as safe and efficient novel cosmetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zuly; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Seo, Kwang-Hoon; Mohanan, Padmanaban; Ahn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-01

    Panax ginseng berry extract possess remarkable pharmacological effects on skin treatment such as anti-aging, antioxidant, promotor of collagen synthesis and alleviation against atopic dermatitis. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extensive range of applications in particular in the field of drug delivery as a result of their biological compatibility and low toxicity. In a previous study, we designed and developed biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles based on phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacy of P. ginseng berry extract, we were able to reduce gold ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. However, its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of the present study is to investigate the moisture retention, in-vitro scavenging and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng berry in cosmetic applications. Our findings confirm that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles exhibited moisture retention capacity. In addition, MTT assay results confirmed that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cells, possess scavenging activity, protect and provide alleviation against injured caused by H 2 O 2 -induced damage. In addition, P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles, significantly reduced melanin content and suppress tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16BL6 cells. We conclude that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and environmental affable materials and can be a potential novel cosmetic ingredient.

  14. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  15. Seasonal Variation in Soil Microbial Biomass, Bacterial Community Composition and Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Relation to Soil Respiration in a Northern Great Plains Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, E.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Soil respiration rate is affected by seasonal changes in temperature and moisture, but is this a direct effect on soil metabolism or an indirect effect caused by changes in microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and substrate availability? In order to address this question, we compared continuous measurements of soil and plant CO2 exchange made with an automatic chamber system to analyses conducted on replicate soil samples collected on four dates during June-August. Microbial biomass was estimated from substrate-induced respiration rate, bacterial community composition was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing, and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase) and phenol oxidase enzyme activities were assayed fluorometrically or by absorbance measurements, respectively. Soil microbial biomass declined from June to August in strong correlation with a progressive decline in soil moisture during this time period. Soil bacterial species richness and alpha diversity showed no significant seasonal change. However, bacterial community composition showed a progressive shift over time as measured by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. In particular, the change in community composition was associated with increasing relative abundance in the alpha and delta classes, and declining abundance of the beta and gamma classes of the Proteobacteria phylum during June-August. NAGase showed a progressive seasonal decline in potential activity that was correlated with microbial biomass and seasonal changes in soil moisture. In contrast, phenol oxidase showed highest potential activity in mid-July near the time of peak soil respiration and ecosystem photosynthesis, which may represent a time of high input of carbon exudates into the soil from plant roots. This input of exudates may stimulate the activity of phenol oxidase, a lignolytic enzyme involved in the breakdown of soil organic matter. These analyses indicated that seasonal change in soil respiration is a complex

  16. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization Biomass Characterization NREL provides high-quality analytical characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products, a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion clear, amber liquid Standard Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedures We maintain a library of

  17. Attention Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravchenko, Mariia; Cass, Andrew Knox

    2017-01-01

    As teachers look for ways to improve practice and enhance student engagement, referral to the literature leads to a dichotomy between specific activity and heavy academic research on metadata and learning analytics. This paper is intended to tread the pathway between the two so that teachers can,...

  18. Data on effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity, respiration and activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in isolated rat brain mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Rekuviene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Rotenone decreases ischemia-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition in mature brains” (Rekuviene et al., 2017 [1]. Data in this article present the direct effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity (CRC in isolated normal cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, effects of rotenone intravenous infusion on leak and phosphorylating respiration rates of isolated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, on activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in freezed-thawed/sonicated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria after brain ischemia. In addition, detailed experimental procedures of isolation of brain mitochondria, measurements of CRC, respiration, activities of respiratory chain complexes and H2O2 generation in cortex and cerebellum mitochondria are described.

  19. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  20. [Influence of different slope position and profile in Disporopsis pernyi forest land on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in southwest Karst mountain of China ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Jun; He, Bing-Hui; Zhao, Xuan-chi; Li, Yuan; Mao, Wen-tao; Zeng, Qing-ping

    2014-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity are important parameters to evaluate the quality of the soil environment. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of different slope position and section in Disporopsis pernyi forest land on the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in southwest Karst Mountain. In this study, we chose the Dip forest land at Yunfo village Chengdong town Liangping country Chongqing Province as the study object, to analyze the influence of three different slope positions [Up Slope(US), Middle Slope(MS), Below Slope(BS)] and two different sections-upper layer(0-15 cm) and bottom layer(15-30 cm) on the soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN), microbial carbon entropy (qMBC), microbial nitrogen entropy (qMBN) , catalase(CAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK), urease(URE), and invertase(INV). The results showed that the same trend (BS > MS > US) was found for SMBC, SMBN, qMBC, qMBN, CAT and INV of upper soil layer, while a different trend (BS > US > MS) was observed for ALK. In addition, another trend (MS > US > BS) was observed for URE. The same trend (BS > MS >US) was observed for SMBN, qMBN, CAT, ALK, URE and INV in bottom layer, but a different trend (MS > BS > US) was observed for SMBC and qMBC. The SMBC, SMBN, CAT, ALK, URE and INV manifested as upper > bottom with reduction of the section, while qMBC and qMBN showed the opposite trend. Correlation analysis indicated that there were significant (P <0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations among SMBC in different slope position and section, soil enzyme activity and moisture. According to the two equations of regression analysis, SMBC tended to increase with the increasing CAT and ALK, while decreased with the increasing pH. Then SMBN tended to increase with the increasing URE and INV.

  1. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P<0.05. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the Fon population declined significantly in the watermelon/wheat companion system compared with the monoculture system (P<0.05. The analysis of microbial communities showed that the relative abundance of microbial communities was changed in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Compared with the monoculture system, the relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Sordariomycetes were increased, and the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Cytophagia, Pezizomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were decreased in the rhizosphere of watermelon in the watermelon/wheat companion system; importantly, the incidence of Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system.

  2. Removal of antibiotics in wastewater: Effect of hydraulic and solid retention times on the fate of tetracycline in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungpyo; Eichhorn, Peter; Jensen, James N; Weber, A Scott; Aga, Diana S

    2005-08-01

    A study was conducted to examine the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT) on the removal of tetracycline in the activated sludge processes. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to simulate the activated sludge process. One SBR was spiked with 250 microg/L tetracycline, while the other SBR was evaluated at tetracycline concentrations found in the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) where the activated sludge was obtained. The concentrations of tetracyclines in the influent of the WWTP ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 microg/L. Three different operating conditions were applied during the study (phase 1-HRT: 24 h and SRT: 10 days; phase 2-HRT: 7.4 h and SRT: 10 days; and phase 3-HRT: 7.4 h and SRT: 3 days). The removal efficiency of tetracycline in phase 3 (78.4 +/- 7.1%) was significantly lower than that observed in phase 1 (86.4 +/- 8.7%) and phase 2 (85.1 +/- 5.4%) at the 95% confidence level. The reduction of SRT in phase 3 while maintaining a constant HRT decreased tetracycline removal efficiency. Sorption kinetics reached equilibrium within 24 h. Batch equilibrium experiments yielded an adsorption coefficient (Kads) of 8400 +/- 500 mL/g and a desorption coefficient (Kdes) of 22 600 +/- 2200 mL/g. No evidence of biodegradation for tetracycline was observed during the biodegradability test, and sorption was found to be the principal removal mechanism of tetracycline in activated sludge.

  3. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha eMiazga-Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to nine months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4 °C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g was added to retention pond water (100 mL amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12 °C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4 °C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  4. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  5. Novel Magnetic Cross-Linked Cellulase Aggregates with a Potential Application in Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junqi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Zengjie; Yang, Xianling; Wang, Na; Yu, Xiaoqi

    2017-02-10

    The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials. The immobilized cellulase showed a better activity at a wider temperature range and pH values than that of the free cellulase. After six cycles of consecutive reuse, the immobilized cellulase performed successful magnetic separation and retained 74% of its initial activity when carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as the model substrate. Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the immobilized cellulase were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the immobilized cellulase was shown to hydrolyze bamboo biomass with a yield of 21%, and was re-used in biomass conversion up to four cycles with 38% activity retention, which indicated that the immobilized enzyme has good potential for biomass applications.

  6. Determination of quantitative retention-activity relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and biological effectiveness fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoshi; Huang, Hongzhang; Zheng, Aini; Yu, Nuojun; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography (MELC). The quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) of the constituents were established to model their pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and chromatographic retention data, and generate their biological effectiveness fingerprints. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to determine the abundance of the extracted danshen constituents, such as sodium danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. And another HPLC protocol was established to determine the abundance of those constituents in rat plasma samples. An experimental model was built in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and calculated the corresponding PK parameterst with 3P97 software package. Thirty-five model drugs were selected to test the PK parameter prediction capacities of the various MELC systems and to optimize the chromatographic protocols. QRARs and generated PK fingerprints were established. The test included water/oil-soluble danshen constituents and the prediction capacity of the regression model was validated. The results showed that the model had good predictability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  8. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, P D [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    1995-12-01

    with briquetting technology in India. To set up the first units, private industries from both developed and developing countries will have to play a dominant role, with assistance from international funding organizations and their respective Governments. Manufacturing activities should gradually be transferred to developing countries, under licensing agreements, because plants installed by developed countries tend to be more expensive and economically unviable. This approach has been successfully practiced for other technologies and will be addressed in this paper. Used sustainably, biomass resource can help to meet the growing demand for energy. (author) 10 refs, 4 figs

  9. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    with briquetting technology in India. To set up the first units, private industries from both developed and developing countries will have to play a dominant role, with assistance from international funding organizations and their respective Governments. Manufacturing activities should gradually be transferred to developing countries, under licensing agreements, because plants installed by developed countries tend to be more expensive and economically unviable. This approach has been successfully practiced for other technologies and will be addressed in this paper. Used sustainably, biomass resource can help to meet the growing demand for energy. (author)

  10. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  11. Effect of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids on erythrocyte deformability, NO production and Na,K-ATPase activity in healthy and LPS treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, J; Mezesova, L; Okruhlicova, L; Frimmel, K; Breierova, E; Bartekova, M; Vrbjar, N

    2016-11-25

    Measurements of red blood cell (RBC) deformability together with estimation of NO-synthase activity and Na,K-ATPase activity were used for characterization of RBC functionality in rats subjected to single dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at a dose of 1 mg/kg. We hypothesized that LPS might initiate a malfunction of RBC. We also investigated the potential effect of carotenoids (10 mg/kg/day) produced in red yeast biomass of Rhodotorula glutinis on RBC in LPS-challenged rats. LPS significantly reduced the deformability of RBC (by 14%) together with decrease of NO-synthase activity by 20%. Daily supplementation of carotenoids for 10 days attenuated the LPS-induced injury, as observed by 22% increase of RBC deformability and 23% increase of NO-synthase activity. The activity of Na,K-ATPase was also improved probably due to increased number of active enzyme molecules as indicated by 66% enhancement of Vmax value, hence maintaining the activity of erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase to the level even higher as compared with healthy control animals. It may be concluded that administration of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids resulted in advanced function of erythrocytes as concerns their ability to squeeze through narrow capillaries of the circulation, better intrinsic production of NO and improvement of intracellular homeostasis of sodium.

  12. Amino acids in cell wall of Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus sp. hsn08 with flocculation activity on Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the flocculation mechanism by Gram-positive bacterium, Micrococcus sp. hsn08 as a means for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris biomass. Bacterial cells of Micrococcus sp. hsn08 were added into algal culture to harvest algal cells through direct contacting with algae to form flocs. Viability dependence test confirmed that flocculation activity does not depend on live bacteria, but on part of the peptidoglycan. The further investigation has determined that amino acids in cell wall play an important role to flocculate algal cells. Positively charged calcium can combine bacterial and algal cells together, and form a bridge between them, thereby forming the flocs, suggesting that ions bridging is the main flocculation mechanism. These results suggest that bacterial cells of Micrococcus sp. hsn08 can be applied to harvest microalgae biomass with the help of amino acids in cell wall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon retention in the soil–plant system under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    their environmental impacts. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) at early fruiting stage. In Exp. I, each plant...... to a greater microbial activity in the two treatments; particularly the PRI induced drying and wetting cycles of the soils may cause an increase of microbial activities and respiration rate, which could lead to more C losses from the soil. However, in both experiments the total C concentration in the PRI...... in the two experiments might have affected the C retention in the soil and in the plant biomass. Nevertheless, with a same degree of water saving, PRI was superior to DI in terms of enhancing C concentration in the plant biomass, which might have contributed to a better fruit quality in tomatoes as reported...

