WorldWideScience

Sample records for active binaries cab

  1. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  2. Active Learning Using Arbitrary Binary Valued Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We

  3. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  4. Rotation, activity, and lithium abundance in cool binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Järvinen, S.

    2012-10-01

    We have used two robotic telescopes to obtain time-series high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy and V I and/or by photometry for a sample of 60 active stars, mostly binaries. Orbital solutions are presented for 26 double-lined systems and for 19 single-lined systems, seven of them for the first time but all of them with unprecedented phase coverage and accuracy. Eighteen systems turned out to be single stars. The total of 6609 {R=55 000} échelle spectra are also used to systematically determine effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, rotational velocities, lithium abundances and absolute Hα-core fluxes as a function of time. The photometry is used to infer unspotted brightness, {V-I} and/or b-y colors, spot-induced brightness amplitudes and precise rotation periods. An extra 22 radial-velocity standard stars were monitored throughout the science observations and yield a new barycentric zero point for our STELLA/SES robotic system. Our data are complemented by literature data and are used to determine rotation-temperature-activity relations for active binary components. We also relate lithium abundance to rotation and surface temperature. We find that 74 % of all known rapidly-rotating active binary stars are synchronized and in circular orbits but 26 % (61 systems) are rotating asynchronously of which half have {P_rot>P_orb} and {e>0}. Because rotational synchronization is predicted to occur before orbital circularization active binaries should undergo an extra spin-down besides tidal dissipation. We suspect this to be due to a magnetically channeled wind with its subsequent braking torque. We find a steep increase of rotation period with decreasing effective temperature for active stars, P_rot ∝ T_eff-7, for both single and binaries, main sequence and evolved. For inactive, single giants with {P_rot>100} d, the relation is much weaker, {P_rot ∝ T_eff-1.12}. Our data also indicate a period-activity relation for Hα of the form {R_Hα ∝ P

  5. The Binary System Laboratory Activities Based on Students Mental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiti, A.; Liliasari, S.; Sumarna, O.; Martoprawiro, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Generic science skills (GSS) are required to develop student conception in learning binary system. The aim of this research was to know the improvement of students GSS through the binary system labotoratory activities based on their mental model using hypothetical-deductive learning cycle. It was a mixed methods embedded experimental model research design. This research involved 15 students of a university in Papua, Indonesia. Essay test of 7 items was used to analyze the improvement of students GSS. Each items was designed to interconnect macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Students worksheet was used to explore students mental model during investigation in laboratory. The increase of students GSS could be seen in their N-Gain of each GSS indicators. The results were then analyzed descriptively. Students mental model and GSS have been improved from this study. They were interconnect macroscopic and symbolic levels to explain binary systems phenomena. Furthermore, they reconstructed their mental model with interconnecting the three levels of representation in Physical Chemistry. It necessary to integrate the Physical Chemistry Laboratory into a Physical Chemistry course for effectiveness and efficiency.

  6. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  7. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE CLOSE ACTIVE BINARY HR 5110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbuhl, E.; Mutel, R. L.; Lynch, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Güedel, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-20

    The close active binary HR 5110 was observed at six epochs over 26 days using a global very long baseline interferometry array at 15.4 GHz. We used phase referencing to determine the position of the radio centroid at each epoch with an uncertainty significantly smaller than the component separation. After correcting for proper motion and parallax, we find that the centroid locations of all six epochs have barycenter separations consistent with an emission source located on the KIV secondary, and not in an interaction region between the stars or on the F primary. We used a homogeneous power-law gyrosynchrotron emission model to reproduce the observed flux densities and fractional circular polarization. The resulting ranges of mean magnetic field strength and relativistic electron densities are of the order of 10 G and 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, respectively, in the source region.

  8. Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-11-21

    Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation.

  9. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC 2 shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using μ-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 (micro)m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  10. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  11. Cataclysmic Variables and Active Binary Stars in Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, T.; Brochmann, M.; Dorfman, J. L.; White, M. V.; Cool, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    We report findings from our ongoing research on the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using a 3x3 mosaic of Wide Field Camera pointings with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The data consist of F435W (B435), F625W (R625), and F658N (Hα ) images and cover roughly 10x10 arcminutes, out to beyond the cluster's half-mass radius. Our current work is a search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) and active binaries (ABs) (e.g., RS CVn and BY Dra stars) as counterparts to X-ray point sources previously detected with Chandra. The ACS field encompasses 109 of the Chandra sources, 20-50 of which are likely to be cluster members according to our statistical estimates (the rest being primarily active galaxies). Using DAOPHOT to obtain photometry in 20x20 arcsecond patches surrounding each X-ray source, we are constructing color-magnitude diagrams to search for stars with Hα -R625 and/or B435-R625 colors indicative of CVs or ABs in ˜ 1 arcsecond Chandra error circles. With roughly half of the patches analyzed, several AB candidates and only a small number of CV candidates have emerged. Our tentative conclusion is that CVs may be significantly rarer in Omega Cen than in 47 Tuc, in contrast to the comparable numbers ( ˜100) predicted for these two clusters from tidal capture theory (Di Stefano and Rappaport 1994). Alternatively, the CVs could be strongly concentrated toward the cluster center, and thus not yet appear in our sample. To date, most of the patches we have analyzed are 3-4 arcminutes from the cluster center and thus are outside the cluster core (radius 2.6 arcminutes). Our continuing work should soon enable us to resolve this question. This work is supported by NASA grant GO-9442 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  12. Calculation of Binary Adsorption Equilibria: Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Krøll, A.

    1999-01-01

    Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary ...... mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on activated carbons. The model parameters have been determined, and the model has proven to be suited for prediction of adsorption equilibria in the investigated systems....

  13. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  14. ζ1 + ζ2 Reticuli binary system: a puzzling chromospheric activity pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M.; Saffe, C.; Buccino, A.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; González, J. F.; Nuñez, N. E.; Jofré, E.

    2018-05-01

    We perform, for the first time, a detailed long-term activity study of the binary system ζ Ret. We use all available HARPS spectra obtained between the years 2003 and 2016. We build a time series of the Mount Wilson S index for both stars, then we analyse these series by using Lomb-Scargle periodograms. The components ζ1 Ret and ζ2 Ret that belong to this binary system are physically very similar to each other and also similar to our Sun, which makes it a remarkable system. We detect in the solar-analogue star ζ2 Ret a long-term activity cycle with a period of ˜10 yr, similar to the solar one (˜11 yr). It is worthwhile to mention that this object satisfies previous criteria for a flat star and for a cycling star simultaneously. Another interesting feature of this binary system is a high ˜0.220 dex difference between the average log (R^' }_HK) activity levels of both stars. Our study clearly shows that ζ1 Ret is significantly more active than ζ2 Ret. In addition, ζ1 Ret shows an erratic variability in its stellar activity. In this work, we explore different scenarios trying to explain this rare behaviour in a pair of coeval stars, which could help to explain the difference in this and other binary systems. From these results, we also warn that for the development of activity-age calibrations (which commonly use binary systems and/or stellar clusters as calibrators) the whole history of activity available for the stars involved should be taken into account.

  15. Multiwavelength Study of Powerful New Jet Activity in the Symbiotic Binary System R Aqr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    We propose to carry out coordinated high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-S and HST/WFC3 observations of R Aqr, a very active symbiotic interacting binary system. Our main goal is to study the physical characteristics of multi-scale components of the powerful jet; from near the central binary (within a few AU) to the jet-circumbinary material interaction region (2500 AU) and beyond , and especially of the recently discovered inner jet, to gain insight on early jet formation and propagation, such as jet kinematics and precession.

  16. First investigation on the applicability of an active noise control system on a tracked tractor without cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In last years, several research teams pointed their attention on the application of active noise control systems (ANC inside the cabs of agricultural tractor, with the purpose of reducing the driver exposition to noise, that is only partially controlled by the frame of the cab. This paper reports the results of a first experience that aimed at verifying the applicability of an ANC on a medium-high power, tracked tractor without cab. The tested tractor was a Fiat Allis 150 A, equipped with rear power take off, used in the execution of deep primary tillage in compact soils. It is a tracked tractor without cab, with maximum power of 108.8 kW at 1840 min–1 of the engine. The ANC consists of a control unit box based on a digital signal processor (DPS, two microphones, two speakers and a power amplifier. The instrumentation used in noise data collecting and processing consisted of a multichannel signal analyzer (Sinus - Soundbook, a ½” microphone capsule and an acoustic calibrator, both Bruel & Kjaer. The study aimed at evaluating the behaviour of the ANC by means of tests carried out under repeatable conditions, characterized by pre-defined engine speed values. Three replications have been made for each engine speed. The sampling time was 30 s. Two series of tests were performed in order to compare the results observed with the ANC on and off. The engine speed adopted in the study ranged from 600 min– 1, up to 2000 min–1 (maximum speed with steps of 100 min–1. The ANC proved to be effective in the interval of speed between 1400 and 1700 min–1, where the samplings have been intensified, adopting steps of 50 min–1. In such an interval, the attenuation observed with the ANC system on appeared evident both as weighed A sound pressure level (from 1.29 up to 2.46 dB(A and linear (from 4.54 up to 8.53 dB. The best performance has been observed at the engine speed of 1550 min–1, with attenuations, respectively of 2.46 dB(A and 7.67 d

  17. An Enterotoxin-Like Binary Protein from Pseudomonas protegens with Potent Nematicidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Zhi; Siehl, Daniel L; Hou, Zhenglin; Rosen, Barbara; Oral, Jarred; Taylor, Christopher G; Wu, Gusui

    2017-10-01

    Soil microbes are a major food source for free-living soil nematodes. It is known that certain soil bacteria have evolved systems to combat predation. We identified the nematode-antagonistic Pseudomonas protegens strain 15G2 from screening of microbes. Through protein purification we identified a binary protein, designated Pp-ANP, which is responsible for the nematicidal activity. This binary protein inhibits Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development by arresting larvae at the L1 stage and killing older-staged worms. The two subunits, Pp-ANP1a and Pp-ANP2a, are active when reconstituted from separate expression in Escherichia coli The binary toxin also shows strong nematicidal activity against three other free-living nematodes ( Pristionchus pacificus , Panagrellus redivivus , and Acrobeloides sp.), but we did not find any activity against insects and fungi under test conditions, indicating specificity for nematodes. Pp-ANP1a has no significant identity to any known proteins, while Pp-ANP2a shows ∼30% identity to E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) subunit A and cholera toxin (CT) subunit A. Protein modeling indicates that Pp-ANP2a is structurally similar to CT/LT and likely acts as an ADP-ribosyltransferase. Despite the similarity, Pp-ANP shows several characteristics distinct from CT/LT toxins. Our results indicate that Pp-ANP is a new enterotoxin-like binary toxin with potent and specific activity to nematodes. The potency and specificity of Pp-ANP suggest applications in controlling parasitic nematodes and open an avenue for further research on its mechanism of action and role in bacterium-nematode interaction. IMPORTANCE This study reports the discovery of a new enterotoxin-like binary protein, Pp-ANP, from a Pseudomonas protegens strain. Pp-ANP shows strong nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans larvae and older-staged worms. It also shows strong activity on other free-living nematodes ( Pristionchus pacificus , Panagrellus redivivus , and

  18. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV-optical-IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use Hα chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, The Ohio State University, and the University of Michigan.

  19. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Julie N. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place NE, Atlanta, GA, 30303 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: jskinner@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  20. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  1. Formation of Neutral Disk-Like Zone Around the Active Hot Stars in Symbiotic Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariková Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present the ionization structure in the enhanced wind from the hot star in symbiotic binaries during active phases. Rotation of the hot star leads to the compression of the outflowing material towards its equatorial plane. As a result, a neutral disk-like zone around the active hot star near the orbital plane is created. We modeled the compression of the wind and calculated the neutral disk-like zone in the enhanced wind from the hot star using the equation of the photoionization equilibrium. the presence of such neutral disk-like zones was also suggested on the basis of the modeling the spectral energy distribution of symbiotic binaries. We confront the calculated ionization structures in the enhanced wind from the hot star with the observations. the calculated column density of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the neutral disk-like zone and the emission measure of the ionized part of the wind from the hot star are in a good agreement with the quantities derived from observations during active phases. the presence of such neutral disk-like zones is transient, being connected with the active phases of symbiotic binaries. During quiescent phases, such neutral disk-like zones cannot be created because of insufficient mass-loss rate from the hot star.

  2. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  3. Communication over the network of binary switches regulates the activation of A2A adenosine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonji Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and functions of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are accurately regulated by the type of ligands that bind to the orthosteric or allosteric binding sites. To glean the structural and dynamical origin of ligand-dependent modulation of GPCR activity, we performed total ~ 5 μsec molecular dynamics simulations of A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR in its apo, antagonist-bound, and agonist-bound forms in an explicit water and membrane environment, and examined the corresponding dynamics and correlation between the 10 key structural motifs that serve as the allosteric hotspots in intramolecular signaling network. We dubbed these 10 structural motifs "binary switches" as they display molecular interactions that switch between two distinct states. By projecting the receptor dynamics on these binary switches that yield 2(10 microstates, we show that (i the receptors in apo, antagonist-bound, and agonist-bound states explore vastly different conformational space; (ii among the three receptor states the apo state explores the broadest range of microstates; (iii in the presence of the agonist, the active conformation is maintained through coherent couplings among the binary switches; and (iv to be most specific, our analysis shows that W246, located deep inside the binding cleft, can serve as both an agonist sensor and actuator of ensuing intramolecular signaling for the receptor activation. Finally, our analysis of multiple trajectories generated by inserting an agonist to the apo state underscores that the transition of the receptor from inactive to active form requires the disruption of ionic-lock in the DRY motif.

  4. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Bonning, Erin W. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Oh, Kyuseok [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cardamone, Carolin N. [Harriet W. Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning, Brown University, P.O. Box 1912, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 206 Gallalee Hall, 514 University Boulevard, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-034 (United States); Simmons, Brooke D. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  5. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  6. Chromospherically active stars. 13: HD 30957: A double lined K dwarf binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Dadonas, Virgilijus; Sperauskas, Julius; Vaccaro, Todd R.; Patterson, L. Ronald

    1994-01-01

    HD 30957 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 44.395 days and a modest eccentricity of 0.09. The spectral types of the components are K2-3 V and K5 V. The measured v sin i for both components is less than or equal to 3 km/s and the orbital inclination is estimated to be 69 deg. The system is relatively nearby with a parallax of 0.025 sec or a distance of 40 pc. Space motions of the system indicate that it does not belong to any of the known moving groups. Absolute surface fluxes of the Ca II H and K lines have been recomputed and indicate only modest chromospheric activity. If the stars are rotating pseudosynchronously, the lack of light variability is consistent with the value of the critical Rossby number for starspot activity.

  7. The influence of copper in dealloyed binary platinum–copper electrocatalysts on methanol electroxidation catalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poochai, Chatwarin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret, E-mail: waret.vee@mahidol.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Somsook, Ekasith [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Dangtip, Somsak [Department of Physics, and NANOTEC COE at Mahidol University, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we prepared and characterized carbon paper-supported dealloyed binary Pt–Cu core–shell electrocatalysts (denoted as Pt{sub x}Cu{sub (100−x)/}CP) by cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective copper dealloying in an acidic medium, and we investigated the effect of the copper content in the samples on the catalytic activities toward methanol electroxidation reaction (MOR). X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) indicated that the structure of dealloyed binary Pt–Cu catalysts possessed a Pt-rich shell and a Cu rich core. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) displayed that the oxidation states of Pt and Cu were zero and one, respectively, implying the formation of metallic Pt and Cu{sub 2}O, respectively. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) confirmed that Cu was inserted into a face-centered cubic Pt structure forming Pt–Cu alloys. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) displayed a cubic shape of Pt/CP and a spherical shape of Pt{sub x}Cu{sub (100−x)/}CP with several hundred nanometer sizes of agglomeration that depended on the Cu content. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to confirm that the sample of Pt{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/CP exhibited the best catalytic activities in terms of the specific current, current density, catalytic poisoning tolerance, and stability. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Binary electrocatalysts of Pt{sub x}Cu{sub (100−x)}/CP were prepared by cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective copper dealloying. • The structures of Pt{sub x}Cu{sub (100−x)}/CP were a Pt rich shell and a Cu rich core. • The Pt{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/CP was the excellent catalytic activity towards methanol electrooxidation and CO{sub ads} tolerance.

  8. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  9. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Surya

    Full Text Available The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes.

  10. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a ...

  11. Impact of kinase activating and inactivating patient mutations on binary PKA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Ruth; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Bachmann, Verena; Stefan, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger molecule cAMP links extracellular signals to intracellular responses. The main cellular cAMP effector is the compartmentalized protein kinase A (PKA). Upon receptor initiated cAMP-mobilization, PKA regulatory subunits (R) bind cAMP thereby triggering dissociation and activation of bound PKA catalytic subunits (PKAc). Mutations in PKAc or RIa subunits manipulate PKA dynamics and activities which contribute to specific disease patterns. Mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling contribute to carcinogenesis or hormone excess, while inactivating mutations cause hormone deficiency or resistance. Here we extended the application spectrum of a Protein-fragment Complementation Assay based on the Renilla Luciferase to determine binary protein:protein interactions (PPIs) of the PKA network. We compared time- and dose-dependent influences of cAMP-elevation on mutually exclusive PPIs of PKAc with the phosphotransferase inhibiting RIIb and RIa subunits and the protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI). We analyzed PKA dynamics following integration of patient mutations into PKAc and RIa. We observed that oncogenic modifications of PKAc(L206R) and RIa(Δ184-236) as well as rare disease mutations in RIa(R368X) affect complex formation of PKA and its responsiveness to cAMP elevation. With the cell-based PKA PPI reporter platform we precisely quantified the mechanistic details how inhibitory PKA interactions and defined patient mutations contribute to PKA functions.

  12. Three-axial evaluation of whole-body vibration in agricultural telehandlers: The effects of an active cab-suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Preti, Christian; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture, and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y-, and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments. Sixteen healthy professional telehandler drivers took part in the study. Objective measurements were acquired at the operator's seat, and subjective ratings were taken while participants drove the telehandler with either a deactivated or activated suspension system at 12 kph on an ISO 5008 smooth track. The results showed that the activation of the cab-suspension system reduced the root-mean-square acceleration along the x- and z-axes (p =.038 and p =.000, respectively). Moreover, the frequency analysis showed a reduction in the acceleration along the z-axis in the range of 2-25 Hz (p suspension systems are discussed.

  13. The contact binary VW Cephei revisited: surface activity and period variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitnyan, T.; Bódi, A.; Szalai, T.; Vinkó, J.; Szatmáry, K.; Borkovits, T.; Bíró, B. I.; Hegedüs, T.; Vida, K.; Pál, A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Despite the fact that VW Cephei is one of the most well-studied contact binaries in the literature, there is no fully consistent model available that can explain every observed property of this system. Aims: Our aims are to obtain new spectra along with photometric measurements, to analyze what kind of changes may have happened in the system in the past two decades, and to propose new ideas for explaining them. Methods: For the period analysis we determined ten new times of minima from our light curves, and constructed a new O-C diagram of the system. Radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The light curves and radial velocities were modeled simultaneously with the PHOEBE code. All observed spectra were compared to synthetic spectra and equivalent widths (EWs) of the Hα line were measured on their differences. Results: We re-determine the physical parameters of the system according to our new light curve and spectral models. We confirm that the primary component is more active than the secondary, and there is a correlation between spottedness and the chromospheric activity. We propose that the flip-flop phenomenon occurring on the primary component could be a possible explanation of the observed nature of the activity. To explain the period variation of VW Cep, we test two previously suggested scenarios: the presence of a fourth body in the system, and the Applegate-mechanism caused by periodic magnetic activity. We conclude that although none of these mechanisms can be ruled out entirely, the available data suggest that mass transfer with a slowly decreasing rate provides the most likely explanation for the period variation of VW Cep.

  14. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters ASIC with nested wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahim, F; Deptuch, G; Holm, S; Shenai, A; Lipton, R

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) V ASIC has been designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays. A nested well structure with a buried n-well (BNW) and a deeper buried p-well (BPW) is used to electrically isolate the detector from the electronics. BNW acts as an AC ground to electrical signals and behaves as a shield. BPW allows for a homogenous electric field in the entire detector volume. The ASIC consists of a matrix of 50 × 52 pixels, each of 105x105μm 2 . Each pixel contains analog functionality accomplished by a charge preamplifier, CR-RC 2 shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator with Upper and Lower thresholds which can be individually trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC.

  15. Star-spot distributions and chromospheric activity on the RS CVn type eclipsing binary SV Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenavcı, H. V.; Bahar, E.; Montes, D.; Zola, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Frasca, A.; Işık, E.; Yörükoǧlu, O.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time series of high-resolution spectra and high-quality multi-colour photometry, we reconstruct surface maps of the primary component of the RS CVn type rapidly rotating eclipsing binary, SV Cam (F9V + K4V). We measure a mass ratio, q, of 0.641(2) using our highest quality spectra and obtain surface brightness maps of the primary component, which exhibit predominantly high-latitude spots located between 60° - 70° latitudes with a mean filling factor of ˜35%. This is also indicated by the R-band light curve inversion, subjected to rigourous numerical tests. The spectral subtraction of the Hα line reveals strong activity of the secondary component. The excess Hα absorption detected near the secondary minimum hints to the presence of cool material partially obscuring the primary star. The flux ratios of Ca II IRT excess emission indicate that the contribution of chromospheric plage regions associated with star-spots is dominant, even during the passage of the filament-like absorption feature.

  16. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Jiang, F.; Fu, B.J.; Sun, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  17. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xicheng District, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.C., E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); Jiang, F.; Fu, B. J.; Sun, N. B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%.

  18. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  19. Microscopic Theory of Coupled Slow Activated Dynamics in Glass-Forming Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2018-04-05

    The Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory for one-component viscous liquids and suspensions is generalized to treat coupled slow activated relaxation and diffusion in glass-forming binary sphere mixtures of any composition, size ratio, and interparticle interactions. A trajectory-level dynamical coupling parameter concept is introduced to construct two coupled dynamic free energy functions for the smaller penetrant and larger matrix particle. A two-step dynamical picture is proposed where the first-step process involves matrix-facilitated penetrant hopping quantified in a self-consistent manner based on a temporal coincidence condition. After penetrants dynamically equilibrate, the effectively one-component matrix particle dynamics is controlled by a new dynamic free energy (second-step process). Depending on the time scales associated with the first- and second-step processes, as well as the extent of matrix-correlated facilitation, distinct physical scenarios are predicted. The theory is implemented for purely hard-core interactions, and addresses the glass transition based on variable kinetic criteria, penetrant-matrix coupled activated relaxation, self-diffusion of both species, dynamic fragility, and shear elasticity. Testable predictions are made. Motivated by the analytic ultralocal limit idea derived for pure hard sphere fluids, we identify structure-thermodynamics-dynamics relationships. As a case study for molecule-polymer thermal mixtures, the chemically matched fully miscible polystyrene-toluene system is quantitatively studied based on a predictive mapping scheme. The resulting no-adjustable-parameter results for toluene diffusivity and the mixture glass transition temperature are in good agreement with experiment. The theory provides a foundation to treat diverse dynamical problems in glass-forming mixtures, including suspensions of colloids and nanoparticles, polymer-molecule liquids, and polymer nanocomposites.