  14. Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

  15. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  16. The effect of active forms of silicon on the biomass of agricultural crops during their growth period on technogenically altered soils of the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V. Wagner

    2017-05-01

    biomass under the influence of SiO2 solutions with concentration higher than 0.2%. Possibly, the increase in biomass during the first 14 days is connected with adsorbing activity of silicon, which retains water and accelerates the development of plants. Even with low content of available nitrogen and phosphorum, addition of silicon compounds increased the biomass of plants by two-four times, therefore silicon in this case is a limiting factor.

  17. Nitrifying bacterial biomass and nitrification activity evaluated by FISH and an automatic on-line instrument at full-scale Fusina (Venice, Italy) WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoer, S; Miana, P; Della Sala, S; Marchiori, G; Tandoi, V; Di Pippo, F

    2015-12-01

    In this study, monthly variations in biomass of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were analysed over a 1-year period by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) at the full-scale Fusina WWTP. The nitrification capacity of the plant was also monitored using periodic respirometric batch tests and by an automated on-line titrimetric instrument (TITrimetric Automated ANalyser). The percentage of nitrifying bacteria in the plant was the highest in summer and was in the range of 10-15 % of the active biomass. The maximum nitrosation rate varied in the range 2.0-4.0 mg NH4 g(-1) VSS h(-1) (0.048-0.096 kg TKN kg(-1) VSS day(-1)): values obtained by laboratory measurements and the on-line instrument were similar and significantly correlated. The activity measurements provided a valuable tool for estimating the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loading possible at the plant and provided an early warning of whether the TKN was approaching its limiting value. The FISH analysis permitted determination of the nitrifying biomass present. The main operational parameter affecting both the population dynamics and the maximum nitrosation activity was mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) concentration and was negatively correlated with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (p = 0.029) and (NOB) (p = 0.01) abundances and positively correlated with maximum nitrosation rates (p = 0.035). Increases in concentrations led to decreases in nitrifying bacteria abundance, but their nitrosation activity was higher. These results demonstrate the importance of MLVSS concentration as key factor in the development and activity of nitrifying communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Operational data on VSS and sludge volume index (SVI) values are also presented on 11-year basis observations.

  18. VESPA. Behaviour of long-lived fission and activation products in the nearfield of a nuclear waste repository and the possibilities of their retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischofer, Barbara; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); and others

    2016-06-15

    The present document is the final report of the Joint Research Project VESPA (Behaviour of Long-lived Fission and Activation Products in the Near Field of a Nuclear Waste Repository and the Possibilities of Their Retention), started in July 2010 with a duration of four years. The following four institutions were collaborative Partners in VESPA: - Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH - Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) - Institut fuer Ressourcenoekologie (IRE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) - Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) VESPA was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) under the contract numbers 02 E 10770 (GRS), 02 E 10780 (FZJ-IEF-6), 02 E 10790 (HZDR-IRE), 02 E 10800 (KIT-INE).

  19. Effects of electroacupuncture at BL33 on detrusor smooth muscle activity in a rat model of urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Kun; Zhi, Mujun; Mo, Qian; Gao, Xinyan; Liu, Zhishun

    2017-12-01

    Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) underactivity may lead to urinary retention (UR). Electroacupuncture (EA) at BL33 may be effective in improving DSM contractions. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of EA at BL33; and (2) the effect of different manipulation methods at BL33 on the modulation of DSM contractions in UR rats. 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised with urethane and modelled by urethral outlet obstruction. First, 2 Hz EA at BL33, SP6 and LI4 wasrandomly applied to the UR rats for 5 min to observe the immediate effects (n=10); second, manual acupuncture (MA) (n=10) and 100 Hz EA (n=10) were applied with the same programme. DSM electromyography (EMG) and cystometrogram data were evaluated. (1) 2 Hz EA at BL33 and SP6 significantly increased DSM discharging frequency (0.80±0.10 Hz, P0.05). Compared with SP6, EA at BL33 had greater positive effects on DSM discharging frequency, duration of discharging, and duration of voiding (all P<0.05). (2) No statistically significant differences were shown between MA, 2 Hz EA and 100 Hz EA interventions when stimulating at BL33, SP6 or LI4. EA at BL33 improved DSM contractions to a greater degree than EA at SP6 or LI4. There were no differences in effect when stimulating using 2 Hz EA, 100 Hz EA and MA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Enhancement of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusro, Ameer; Aarti, Chirom; Dusthackeer, Azger; Agastian, Paul

    2018-04-14

    The prime focus of the present investigation was to optimize statistically the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The anti-tubercular activity of strain MANF2 was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phase assay. Among varied media examined, the isolate exhibited impressive anti-tubercular activity with paramount relative light unit reduction of >90% in de Man Rogose Sharpe (MRS) broth. Primarily, the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of strain MANF2 were estimated in MRS broth by optimizing eight diversified parameters using one factor at a time (OFAT) method after working out a series of experiments. The most significant contributing factors selected through OFAT tool were optimized using Taguchi approach with a standard OA layout of L18 (2 2  × 3 6 ). Results demonstrated the significant (P ≤ 0.05) influence of pH, temperature, yeast extract, magnesium sulphate, and glycerol on response variables. These controlled variables were further optimized using BBD matrix at N = 46 by second-order polynomial equation. The fermentation medium of pH 6.5 constituting yeast extract (0.5% w/v), magnesium sulphate (0.1% w/v), and glycerol (1.5% v/v), being further incubated at 30 °C showed enhanced anti-tubercular activity (98.7%) and approximately 4 fold increment in the bacterial biomass yield (8.3 mg/mL) with respect to traditional OFAT method. Three-dimensional response plots of the quadratic model showed interdependent interaction between the significant variables. In conclusion, the present study revealed the first report on the optimization of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of S. hominis via Taguchi OA as well as BBD design, and thus, paved a path for its proficient applications in pharmaceutical industries as dynamic mycobactericidal agent in future. Copyright © 2018

  1. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  2. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Impregnated with Potassium Phosphate in a Hydrogen Atmosphere for the Production of Phenol and Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Wang, Xin; Guo, Hao-qiang; Cui, Min-shu; Yang, Yong-ping

    2018-01-01

    A new technique was proposed to co-produce phenol and activated carbon (AC) from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with K3PO4 in a hydrogen atmosphere, followed by activation of the pyrolytic solid residues. Lab-scale catalytic fast pyrolysis experiments were performed to quantitatively determine the pyrolytic product distribution, as well as to investigate the effects of several factors on the phenol production, including pyrolysis atmosphere, catalyst type, biomass type, catalytic pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst impregnation content. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residues were activated to prepare ACs with high specific surface areas. The results indicated that phenol could be obtained due to the synergistic effects of K3PO4 and hydrogen atmosphere, with the yield and selectivity reaching 5.3 wt% and 17.8% from catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood with 8 wt% K3PO4 at 550°C in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique was adaptable to different woody materials for phenol production. Moreover, gas product generated from the pyrolysis process was feasible to be recycled to provide the hydrogen atmosphere, instead of extra hydrogen supply. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residue was suitable for AC preparation, using CO2 activation method, the specific surface area was as high as 1,605 m2/g. PMID:29515994

  3. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with potassium phosphate in a hydrogen atmosphere for the production of phenol and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Wang, Xin; Guo, Hao-qiang; Cui, Min-shu; Yang, Yong-ping

    2018-02-01

    A new technique was proposed to co-produce phenol and activated carbon (AC) from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with K3PO4 in a hydrogen atmosphere, followed by activation of the pyrolytic solid residues. Lab-scale catalytic fast pyrolysis experiments were performed to quantitatively determine the pyrolytic product distribution, as well as to investigate the effects of several factors on the phenol production, including pyrolysis atmosphere, catalyst type, biomass type, catalytic pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst impregnation content. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residues were activated to prepare ACs with high specific surface areas. The results indicated that phenol could be obtained due to the synergistic effects of K3PO4 and hydrogen atmosphere, with the yield and selectivity reaching 5.3 wt% and 17.8% from catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood with 8 wt% K3PO4 at 550 oC in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique was adaptable to different woody materials for phenol production. Moreover, gas product generated from the pyrolysis process was feasible to be recycled to provide the hydrogen atmosphere, instead of extra hydrogen supply. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residue was suitable for AC preparation, using CO2 activation method, the specific surface area was as high as 1605 m2/g.

  4. Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, Jørgen E; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed...... model (pool half-lives: 4, 20 and 100 days). During anaerobic digestion, gaseous C losses were 80 and 46% of the C in feed and faeces, respectively. The model predicted that 14, 58, 48, and 76% of the C applied in feed, digested feed, faeces and digested faeces are retained in soil after 1 to 2 years....... When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention...

  5. Higher Novel L-Cys Degradation Activity Results in Lower Organic-S and Biomass in Sarcocornia than the Related Saltwort, Salicornia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Soltabayeva, Aigerim; Asatryan, Armine; Ventura, Yvonne; Salazar, Octavio; Fedoroff, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Salicornia and Sarcocornia are almost identical halophytes whose edible succulent shoots hold promise for commercial production in saline water. Enhanced sulfur nutrition may be beneficial to crops naturally grown on high sulfate. However, little is known about sulfate nutrition in halophytes. Here we show that Salicornia europaea (ecotype RN) exhibits a significant increase in biomass and organic-S accumulation in response to supplemental sulfate, whereas Sarcocornia fruticosa (ecotype VM) does not, instead exhibiting increased sulfate accumulation. We investigated the role of two pathways on organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia and Sarcoconia: the sulfate reductive pathway that generates Cys and l-Cys desulfhydrase that degrades Cys to H2S, NH3, and pyruvate. The major function of O-acetyl-Ser-(thiol) lyase (OAS-TL; EC 2.5.1.47) is the formation of l-Cys, but our study shows that the OAS-TL A and OAS-TL B of both halophytes are enzymes that also degrade l-Cys to H2S. This activity was significantly higher in Sarcocornia than in Salicornia, especially upon sulfate supplementation. The activity of the sulfate reductive pathway key enzyme, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, EC 1.8.99.2), was significantly higher in Salicornia than in Sarcocornia. These results suggest that the low organic-S level in Sarcocornia is the result of high l-Cys degradation rate by OAS-TLs, whereas the greater organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia is the result of higher APR activity and low l-Cys degradation rate, resulting in higher net Cys biosynthesis. These results present an initial road map for halophyte growers to attain better growth rates and nutritional value of Salicornia and Sarcocornia. PMID:28743765

  6. Higher Novel L-Cys Degradation Activity Results in Lower Organic-S and Biomass in Sarcocornia than the Related Saltwort, Salicornia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Soltabayeva, Aigerim; Asatryan, Armine; Ventura, Yvonne; Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Salazar, Octavio; Fedoroff, Nina; Sagi, Moshe

    2017-09-01

    Salicornia and Sarcocornia are almost identical halophytes whose edible succulent shoots hold promise for commercial production in saline water. Enhanced sulfur nutrition may be beneficial to crops naturally grown on high sulfate. However, little is known about sulfate nutrition in halophytes. Here we show that Salicornia europaea (ecotype RN) exhibits a significant increase in biomass and organic-S accumulation in response to supplemental sulfate, whereas Sarcocornia fruticosa (ecotype VM) does not, instead exhibiting increased sulfate accumulation. We investigated the role of two pathways on organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia and Sarcoconia : the sulfate reductive pathway that generates Cys and l-Cys desulfhydrase that degrades Cys to H 2 S, NH 3 , and pyruvate. The major function of O -acetyl-Ser-(thiol) lyase (OAS-TL; EC 2.5.1.47) is the formation of l-Cys, but our study shows that the OAS-TL A and OAS-TL B of both halophytes are enzymes that also degrade l-Cys to H 2 S. This activity was significantly higher in Sarcocornia than in Salicornia , especially upon sulfate supplementation. The activity of the sulfate reductive pathway key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, EC 1.8.99.2), was significantly higher in Salicornia than in Sarcocornia These results suggest that the low organic-S level in Sarcocornia is the result of high l-Cys degradation rate by OAS-TLs, whereas the greater organic-S and biomass accumulation in Salicornia is the result of higher APR activity and low l-Cys degradation rate, resulting in higher net Cys biosynthesis. These results present an initial road map for halophyte growers to attain better growth rates and nutritional value of Salicornia and Sarcocornia . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. It Could Be a Pearl to You: Exploring Recruitment and Retention of the Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS) With Hard-to-Reach Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Hammerback, Kristen; Snowden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We partnered with 3 social service organizations to identify hard-to-reach populations, barriers to reach, and strategies for improving recruitment and retention for Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS), a home-based depression-care management program for elders. We conducted semistructured interviews with staff and former PEARLS participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Veterans, African Americans, Filipino men, other immigrants and English-language learners, old-older adults, rural communities, and people with limited education were identified as hard to reach. The themes of trust, cultural appropriateness, meet them where they are, and framing and reframing, cut across barriers to participation in PEARLS and approaches for overcoming these barriers. Research findings will be used to inform technical assistance activities with PEARLS providers, changes to PEARLS program and training materials, and future PEARLS research activities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biomass for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbucci, P.; Neri, G.; Trebbi, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the activities carried out at ENEL-Thermal research center to develop technologies suitable to convert biomass into power with high conversion efficiency: a demonstration project, Energy Farm, to build an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant fed by wood chips; a demonstration plant for converting wood chips into oil by thermal conversion (pyrolysis oil); combustion tests of different oils produced by thermal conversion. 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  10. Influence of seasonal variation and anthropogenic activity on phosphorus cycling and retention in mangrove sediments: A case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Yushan; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2018-03-01

    Mangroves are known for sequestering and storing large quantities of phosphorus (P) within their sediments. In the present study, the sediment P cycle (including phosphatase activity intensity, total sedimentary P, P fractions distinguished by a sequential extraction method, as well as diffusion-adsorption processes) in a mangrove swamp in a subtropical estuary in China was studied. In the spring, the acid phosphatase activity varied between 1.3 and 1.9 units in the four sites in the estuary. The activity of alkaline phosphatase varied from 0.8 to 1.4 units. The total sedimentary P ranged from 821 to 1689 mg kg-1 with a dominance of redox-sensitive (Fe/Al bound) P. In the autumn, activities of both phosphatases and the total sediment P amount increased, probably due to enhanced inputs of organic matter and Fe oxides. In addition to seasonal variation, P in the mangrove sediment was influenced by anthropogenic activities. In particular, redox-sensitive P decreased significantly while phosphatase activity increased in the site that was flushed with aquaculture pond effluents. In contrast, sediment P enrichment was observed in the site that received domestic sewage. Both sources of anthropogenic P increased the eutrophication risk of the mangrove sediment because of a decrease in the amount of P adsorption and an enhancement of P release via diffusion. Diesel contamination due to the presence of a dock depressed phosphatase activity in the surficial sediment. The overlap between seasonal rhythm and human influences may introduce significant variations in P cycling, which warrants further attention from coastal management.

  11. Fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    One of the important challenges for biomass combustion in industrial applications is the fouling tendency and how it affects to the boiler performance. The classical approach for this question is to activate sootblowing cycles with different strategies to clean the boiler (one per shift, one each six hours..). Nevertheless, it has been often reported no effect on boiler fouling or an excessive steam consumption for sootblowing. This paper illustrates the methodology and the application to select the adequate time for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The outcome is a control strategy developed with artificial intelligence (Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Expert System) for optimizing the biomass boiler cleaning and maximizing heat transfer along the time. Results from an optimize sootblowing schedule show savings up to 12 GWh/year in the case-study biomass boiler. Extra steam generation produces an average increase of turbine power output of 3.5%. (author)

  12. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J; Narvaez, I; Orio, A [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  14. Contrasting respirable quartz and kaolin retention of lecithin surfactant and expression of membranolytic activity following phospholipase A2 digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W E; Keane, M J; Mike, P S; Hill, C A; Vallyathan, V; Regad, E D

    1992-11-01

    Respirable-sized quartz, a well-established fibrogenic mineral dust, is compared with kaolin in erythrocyte hemolysis assays after treatment with saline dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, a primary phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant. Both dusts are rendered inactive after treatment, but the membranolytic activity is partly to fully restored after treatment with phospholipase A2, an enzyme normally associated with cellular plasma membranes and lysosomes. Phospholipid-coated dusts were incubated for periods of 2-72 h at a series of applied enzyme concentrations, and the adsorbed lipid species and hemolytic activity were quantitated at each time for both dusts. Surfactant was lost more readily from quartz than from kaolin, with consequent more rapid restoration of mineral surface hemolytic activity for quartz. Interactions of surfactant and mineral surface functional groups responsible for the mineral-specific rate differences, and implications for determining the mineral surface bioavailability of silica and silicate dusts, are discussed.

  15. Increasing the Retention of Females of Color in Engineering and Technology Degree Programs through Professional Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia M. Nave

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of professional development activities designed to provide minority female engineering students with the knowledge and essential skills to enhance their preparedness to transition into the engineering workforce and their ability to sustain a successful career. Three professional development workshops are discussed that focused on such topics as breaking the glass ceiling, leadership, soft skills development, balancing technical and non-technical skill development, professional etiquette, mentoring, and creating a growth plan. Industry partnerships have been a critical component to the success of these activities.

  16. Impact of solid retention time and nitrification capacity on the ability of activated sludge to remove pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Removal of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and clofibric acid) by activated sludge from five municipal activated sludge treatment processes, with various sludge ages and nitrification capacities, was assessed through batch experiments. The increase...... in aerobic sludge age from 1-3 to 7 days seemed to be critical for the removal of naproxen and ketoprofen, with markedly higher rates of removal at sludge ages of 7 days or more. No removal was shown for diclofenac and clofibric acid, while high rates were observed for ibuprofen in all investigated sludges...

  17. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  18. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  19. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  20. The effects of storage on the retention of enzyme activity in cryostat sections. A quantitative histochemical study on rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Ouwerkerk, I. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Marx, F.; Kooij, A.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage of unfixed cryostat sections from rat liver for 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days at -25 degrees C was studied on the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidoreductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (all demonstrated

  1. Year-Long Peer Mentoring Activity to Enhance the Retention of Freshmen STEM Students in a NSF Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Teresa J.; Evans, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The last year of a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded scholarship program was used to provide pseudo-formal peer mentoring activities to engineering, mathematics, and science undergraduates. A one-credit class was used to afford time for peer mentors and mentees to interact. During the fall semester, seniors augmented each week's topics with…

  2. Analysing the economy-wide impact of the supply chains activated by a new biomass power plant. The case of cardoon in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact on the economy of Sardinia (Italy generated by a new biomass power plant fed by locally cultivated cardoon. The cardoon also serves the production of biopolymers. The impact is assessed at an economy-wide level using two multiregional closed Input-Output models, which allow us to take into account the entire supply chain activated and the supra-local effects generated by trade across local industries. The effects are computed under alternative scenarios simulating different levels of substitution of existing agricultural activities with the new activity (cardoon. Results show positive and locally significant impacts in terms of value added and employment. However, these impacts are substantially influenced by the degree of substitution. Results also suggest that there are specific territorial areas that are more sensitive to negative effects induced by substitution.

  3. Separating relational from item load effects in paired recognition: temporoparietal and middle frontal gyral activity with increased associates, but not items during encoding and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2002-10-01

    Working memory is affected by items stored and the relations between them. However, separating these factors has been difficult, because increased items usually accompany increased associations/relations. Hence, some have argued, relational effects are reducible to item effects. We overcome this problem by manipulating index length: the fewest number of item positions at which there is a unique item, or tuple of items (if length >1), for every instance in the relational (memory) set. Longer indexes imply greater similarity (number of shared items) between instances and higher load on encoding processes. Subjects were given lists of study pairs and asked to make a recognition judgement. The number of unique items and index length in the three list conditions were: (1) AB, CD: four/one; (2) AB, CD, EF: six/one; and (3) AB, AD, CB: four/two, respectively. Japanese letters were used in Experiments 1 (kanji-ideograms) and 2 (hiragana-phonograms); numbers in Experiment 3; and shapes generated from Fourier descriptors in Experiment 4. Across all materials, right dominant temporoparietal and middle frontal gyral activity was found with increased index length, but not items during study. In Experiment 5, a longer delay was used to isolate retention effects in the absence of visual stimuli. Increased left hemispheric activity was observed in the precuneus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus with increased index length for the delay period. These results show that relational load is not reducible to item load.

  4. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-03

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg -1 and 84.6 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg -1 and 24375 W kg -1 , respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  5. Biomass goes to waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    Currently the two most suitable words to describe the biomass energy industry are waste and recycling. However, there are several ways of looking at this. The first is a literal one. This reflects the current changes which are taking place in waste treatment as a consequence of new environmental initiatives. These are predicted to intensify as and when new Community Directives come into force through national legislation within the European Union (EU). At the same time biomass, in the true sense, both goes to waste as crops are not used and generates waste in terms of resources as uneconomic ventures are funded for political reasons. The net result is a depleted industry, in some sectors, and one based on false hopes in others. At the same time there is also some clarity emerging in respect of end use, with most activities focussing on decentralised electricity generation and the formation of liquid transport fuels. (Author)

  6. A comparison of producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon from two distributed scale thermochemical conversion systems used to process forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel Anderson; J. Greg Jones; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Daniel McCollum; Stephen Baker; Daniel Loeffler; Woodam Chung

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or...

  7. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  8. A study: removal of Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions from real industrial water and contaminated water using activated sludge biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusvuran, Erdal; Yildirim, Deniz [Arts and Sciences Faculty, Chemistry Department, Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Samil, Ali [Arts and Sciences Faculty, Chemistry Department, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Gulnaz, Osman [Arts and Sciences Faculty, Biology Department, Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    This study aims to remove of Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} ions from solution and to investigate the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and ion-exchange affinities of these metals using waste activated sludge (AS) biomass. The adsorptions of the metals on biomass were optimal at an acidic pH value of 6.0 based on its monolayer capacities. Maximum monolayer capacities of AS biomass (q{sub max}) were calculated as 0.478, 0.358, and 0.280 mmol g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, and the adsorption equilibrium time was found as 60 min for each metal. The adsorbed amount of metal rose with increasing of initial metal ion concentration. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of AS for initial 0.25 mmol L{sup -1} metal concentration was determined as 0.200, 0.167, and 0.155 mmol g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} ions, respectively. These relevant values were determined as 0.420, 0.305, and 0.282 mmol g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} ions, respectively, when initial metal concentration was 0.50 mmol L{sup -1}. In the multi-metal sorption system, the adsorption capacity of AS biomass was observed in the order of Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+}. In the presence of 100 mmol L{sup -1} H{sup +} ion, the order of ion-exchange affinity with H{sup +} was found as Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+}. The adsorption kinetics were also found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Two different rate constants were obtained as k{sub i1} and k{sub i2} and k{sub i1} (first stage) was found to be higher than k{sub i2} (second stage). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  10. Effect of solids retention time and temperature on waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under alkaline conditions in continuous-flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and the production of SCFAs. The changes in SRT gave also impact on the percentage of acetic and propionic acids in the fermentative SCFAs, but little influence on that of the slightly long-chain SCFAs, such as n-butyric, iso-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids. Compared with the control (pH unadjusted) experiment, at SRT of 12d and temperature of 20 degrees C the concentration of SCFAs produced at pH 10 increased from 261.2 to 933.5mg COD/L, and the propionic acid percentage improved from 11.7 to 16.0%. It can be concluded from this investigation that the efficient continuous production of SCFAs at pH 10 is feasible.

  11. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  12. 24-hour whole-body retention of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate as indikator of bone tissue metabolic activity in osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Jahoda, I.; Kobos, L.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    The assessment was introduced of 24-hour whole-body retention of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate by estimating the amount excreted in urine per 24 hours. The mean value ± standard deviation of 34 subjects without disorders of the skeleton, aged 22 to 70 years, is 34.8±7.1%: 23 men with a value of 35.9±7.4% and 11 women with 32.4±6.3%. The results in pathological conditions (in parentheses the number of examinations): primary hyperparathyroidism (13) 58.4±4.7% (p<0.01); osteoporosis (11) 34.2±3.3% (NS); osteomalacia (16) 59.1±3.8% (p<0.01); acromegaly (10) 37.4±4.1% (NS); not evaluated by statistical methods: Paget's disease (6) 50.4%; multiple metastases in bones (3) 60.7%; malnutritional states (6) 50.5%; myositis ossificans (1) 67.8%. Normal and pathological results are consistent with assumptions and the available experience. The method appears to be a suitable indicator of the metabolic activity of the skeleton for clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  13. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.