  20. Mechatronic development of an active spring-/tilt engineering for the railcar RailCab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu-Henke, X.

    2005-01-01

    A mechatronic development process with computer-supported design up to real time implementation of a prototype was applied throughout, with particular emphasis on mechatronic composition. After establishing a nonlinear mechatronic model and model identification, nonlinear compensation was designed and implemented in a HiL test stand. Simulations and test stand measurements verified high driving comfort and high safety as a result of the implemented active spring/tilt technology

  1. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.

  2. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  3. Performance of a Fast Binary Readout CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Chip Designed for Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerli, Yavuz; Besanon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Himmi, Abdelkader; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Szelezniak, Michal

    2006-12-01

    We report on the performance of the MIMOSA8 (HiMAPS1) chip. The chip is a 128times32 pixels array where 24 columns have discriminated binary outputs and eight columns analog test outputs. Offset correction techniques are used extensively in this chip to overcome process related mismatches. The array is divided in four blocks of pixels with different conversion factors and is controlled by a serially programmable sequencer. MIMOSA8 is a representative of the CMOS sensors development option considered as a promising candidate for the Vertex Detector of the future International Linear Collider (ILC). The readout technique, implemented on the chip, combines high spatial resolution capabilities with high processing readout speed. Data acquisition, providing control of the chip and signal buffering and linked to a VME system, was made on the eight analog outputs. Analog data, without and with a 55Fe X-ray source, were acquired and processed using off-line analysis software. From the reconstruction of pixel clusters, built around a central pixel, we deduce that the charge spread is limited to the closest 25 pixels and almost all the available charge is collected. The position of the total charge collection peak (and subsequently the charge-to-voltage conversion factor) stays unaffected when the clock frequency is increased even up to 150 MHz (13.6 mus readout time per frame). The discriminators, placed in the readout chain, have proved to be fully functional. Beam tests have been made with high energy electrons at DESY (Germany) to study detection efficiency. The results prove that MIMOSA8 is the first and fastest successful monolithic active pixel sensor with on-chip signal discrimination for detection of MIPs

  4. Magnetic field topology of the cool, active, short-period binary system σ2 Coronae Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Morin, J.; Wade, G. A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to study the cool, active binary star σ2 CrB, focussing on its magnetic field. The two F9-G0 components of this system are tidally locked and in a close orbit, increasing the chance of interaction between their magnetospheres. Methods: We used Stokes IV data from the twin spectropolarimeters Narval at the TBL and ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a new binary Zeeman-Doppler imaging code to reconstruct simultaneously the magnetic topology and brightness distribution of both components of σ2 CrB. This analysis was carried out for two observational epochs in 2014 and 2017. Results: A previously unconfirmed magnetic field of the primary star has been securely detected. At the same time, the polarisation signatures of the secondary appear to have a systematically larger amplitude than that of the primary. This corresponds to a stronger magnetic field, for which the magnetic energy of the secondary exceeds that of the primary by a factor of 3.3-5.7. While the magnetic energy is similar for the secondary star in the two epochs, the magnetic energy is about twice as high in 2017 for the primary. The magnetic field topology of the two stars in the earlier epoch (2014) is very different. The fractions of energy in the dipole and quadrupole components of the secondary are similar and thereafter decrease with increasing harmonic angular degree ℓ. At the same time, for the primary the fraction of energy in the dipole component is low and the maximum energy contribution comes from ℓ = 4. However, in the 2017 epoch both stars have similar field topologies and a systematically decreasing energy with increasing ℓ. In the earlier epoch, the magnetic field at the visible pole appears to be of opposite polarity for the primary and secondary, suggesting linked magnetospheres. The apparent rotational periods of both σ2 Cr

  5. Generation of a double binary transgenic zebrafish model to study myeloid gene regulation in response to oncogene activation in melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Gavriouchkina, Daria; Zorman, Jernej; Chong-Morrison, Vanessa; Napolitani, Giorgio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana

    2018-04-06

    A complex network of inflammatory genes is closely linked to somatic cell transformation and malignant disease. Immune cells and their associated molecules are responsible for detecting and eliminating cancer cells as they establish themselves as the precursors of a tumour. By the time a patient has a detectable solid tumour, cancer cells have escaped the initial immune response mechanisms. Here, we describe the development of a double binary zebrafish model that enables regulatory programming of the myeloid cells as they respond to oncogene-activated melanocytes to be explored, focussing on the initial phase when cells become the precursors of cancer. A hormone-inducible binary system allows for temporal control of expression of different Ras oncogenes ( NRas Q61K , HRas G12V and KRas G12V ) in melanocytes, leading to proliferation and changes in morphology of the melanocytes. This model was coupled to binary cell-specific biotagging models allowing in vivo biotinylation and subsequent isolation of macrophage or neutrophil nuclei for regulatory profiling of their active transcriptomes. Nuclear transcriptional profiling of neutrophils, performed as they respond to the earliest precursors of melanoma in vivo , revealed an intricate landscape of regulatory factors that may promote progression to melanoma, including Serpinb1l4, Fgf1, Fgf6, Cathepsin H, Galectin 1 and Galectin 3. The model presented here provides a powerful platform to study the myeloid response to the earliest precursors of melanoma. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Long-term activity of two ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2004), s. 656-659 ISSN 0920-5632. [BeppoSAX Conference /2./. Amsterdam, 05.05.2003-08.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays * close binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2004

  7. Resolving the stellar activity of the Mira AB binary with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Ramstedt, S.; O'Gorman, E.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Wittkowski, M.; Baudry, A.; Karovska, M.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We present the size, shape, and flux densities at millimeter continuum wavelengths, based on ALMA science verification observations in Band 3 (~94.6 GHz) and Band 6 (~228.7 GHz), from the binary Mira A (o Ceti) and Mira B. Methods: The Mira AB system was observed with ALMA at a spatial resolution down to ~25 mas. The extended atmosphere of Mira A and the wind around Mira B sources were resolved, and we derived the sizes of Mira A and of the ionized region around Mira B. The spectral indices within Band 3 (between 89-100 GHz) and between Bands 3 and 6 were also derived. Results: The spectral index of Mira A is found to change from 1.71 ± 0.05 within Band 3 to 1.54 ± 0.04 between Bands 3 and 6. The spectral index of Mira B is 1.3 ± 0.2 in Band 3, in good agreement with measurements at longer wavelengths; however, it rises to 1.72 ± 0.11 between the bands. For the first time, the extended atmosphere of a star is resolved at these frequencies, and for Mira A the diameter is ~3.8 × 3.2 AU in Band 3 (with brightness temperature Tb ~ 5300 K) and ~4.0 × 3.6 AU in Band 6 (Tb ~ 2500 K). Additionally, a bright hotspot ~0.4 AU, with Tb ~ 10 000 K, is found on the stellar disk of Mira A. The size of the ionized region around the accretion disk of Mira B is found to be ~2.4 AU. Conclusions: The emission around Mira B is consistent with emission from a partially ionized wind of gravitationally bound material from Mira A close to the accretion disk of Mira B. The Mira A atmosphere does not fully match predictions with brightness temperatures in Band 3 significantly higher than expected, potentially owing to shock heating. The hotspot is very likely due to magnetic activity and could be related to the previously observed X-ray flare of Mira A. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Methodology for using prompt gamma activation analysis to measure the binary diffusion coefficient of a gas in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Biegalski, Steve R.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prompt gamma activation analysis is used to study gas diffusion in a porous system. ► Diffusion coefficients are determined using prompt gamma activation analysis. ► Predictions concentrations fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.98. - Abstract: Diffusion plays a critical role in determining the rate at which gases migrate through porous systems. Accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients are essential if gas transport is to be accurately modeled and better techniques are needed that can be used to measure these coefficients non-invasively. Here we present a novel method for using prompt gamma activation analysis to determine the binary diffusion coefficients of a gas in a porous system. Argon diffusion experiments were conducted in a 1 m long, 10 cm diameter, horizontal column packed with a SiO 2 sand. The temporal variation of argon concentration within the system was measured using prompt gamma activation analysis. The binary diffusion coefficient was obtained by comparing the experimental data with the predictions from a numerical model in which the diffusion coefficient was varied until the sum of square errors between experiment and model data was minimized. Predictions of argon concentration using the optimal diffusivity fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.983.

  9. Stellar Obliquity and Magnetic Activity of Planet-hosting Stars and Eclipsing Binaries Based on Transit Chord Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Albrecht, Simon

    2018-04-01

    The light curve of an eclipsing system shows anomalies whenever the eclipsing body passes in front of active regions on the eclipsed star. In some cases, the pattern of anomalies can be used to determine the obliquity Ψ of the eclipsed star. Here we present a method for detecting and analyzing these patterns, based on a statistical test for correlations between the anomalies observed in a sequence of eclipses. Compared to previous methods, ours makes fewer assumptions and is easier to automate. We apply it to a sample of 64 stars with transiting planets and 24 eclipsing binaries for which precise space-based data are available, and for which there was either some indication of flux anomalies or a previously reported obliquity measurement. We were able to determine obliquities for 10 stars with hot Jupiters. In particular we found Ψ ≲ 10° for Kepler-45, which is only the second M dwarf with a measured obliquity. The other eight cases are G and K stars with low obliquities. Among the eclipsing binaries, we were able to determine obliquities in eight cases, all of which are consistent with zero. Our results also reveal some common patterns of stellar activity for magnetically active G and K stars, including persistently active longitudes.

  10. KIC 6048106: an Algol-type eclipsing system with long-term magnetic activity and hybrid pulsations - I. Binary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Ghadim, A.; Lampens, P.; Jassur, M.

    2018-03-01

    The A-F-type stars and pulsators (δ Scuti-γ Dor) are in a critical regime where they experience a transition from radiative to convective transport of energy in their envelopes. Such stars can pulsate in both gravity and acoustic modes. Hence, the knowledge of their fundamental parameters along with their observed pulsation characteristics can help in improving the stellar models. When residing in a binary system, these pulsators provide more accurate and less model-dependent stellar parameters than in the case of their single counterparts. We present a light-curve model for the eclipsing system KIC 6048106 based on the Kepler photometry and the code PHOEBE. We aim to obtain accurate physical parameters and tough constraints for the stellar modelling of this intermediate-mass hybrid pulsator. We performed a separate modelling of three light-curve segments which show a distinct behaviour due to a difference in activity. We also analysed the Kepler Eclipse Time Variations (ETVs). KIC 6048106 is an Algol-type binary with F5-K5 components, a near-circular orbit and a 1.56-d period undergoing variations of the order of Δ P/P˜eq 3.60× 10^{-7} in 287 ± 7 d. The primary component is a main-sequence star with M1 = 1.55 ± 0.11 M⊙, R1 = 1.57 ± 0.12 R⊙. The secondary is a much cooler subgiant with M2 = 0.33 ± 0.07 M⊙, R2 = 1.77 ± 0.16 R⊙. Many small near-polar spots are active on its surface. The second quadrature phase shows a brightness modulation on a time-scale 290 ± 7 d, in good agreement with the ETV modulation. This study reveals a stable binary configuration along with clear evidence of a long-term activity of the secondary star.

  11. Chromospherically active stars. IV - HD 178450 = V478 Lyr: An early-type BY Draconis type binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the variable star HD 178450 = V478 Lyr is a chromospherically active G8 V single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.130514 days. This star is characterized by strong UV emission features and a filled-in H-alpha absorption line which is variable in strength. Classified as an early-type BY Draconis system, it is similar to the BY Dra star HD 175742 = V775 Her. The unseen secondary of HD 178450 has a mass of about 0.3 solar masses and is believed to be an M2-M3 dwarf.