  14. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  15. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  16. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  17. Biomass Feedstocks | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks Our mission is to enable the coordinated development of biomass generic biomass thermochemical conversion process (over a screened-back map of the United States) showing U.S. Biomass Resources, represented by photos of timber, corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar. All

  18. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  19. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  20. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  1. Growth and enzymatic activity of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a mutualistic fungus isolated from the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana, on cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueras, G; Paredes-Hernández, D; Revah, S; Valenzuela, J; Olivares-Hernández, R; Le Borgne, S

    2017-08-01

    A mutualistic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana was isolated and identified as Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This isolate had a close phylogenetic relationship with L. gongylophorus fungi cultivated by other leaf-cutting ants as determined by ITS sequencing. A subcolony started with ~500 A. mexicana workers could process 2 g day -1 of plant material and generate a 135 cm 3 fungus garden in 160 days. The presence of gongylidia structures of ~35 μm was observed on the tip of the hyphae. The fungus could grow without ants on semi-solid cultures with α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose and in solid-state cultures with grass and sugarcane bagasse, as sole sources of carbon. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass (V max  = 17·5 mg CO 2  L g -1  day -1 ) was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse (V max  = 6·6 mg CO 2  L g -1 day -1 ). Recoveries of 32·9 mg glucose  g biomass -1 and 12·3 mg glucose  g biomass -1 were obtained from the fungal biomass and the fungus garden, respectively. Endoglucanase activity was detected on carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. This is the first study reporting the growth of L. gongylophorus from A. mexicana on cellulose and plant material. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the growth of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, isolated from the colony of the ant Atta mexicana, on semisolid medium with cellulose and solid-state cultures with lignocellulosic materials. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse. Endoglucanase activity was detected and it was possible to recover glucose from the fungal gongylidia. The cellulolytic activity could be used to process lignocellulosic residues and obtain sugar or valuable products, but more work is needed in this direction. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Nitrogen Retention in Coastal Marine Sediments—a Field Study of the Relative Importance of Biological and Physical Removal in a Danish Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurentius Nielsen, Søren; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Banta, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative importance of physical versus biological loss processes for the removal of microphytobenthic (MPB) bound nitrogen in a coastal environment at different times of the year via a dual isotope labeling technique. We used 51Cr, binding to inorganic...... were able to discern the relative importance of physical and biological processes. The isotope marking was supplemented with measurements of sediment chlorophyll biomass and oxygen fluxes, allowing us to evaluate MPB biomass as well as primary production vs. respiration in the sediment. In spring...... was physically dominated due to low MPB biomasses and activity combined with a significant storm event. Our data support the hypothesis that the relative balance between physical and biological processes in determining retention and removal of MPB-bound nitrogen changes seasonally....

  3. The expected availability of biomass in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppejan, J.; De Boer-Meulman, P.D.M.

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the Dutch government is to produce 5% of the energy consumption in the Netherlands from renewable energy sources in the year 2010. According to the Plan of Activities for Biomass bio-energy could contribute 75-87 PJ. In this study attention is paid to the expected availability of biomass in order to meet the targets, taking into account biomass sources in the Netherlands and abroad [nl

  4. Promiscuous activities of heterologous enzymes lead to unintended metabolic rerouting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to assimilate various sugars from renewable biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Oh, Eun Joong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yu, Sora; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the global metabolic network, significantly perturbed upon promiscuous activities of foreign enzymes and different carbon sources, is crucial for systematic optimization of metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we studied the effects of promiscuous activities of overexpressed enzymes encoded by foreign genes on rerouting of metabolic fluxes of an engineered yeast capable of assimilating sugars from renewable biomass by profiling intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Unbiased metabolite profiling of the engineered S. cerevisiae strain EJ4 revealed promiscuous enzymatic activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase on galactose and galactitol, respectively, resulting in accumulation of galactitol and tagatose during galactose fermentation. Moreover, during glucose fermentation, a trisaccharide consisting of glucose accumulated outside of the cells probably owing to the promiscuous and transglycosylation activity of β-glucosidase expressed for hydrolyzing cellobiose. Meanwhile, higher accumulation of fatty acids and secondary metabolites was observed during xylose and cellobiose fermentations, respectively. The heterologous enzymes functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae showed promiscuous activities that led to unintended metabolic rerouting in strain EJ4. Such metabolic rerouting could result in a low yield and productivity of a final product due to the formation of unexpected metabolites. Furthermore, the global metabolic network can be significantly regulated by carbon sources, thus yielding different patterns of metabolite production. This metabolomic study can provide useful information for yeast strain improvement and systematic optimization of yeast metabolism to manufacture bio-based products.

  5. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  6. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  7. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  8. Treatment of fungus mycelium for metal retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamberg, K.; Stamberg, J.; Katzer, J.; Prochazka, H.; Jilek, R.; Nemec, P.; Hulak, P.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described of reinforcing mycelia, mainly of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, to make them suitable for industrial retention of uranium, radium, lead, etc. from solutions. The biomass in the native or in the dry state is mixed with one or more polymerizing or polycondensing components in a weight ratio of 1:0.01-3; the product reinforced by polymerization or by polycondensation is further treated by granulation, crosslinking or pressing. Formaldehyde, formaldehyde and resorcin, formaldehyde and urea, or the polyvinyl acetate emulsion are used as components to be polymerized or polycondesated. (B.S.)

  9. Optimization of Submerged Cultivation Conditions for Production of Big Cup Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Clitocybe maxima (Agaricomycetes) Biomass with Significant Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Hui; Chen, Ker-Shew; Liu, Ming-Yi; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a large Clitocybe maxima mycelium biomass was obtained by submerged cultivation under optimal conditions. Three test samples from lyophilized mycelia, including hot water extract (CW) and elutes from solvents with different polarity (CA and CB), were combined and used to explore antioxidant and antihyper-lipidemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The CA group showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and iron-reducing capability at concentrations of 6.0% and 3.0% (w/v), respectively. Further, the CA group showed the highest glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight (CA-0.25 group) in all hyperlipidemic hamsters tested. Serum lipid levels (apart from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) of hamsters in the CA-0.25 group were lower than those of hamsters in the negative control group in antihy-perlipidemic tests. Therefore, we believe that extracts from C. maxima mycelia are rich reservoirs of antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.

  10. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  11. Effects of the radiation gamma on the activity and selectivity of the Al2 O3 in the retention of uranium and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran B, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The study that here comes constitute a contribution for the treatment of based on waste the properties of retention of the inorganic oxides. The effect induced of the radiation has been determined gamma of the 60 Co in the Al 2 O 3 and their influence in their capacity of retention of uranium and products of fission of watery solutions strongly alkaline. In order to obtain useful information it made the superficial characterizations, structural, crystalline and of retention by means of the techniques of superficial adsorption, spectroscopy infrared, rays-X diffraction, liquid twinkling and γ- spectrometry. The obtained results show that the treatment of the Al 2 O 3 this associated with slight changes in their structural characteristics and superficialities concluding that the molecular water present in the crystalline net of the oxide was not displaced radiolytic for effect, but rather, this spread in the volume of the oxide, blocking the change in the contribution to crystalline of the oxide. (Author)

  12. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  13. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited....

  14. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  15. An empirical, integrated forest biomass monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Ohmann, Janet; Gregory, Matt; Roberts, Heather; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bell, David M.; Kane, Van; Hughes, M. Joseph; Cohen, Warren B.; Powell, Scott; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Hooper, Sam; Kane, Jonathan; Miller, David L.; Perkins, James; Braaten, Justin; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-02-01

    The fate of live forest biomass is largely controlled by growth and disturbance processes, both natural and anthropogenic. Thus, biomass monitoring strategies must characterize both the biomass of the forests at a given point in time and the dynamic processes that change it. Here, we describe and test an empirical monitoring system designed to meet those needs. Our system uses a mix of field data, statistical modeling, remotely-sensed time-series imagery, and small-footprint lidar data to build and evaluate maps of forest biomass. It ascribes biomass change to specific change agents, and attempts to capture the impact of uncertainty in methodology. We find that: • A common image framework for biomass estimation and for change detection allows for consistent comparison of both state and change processes controlling biomass dynamics. • Regional estimates of total biomass agree well with those from plot data alone. • The system tracks biomass densities up to 450-500 Mg ha-1 with little bias, but begins underestimating true biomass as densities increase further. • Scale considerations are important. Estimates at the 30 m grain size are noisy, but agreement at broad scales is good. Further investigation to determine the appropriate scales is underway. • Uncertainty from methodological choices is evident, but much smaller than uncertainty based on choice of allometric equation used to estimate biomass from tree data. • In this forest-dominated study area, growth and loss processes largely balance in most years, with loss processes dominated by human removal through harvest. In years with substantial fire activity, however, overall biomass loss greatly outpaces growth. Taken together, our methods represent a unique combination of elements foundational to an operational landscape-scale forest biomass monitoring program.

  16. Biosorption of radionuclides by snail shell biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhami, P.S.; Chaudhari, S.D.; Rathinam, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of various radionuclides from low acidic and alkaline medium was studied using biomass of snail shell origin. Quantitative removal of plutonium was achieved when an alkaline waste effluents of PUREX origin at pH 9.4 was treated using this biomass. The sorbed activity was recovered by dissolving it in 1.0 M nitric acid. (author)

  17. Cloud condensation nuclei from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.F.; Hudson, J.G.; Zielinska, B.; Tanner, R.L.; Hallett, J.; Watson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the authors have analyzed biomass and crude oil smoke samples for ionic and organic species. The cloud condensation nuclei activities of the smoke particles are discussed in terms of the measured chemical compositions of the smoke samples. The implications of biomass burning to global climatic change are discussed

  18. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trossero, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  20. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trossero, M A [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world`s primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  1. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  2. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  3. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  4. Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sádaba, Irantzu; Lopez Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed to be a brief tutorial covering the deactivation of solid catalysts in the liquid phase, with specific focus on leaching, which can be especially helpful to researchers not familiarized with catalytic processes in the liquid phase. Leaching refers to the loss of active species....... However, as a consequence of the development of new processes for biorefineries, an increasing number of reactions deal with liquid media, and thus, the stability and reusability of a solid catalyst in this situation represent a huge challenge that requires specific attention. Leaching of active phases...... is particularly problematic because of its irreversibility and it can be one of the main causes of catalyst deactivation in liquid media, threatening the sustainability of the process. This tutorial review presents a survey of the main aspects concerning the deactivation due to leaching of active species from...

  5. An Economic Assessment of Local Farm Multi-Purpose Surface Water Retention Systems under Future Climate Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Berry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions dependent on agricultural production are concerned about the uncertainty associated with climate change. Extreme drought and flooding events are predicted to occur with greater frequency, requiring mitigation strategies to reduce their negative impacts. Multi-purpose local farm water retention systems can reduce water stress during drought periods by supporting irrigation. The retention systems’ capture of excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events also reduces flood potential downstream. Retention systems may also be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. A sub-watershed scale retention system was analysed using a dynamic simulation model to predict the economic advantages in the future. Irrigated crops using water from the downstream reservoir at Pelly’s Lake, Manitoba, Canada, experienced a net decrease in gross margin in the future due to the associated irrigation and reservoir infrastructure costs. However, the multi-purpose benefits of the retention system at Pelly’s Lake of avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, carbon sequestration, and biomass production provide an economic benefit of $25,507.00/hectare of retention system/year. Multi-purpose retention systems under future climate uncertainty provide economic and environmental gains when used to avoid flood damages, for nutrient retention and carbon sequestration, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers willing to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  6. Metal Carbides for Biomass Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine E. Chan-Thaw

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal carbides have been utilized as an alternative catalyst to expensive noble metals for the conversion of biomass. Tungsten and molybdenum carbides have been shown to be effective catalysts for hydrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation and isomerization reactions. The satisfactory activities of these metal carbides and their low costs, compared with noble metals, make them appealing alternatives and worthy of further investigation. In this review, we succinctly describe common synthesis techniques, including temperature-programmed reaction and carbothermal hydrogen reduction, utilized to prepare metal carbides used for biomass transformation. Attention will be focused, successively, on the application of transition metal carbide catalysts in the transformation of first-generation (oils and second-generation (lignocellulose biomass to biofuels and fine chemicals.

  7. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9 months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g) was added to retention pond water (100 mL) amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  8. Feasibility study for an on-line inventory of the Dutch activities in the area of energy production from biomass and waste streams. Bio-MASSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, W.H.