  12. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  13. A New Stellar Outburst Associated with the Magnetic Activities of the K-type Dwarf in a White Dwarf Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Han, Z.-T.; Zhang, B.; Zejda, M.; Michel, R.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.

    2017-10-01

    1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 was originally classified as an EW-type binary with a period of 0.20785 days. However, it was detected to have undergone a stellar outburst on 2016 June 3. Although the system was later classified as a cataclysmic variable (CV) and the event was attributed as a dwarf nova outburst, the physical reason is still unknown. This binary has been monitored photometrically since 2016 April 19, and many light curves were obtained before, during, and after the outburst. Those light and color curves observed before the outburst indicate that the system is a special CV. The white dwarf is not accreting material from the secondary and there are no accretion disks surrounding the white dwarf. By comparing the light curves obtained from 2016 April 19 to those from September 14, it was found that magnetic activity of the secondary is associated with the outburst. We show strong evidence that the L 1 region on the secondary was heavily spotted before and after the outburst and thus quench the mass transfer, while the outburst is produced by a sudden mass accretion of the white dwarf. These results suggest that J162117 is a good astrophysical laboratory to study stellar magnetic activity and its influences on CV mass transfer and mass accretion.

  14. A New Stellar Outburst Associated with the Magnetic Activities of the K-type Dwarf in a White Dwarf Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Han, Z.-T.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Zejda, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Michel, R., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)

    2017-10-20

    1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 was originally classified as an EW-type binary with a period of 0.20785 days. However, it was detected to have undergone a stellar outburst on 2016 June 3. Although the system was later classified as a cataclysmic variable (CV) and the event was attributed as a dwarf nova outburst, the physical reason is still unknown. This binary has been monitored photometrically since 2016 April 19, and many light curves were obtained before, during, and after the outburst. Those light and color curves observed before the outburst indicate that the system is a special CV. The white dwarf is not accreting material from the secondary and there are no accretion disks surrounding the white dwarf. By comparing the light curves obtained from 2016 April 19 to those from September 14, it was found that magnetic activity of the secondary is associated with the outburst. We show strong evidence that the L {sub 1} region on the secondary was heavily spotted before and after the outburst and thus quench the mass transfer, while the outburst is produced by a sudden mass accretion of the white dwarf. These results suggest that J162117 is a good astrophysical laboratory to study stellar magnetic activity and its influences on CV mass transfer and mass accretion.

  15. A New Stellar Outburst Associated with the Magnetic Activities of the K-type Dwarf in a White Dwarf Binary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Han, Z.-T.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.; Zejda, M.; Michel, R.

    2017-01-01

    1SWASP J162117.36+441254.2 was originally classified as an EW-type binary with a period of 0.20785 days. However, it was detected to have undergone a stellar outburst on 2016 June 3. Although the system was later classified as a cataclysmic variable (CV) and the event was attributed as a dwarf nova outburst, the physical reason is still unknown. This binary has been monitored photometrically since 2016 April 19, and many light curves were obtained before, during, and after the outburst. Those light and color curves observed before the outburst indicate that the system is a special CV. The white dwarf is not accreting material from the secondary and there are no accretion disks surrounding the white dwarf. By comparing the light curves obtained from 2016 April 19 to those from September 14, it was found that magnetic activity of the secondary is associated with the outburst. We show strong evidence that the L 1 region on the secondary was heavily spotted before and after the outburst and thus quench the mass transfer, while the outburst is produced by a sudden mass accretion of the white dwarf. These results suggest that J162117 is a good astrophysical laboratory to study stellar magnetic activity and its influences on CV mass transfer and mass accretion.

  16. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzyme activities in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, Amrita; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2003-01-01

    Effect of single and binary treatments of plant-derived molluscicides on different enzymes--acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid/alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP)--in the nervous tissue of the harmful terrestrial snail Achatina fulica were studied. Sublethal in vivo 24-h exposure to 40% and 80% LC(50) of Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, Nerium indicum bark powder and binary combinations of A. sativum (AS) + C. deodara (CD) and CD + A. indica (AI) oils significantly altered the activity of these enzymes in the nervous tissue of Achatina fulica. The binary treatment of AS + CD was more effective against AChE, LDH, and ALP than the single ones. However, binary treatment of AI + CD was more effective against ALP. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A RADIAL VELOCITY TEST FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BROAD, DOUBLE-PEAKED EMISSION LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Halpern, Jules P. [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Gravitation and The Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    One of the proposed explanations for the broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines observed in the spectra of some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is that they are associated with sub-parsec supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Here, we test the binary broad-line region hypothesis through several decades of monitoring of the velocity structure of double-peaked Hα emission lines in 13 low-redshift, mostly radio-loud AGNs. This is a much larger set of objects compared to an earlier test by Eracleous et al. and we use much longer time series for the three objects studied in that paper. Although systematic changes in radial velocity can be traced in many of their lines, they are demonstrably not like those of a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit. Any spectroscopic binary period must therefore be much longer than the span of the monitoring (assuming a circular orbit), which in turn would require black hole masses that exceed by 1–2 orders of magnitude the values obtained for these objects using techniques such as reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, the response of the double-peaked Balmer line profiles to fluctuations of the ionizing continuum and the shape of the Lyα profiles are incompatible with an SMBH binary. The binary broad-line region hypothesis is therefore disfavored. Other processes evidently shape these line profiles and cause the long-term velocity variations of the double peaks.

  18. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  19. Assessment of anti-factor Xa activity of heparin in binary parenteral nutrition admixtures for premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foinard, A; Perez, M; Barthélémy, C; Lannoy, D; Flamein, F; Storme, L; Tournoys, A; Décaudin, B; Odou, P

    2015-07-01

    An in vitro study was carried out to determine the anti-Xa activity of heparin in binary parenteral nutrition (BPN) admixtures for premature neonates in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after a 24-hour infusion, as well as to assess drug interaction with a 50% glucose solution. Two types of bags were prepared: (1) BPN admixtures (composition defined in the NICU) including sodium heparin at 77 UI/mL and (2) bags containing only G50% with sodium heparin at 193 UI/mL. The anti-Xa activity of heparin was measured in bags at T0, after the 24-hour infusion and in eluates at the outlet of the infusion line after 24hours, using a validated chromogenic anti-Xa method. Comparisons of the mean concentration observed with the theoretical value for anti-Xa activity were performed with the Student t-test. Mean values of anti-Xa activity do not differ significantly from the values expected for all conditions. We found a slight variation in anti-Xa activity when infused over 24hours for both types of bags, with and without in-line filtration, showing that heparin remains stable during this infusion period in both BPN admixtures and G50%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, Wang Geun; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Nur, Tanjina; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-03-30

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water can be toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. A study was conducted on the removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by a commonly used water treatment adsorbent, granular activated carbon (GAC), from three single, three binary (Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn), and one ternary (Cu-Pb-Zn) combination of metals. It also investigated seven mathematical models on their suitability to predict the metals adsorption capacities. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn increased with pH with an abrupt increase in adsorption at around pH 5.5, 4.5, and 6.0, respectively. At all pHs tested (2.5-7.0), the adsorption capacity followed the order Pb > Cu > Zn. The Langmuir and Sips models fitted better than the Freundlich model to the data in the single-metal system at pH 5. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb, Cu, and Zn (mmol/g) obtained from the model's fits were 0.142, 0.094, and 0.058, respectively. The adsorption capacities (mmol/g) for these metals at 0.01 mmol/L equilibrium liquid concentration were 0.130, 0.085, and 0.040, respectively. Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS)-Langmuir and IAS-Sips models fitted well to the binary and ternary metals adsorption data, whereas the Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models' fits to the data were poor. The selectivity of adsorption followed the same order as the metals' capacities and affinities of adsorption in the single-metal systems.

  1. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  2. Binary-induced magnetic activity?. Time-series echelle spectroscopy and photometry of HD 123351 = CZ CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Bartus, J.; Oláh, K.; Rice, J. B.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Multi-wavelength time-series observations with high cadence and long duration are needed to resolve and understand the many variations of magnetically active late-type stars, which is an approach often used to observe the Sun. Aims: We present a first and detailed study of the bright and active K0IV-III star HD 123351. Methods: We acquired a total of 955 high-resolution STELLA echelle spectra during the years 2006-2010 and a total of 2260 photometric VIC data points during 1998-2010. These data are complemented by some spectra from CFHT and KPNO. Results: The star is found to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 147.8919 ± 0.0003 days and a large eccentricity of e = 0.8086 ± 0.0001. The rms of the orbital solution is just 47 m s-1, making it the most precise orbit ever obtained for an active binary system. The rotation period is constrained from long-term photometry to be 58.32 ± 0.01 days. It shows that HD 123351 is a very asynchronous rotator, rotating five times slower than the expected pseudo-synchronous value. Two spotted regions persisted throughout the 12 years of our observations. We interpret them as active longitudes on a differentially rotating surface with a ΔP/P of 0.076. Four years of Hα, Ca ii H&K and He i D3 monitoring identifies the same main periodicity as the photometry but dynamic spectra also indicate that there is an intermittent dependence on the orbital period, in particular for Ca ii H&K in 2008. Line-profile inversions of a pair of Zeeman sensitive/insensitive iron lines yield an average surface magnetic-flux density of 542 ± 72 G. The time series for 2008 is modulated by the stellar rotation as well as the orbital motion, such that the magnetic flux is generally weaker during times of periastron and that the chromospheric emissions vary in anti-phase with the magnetic flux. We also identify a broad and asymmetric lithium line profile and measure an abundance of log n(Li) = 1.70 ± 0.05. The star

  3. Activation of binary Zr-V non-evaporable getters: synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolin, V.; Dudr, V.; Fabik, S.; Chab, V.; Masek, K.; Matolinova, I.; Prince, K.C.; Skala, T.; Sutara, F.; Tsud, N.; Veltruska, K.

    2005-01-01

    Zr-V alloy getter films were prepared on stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering. The thermal activation behavior of these getters was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy using photon excitation energies of 600, 250 and 73 eV. Depth resolved results were compared to the results of the SIMS profiling. The measurements confirmed the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer covering the air-exposed Zr-V surfaces via its progressive reduction during the thermal activation. The depth sensitive results showed that the activated getter surface is covered by a residual zirconium sub-oxide

  4. Activity Recognition Using Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Models on Home Environments Using Binary Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Sanchis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Activities of daily living are good indicators of elderly health status, and activity recognition in smart environments is a well-known problem that has been previously addressed by several studies. In this paper, we describe the use of two powerful machine learning schemes, ANN (Artificial Neural Network and SVM (Support Vector Machines, within the framework of HMM (Hidden Markov Model in order to tackle the task of activity recognition in a home setting. The output scores of the discriminative models, after processing, are used as observation probabilities of the hybrid approach. We evaluate our approach by comparing these hybrid models with other classical activity recognition methods using five real datasets. We show how the hybrid models achieve significantly better recognition performance, with significance level p < 0:05, proving that the hybrid approach is better suited for the addressed domain.

  5. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  6. The fourth outburst during the present active stage of symbiotic binary AG Dra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, R.; Merc, J.; Vrastak, M.; Teyssier, F.; Lester, T.; Boyd, D.; Sims, W.; Leedjarv, L.

    2018-04-01

    The symbiotic system AG Dra regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of several outbursts repeating at about 360d interval (Galis et al. 2017, OEJV 180, 24). After seven years of flat quiescence following the 2006-08 major outbursts, in the late spring of 2015, AG Dra began rising again in brightness toward what appeared to be a new minor outburst (ATel #7582).

  7. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L. Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae.