    1996-10-01

    Based on the results of questionnaires and interviews with experts in the field it appears that there is an interest in an up-to-date overview of the activities in the Netherlands with respect to the subject of energy production from biomass and waste streams. Three applications of the information system were considered to be important: (a) the system can contribute to the marketing of Dutch activities, knowledge and technology. Potential customers are found within and outside the Netherlands; (b) the system can be used in the networking process, since it aims for establishing direct contacts between different parties, which can result into new co-operations; (c) the system, as a source of knowledge, can be used for knowledge management. Governments and groups of organisations can easily get an overview of skills, expertise and experience. This overview can be used for supporting joint projects. Implementation of the system on the World Wide Web (WWW) is appreciated for the possibility to keep it up-to-date and user-friendly. 10 figs., 3 appendices

  9. Correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Wenhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity (PTA, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15 in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection. MethodsA total of 92 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection who were admitted to The First Hospital of Lanzhou University from December 2015 to April 2016 were enrolled and divided into chronic hepatitis B (CHB group (24 patients, compensated liver cirrhosis group (38 patients, and decompensated liver cirrhosis group (30 patients. Serum HBsAg quantitation, PTA test, and liver reserve function test (ICG R15 were performed for all patients. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, an analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and a Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere were significant differences between the three groups in serum HBsAg quantitation (3.82±0.43 log10IU/ml vs 2.88±0.36 log10IU/ml vs 2.60±0.27 log10IU/ml, F=25.19, P<0.001, ICG R15 (7.51%±3.10% vs 9.57%±8.18% vs 24.13%±14.28%, F=24.00, P=0.001, and PTA (8100%±1762% vs 83.08%±9.64% vs 62.32%±16.90%, F=13.42, P=0.009. The correlation analysis showed that PTA was negatively correlated with ICG R15 in all three groups (r=-0.948, -0.602, and -0.735, all P<0.01. In the compensated liver cirrhosis group and decompensated liver cirrhosis group, HBsAg was positively correlated with PTA (r=0.410 and 0.473, both P<0.05 and negatively correlated with ICG R15 (r=-0.427 and -0.768, P<0.01. ConclusionIn HBeAg positive patients, there are certain correlations between HBsAg, PTA, and ICG R15, which, to a certain degree, reflects the liver reserve function in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  10. Biomassa e atividades microbianas em solo sob pastagem com diferentes lotações de ovinos Biomass and microbial activity in pasture soil under different sheep grazing pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Regina Lucizano Garcia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da lotação de animais na produção de ovinos têm sido bastante estudados. No entanto, informações sobre seus efeitos na biomassa e nas atividades microbianas e, em conseqüência, na fertilidade do solo de pastagens são escassas. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da lotação de ovinos (LO na biomassa e nas atividades microbianas responsáveis pela transformação dos compostos do C e N em solo de clima subtropical foram avaliados. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas de 0-10 e 10-20 cm de pastos com baixa LO (5 animais ha-1, alta LO (40-50 animais ha-1 e com ausência de animais, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Os maiores valores de biomassa microbiana e das atividades respiratória, nitrificante e enzimática (urease e protease foram encontrados nos solos dos pastos com baixa LO. Estes pastos também acumularam as maiores quantidades de matéria orgânica e N total. Essas variáveis foram reduzidas nos pastos sem animais ou com alta LO. Vegetação descontínua e intensa mineralização podem ter acarretado a diminuição dessas variáveis nos pastos com alta LO. Alta correlação foi obtida entre matéria orgânica, C orgânico e N total com as quantidades de biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzimática. A camada de 0-10 cm apresentou valores maiores das variáveis estudadas do que os encontrados na camada de 10-20 cm.The effect of grazing pressure in sheep production has been studied, but not in relation to soil microbiological parameters or the consequences on soil fertility. The effect of grazing pressure (GP by sheep on biomass and microbial activity related to C and N compounds cycling in subtropical region soil was studied. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers in pastures with low GP (5 animals ha-1, high GP (40-50 animals ha-1 and in absence of animals, in a completely randomized design with 6 replicates. The highest values

  11. Spatial variability of enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the upper layers of Quercus petraea forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Valášková, Vendula; Merhautová, Věra; Herinková, Jana; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 9 (2008), s. 2068-2075 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MZe QH72216; GA AV ČR KJB600200516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : enzyme activity * forest soil * lignocellulose Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.926, year: 2008

  12. Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfrid Schroeder; Evan Ellicott; Charles Ichoku; Luke Ellison; Matthew B. Dickinson; Roger D. Ottmar; Craig Clements; Dianne Hall; Vincent Ambrosia; Robert. Kremens

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near-coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge...

  13. Distribution of bacterial biomass and activity in the marginal ice zone of the central Barents Sea during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, M. H.; Ballard, V. D.; Allen, A. E.; Frischer, M. E.; Verity, P. G.

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine bacterioplankton abundance and activity in the Barents Sea using the novel modified vital stain and probe (mVSP) method. The mVSP is a protocol that combines DAPI and propidium iodide staining with 16S rRNA eubacterial-specific oligonucleotide probes to determine the physiological status of individual microbial cells. Bacterial abundance and metabolic activity were measured in near-surface waters and with depth at stations in the central Barents Sea during a cruise in June/July 1999. Viral abundance was also determined for 19 transect stations and at depth (2-200 m) for five intensive 24-h stations. In general, bacterial and viral abundances varied across the transect, but showed peaks of abundance (6×10 9 cells l -1, 9×10 9 viruses l -1) in Polar Front water masses. Viruses were abundant in seawater and exceeded bacterial abundance. Metabolic activity was determined for individual cells using 16S rRNA eubacterial-specific oligonucleotide probes, and for the total community with 3H-leucine incorporation. Activity measured by oligonucleotide probes increased from south to north. The fraction of cells that were active was lowest in the southern Barents Sea (20%) and highest in the Polar Front (53%). The proportion of cells at the 24-h stations that were determined to be active decreased with depth, but not with distance from ice cover. Leucine incorporation rates varied significantly and did not always correlate with probe measurements. The proportion of total cells that had compromised membranes and were therefore considered dead remained relatively constant (activity (25-80%), which supports the hypothesis that a significant fraction of cells in aquatic ecosystems are inactive. Bacterioplankton production rates ranged from rates ranged from rates of 2.5 to >200 days. Our results demonstrate that bacterioplankton and viruses are dynamic but ubiquitous features of Arctic microbial communities. The contribution of bacteria

  14. Effect of salinity on biomass production and activities of some key enzymatic antioxidants in kochia (kochia scoparia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabati, J.; Masoumi, A.; Mehrjerd, M.Z.; Kafi, M.; Nezami, A.; Moghaddam, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to food production due to its negative impact on crop yield. Kochia (Kochia scoparia) is a salinity-resistant plant that can widely be used as emergency forage for livestock by using saline waters and soils in desert ecosystems. In order to investigate physiological mechanism, antioxidants activity and potential production of Kochia in response to different levels of salinity, an experiment was performed in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Saline waters (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m/sup -1/) and three Kochia ecotypes (Birjand, Borujerd and Sabzevar) were allocated as main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed that salinity did not impose any significant effect on dry matter production but relative water content (RWC) and seed yield decreased by salinity stress. In general, no positive correlation coefficient was observed between dry matter production and physiological and biochemical parameters except superoxide dismutase (SOD) at 23.1 dS m/sup -1/. There was no significant difference among ecotypes in dry matter production and seed yield. Sabzevar ecotype showed the highest proline, total phenol content and peroxidase (POX) activity. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CTA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in Borujerd ecotype, while highest soluble sugar, glutathione reductase (GR) activity and DPPH - radical scavenging activity was observed in Birjand ecotype. According to these results, Kochia has a reliable tolerance to elevated levels of salinities up to 23 dS m/sup -1/ and it seems that it can control oxidative stress by continuing growth. (author)

  15. Biomass CCS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavezzali, S.

    2009-11-15

    The use of biomass in power generation is one of the important ways in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the cofiring of biomass with coal could be regarded as a common feature to any new build power plant if a sustainable supply of biomass fuel is readily accessible. IEA GHG has undertaken a techno-economic evaluation of the use of biomass in biomass fired and co-fired power generation, using post-combustion capture technology. This report is the result of the study undertaken by Foster Wheeler Italiana.

  16. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  17. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS ON FORAGE BIOMASS YIELD IN SMOOTH BROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal biostimulants are organic products (natural or synthesized that exert upon plant growth an action similar to the phytohormones’ one, when they are applied in small amounts, in certain stages of plant development. Biostimulants change organisms or organs’ development, nutrition or resistance, under various stress conditions, by inducing changes into the vital processes leading to the improvement of crop quality and quantity, to a better and more operative mechanical harvesting and to an improvement in the agricultural products’ preservation. The application of biologically-active products in the smooth brome crop determined growth of the dry matter yield of up to 1.11 t/ha depending on the product used, and the foliar surface index increased in the variants with application of biologically-active products with up to 1.16 m2SA/m2 land, compared to the control variant.

  18. KINETIC MODELING AND ISOTHERM STUDIES ON A BATCH REMOVAL OF ACID RED 114 BY AN ACTIVATED PLANT BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAJAMOHAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dye Acid Red 114(AR 114 was removed from aqueous solutions using Acid-Activated Eichornia Crassipes (AAEC under batch conditions. The optimum conditions for AR 114 removal were found to be pH 1.5, adsorbent dosage = 1.25 g/L of solution and equilibrium time = 3 h. The equilibrium data were evaluated for compliance with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and Langmuir isotherm was found to fit well. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated as 112.34 mg/g of adsorbent. Also, adsorption kinetics of the dye was studied and the rates of sorption were found to follow pseudo-second order kinetics with good correlation (R2 ≥ 0.997.The kinetic study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was an endothermic process. The activation energy of the sorption process was estimated as 9.722 kJ/mol.

  19. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2018-01-01

    contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different...... stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant...... substrate. However, preliminary fungal RNAseq analyses suggest that this likely transport is supplemented with enzymes produced in situ Our findings support that the maintenance of an external fungus comb, inoculated with an optimal mix of plant material, fungal spores, and enzymes, is likely the key...

  20. Nutrient Cycling and Retention Along a Littoral Gradient in a Dutch Shallow Lake in Relation to Water Level Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    Littoral zones are characterized by gradients in depth and vegetation biomass, influencing nutrient retention capacity. A field experiment was conducted in a Phragmites australis dominated littoral zone to investigate nutrient retention and its effect on surface water quality. Measurements were done

  1. 76 FR 9339 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the Food.... Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities. Update on DOE...

  2. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  3. Researches concerning the use of mixed Hydrogen in the combustion of dense biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negreanu, Gabriel-Paul; Mihaescu, Lucian; Pisa, Ionel; Berbece, Viorel; Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with theoretical basis and experimental tests of mixed hydrogen diffusion in the dense system of biomass. Research regarding hydrogen diffusion in the porous system of biomass is part of wider research focusing on using hydrogen as an active medium for solid biomass combustion. In parallel with hydrogen diffusion in solid biomass, tests regarding biomass combustion previously subjected to a hydrogen flux will be carried out. Keywords: biomass, hydrogen diffusion, combustion, experimental tests

  4. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  5. Microbial activity and biomass of peats in relation to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amha Amde, Yosef

    2011-03-25

    Excessive decomposition of organic matter (OM) from the potting media (e.g. peat) is known to influence plant growth by decreasing the total porosity, altering the chemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity), and releasing organic compounds that might have phytotoxic or stimulating effects. When peats are used as constitutes of the potting media, they should, therefore, maintain stability during plant production. In this study, twenty peat samples from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden were evaluated for their microbial activity (measured as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions) and biomass with a special emphasis to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs as such information on a wide range of peat samples is largely missing from published literature. Overall, the whole peat samples were broadly classified into three distinct groups using the hierarchical cluster analysis: the Irish and two of German peats produced the lowest CO{sub 2} while most peats from Finland produced the highest CO{sub 2}. With few exceptions, peats from the Baltic States occupied the middle ranges. Excessive decomposition of organic matter in the Finish peats might have unintended consequences if these peats are used for long-term pot plant production. With regard to botanical composition, peats containing Sphagnum imbricatum produced the lowest CO{sub 2} and S. angustifolium dominated peats mostly produced the highest CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  6. Modeling effects of DO and SRT on activated sludge decay and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the endogenous decay of active heterotrophic biomass and the hydrolysis of cell debris were studied. With the inclusion of a hydrolysis process for the cell debris, mathematical models that are capable of quantifying the effects of DO and sludge retention time (SRT) on concentrations of active biomass and cell debris in activated sludge are presented. By modeling the biomass cultivated with unlimited DO, the values of endogenous decay coefficient for heterotrophic biomass, the hydrolysis constant of cell debris, and the fraction of decayed biomass that became cell debris were determined to be 0.38 d(-1), 0.013 d(-1), and 0.28, respectively. Results from modeling the biomass cultivated under different DO conditions suggested that the experimental low DO (∼0.2 mg/L) did not inhibit the endogenous decay of heterotrophic biomass, but significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of cell debris with a half-velocity constant value of 2.1 mg/L. Therefore, the increase in sludge production with low DO was mainly contributed by cell debris rather than the active heterotrophic biomass. Maximizing sludge production during aerobic wastewater treatment could reduce aeration energy consumption and improve biogas energy recovery potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secrets of Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  8. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  9. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  10. Biomass cogeneration: A business assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J. C.

    1981-11-01

    The biomass cogeneration was reviewed. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  11. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  12. Transporter engineering in biomass utilization by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kuriya, Yuki; Hirono-Hara, Yoko; Ishii, Jun; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-11-01

    Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing. Biomass utilizing bioprocesses have also been developed using these genetic engineering tools to construct metabolic pathways. However, sugar input and product output from these cells are critical factors for improving bioproduction along with biomass utilization and metabolic pathways. Transporters are key components for efficient input and output activities. In this review, we focus on transporter engineering in yeast to enhance bioproduction from biomass resources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  14. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  15. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  16. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  17. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  18. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  19. Glutamatergic Receptor Activation in the Commisural Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (cNTS) Mediates Brain Glucose Retention (BGR) Response to Anoxic Carotid Chemoreceptor (CChr) Stimulation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, R; Montero, S; Luquín, S; García-Estrada, J; Dobrovinskaya, O; Melnikov, V; Lemus, M; de Álvarez-Buylla, E Roces

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate, released from central terminals of glossopharyngeal nerve, is a major excitatory neurotransmitter of commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) afferent terminals, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to attenuate glutamatergic AMPA currents in NTS neurons. To test the hypothesis that AMPA contributes to glucose regulation in vivo modulating the hyperglycemic reflex with brain glucose retention (BGR), we microinjected AMPA and NBQX (AMPA antagonist) into the cNTS before carotid chemoreceptor stimulation in anesthetized normal Wistar rats, while hyperglycemic reflex an brain glucose retention (BGR) were analyzed. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, GluR2/3 receptor and c-Fos protein expressions in cNTS neurons were determined. We showed that AMPA in the cNTS before CChr stimulation inhibited BGR observed in aCSF group. In contrast, NBQX in similar conditions, did not modify the effects on glucose variables observed in aCSF control group. These experiments suggest that glutamatergic pathways, via AMPA receptors, in the cNTS may play a role in glucose homeostasis.

  20. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  1. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  2. Biomasa microbiana y actividad ureasa del suelo en una pradera permanente pastoreada de Chile Soil microbial biomass and urease activity in a grazed permanent pasture from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Núñez Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas de pasturas; la productividad de la pradera puede estar influenciada por el manejo; debido a su impacto sobre los microorganismos del suelo y el reciclaje de nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la biomasa microbiana (BM del suelo asociada al nitrógeno (BMN; carbono (BMC y la actividad ureasa (AU en una pradera permanente del sur de Chile. Entre la primavera de 2005 y el invierno de 2006 fueron evaluados dos sistemas de pastoreo: pastoreo intenso (PI; pastoreo suave (PS y un tratamiento control (C. El diseño fue en bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. En relación a los valores promedios medidos de las variables en pre y post pastoreo; se produjo un incremento en los contenidos de CB en un 21,8 y 8,6% para PI y PS; mientras que en el control fue sólo de 1,9%. Los contenidos de NB también fueron incrementados en un 16 y 19% para PI y PS; respectivamente en comparación con el control (4%. La actividad ureasa aumentó en 13 y 27% para PI y PS; respectivamente en comparación con el control (5%. El pastoreo; produce un flujo más alto de residuos orgánicos en el suelo; lo que estimula la actividad de la biomasa microbiana y; por tanto; aumentó la AU y los contenidos de CB y NB. Esto sugiere que; en los sistemas de pastoreo; se mejora la fertilidad biológica de los suelos y la disponibilidad de nutrientes.In pasture systems, management practices can affect pasture productivity differently due to their impact on soil microorganisms and nutrient cycling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between soil microbial biomass (MB nitrogen (MBN, carbon (MBC and urease activity (UA in a permanent pasture in southern Chile. Two grazing systems were evaluated between spring 2005 and winter 2006 : heavy grazing (HG, light grazing (LG and a control treatment (C. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Concerning the average values of the variables measured at

  3. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    techniques of this process mirror the activities of customer service and customer relationship management, I call the combined process C/ERM for customer/employee relationship management. Both activities must be going on simultaneously to create a loyalty link that ensures customer satisfaction and retention through employee service, satisfaction and retention.

  4. Investigation of the CCN Activity, BC and UVBC Mass Concentrations of Biomass Burning Aerosols during the 2013 BASELInE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2015-01-01

    Biomass-burning (BB) aerosols, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), can influence cloud microphysical and radiative properties. In this study, we present CCN measured near the BB source regions over northern Southeast Asia (Doi Ang Khang, Thailand) and at downwind receptor areas (Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, Taiwan), focusing exclusively on 13-20 March 2013 as part of 2013 spring campaign of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) intensive observation. One of the campaigns objectives is to characterize BB aerosols serving as CCN in SouthEast Asia (SEA). CCN concentrations were measured by a CCN counter at 5 supersaturation (SS) levels: 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. In addition, PM2.5 and black carbon mass concentrations were analyzed by using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aethalometer. It was found the number-size distributions and the characteristics of hygroscopicity (e.g., activation ratio and k) of BB aerosols in SEA have a strong diurnal pattern, and different behaviors of patterns were characterized under two distinct weather systems. The overall average value was low (0.05-0.1) but comparable with previous CCN studies in other BB source regions. Furthermore, a large fraction of UV-absorbing organic material (UVBC) and high Delta-C among BB aerosols were also observed, which suggest the existence of substantial particulate organic matter in fresh BB aerosols. These data provide the most extensive characterization of BB aerosols in SEA until now.

  5. Developing business in emerging biomass energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyszewski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Global market trends for forest products were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. The status of biomass energy products in relation to climate change and renewable energy portfolio standards was also examined. It was noted that China has increased investment in processing capacity and has increased imports of raw logs. India has doubled its imports of raw logs. Details of major tropical log producers and consumers were presented. Details of the biomass industry in the United States were presented, as well as data on fuel use at biomass energy plants and biomass energy capacity. An overview of biomass energy in the Russian far east and Siberia was presented, as well as details of activities and opportunities in Brazil and Indonesia. An economic analysis for small dry kilns was presented. Issues concerning boiler capacity in Russian companies for 2001-2005 were discussed. A case study of a biomass project from Congo was presented. It was noted that projects that replace fossil fuels can obtain revenues from the sale of carbon benefits, and that biomass energy offers the most attractive current option for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere. Details of a district heating project in Siberia were presented, and it was noted that in remote regions, costs for heat and power from biomass can be lower than costs from diesel and coal. It was concluded that there will be significant growth for biomass energy systems in the developing world, and that climate change will be an increasingly important element in advancing biomass energy. tabs., figs

  6. Biomass energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng'eny-Mengech, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals more specifically with biomethanation process and non conventional sources of biomass energy such as water hyacinths and vegetable oil hydrocarbon fuels. It highlights socioeconomic issues in biomass energy production and use. The paper also contains greater details on chemical conversion methods and processes of commercial ethanol and methanol production. (author). 291 refs., 6 tabs

  7. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  9. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  10. Hydrogen from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is generally regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The development of a process for hydrogen production from biomass complies with the policy of the Dutch government to obtain more renewable energy from biomass. This report describes the progress of the BWP II project, phase 2 of

  11. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  13. Biomass power in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  14. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  15. Retention of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Mailen, J.C.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Retention of gaseous fission products during fuel reprocessing has, in the past, been limited to a modest retention of 131 I when processing fuels decayed less than about 180 days. The projected rapid growth of the nuclear power industry along with a desire to minimize environmental effects is leading to the reassessment of requirements for retention of gaseous fission products, including 131 I, 129 I, 85 Kr, 3 H, and 14 C. Starting in the late 1960s, a significant part of the LMFBR reprocessing development program has been devoted to understanding the behavior of gaseous fission products in plant process and effluent streams and the development of advanced systems for their removal. Systems for iodine control include methods for evolving up to 99% of the iodine from dissolver solutions to minimize its introduction and distribution throughout downstream equipment. An aqueous scrubbing system (Iodox) using 20 M HNO 3 as the scrubbing media effectively removes all significant iodine forms from off-gas streams while handling the kilogram quantities of iodine present in head-end and dissolver off-gas streams. Silver zeolite is very effective for removing iodine forms at low concentration from the larger-volume plant off-gas streams. Removal of iodine from plant liquid effluents by solid sorbents either prior to or following final vaporization appears feasible. Krypton is effectively released during dissolution and can be removed from the relatively small volume head-end and dissolver off-gas stream. Two methods appear applicable for removal and concentration of krypton: (1) selective absorption in fluorocarbons, and (2) cryogenic absorption in liquid nitrogen. The fluorocarbon absorption process appears to be rather tolerant of the normal contaminants (H 2 O, CO 2 , NOsub(x), and organics) present in typical reprocessing plant off-gas whereas the cryogenic system requires an extensive feed gas pretreatment system. Retention of tritium in a reprocessing plant is

  16. African biomass burning plumes over the Atlantic: aircraft based measurements and implications for H2SO4 and HNO3 mediated smoke particle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea. The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006, the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous measured trace species had markedly elevated abundances, particularly SO2 (up to 1400 pmol mol−1, HNO3 (5000–8000 pmol mol−1 and smoke particles with diameters larger than 270 nm (up to 2000 cm−3. Our MT-plume measurements indicate that SO2 released by BB had not experienced significant loss by deposition and cloud processes but rather had experienced OH-induced conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid. By contrast, a significant fraction of the released NOy had experienced loss, most likely as HNO3 by deposition. In the UT-plume, loss of NOy and SO2 was more pronounced compared to the MT-plume, probably due to cloud processes. Building on our measurements and accompanying model simulations, we have investigated trace gas transformations in the ageing and diluting plumes and their role in smoke particle processing and activation. Emphasis was placed upon the formation of sulfuric acid and ammonium nitrate, and their influence on the activation potential of smoke particles. Our model simulations reveal that, after 13 August, the lower plume traveled across the Atlantic and descended to 1300 m and hereafter ascended again. During the travel across the Atlantic, the soluble mass fraction of smoke particles and their mean diameter increased sufficiently to allow the processed smoke particles to act as water vapor condensation nuclei already at very low water

  17. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  18. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  19. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  20. Pilot experiment on utilization of vegetable biomass in Umbria. Part 2. Anaerobic digestion of the wastes coming from the maintenance activity of the lake Trasimeno and the working of energetic cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.; Selvaggi, R.; Poletti, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the energetic exploitation has been assessed of the vegetable biomasses available in the region Umbria, derived both from the maintenance operation of Lake Trasimeno and energetic cultures. Biomethanation experiments have been carried out both on laboratory scale, by preparing anaerobic digestion tests in batch and in continuous, and on pilot scale, through the use of a 2000 litres digest or. Throughout the experiment the main chemical and physical process parameters have been monitored and the process efficiency assessed. The experimental values, measured for the anaerobic digestion process, have shown that both types of biomass can be very good substrated for the production of biogas. Their energetic re-use, when considering the broad and complex problems posed by breeding wastes disposal, could positively contribute to a rational sustainability scheme of the activities operating in the territory [it

  1. Biomass Business Opportunities Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwebe, D [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)

  2. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  3. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  4. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  5. Biomass for green cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, R. [Lafarge Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Lafarge examined the use of waste biomass products in its building materials and provided background information on its operations. Cement kiln infrastructure was described in terms of providing access to shipping, rail and highways; conveying and off-loading equipment; having large storage facilities; and, offering continuous monitoring and stack testing. The presentation identified the advantages and disadvantages of a few different biomass cases such as coal; scrap tires; non-recyclable household waste; and processed biomass. A chart representing landfill diversion rates was presented and the presentation concluded with a discussion of energy recovery and recycling. 1 tab., figs.