  8. A COMPREHENSIVE PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE CONTACT BINARY GN BOO WITH POSSIBLE MAGNETIC ACTIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J. J.; Qian, S. B.; Zhang, J.; He, J. J.; Zhao, E. G.; Zhu, L. Y.; Liao, W. P.; Liu, L.; Zhang, Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-color photometric data of GN Boo observed from 2010 to 2013 are presented. The intrinsic variations of the light curves are remarkable, and their phenomena are probable evidence of stronger magnetic activities on the surfaces of the components. Based on all CCD times of minimum light, a secular increase superimposed on a cyclic oscillation is found. The orbital period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +1.74 × 10 −7 days yr −1 , which can be explained by mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation are P = 9.5632 yr and A = 0.0046 days, respectively, which correspond to the previous published results. Using the 2010 version of the W–D code, five sets of photometric solutions were derived from our new data. The results imply that the stellar spot, the degree of fill-out, and the temperature difference ΔT between the components of GN Boo are variable. It is inferred that the magnetic activities perhaps influence the outer radius of the component, causing the temperature of the component star and the level of contact to change

  9. Antibacterial and Antimycotic Activity of Cotton Fabrics, Impregnated with Silver and Binary Silver/Copper Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, A. M.; Petrik, I. S.; Smirnova, N. P.; Rudenko, A. V.; Marikvas, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Effective method of obtaining of the bactericidal bandage materials by impregnation of cotton fabric by aqueous solutions of silver and copper salts followed by a certain regime of heat treatment is developed. The study of obtained materials by methods of optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray phase analysis showed the formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles (NPs) and bimetallic Ag/Cu composites with the corresponding surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands in the absorption spectra. High antimicrobial and antimycotic properties of tissues with low concentrations of Ag and Ag/Cu nanoparticles (Ag/Cu NPs) (in the range 0.06-0.25 weight percent (wt%) for Ag and 0.015-0.13 wt% for Ag/Cu) is confirmed in experiments with a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacteria and fungi: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans yeasts, and micromycetes . Textile materials with Ag NPs demonstrate high antibacterial activity, while fabrics doped with bimetallic composite Ag/Cu have pronounced antimycotic properties. Bactericidal and antifungal properties of the obtained materials do not change after a washing. Production of such materials is extremely fast, convenient, and cost-effective.

  10. Vapour pressures, osmotic and activity coefficients for binary mixtures containing (1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate + several alcohols) at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Gomez, Elena; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2010-01-01

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing several primary and secondary alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapour pressure osmometry technique. From the experimental results, vapour pressure and activity coefficients can be determined. For the correlation of osmotic coefficients, the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL (MNRTL) model were used, obtaining deviations lower than 0.017 and 0.047, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the binary mixtures studied were determined from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer.

  11. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios based on toxic ratios-effects curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TU sum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). Combined with a QSAR model of [Formula: see text]in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios.

  12. Biomechanical effects of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginus, Kyle A; Marklin, Richard W; Seeley, Patricia; Simoneau, Guy G; Freier, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile computer supported by a commercially available mount in a light truck cab. U.S. and Canadian electric utility companies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. There are no publications on the effect of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab on biomechanical loading, performance, and subjective assessment. The authors tested four locations of mobile computers in a light truck cab in a laboratory study to determine how location affected muscle activity of the lower back and shoulders; joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrist; user performance; and subjective assessment. A total of 22 participants were tested in this study. Placing the mobile computer closer to the steering wheel reduced low back and shoulder muscle activity. Joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrists were also closer to neutral angle. Biomechanical modeling revealed substantially less spinal compression and trunk muscle force. In general, there were no practical differences in performance between the locations. Subjective assessment indicated that users preferred the mobile computer to be as close as possible to the steering wheel. Locating the mobile computer close to the steering wheel reduces risk of injuries, such as low back pain and shoulder tendonitis. Results from the study can guide electric utility companies in the installation of mobile computers into vehicle cabs. Results may also be generalized to other industries that use trucklike vehicles, such as construction.

  13. Optical spectroscopy of the Be/X-ray binary V850 Centauri/GX 304-1 during faint X-ray periodical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacaria, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Whelan, E.; Santangelo, A.; Klochkov, D.; McBride, V.; Ducci, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Be/X-ray binaries (BeXRBs) are the most populous class of high-mass X-ray binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. Aims: We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Special attention has been given to the Hα emission line, one of the best tracers of the disk conditions. Methods: We obtained optical broadband medium resolution spectra from a dedicated campaign with the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope in 2014-2015. Data span over one entire binary orbit, and cover both X-ray quiescent and moderately active periods. We used Balmer emission lines to follow the evolution of the circumstellar disk. Results: We observe prominent spectral features, like double-peaked Hα and Hβ emission lines. The HαV/R ratio significantly changes over a timescale of about one year. Our observations are consistent with a system observed at a large inclination angle (I ≳ 60°). The derived circumstellar disk size shows that the disk evolves from a configuration that prevents accretion onto the neutron star, to one that allows only moderate accretion. This is in agreement with the contemporary observed X-ray activity. Our results are interpreted within the context of inefficient tidal truncation of the circumstellar disk, as expected for this source's binary configuration. We derived the Hβ-emitting region size, which is equal to about half of the corresponding Hα-emitting disk, and constrain the luminosity class of V850 Cen as III-V, consistent with the previously proposed class.

  14. A Bright Short Period M-M Eclipsing Binary from the KELT Survey: Magnetic Activity and the Mass-Radius Relationship for M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jack B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen; Stevens, Daniel J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Stockdale, Christopher; Myers, Gordon; Colón, Knicole D.; Bento, Joao; Kehusmaa, Petri; Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Quinn, Samuel N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Harlingten, Caisey; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Reichart, Daniel; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy; Melville, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of KELT J041621-620046, a moderately bright (J ˜ 10.2) M-dwarf eclipsing binary system at a distance of 39 ± 3 pc. KELT J041621-620046 was first identified as an eclipsing binary using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey. The system has a short orbital period of ˜1.11 days and consists of components with {M}1={0.447}+0.052-0.047 {M}⊙ and {M}2={0.399}+0.046-0.042 {M}⊙ in nearly circular orbits. The radii of the two stars are {R}1={0.540}+0.034-0.032 {R}⊙ and {\\text{}}{R}2=0.453+/- 0.017 {R}⊙ . Full system and orbital properties were determined (to ˜10% error) by conducting an EBOP (Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program) global modeling of the high precision photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained by the KELT Follow-up Network. Each star is larger by 17%-28% and cooler by 4%-10% than predicted by standard (non-magnetic) stellar models. Strong Hα emission indicates chromospheric activity in both stars. The observed radii and temperature discrepancies for both components are more consistent with those predicted by empirical relations that account for convective suppression due to magnetic activity.

  15. Effect of operational factors on bioregeneration of binary phenol and 4-chlorophenol-loaded granular activated carbon using PVA-immobilized biomass cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kwok-Yii; Adnan, Rohana; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Seng, Chye-Eng

    2017-09-01

    The effects of dry biomass density in cryogel beads, shaking speed and initial concentration ratio of phenol to 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) on the bioregeneration efficiencies of binary phenol and 4-CP-loaded granular activated carbon (GAC) for phenol and 4-CP, respectively, were investigated under the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results revealed higher bioregeneration efficiencies of binary-loaded GAC for phenol and 4-CP at higher dry biomass density but moderate shaking speed. The optimum dry biomass density in cryogel beads and shaking speed for use in bioregeneration were found to be 0.01 g/mL and 250 rpm, respectively. With respect to the initial phenol to 4-CP concentration ratio, the bioregeneration efficiencies were lower under increasing phenol and 4-CP initial concentrations, respectively, with the effect being more conspicuous under increasing 4-CP concentration. Higher bioregeneration efficiencies were achieved with the use of immobilized rather than suspended biomasses.

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis in the liquid-phase oxidation of olefins--3. The activity of supported vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehira, K; Hayakawa, T; Ishikawa, T

    1979-03-01

    The activity of supported vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexene to 1-cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide, 2-cyclohexene-1-one, 2-cyclohexene-1-ol, and cyclohexene oxide was due to the interaction between the metal oxides and the carriers. The oxidation reaction was carried out in benzene at 60/sup 0/C for four hours with the binary oxide supported on (GAMMA)-alumina or silica; three series of catalysts were prepared by combining the vanadium and chromium oxide components with alumina hydrate or silica sol by a kneading method. The silica-supported catalysts had the greatest activity, the highest being the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//SiO/sub 2/ system, which lost its activity quickly during the reaction. This was followed in activity by the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ system, containing the chromium(V) species. The Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system also had high activity and the chromium(V) species. The vanadium and chromium metal ions are probably coordinated tetrahedrally on the support, and these complexes catalyze cyclohexene autoxidation by decomposing 1-cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide.

  17. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries – stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC 9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seismic analysis as well as to derive the orbital period and the surface rotation rate of the primary component of the system. Indications of the seismic signature of the secondary are found. The differing parameters are best explained with both components located in the early and the late phase of the first dredge up at the bottom of the red-giant branch. Observed lithium abundances in both components are in good agreement with prediction of stellar models including rotational mixing. By combining observations and theory, a comprehensive picture of the system can be drawn.

  18. PirAB protein from Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 exhibits a binary toxin with insecticidal activity and cytotoxicity in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Tianhui; Liu, Shen; Song, Ping; Nangong, Ziyan; Wang, Qinying

    2017-09-01

    PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X. nematophila. The pirA, pirB and pirAB genes of X. nematophila HB310 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pET-28a vector. A PirAB-fusion protein (PirAB-F) was constructed by linking the pirA and pirB genes with the flexible linker (Gly) 4 DNA encoding sequence and then efficiently expressed in E. coli. The hemocoel and oral insecticidal activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed against the larvae of Galleria mellonella. The results show that PirA/B alone, PirA/B mixture, co-expressed PirAB protein, and PirAB-F all had no oral insecticidal activity against the second-instar larvae of G. mellonella. Only PirA/B mixture and co-expressed PirAB protein had hemocoel insecticidal activity against G. mellonella fifth-instar larvae, with an LD 50 of 2.718μg/larva or 1.566μg/larva, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed that PirAB protein of X. nematophila HB310 is a binary insecticidal toxin. The successful expression and purification of PirAB laid a foundation for further studies on the function, insecticidal mechanism and expression regulation of the binary toxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN ULTRACOOL DWARFS. IV. THE ACTIVE, YOUNG BINARY NLTT 33370 AB (= 2MASS J13142039+1320011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Irwin, J.; Charbonneau, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Z. K., E-mail: pwilliams@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT Kavli Institute, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present multi-epoch simultaneous radio, optical, Hα, UV, and X-ray observations of the active, young, low-mass binary NLTT 33370 AB (blended spectral type M7e). This system is remarkable for its extreme levels of magnetic activity: it is the most radio-luminous ultracool dwarf (UCD) known, and here we show that it is also one of the most X-ray luminous UCDs known. We detect the system in all bands and find a complex phenomenology of both flaring and periodic variability. Analysis of the optical light curve reveals the simultaneous presence of two periodicities, 3.7859 ± 0.0001 and 3.7130 ± 0.0002 hr. While these differ by only ∼2%, studies of differential rotation in the UCD regime suggest that it cannot be responsible for the two signals. The system's radio emission consists of at least three components: rapid 100% polarized flares, bright emission modulating periodically in phase with the optical emission, and an additional periodic component that appears only in the 2013 observational campaign. We interpret the last of these as a gyrosynchrotron feature associated with large-scale magnetic fields and a cool, equatorial plasma torus. However, the persistent rapid flares at all rotational phases imply that small-scale magnetic loops are also present and reconnect nearly continuously. We present a spectral energy distribution of the blended system spanning more than 9 orders of magnitude in wavelength. The significant magnetism present in NLTT 33370 AB will affect its fundamental parameters, with the components' radii and temperatures potentially altered by ∼+20% and ∼–10%, respectively. Finally, we suggest spatially resolved observations that could clarify many aspects of this system's nature.