  6. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  7. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  8. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  9. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  11. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  13. Biomassa e energia Biomass and energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Goldemberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass was the dominating source of energy for human activities until the middle 19th century, when coal, oil, gas and other energy sources became increasingly important but it still represents ca. 10% of the worldwide energy supply. The major part of biomass for energy is still "traditional biomass" used as wood and coal extracted from native forests and thus non-sustainable, used with low efficiency for cooking and home heating, causing pollution problems. This use is largely done in rural areas and it is usually not supported by trading activities. There is now a strong trend to the modernization of biomass use, especially making alcohol from sugar cane thus replacing gasoline, or biodiesel to replace Diesel oil, beyond the production of electricity and vegetable coal using wood from planted forests. As recently as in 2004, sustainable "modern biomass" represented 2% of worldwide energy consumption. This article discusses the perspectives of the "first" and "second" technology generations for liquid fuel production, as well as biomass gaseification to make electricity or syngas that is in turn used in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

  14. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  15. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  16. Carbamazepine behaviour and effects in an urban wastewater MBR working with high sludge and hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Daniel María; Pérez, Jorge Ignacio; Nieto, Miguel Ángel Gómez

    2016-08-23

    The behaviour and fate of carbamazepine (CBZ) in urban wastewater treatment by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and its possible effects on the system's efficiency, and on mixed microbial communities, has been studied. The experimental microfiltration MBR system, with capacity to treat 10.8 m(3) d(-1) of urban wastewater, operated with a pre-denitrification configuration with high sludge and hydraulic retention time. The CBZ concentration assayed was higher than in the usual urban wastewater, in order to provoke a strong biomass reaction. Influent, effluent, and all bioreactors of the MBR system were analysed in order to calculate a CBZ balance. Bench-scale experiments and respirometric analyses were performed, with and without the presence of CBZ, to evaluate its influence on the bacterial activity. The respirometric assays showed variations in the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in the presence of CBZ. Negative effects were detected in the MBR bacterial community during the initial period of dosing. However, the effects were not permanent and the biomass spiked with CBZ had behaviour similar to that of the biomass without CBZ after a few hours. Biodegradation was not detected during the MBR treatment. The system showed an inefficient elimination of CBZ (less than 10%) with a high concentration in the effluent. The small percentage of CBZ removal was associated with the sludge retention and eliminated by the purge. All CBZ present in the influent was accounted for, and even an increase in the total amount of CBZ was registered in the permeate. During and after the experimental process, CBZ did not significantly affect the efficiency of the MBR system, and the quality of the effluent was not affected by the dosing of CBZ in terms of COD and nitrogen removal.

  17. Superchilled storage (-2.5 ± 1°C) extends the retention of taste-active and volatile compounds of yellow-feather chicken soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhu, Jing; Qi, Jun; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2018-06-01

    This work investigated the effects of refrigerated storage (RS: 4 ± 1°C) and superchilled storage (SS: -2.5 ± 1°C) on non-volatile and volatile compounds in chicken soup made from Chinese yellow-feather broilers. The results from total viable count (TVC) and coliform analysis showed that soups were safe for human consumption after a storage period of 42 days. SS resulted in a significantly (p < .05) higher content of free amino acids (umami and sweet taste) and 5'-nucleotides (inosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate) from 21 to 42 days compared to RS. Hexanal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2-pentyl furan were described as the primary odorants. SS showed significantly lower values (p < .05) for ketones and hydrocarbons, higher values for aldehydes and alcohols from 14 to 42 days, when compared to RS. The results suggest that SS improved the flavor retention of chicken soup after 21 days of storage and is a potential alternative treatment compared to RS. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. An economic assessment of local farm multi-purpose surface water retention systems in a Canadian Prairie setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pamela; Yassin, Fuad; Belcher, Kenneth; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-12-01

    There is a need to explore more sustainable approaches to water management on the Canadian Prairies. Retention pond installation schemes designed to capture surface water may be a viable option that would reduce water stress during drought periods by providing water for irrigation. The retention systems would serve to capture excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events, reducing flood potential downstream. Additionally, retention ponds may be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. The purpose of this research was to investigate the economic viability of adopting local farm surface water retention systems as a strategic water management strategy. A retention pond was analyzed using a dynamic simulation model to predict its storage capacity, installation and upkeep cost, and economic advantage to farmers when used for irrigation. While irrigation application increased crop revenue, the cost of irrigation and reservoir infrastructure and installation costs were too high for the farmer to experience a positive net revenue. Farmers who harvest cattails from retention systems for biomass and available carbon offset credits can gain 642.70/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. Cattail harvest also removes phosphorus and nitrogen, providing a monetized impact of 7014/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. The removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, and avoided flooding damages of the retention basin itself provide an additional 17,730-18,470/hectare of retention system/year. The recommended use of retention systems is for avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers wanting to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  19. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  20. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  1. Correlations between boiling points and relative retention data for hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sojak, L.; Krupcik, J.; Rijks, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An equation correlating retention indices, boiling points and activity coefficients is proposed. The equation can be applied not only to homologous series, but also to different classes of hydrocarbons.

  2. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  3. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  5. An overview of biomass energy utilization in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Golusin, Mirjana T. [Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-01-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising the standard of living. Biomass has been used by mankind as an energy source for thousands of years. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Vojvodina. Contribution of the renewable energy sources in the total consumption of energy in Vojvidina is less than 1%, i.e. it amounts to 280 KWh/year. Production of biodiesel in the year 2008 was 0.07 million tons, what is for 133% higher with respect to the production in the year 2007 (0.03 million tons). In Vojvodina, as the raw materials for bioethanol production are seen primarily sugar beet, corn, wheat surpluses, potato surpluses and waste potato, as well as the raw materials intended for these purposes grown on the uncultivated soils, such as hybrid broomcorn, Jerusalem artichoke and triticale. With introduction of new technologies for cultivation and collecting of biomass production of the electrical energy could be raised to 6.4 GWh/m{sup 2} year, what, with retention of the contemporary consumption, would represent the significant 9% of the total consumption in the province. According to programme of realisation of energy strategy of Vojvodina/Serbia in the field of the renewable energy sources for to period till the year 2010 and its completion, till the year 2015, in Vojvodina could be created conditions for the employment of about 24,000 workers, i.e. 4000 employed for maintenance of the newly constructed plants, 17,000 employed on designing and manufacturing of plants and 3000 employed in auxiliary activities. (author)

  6. The Association Between Health Program Participation and Employee Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Hartley, Stephen K

    2016-09-01

    Using health plan membership as a proxy for employee retention, the objective of this study was to examine whether use of health promotion programs was associated with employee retention. Propensity score weighted generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the association between telephonic programs or health risk surveys and retention. Analyses were conducted with six study samples based on type of program participation. Retention rates were highest for employees with either telephonic program activity or health risk surveys and lowest for employees who did not participate in any interventions. Participants ranged from 71% more likely to 5% less likely to remain with their employers compared with nonparticipants, depending on the sample used in analyses. Using health promotion programs in combination with health risk surveys may lead to improvements in employee retention.

  7. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  8. Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.

    2011-07-15

    The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for materials and energy where biomass provides the only renewable source for chemicals. In a biorefinery, biomass is converted via different technologies into heat, power and various products. Here, pyrolysis (thermal degradation without added oxygen) of lignocellulosic biomass can play an important role, because it leads to an array of useful chemicals. Examples are furfural and acetic acid from hemicellulose, levoglucosan from cellulose and phenols and biochar from lignin. Since the three major biomass polymers hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin possess dissimilar thermal stabilities and reactivities, type and amount of degradation products are tunable by proper selection of the pyrolysis conditions. To determine if step-wise pyrolysis would be suitable for the production of chemicals, staged degasification of lignocellulosic biomass was studied. Due to limited yields, a hot pressurized water pre-treatment (aquathermolysis) followed by pyrolysis was subsequently developed as an improved version of a staged approach to produce furfural and levoglucosan from the carbohydrate fraction of the biomass. Lignin is the only renewable source for aromatic chemicals. Lignocellulosic biorefineries for bio-ethanol produce lignin as major by-product. The pyrolysis of side-streams into valuable chemicals is of prime importance for a profitable biorefinery. To determine the added-value of lignin side-streams other than their use as fuel for power, application research including techno-economic analysis is required. In this thesis, the pyrolytic valorisation of lignin into phenols and biochar was investigated and proven possible.

  9. A study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.

  10. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensi...

  11. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  12. Proteinuric diseases with sodium retention: Is plasmin the link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Skøtt, Ole; Jensen, Boye L

    2012-01-01

    1. Sodium retention in disease states characterized by proteinuria, such as nephrotic syndrome, preeclampsia, and diabetic nephropathy, occurs through poorly understood mechanism(s). 2. In the nephrotic syndrome, data from experimental and clinical studies indicate that the sodium retention...... originates in the renal cortical collecting duct and involves hyper-activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). 3. The stimulus for the increased ENaC activity does not appear to involve any of the classical sodium retaining mechanisms, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, arginine...... and diabetic nephropathy, which are also characterized by proteinuria and sodium retention. 7. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of urinary serine protease activity in the development of sodium and water retention in diseases characterised by proteinuria with a focus on the nephrotic...

  13. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  14. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  15. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  16. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  18. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm Christensen, B.; Evald, A.; Buelow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  19. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1979 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The R and D activities in progress in the United States on the development of biomass and wastes as renewable energy sources have reached the point where all phases of the technology are under active investigation. Highlights of this effort are briefly reviewed from the standpoint of energy impact, funding, carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere, and biomass production and its conversion to energy and synthetic fuels. Special attention is given to alcohols because of the current interest in gasohol. Significant accomplishments were reported in 1979, and it is expected that commercial utilization of this information will begin to gather more momentum.

  20. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  1. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  2. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    This thesis is about the use of an agricultural residue as a feedstock for fermentable sugars to be used for second generation (2G) bioethanol. The main focus of this thesis work is upon the recalcitrance of different anatomical fractions of wheat straw. Biomass recalcitrance is a collective...... of lignocellulosic biomass’ degradability, a high throughput screening (HTS) platform was developed for combined thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic degradation in Copenhagen laboratory during this thesis work. The platform integrates an automatized biomass grinding and dispensing system, a pressurized heating...... system, a plate incubator and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In comparison with the reported HTS platforms, the Copenhagen platform is featured by the fully automatic biomass sample preparation system, the bench-scale hydrothermal pretreatment setup, and precise sugar measurement...

  3. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  6. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  7. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T., E-mail: rsayre@newmexicoconsortium.org [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  8. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  9. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  10. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  11. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  12. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  13. Job embeddedness and nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Anderson, Mary Ann; Hill, Pamela D

    2010-01-01

    Nurse retention is a different way of conceptualizing the employer-employee relationship when compared with turnover. Job embeddedness (JE), a construct based on retention, represents the sum of reasons why employees remain at their jobs. However, JE has not been investigated in relation to locale (urban or rural) or exclusively with a sample of registered nurses (RNs). The purpose of this study was to determine what factors (JE, age, gender, locale, and income) help predict nurse retention. A cross-sectional mailed survey design was used with RNs in different locales (urban or rural). Job embeddedness was measured by the score on the composite, standardized instrument. Nurse retention was measured by self-report items concerning intent to stay. A response rate of 49.3% was obtained. The typical respondent was female (96.1%), white, non-Hispanic (87.4%), and married (74.9%). Age and JE were predictive of nurse retention and accounted for 26% of the explained variance in intent to stay. Although age was a significant predictor of intent to stay, it accounted for only 1.4% of the variance while JE accounted for 24.6% of the variance of nurse retention (as measured by intent to stay). Older, more "embedded" nurses are more likely to remain employed in their current organization. Based on these findings, JE may form the basis for the development of an effective nurse retention program.

  14. Effects of biomass-generated producer gas constituents on cell growth, product distribution and hydrogenase activity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7{sup T}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Asma [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering; Cateni, Bruno G.; Huhnke, Raymond L. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Lewis, Randy S. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Department

    2006-07-15

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that biomass-generated producer gas can be converted to ethanol and acetic acid using a microbial catalyst Clostridium carboxidivorans P7{sup T}. Results showed that the producer gas (1) induced cell dormancy, (2) inhibited H{sub 2} consumption, and (3) affected the acetic acid/ethanol product distribution. Results of this work showed that tars were the likely cause of cell dormancy and product redistribution and that the addition of a 0.025{mu}m filter in the gas cleanup negated the effects of tars. C. carboxidivorans P7{sup T} can adapt to the tars (i.e. grow) only after prolonged exposure. Nitric oxide, present in the producer gas at 150ppm, is an inhibitor of the hydrogenase enzyme involved in H{sub 2} consumption. We conclude that significant conditioning of the producer gas will be required for the successful coupling of biomass-generated producer gas with fermentation to produce ethanol and acetic acid. (author)

  15. Effects of biomass-generated producer gas constituents on cell growth, product distribution and hydrogenase activity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Asma; Cateni, Bruno G.; Huhnke, Raymond L.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that biomass-generated producer gas can be converted to ethanol and acetic acid using a microbial catalyst Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 T . Results showed that the producer gas (1) induced cell dormancy, (2) inhibited H 2 consumption, and (3) affected the acetic acid/ethanol product distribution. Results of this work showed that tars were the likely cause of cell dormancy and product redistribution and that the addition of a 0.025μm filter in the gas cleanup negated the effects of tars. C. carboxidivorans P7 T can adapt to the tars (i.e. grow) only after prolonged exposure. Nitric oxide, present in the producer gas at 150ppm, is an inhibitor of the hydrogenase enzyme involved in H 2 consumption. We conclude that significant conditioning of the producer gas will be required for the successful coupling of biomass-generated producer gas with fermentation to produce ethanol and acetic acid. (author)

  16. The Retention of Female Unrestricted Line Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pecenco, Elena G

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the retention of female Naval officers, focusing on the relationship between officer selection metrics and retention beyond minimum service obligation and the effect of lateral...