  20. Activity coefficients and excess Gibbs' free energy of some binary mixtures formed by p-cresol at 95.23 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, T.E. Vittal [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Venkanna, N. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Kumar, Y. Naveen [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Ashok, K. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Sirisha, N.M. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Prasad, D.H.L. [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)]. E-mail: dasika@iict.res.in

    2007-07-15

    Bubble point temperatures at 95.23 kPa, over the entire composition range are measured for the binary mixtures formed by p-cresol with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and o- , m- , and p-xylenes, making use of a Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. Liquid phase mole fraction (x {sub 1}) versus bubble point temperature (T) measurements are found to be well represented by the Wilson model. The optimum Wilson parameters are used to calculate the vapor phase composition, activity coefficients, and excess Gibbs free energy. The results are discussed.

  1. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts.

  2. The self-organization and functional activity of binary system based on erucyl amidopropyl betaine - alkylated polyethyleneimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynanova, Gulnara A.; Valiakhmetova, Alsu R.; Kuryashov, Dmitry A.; Kudryashova, Yuliana R.; Lukashenko, Svetlana S.; Syakaev, Victor V.; Latypov, Shamil K.; Bukharov, Sergey V.; Bashkirtseva, Natalia Yu.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.

    2013-11-01

    The self-organization in individual and binary aqueous solutions of a zwitterionic surfactant erucyl amidopropyl betaine and alkylated polyethyleneimine is carried out with a wide range of physical and chemical methods, including tensiometry, conductometry, dynamic light scattering, pH-metry, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The data obtained strongly support the formation of nanosized aggregates in the systems and provide information on their structure and probable morphological transitions. High solubilization capacity and data on the contact angle showed a possibility of the application of these systems as nanocontainers or oil wetting agents in the oil recovery.

  3. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: leiner@astro.wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolution code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters.

  4. Surface properties and photocatalytic activity of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 semiconductors and their binary and ternary semiconductor composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorowicz, Beata; Cybula, Anna; Winiarski, Michał J; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Adriana

    2014-09-24

    Single semiconductors such as KTaO3, CdS MoS2 or their precursor solutions were combined to form novel binary and ternary semiconductor nanocomposites by the calcination or by the hydro/solvothermal mixed solutions methods, respectively. The aim of this work was to study the influence of preparation method as well as type and amount of the composite components on the surface properties and photocatalytic activity of the new semiconducting photoactive materials. We presented different binary and ternary combinations of the above semiconductors for phenol and toluene photocatalytic degradation and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and porosity. The results showed that loading MoS2 onto CdS as well as loading CdS onto KTaO3 significantly enhanced absorption properties as compared with single semiconductors. The highest photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation reaction under both UV-Vis and visible light irradiation and very good stability in toluene removal was observed for ternary hybrid obtained by calcination of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 powders at the 10:5:1 molar ratio. Enhanced photoactivity could be related to the two-photon excitation in KTaO3-CdS-MoS2 composite under UV-Vis and/or to additional presence of CdMoO4 working as co-catalyst.

  5. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  6. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  7. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  8. Surface Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 Semiconductors and Their Binary and Ternary Semiconductor Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bajorowicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single semiconductors such as KTaO3, CdS MoS2 or their precursor solutions were combined to form novel binary and ternary semiconductor nanocomposites by the calcination or by the hydro/solvothermal mixed solutions methods, respectively. The aim of this work was to study the influence of preparation method as well as type and amount of the composite components on the surface properties and photocatalytic activity of the new semiconducting photoactive materials. We presented different binary and ternary combinations of the above semiconductors for phenol and toluene photocatalytic degradation and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET specific surface area and porosity. The results showed that loading MoS2 onto CdS as well as loading CdS onto KTaO3 significantly enhanced absorption properties as compared with single semiconductors. The highest photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation reaction under both UV-Vis and visible light irradiation and very good stability in toluene removal was observed for ternary hybrid obtained by calcination of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 powders at the 10:5:1 molar ratio. Enhanced photoactivity could be related to the two-photon excitation in KTaO3-CdS-MoS2 composite under UV-Vis and/or to additional presence of CdMoO4 working as co-catalyst.

  9. Chromospherically active stars. 12: ADS 11060 C: A double lined K dwarf binary in a quintuple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hampton, Melissa L.; Fried, Robert; Morton, Mary D.

    1994-01-01

    ADS 11060 C is a double lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 25.7631 days and an eccentricity of 0.565. Spectral types of the two stars are estimated as K7 V and MO V with a magnitude difference of about 0.55 mag in V. The stars appear to be somewhat metal rich with respect to the Sun. Despite the relatively large masses of 0.53 and 0.51 solar mass, our photometric observations find no evidence for eclipses and we estimate an inclination of 77 deg plus or minus 11 deg. ADS 11060 C is, however, photometrically variable with a period of 9 plus or minus 1 day and an amplitude of 0.05 mag in V. Thus, it is a newly identified BY Draconis variable. The center-of-mass velocity of ADS 11060 C and an estimated parallax of 0.030 sec support its physical association with ADS 11060 AB, making this a quintuple system. The projected separation of the AB-C system is nearly 1200 AU. Although the log lithium abundances of the two components of ADS 11060 C are only upper limits, less than or equal to -0.14, lithium abundances of the AB-C components appear to be consistent with those of similar stars in the alpha Persei and Pleiades clusters, suggesting an age of about 70 Myr for ADS 11060 AB-C. The system is a possible member of the Pleiades moving group. Listed as an optical counterpart to a source in the ROSAT Wide Field Camera extreme-ultraviolet bright source catalog, both ADS 11060 AB and C may contribute to the observed flux.

  10. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  11. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  12. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  13. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab aprons. 230.81 Section 230.81 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights §...

  14. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  15. Influence of molar mass of polymer on the solvent activity for binary system of poly N-vinylcaprolactam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foruotan, Masumeh; Zarrabi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The water activity in aqueous solution of poly N-vinyl caprolactam with different molecular weights is measured by isopiestic method at T = 308.15 K. The results show that water activity and vapour pressure of poly N-vinylcaprolactam solution increases with increasing the molecular weight. The Flory-Huggins model, the modified Flory-Huggins model and Freed Flory-Huggins equation + NRTL model are used for correlation of the experimental solvent activity. It is found that the Freed Flory-Huggins + NRTL model is better than the others

  16. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  17. Daring to Marry: Marriage Equality Activism After Proposition 8 as Challenge to the Assimilationist/Radical Binary in Queer Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    I analyze three case studies of marriage equality activism and marriage equality-based groups after the passage of Proposition 8 in California. Evaluating the JoinTheImpact protests of 2008, the LGBTQ rights group GetEQUAL, and the group One Struggle One Fight, I argue that these groups revise queer theoretical arguments about marriage equality activism as by definition assimilationist, homonormative, and single-issue. In contrast to such claims, the cases studied here provide a snapshot of heterogeneous, intersectional, and coalition-based social justice work in which creative methods of protest, including direct action and flash mobs, are deployed in militant ways for marriage rights and beyond.

  18. Magnetic Activity and Period Variation Studies of the Short-period Eclipsing Binaries. II. V1101 Her, AD Phe, and NSV 455 (J011636.15-394955.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-yun; Bi, Shao-lan; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Dai-mei; Lu, Hong-peng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present new BVRI light curves of short-period contact eclipsing binaries V1101 Her and AD Phe from our observations carried out from 2014 to 2015 using the SARA KP and SARA CT telescopes. There is an eclipsing binary located at α(2000) = 01h16m36.ˢ15 and δ(2000) = -39°49‧55.″7 in the field of view of AD Phe. We derived an updated ephemeris and found there a cyclic variation overlaying a continuous period increase (V1101 Her) and decrease (AD Phe). This kind of cyclic variation may be attributed to the light time effect via the presence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle. The orbital period increase suggests that V1101 Her is undergoing a mass-transfer from the primary to the secondary component (dM 1/dt = 2.64(±0.11) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1) with the third body (P 3 = 13.9(±1.9) years), or 2.81(±0.07) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1 for an increase andmagnetic cycle (12.4(±0.5) years). The long-term period decrease suggests that AD Phe is undergoing a mass-transfer from the secondary component to the primary component at a rate of -8.04(±0.09) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a period decrease and the third body (P 3 = 56.2(±0.8) years), or -7.11(±0.04) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a decrease and magnetic cycle (50.3(±0.5) years). We determined their orbital and geometrical parameters. For AD Phe, we simultaneously analyzed our BVRI light curves and the spectroscopic observations obtained by Duerbeck & Rucinski. The spectral type of V1101 Her was classified as G0 ± 2V by LAMOST stellar spectra survey. The asymmetry of the R-band light curve of AD Phe obtained by McFarlane & Hilditch in 1987 is explained by a cool spot on the primary component.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of the binary composite CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} for degradation of dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Nakaruk, Auppatham [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Centre of Excellence for Innovation and Technology for Water Treatment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Channei, Duangdao, E-mail: duangdaoc@nu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Research Center for Academic Excellence in Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite can be explained by the presence of the SiO{sub 2} adsorbent, which effectively increased the surface area of the CeO{sub 2}. • The increased surface area of CeO{sub 2} should be helpful to facilitate more effective adsorption sites, which enhances the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant significantly. • SiO{sub 2} modification is effective in separating the photogenerated electrons and holes, which is of great importance for photocatalytic activity. • SiO{sub 2} acted as a carrier for CeO{sub 2} attachment and avoided the agglomeration of CeO{sub 2} particles. - Abstract: In this study, CeO{sub 2} photocatalyst was modified by composite with SiO{sub 2} to increase efficiency and improve photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared SiO{sub 2} particles have been incorporated into the precursor mixture of CeO{sub 2} by homogeneous precipitation and subsequent calcination process. The phase compositions of CeO{sub 2} before and after compositing with SiO{sub 2} were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology and particle size of CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite was analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed SiO{sub 2} spheres with the particle size approximately 100–120 nm, and a uniform layer of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter of about 5–7 nm that were fully composite to the surfaces of SiO{sub 2}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was carried out in order to characterize the change in valence state and composite characteristic by shifted peaks of binding energies. The photocatalytic activity was studied through the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light exposure. The highest photocatalytic efficiency of CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite was also obtained. To explain the high photocatalytic

  20. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  1. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  2. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  3. WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON CLOSE BINARIES OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qing; Xin, Yu; Liu, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Based on Kepler data, we present the results of a search for white light flares on 1049 close binaries. We identify 234 flare binaries, of which 6818 flares are detected. We compare the flare-binary fraction in different binary morphologies (“detachedness”). The result shows that the fractions in over-contact and ellipsoidal binaries are approximately 10%–20% lower than those in detached and semi-detached systems. We calculate the binary flare activity level (AL) of all the flare binaries, and discuss its variations along the orbital period ( P orb ) and rotation period ( P rot , calculated for only detached binaries). We find that the AL increases with decreasing P orb or P rot , up to the critical values at P orb ∼ 3 days or P rot ∼ 1.5 days, and thereafter the AL starts decreasing no matter how fast the stars rotate. We examine the flaring rate as a function of orbital phase in two eclipsing binaries on which a large number of flares are detected. It appears that there is no correlation between flaring rate and orbital phase in these two binaries. In contrast, when we examine the function with 203 flares on 20 non-eclipse ellipsoidal binaries, bimodal distribution of amplitude-weighted flare numbers shows up at orbital phases 0.25 and 0.75. Such variation could be larger than what is expected from the cross section modification.

  4. Engaging with Community Advisory Boards (CABs) in Lusaka Zambia: perspectives from the research team and CAB members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinga, Alwyn; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2015-06-03

    The use of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) is one method of ensuring community engagement in community based research. To identify the process used to constitute CABs in Zambia, this paper draws on the perspectives of both research team members and CAB members from research groups who used CABs in Lusaka. Enabling and restricting factors impacting on the functioning of the CAB were identified. All studies approved by the University of Zambia Bioethics Research Committee (UBNZABREC) from 2008 - 2012 were reviewed to identify those studies that were likely to include a CAB. Eight teams with studies that included a CAB were identified. For each of these studies, consent was obtained to conduct an informal interview with a research team member and to obtain contact details for one CAB member. In total 14 interviews were conducted with 8 research team members and 6 CAB members from 12-30 August 2013. Identification of potential CAB members from the community and their participation in developing the terms of reference for CABs was perceived to have contributed to the success of the CAB. Due to the trust that the community had in members of their community the CABs were then in a stronger position to influence community participation in the research. Training of CAB members was identified as a factor that enhanced the functioning of a CAB. Lack of commitment and low literacy levels of CAB members posed a threat to the role of the CAB. Although compensation in the form of a stipend was not provided, CAB members were provided with transport reimbursements for attending meetings. Selection of CAB members from within the community contributed to community confidence in the CAB, enhancing its ability to act as an effective link between study team and community. This contributed positively to the conduct of the study and enhanced community awareness and acceptance of the research. However, establishment of study specific CABs has the potential to compromise CAB independence

  5. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  6. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  7. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  8. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  10. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  11. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  12. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  13. Re-evaluation of activities of magnesium and zinc components in the magnesium-zinc binary system from very low to high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Masao; Yamamoto, Hiroaki [Univ. of Hyogo, Dept. of Materials Science and Chemistry, Himeji (Japan); Shikada, Shinichi [Misubishi Varbide Kobe Tools Ltd., Akashi (Japan); Kusumoto, Minoru [Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corporation, Isahaya (Japan); Matsumoto, Yasutomo [Santoku Corporation, Kobe (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The activities of zinc, a{sub Zn}, and magnesium, a{sub Mg}, from very low to high temperatures in the Mg-Zn binary system were evaluated for the first time from the relationship between the Gibbs energies of formation, {delta}{sub f}G{sub T}{sup o}, of Mg{sub 48}Zn{sub 52}, Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}, MgZn{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}Zn11 and their phase equilibria. The {delta}{sub f}G{sub T}{sup o} values adopted were determined in our previous calorimetric studies. It was found that the a{sub Zn} and a{sub Mg} values in the compounds steeply changed from the minimum to maximum as a function of the composition in a narrow solubility range. Such a change was more emphasized toward low temperatures (3 K). Since one of the dominant factors for the composition change in a narrow solubility range in Mg{sub 48}Zn{sub 52} and Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} is the formation of vacancies at the Zn site, the relative partial molar Gibbs energies of the vacancy formation, {delta} anti G{sub Zn}{sup Zn} {sup vacancy}, were estimated from the obtained a{sub Zn} values. At 298 K, the {delta} anti G{sub Zn}{sup Zn} {sup vacancy} values of Mg{sub 48}Zn{sub 52} and Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 3} were 73.5 and 344.3 kJ mol{sup -1}, consistent with about the same order of the enthalpy of the vacancy formation in Ni{sub 3}Al (= 173.7 kJ mol{sup -1}) as determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy. When the symmetric atomic configuration at the stoichiometric composition was violated by the formation of vacancies, the change in relative partial molar value of lattice defects was found to be large. (orig.)

  14. Generation and reactivity of putative support systems, Ce-Al neutral binary oxide nanoclusters: CO oxidation and C-H bond activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2013-11-01

    Both ceria (CeO2) and alumina (Al2O3) are very important catalyst support materials. Neutral binary oxide nanoclusters (NBONCs), CexAlyOz, are generated and detected in the gas phase and their reactivity with carbon monoxide (CO) and butane (C4H10) is studied. The very active species CeAlO4• can react with CO and butane via O atom transfer (OAT) and H atom transfer (HAT), respectively. Other CexAlyOz NBONCs do not show reactivities toward CO and C4H10. The structures, as well as the reactivities, of CexAlyOz NBONCs are studied theoretically employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ground state CeAlO4• NBONC possesses a kite-shaped structure with an OtCeObObAlOt configuration (Ot, terminal oxygen; Ob, bridging oxygen). An unpaired electron is localized on the Ot atom of the AlOt moiety rather than the CeOt moiety: this Ot centered radical moiety plays a very important role for the reactivity of the CeAlO4• NBONC. The reactivities of Ce2O4, CeAlO4•, and Al2O4 toward CO are compared, emphasizing the importance of a spin-localized terminal oxygen for these reactions. Intramolecular charge distributions do not appear to play a role in the reactivities of these neutral clusters, but could be important for charged isoelectronic BONCs. DFT studies show that the reaction of CeAlO4• with C4H10 to form the CeAlO4H•C4H9• encounter complex is barrierless. While HAT processes have been previously characterized for cationic and anionic oxide clusters, the reported study is the first observation of a HAT process supported by a ground state neutral oxide cluster. Mechanisms for catalytic oxidation of CO over surfaces of AlxOy/MmOn or MmOn/AlxOy materials are proposed consistent with the presented experimental and theoretical results.

  15. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  16. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  17. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  18. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  19. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  20. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  2. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  3. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  4. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    they can also be used to check ("calibrate") other, indirect methods to derive stellar parameters. It is on this background that the first discovery of an eclipsing binary system with two young, solar-like stars is of great interest. The Orion Binary Young stars are not so easy to find. One way is to look for their high-energy emission from a hot corona, created by their enhanced magnetic activity. The object RXJ 0529.4+0041 was first discovered in this way by the X-ray satellite ROSAT. Subsequent optical spectroscopy showed this object to be a young, low-mass spectroscopic binary system. And when a team of astronomers [1] used a 91-cm telescope at the Serra La Nave observing station on the slope of the Etna volcano (Sicily) to monitor the light curve, they also discovered that this system undergoes eclipses. All data confirm that RXJ 0529.4+0041 is located in the Orion Nebula at a distance of about 1500 light-years. This is one of the nearest star-forming regions and almost all stars in this area are quite young. Spectroscopic observations soon confirmed that the binary system was no exception. In particular, fairly strong absorption lines of the fragile element Lithium [4] were detected in both of the binary stars. As Lithium is known to be rapidly destroyed in stars, the finding of a relatively high content of this element implies that the stars must indeed be young. They were probably formed no more than 10 million years ago, i.e., in astronomical terms, they are "infant" stars . High-resolution spectroscopic observations, mostly with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , were used to determine the radial velocities of the stars. From these, a first determination of the orbital and stellar parameters was possible. The orbital period turned out to be short. The two stars swing around each other in just 3 days. This also means they must be very close to each other (but still entirely detached from each

  5. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  6. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  7. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  8. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  9. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research

  10. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  11. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  12. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  13. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model that...

  14. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  15. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Lind, Peter; Preuss, T.

    1996-01-01

    was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples...... of pretreatment activity were subject to a relatively greater decrease in activity than samples with a high level of pretreatment activity. The complement fixation assay was particularly sensitive to irradiation of serum. ft is concluded that serum samples retain sufficient activity by both methods of virus...... they were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level...

  16. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  17. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  18. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  19. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  20. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  1. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  2. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  3. Effect of the structural characteristics of binary Pt-Ru and ternary Pt-Ru-M fuel cell catalysts on the activity of ethanol electrooxidation in acid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2013-06-01

    In view of their possible use as anode materials in acid direct ethanol fuel cells, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-M catalysts for ethanol oxidation has been investigated. This minireview examines the effects of the structural characteristics of Pt-Ru, such as the degree of alloying and Ru oxidation state, on the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  5. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  6. Cab technology integration laboratory demonstration with moving map technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    A human performance study was conducted at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) using a locomotive research simulatorthe Cab Technology Integration Laboratory (CTIL)that was acquired by the Federal Railroad Ad...

  7. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.

  8. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information. (paper)

  9. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  10. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  11. Osmotic and activity coefficients in the binary solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in methanol or ethanol at T = 298.15 K from isopiestic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Azamat, Jafar; Atabay, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in ethanol and methanol have been measured. → Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using NRTL and Pitzer models. → Vapor pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. → Model parameters have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions of two room-temperature ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide) in methanol and ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficient data have been correlated using a forth-order polynomial in terms of (molality) 0.5 , with both, ion interaction model of Pitzer and electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen. The values of vapor pressures of above-mentioned solutions have been calculated from the osmotic coefficients. The model parameters fitted to the experimental osmotic coefficients have been used for prediction of the mean ionic activity coefficients of those ionic liquids in methanol and ethanol.

  12. revue bibliographique des représentations analytiques de coefficients d'activité ioniques moyens dans les solutions binaires électrolytiques Bibliographic Review of Analytic Equations of Mean Lonic Activity Coefficients in Electrolytic Binary Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz J. -L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le calcul de certaines propriétés à l'équilibre, de systèmes électrolytiques, nécessite la connaissance des coefficients d'activité en phase liquide des constituants de ces systèmes. L'estimation du coefficient d'activité ionique moyen de l'électrolyte permet, pour des systèmes binaires, de calculer ces coefficients d'activité. Dans cette revue bibliographique sont présentées les principales expressions analytiques, de coefficients d'activité ioniques moyens, fournies par la littérature. II est possible de classer ces expressions en plusieurs grandes catégories en fonction des modèles dont elles dérivent. Des critères de choix, de l'une ou l'autre de ces équations, sont proposés suivant le type de système électrolytique et le domaine de concentration étudiés. Liquid-phase activity coefficients must be known in order to calculate various equilibrium properties of electrolytic systems. For binary systems, these coefficients can be calculated by estimating the mean ionic activity coefficient of the electrolyte. This bibliographic review describes the principal analytic equations for mean ionic activity coefficients found in the literature. These equations can be classified in several major categories according to the theoretical model from which they are derived. Some criteria are proposed for choosing one or another of these equations on the basis of the type of electrolytic system and the concentration range studied.

  13. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  14. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  15. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  16. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this end...

  17. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  18. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  19. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  20. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  1. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  2. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  3. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  4. Pulsed Accretion in the T Tauri Binary TWA 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A’s time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (∼20 observations per orbit) for ∼15 orbital periods. From U -band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ∼4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A’s average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.

  5. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  6. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  7. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  8. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  9. DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover ∼80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.

  10. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  11. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  12. Physical Structure of Four Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Disk accretion powers many astronomical objects, including pre-main sequence stars, interacting binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. Unfortunately, models developed to explain the behavior of disks and their surroundings - boundary layers, jets, and winds - lack much predictive power, because the physical mechanism driving disk evolution - the viscosity - is not understood. Observations of many types of accreting systems are needed to constrain the basic physics of disks and provide input for improved models. Symbiotic stars are an attractive laboratory for studying physical phenomena associated with disk accretion. These long period binaries (P(sub orb) approx. 2-3 yr) contain an evolved red giant star, a hot companion, and an ionized nebula. The secondary star usually is a white dwarf accreting material from the wind of its red giant companion. A good example of this type of symbiotic is BF Cygni: our analysis shows that disk accretion powers the nuclear burning shell of the hot white dwarf and also manages to eject material perpendicular to the orbital plane (Mikolajewska, Kenyon, and Mikolajewski 1989). The hot components in other symbiotic binaries appear powered by tidal overflow from a very evolved red giant companion. We recently completed a study of CI Cygni and demonstrated that the accreting secondary is a solar-type main sequence star, rather than a white dwarf (Kenyon et aL 1991). This project continued our study of symbiotic binary systems. Our general plan was to combine archival ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry with high quality optical radial velocity observations to determine the variation of line and continuum sources as functions of orbital phase. We were very successful in generating orbital solutions and phasing UV+optical spectra for five systems: AG Dra, V443 Her, RW Hya, AG Peg, and AX Per. Summaries of our main results for these systems appear below. A second goal of our project was to consider general models for the

  13. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers.