  17. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of the retention of tones differing in timbre in auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Sophie; Bermudez, Patrick; Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Grimault, Stephan; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We examined the electrophysiological correlates of retention in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) for sequences of one, two, or three tones differing in timbre but having the same pitch. We focused on event-related potentials (ERPs) during the retention interval and revealed a sustained fronto-central ERP component (most likely a sustained anterior negativity; SAN) that became more negative as memory load increased. Our results are consistent with recent ERP studies on the retention of pitch and suggest that the SAN reflects brain activity mediating the low-level retention of basic acoustic features in ASTM. The present work shows that the retention of timbre shares common features with the retention of pitch, hence supporting the notion that the retention of basic sensory features is an active process that recruits modality-specific brain areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  1. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  2. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    boiler, the running costs would be cheaper. This would result in significantly lower costs over a 10-year period. Biomass also has a superior environmental profile. The new Binder 650kW boiler, supplied by Living Energy, runs on dry woodchip, with the ideal moisture content being 20-30%. The long-term source of wood chip is pine sourced from local forestry activities. Council has considered using untreated urban timber waste collected at its transfer station and may conduct a trial in the future. Even if the trial is successful this would only supplement the main source of feedstock. The Binder boiler has automatic ash removal, which significantly reduces the maintenance cost on the previous system, which had to have ash manually removed three times a week on average. The ash is taken to a composter just north of Mount Gambier; mixed with other feedstock and turned into compost. The biomass boiler saves approximately 58 tonnes of greenhouse emissions per year. Due to the efficiency of the boiler, and the low moisture content of the wood chip, no smoke is produced, and only negligible particulates. “The trees that the biomass is sourced from are regrown and so the fuel source is essentially carbon neutral, as opposed to gas, which is a fossil fuel source,” said Izzard. “The biomass boiler is very efficient, up to 90%. It is more cost effective to run and has less environmental impact than coal-fired electricity.” The main disadvantage with this kind of biomass system is that it requires more human input than a straight gas system. With the latter, the fuel is piped in and the system runs mostly automatically, needing little human input. With a biomass system, the trees need to be harvested and chipped (which, in most situations will be occurring regardless, wood chips are simply purchased that were going to be made anyway), the chip needs to be stored (unless they can be made on demand, but for smaller systems this is unlikely to be cost effective), and it needs

  3. Corneal NF-kappaB activity is necessary for the retention of transparency in the cornea of UV-B-exposed transgenic reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, George; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-04-01

    To determine the dynamics of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in murine corneal pathology and the role of NF-kappaB in maintaining corneal clarity after ultraviolet B radiation insult, transgenic mice containing NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter were exposed to LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide), TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha) or 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B radiation. NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides were also administered in some of the UV-B experiments. Following various exposure times, the mice were sacrificed and whole eyes or corneal tissues were obtained. Whole eyes were examined for scattering using a point-source optical imaging technique. Tissue homogenates were examined for luciferase activity using a luminometer. TNF-alpha and LPS-injected NF-kappaB-luciferase transgenic mice demonstrated 3-10-fold increases in cornea NF-kappaB with peak activities at 4 and 6 hr post-injection, respectively. Mice exposed to 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B exhibited a 3-fold increase in NF-kappaB activity 4 hr post-exposure. The administration of NF-kappaB-decoy oligonucleotides to mice had the effect of reducing UV-B-induced NF-kappaB activity in the cornea and significantly increasing the amount of light scattering in UV-B exposed corneas 7 days post-UV-B exposure when compared to sham injected mice. These results indicate that NF-kappaB is activated in cornea in pathologies that involves increased plasma levels of LPS and TNF-alpha, as well as direct UV-B exposure, and suggest that NF-kappaB activation play an essential part in the corneal healing process.

  4. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  5. Energy from aquatic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic biomass is considered as a second (or third) generation option for the production of bio fuels. The best utilization for energy purposes is not its direct combustion. Several technologies are available for the extraction of compounds that may find application for the production of gaseous fuels (biogas, dihydrogen) or liquid fuels (ethanol, bio oil, biodiesel). [it

  6. Pyrolysis of chitin biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The thermal degradation of chitin biomass with various molecular structures was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and the gaseous products were analyzed by connected mass spectroscopy (MS). The chemical structure and morphology of char residues collected at 750°C using the model...

  7. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  8. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  9. Experiments and modelling on biomass transport inside upflow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the experimental and theoretical activities developed to study the biomass transport phenomena occurring in upflow anaerobic reactors influencing the biomass washout. Particularly, the experimental investigations have been carried out on a full-scale ABR and on a pilot UASB intermittently fed with ...

  10. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  11. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  12. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  13. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  14. Activity coefficients, interfacial tensions and retention in reversed-phase liquid chormatography on LiChrosorb RP-18 with methanol-water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, W.E.; Meurs, G.J.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1982-01-01

    Literature data on activity coefficients of various solutes in water, of some tetraalkyl compounds in methanol-water mixture and of water in organic solvents have been correlated with the product of the molecular surface area of the solute and the solute-solvent interfacial tension at ambient

  15. Use of Case-Based or Hands-On Laboratory Exercises with Physiology Lectures Improves Knowledge Retention, but Veterinary Medicine Students Prefer Case-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Renee M.; Cupp, Andrea S.; Wood, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Didactic lectures are prevalent in physiology courses within veterinary medicine programs, but more active learning methods have also been utilized. Our goal was to identify the most appropriate learning method to augment the lecture component of our physiology course. We hypothesized that case-based learning would be well received by students and…

  16. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  17. Increasing Army Retention Through Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beerman, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    .... If the Army fails to address the enlisted retention issue in the near future departures of experienced NCOs will have a detrimental impact our military's ability to provide for our nation's security...

  18. Is Enlisted Retention too High?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, M

    2003-01-01

    .... The consensus appears to be that higher retention is better for the Navy; more experienced Sailors improve readiness and allow the Navy to devote fewer resources to the recruiting, training, and acculturation of new accessions...

  19. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  20. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  1. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  2. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of forested and emergent marsh depressional wetlands in differing land uses in Florida, USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., GERMANY, 24(1): 45-60, (2016).

  3. Promoting Special Educator Teacher Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Vittek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensive administrative support to improve job satisfaction and the likelihood a special educator will remain in their job.

  4. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  5. Seaweed and Biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiradze, K. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Black Sea has a sensitive ecosystem, vulnerable to the potential impacts by climate, water quality, pollution and etc. Successfully restoring and sustaining healthy Black Sea aqua cultural farming will require concreted action by private sector, civil society, farmer organizations and other stakeholders. But to achieve agri-environmental goals at scale, well-organized policy goals, framework and strategy for Sea Agriculture Green energy, Algae Biomass, Sapropel Production, aquacultures farming are essential for Georgian Farmers. But we must recognizes the most sustainable and at least risky farming systems will be those that build in aqua cultural, environmental, and social management practices resilient to climate ch ange and other risks and shocks evident in Georgia and whole in a Black Sea Basin Countries. Black Sea has more than 600 kinds of seaweeds; these species contain biologically active substances also present in fish - vitamins and omega fatty acids. The task is to specify how Black Sea seaweeds can be used in preparing nutrition additives, medicines and cosmetic products. As elsewhere around the world, governments, civil society, and the private sector in Georgia should work together to develop and implement `Blue Economy' and Green Growth strategies to generate equitable, sustainable economic development through strengthening Sea Agriculture. We are very interested to develop Black Sea seaweed plantation ad farming for multiply purposes fo r livestock as food additives, for human as great natural source of iodine as much iodine are released by seaweeds into the atmosphere to facilitate the development of better models or aerosol formation and atmospheric chemistry. It is well known, that earth's oceans are thought to have absorbed about one quarter of the CO2 humans pumped into the atmosphere over the past 20 years. The flip side of this process is that, as they absorb co2, oceans also become more acidic with dramatic consequences for sea life

  6. Multi-functional biomass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share of biomass applications in Europe is their often-high production costs, among others due to the relatively low availability of

  7. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  9. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. Modelling and L1 Adaptive Control of Temperature in Biomass Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Biomass steam pretreatment is a key process in converting agricultural wastes to bioethanol. The pretreatment occurs in a large pressurized tank called a thermal reactor. Two key parameters influence the successfulness of the process: the reactor temperature, and the retention time. A particle pu...

  12. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  13. Biogenic nanopalladium production by self-immobilized granular biomass: application for contaminant remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, E; Nancharaiah, Y V; Venugopalan, V P

    2014-11-15

    Microbial granules cultivated in an aerobic bubble column sequencing batch reactor were used for reduction of Pd(II) and formation of biomass associated Pd(0) nanoparticles (Bio-Pd) for reductive transformation of organic and inorganic contaminants. Addition of Pd(II) to microbial granules incubated under fermentative conditions resulted in rapid formation of Bio-Pd. The reduction of soluble Pd(II) to biomass associated Pd(0) was predominantly mediated by H2 produced through fermentation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analysis revealed that the produced Pd nanoparticles were associated with the microbial granules. The catalytic activity of Bio-Pd was determined using p-nitrophenol and Cr(VI) as model compounds. Reductive transformation of p-nitrophenol by Bio-Pd was ∼20 times higher in comparison to microbial granules without Pd. Complete reduction of up to 0.25 mM of Cr(VI) by Bio-Pd was achieved in 24 h. Bio-Pd synthesis using self-immobilized microbial granules is advantageous and obviates the need for nanoparticle encapsulation or use of barrier membranes for retaining Bio-Pd in practical applications. In short, microbial granules offer a dual purpose system for Bio-Pd production and retention, wherein in situ generated H2 serves as electron donor powering biotransformations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  15. Biomass Data | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Data Biomass Data These datasets detail the biomass resources available in the United Coverage File Last Updated Metadata Biomethane Zip 72.2 MB 10/30/2014 Biomethane.xml Solid Biomass Zip 69.5

  16. Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages

  17. The potentials of biomass as renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass is a term used in the context of energy to define a range of products derived from photosynthesis. Annually large amounts of solar energy is stored in the leaves, stems and branches of plants. Of the various renewable sources of energy, biomass is thus unique in that it represents stored solar energy. In addition it is the only source of carbon, and it may be converted into convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Biomass, principally in the form of wood, is humankind's oldest form of energy, and has been used to fuel both domestic and industrial activities. Traditional use has been, through direct combustion, a process still used extensively in many parts of the world. Biomass is a renewable and indigenous resource that requires little or no foreign exchange. But it is a dispersed, labor-intensive and land requiring source of energy and may avoid or reduce problems of waste disposal. We'll try to assess the potential contribution of biomass to the future world energy supply. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  19. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  20. Biomassa e atividade microbianas do solo sob influência de chumbo e da rizosfera da soja micorrizada Soil microbial biomass and activity under the influence of lead addition and mycorrhizal soybean rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Adrián López de Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de chumbo (Pb ao solo na biomassa e atividade microbianas do solo sob influência da rizosfera de soja micorrizada. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 4x2x2 utilizando-se 0, 150, 300 e 600 mg dm-3 de Pb, inoculação ou não do fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA, Glomus macrocarpum, e duas épocas de amostragem - florescimento e maturação da soja. Avaliaram-se o C da biomassa microbiana, a liberação de CO2 do solo e a atividade de três enzimas, desidrogenase, fosfatase alcalina e arilssulfatase. O Pb afetou negativamente o C da biomassa e a atividade da microbiota rizosférica, ocorrendo interação entre a presença de propágulos de FMA e o estádio de desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade da fosfatase alcalina foi a mais afetada pelas altas concentrações de Pb adicionadas ao solo, com redução de 60% na sua atividade, mostrando-se um indicador sensível do estresse metabólico da comunidade microbiana do solo causado pelo excesso de chumbo. A micorrização da soja influenciou de forma direta a microbiota rizosférica, resultando em maior atividade e biomassa, principalmente no estádio de maturação da soja. A microbiota do solo apresentou sintomas de estresse decorrentes da adição de chumbo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lead addition on soil microbial biomass and activity under the influence of the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal soybean. The experimental design was completely randomized and arranged in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, using 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg dm-3, inoculation or not of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF Glomus macrocarpum and two sampling periods: soybean flowering and maturity. Microbial biomass C, soil respiration and the activity of three soil enzymes (deshydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and arilsulphatase were determined. The most affected enzyme