  14. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  15. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  16. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  17. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  18. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  19. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  20. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  1. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC...... from April-September 2014 in New York excluding Manhattan and NYC's two airports. Tableau was used as the visual analytics tool, and PostgreSQL in combination with PostGIS was used as the data processing engine. Our findings show that the performance of Green cabs in isolated zip codes differ...

  2. RS CV sub n binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to place in context the vast amount of data obtained as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. Emphasis is on the RS CVn systems and their long period analogs. The following questions are considered: (1) are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate; (2) what is the evidence for discrete active regions; (3) have any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems been derived; (4) what do the flare observations tell about magnetic fields in RS CVn systems; (5) is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type

  3. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  4. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  6. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  7. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10 6 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10 6 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  8. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  9. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  10. Changes in photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tolerance, respectively were used to investigate the oxygen consumption rate of photosystem I, the oxygen evolution rate of photosystem II, cab transcript levels, and activities of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle.

  11. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  12. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  13. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  14. Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping

    OpenAIRE

    May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.

  15. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  16. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  17. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  19. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  20. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  1. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  2. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  3. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Solis Jorge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.

  4. Prevalence and Characterization of a Binary Toxin (Actin-Specific ADP-Ribosyltransferase) from Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carina; Decré, Dominique; Barbut, Frédéric; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB), some strains of Clostridium difficile also produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, called binary toxin CDT. We used a PCR method and Southern blotting for the detection of genes encoding the enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components of the binary toxin in 369 strains isolated from patients with suspected C. difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Twenty-two strains (a prevalence of 6%) harbored both genes. When binary toxin production was assessed by Western blotting, 19 of the 22 strains reacted with antisera against the iota toxin of C. perfringens (anti-Ia and anti-Ib). Additionally, binary toxin activity, detected by the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay, was present in only 17 of the 22 strains. Subsequently, all 22 binary toxin-positive strains were tested for the production of toxins TcdA and TcdB, toxinotyped, and characterized by serogrouping, PCR ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All binary toxin-positive strains also produced TcdB and/or TcdA. However, they had significant changes in the tcdA and tcdB genes and belonged to variant toxinotypes III, IV, V, VII, IX, and XIII. We could differentiate 16 profiles by using typing methods, indicating that most of the binary toxin-positive strains were unrelated. PMID:15131151

  5. Structural classification and a binary structure model for superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on structural and bonding features, a new classification scheme of superconductors is proposed to classify conductors can be partitioned into two parts, a superconducting active component and a supplementary component.Partially metallic covalent bonding is found to be a common feature in all superconducting active components, and the electron states of the atoms in the active components usually make a dominant contribution to the energy band near the Fermi surface. Possible directions to explore new superconductors are discussed based on the structural classification and the binary structure model.

  6. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  7. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  8. Boron-purity-dependent Raman spectra of CaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant differences in the Raman spectra of two different kinds of CaB 6 single crystals grown from boron with a purity of 99.9 % (3N) or 99.9999 % (6N). Our Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) show peaks around 781 (T 2g ), 1141 (E g ), and 1283 cm -1 (A 1g ), and they are very similar to previous Raman spectra of CaB 6 . The E g mode shows a characteristic double-peak feature due to an additional weak broad peak centered around 1158 cm -1 . However, the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (6N) show sharp peaks around 771 (T 2g ), 1137 (E g ), and 1266 cm -1 (A 1g ). The peak frequencies are down shifted as much as ∼17 cm -1 . In addition, no additional peak feature is observed for the E g mode so that the mode is symmetric in the case of CaB 6 (6N). The X-ray powder diffraction patterns for both CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) show that the lattice parameters are essentially the same. The majority of the impurity in the 99.9 %-pure (3N) boron is C. Thus, we doped CaB 6 (6N) with C, making Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 , and looked for differences in the Raman spectra. The Raman spectra of Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 are nearly identical to those of CaB 6 (6N), indicating that the differences between the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) are not due to a C impurity. The Raman results show that the presence of impurities, not the amount of them, is enough to trigger local symmetry breaking in CaB 6 . The broadening of T 2g , the additional E g2 mode and the asymmetry of A 1g in CaB 6 (3N) can be understood in terms of the symmetry of the arrangements of the boron octahedra lowered by local symmetry breaking.

  9. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  10. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  11. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  12. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  13. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  14. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  15. The symbiotics as binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)

  16. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  17. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  18. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  19. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  1. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  2. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  3. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  4. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  5. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  6. A SEARCH FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM COLLIDING MAGNETOSPHERES IN YOUNG ECCENTRIC STELLAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Salter, Demerese M. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all four binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at a ∼2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries cannot be explained within the framework of the COUP-like X-ray activity. However, due to the inhomogeneities of the merged binary sample and the relatively low statistical significance of the detected flux increase, these findings are regarded as tentative only. More data are needed to prove that the flux increase is real and is related to the processes of colliding magnetospheres.

  7. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  8. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  9. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  10. Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated

  11. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  13. Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references

  14. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  15. Investigation on some thermophysical properties of poly(ethylene glycol) binary mixtures at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, Mehrdad; Motahari, Ahmad; Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measuring densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of PEG + water or alcohols. ► Finding excess molar volume, refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion. ► Estimating binary coefficients using Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. ► Deducing excess Gibbs free energy of activation and other activation parameters. ► Correlation of viscosity data with Grunberg–Nissan and Tamura–Kurata equations. -- Abstract: Densities ρ and viscosities η for the binary mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) + water, + 1,2-ethanediol, + 1,3-propanediol, + 1,4-butanediol over the entire concentration range were determined at temperatures (298.15 to 308.15) K with 5 K interval. The experimental data were used to calculate the excess molar volume V m E , coefficient of thermal expansion α, excess coefficient of thermal expansion α E , excess Gibbs free energy of activation ΔG ∗E , and other activation parameters (i.e., ΔG ∗ ,ΔH ∗ ,ΔS ∗ ). The values of excess properties were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary coefficients. The excess refractive index n E and electronic polarizability α e of PEG + water binary mixtures were also determined from the experimental values of refractive indices. The viscosity data were correlated with Grunberg–Nissan and Tamura–Kurata equations. Moreover, the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson theory has been used to correlate the excess molar volumes of the studied mixtures

  16. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  17. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  18. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  19. Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el

  20. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  1. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  2. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2009-01-01

    Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.

  4. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Paul A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom-Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Clark, Joni M. [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, New Mexico State University-DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  5. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets

  6. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  7. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...

  8. A binary mixture operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hihara, E.; Saito, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance

  9. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-01-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.

  10. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  11. Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie

    2008-10-01

    Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.

  12. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Close M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary System BX Tri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelwitz, V.; Czesla, S.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first detailed X-ray study of the close dMe binary system BX Tri, whose optical variation has been continously monitored in the frame of the DWARF project (Pribulla et al.(2012)). We observed BX Tri with XMM-Newton for two full orbital periods and confirm that the system is an ultra-active M-dwarf binary showing frequent flares and an X-ray luminosity close to the saturation limit. The strong magnetic activity could have influenced the angular momentum evolution of the system via magnetic braking.

  13. Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba......Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010...

  14. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift......We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  15. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  16. Non-binary or genderqueer genders

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging ...

  17. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  18. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  19. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  20. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  1. The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.

  2. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  3. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886

  4. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  5. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  6. Ultracompact X-ray binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, L.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Ultracompact X-ray binary stars usually consist of a neutron star and a white dwarf, two stars bound together by their strong gravity and orbiting each other very rapidly, completing one orbit in less than one hour. Neutron stars are extremely compact remnants of the collapsed cores of massive stars

  7. Jet precession in binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zulema

    2018-06-01

    Supermassive binary black holes are thought to lie at the centres of merging galaxies. The blazar OJ 287 is the poster child of such systems, showing strong and periodic variability across the electromagnetic spectrum. A new study questions the physical origin of this variability.

  8. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  9. Smoothed analysis of binary search trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Reischuk, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Binary search trees are one of the most fundamental data structures. While the height of such a tree may be linear in the worst case, the average height with respect to the uniform distribution is only logarithmic. The exact value is one of the best studied problems in average-case complexity. We

  10. A coinductive calculus of binary trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Silva (Alexandra); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the set T_A of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that T_A carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a

  11. Binary palmprint representation for feature template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of biometric template protection comes from the intraclass variations of biometric data. The helper data scheme aims to solve this problem by employing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). However, many reported biometric binary features from the same user reach bit error rate (BER)

  12. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  13. Non-binary or genderqueer genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.

  14. Some thoughts on interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on the theory and observation of interacting binary systems. The complex physical processes possible in these systems make our present understanding inconclusive. New types of observation (X-ray, EUV, radio) present new challenges to the theoretician. The author discusses those problems which seem to hold the most promise for future progress. (Auth.)

  15. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  16. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Wei, L.; Poelma, R.H.; Vollebregt, S.; Wei, J.; Urbach, Paul; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material

  17. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  18. Compiler-Agnostic Function Detection in Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, D.A.; Slowinska, J.M.; Bos, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose Nucleus, a novel function detection algorithm for binaries. In contrast to prior work, Nucleus is compiler-agnostic, and does not require any learning phase or signature information. Instead of scanning for signatures, Nucleus detects functions at the Control Flow Graph-level, making it

  19. Photometric survey of asynchronous binary asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Kotková, Lenka; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.; Brown, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Kaiser, K.; Krzeminski, Z.; Pray, D. P.; Warner, B. D.; Harris, A. W.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Benner, L. A. M.; Margot, J. L.; Galád, Adrián; Holliday, W.; Hicks, M. D.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Tholen, D.; Whiteley, R.; Marchis, F.; DeGraff, D. R.; Grauer, A.; Larson, S. M.; Velichko, F. P.; Cooney, W.R.; Stephens, R.; Zhu, J.; Kirsch, K.; Dyvig, R.; Snyder, L.; Reddy, V.; Moore, S.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Masi, G.; Higgins, D.; Funkhouser, G. M.; Knight, B.; Slivan, S. M.; Behrend, R.; Grenon, M.; Burki, G.; Roy, R.; Demeautis, C.; Matter, D.; Waelchli, N.; Revaz, Y.; Klotz, A.; Rieugné, M.; Thieri, P.; Cotrez, V.; Brunetto, L.; Kober, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 1 (2006), s. 63-93 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604; GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * binary * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2006

  20. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  1. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  2. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  3. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  4. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  5. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  6. Gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore ... In the 1916 paper exploring the physical implications of GR, Einstein .... Thus, for a neutron star binary in the Virgo cluster (D = 18 Mpc; 5.6×1020 km) the strain.

  7. The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)

  8. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  9. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  10. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  11. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  12. Prototype design and test of a collision protection system for cab car engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in the design of rail cars can : potentially prevent the structural collapse of : space occupied by a cab car engineer : during a train collision. With adequate : survival space maintained, the next : crashworthiness objective is to mini...

  13. Prototype design of a collision protection system for cab car engineers - fabrication and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the structural crashworthiness of passenger rail cars now make it possible to preserve the compartmentalized : space occupied by a cab car engineer during a train collision. In order to translate this additional protection into improv...

  14. Biological Control of White Rot in Garlic Using Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Seop Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available White rot caused by Sclerotium cepivorum was reported to be severe soil-born disease on garlic. Disease progress of white rot of garlic (Allium sativum L. was investigated during the growing season of 2009 to 2011 at Taean and Seosan areas. The white rot disease on bulb began to occur from late April and peaked in late May. The antifungal bacteria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 was tested in field bioassay for suppression of white rot disease. As a result of the nucleotide sequence of the gene 16S rRNA, CAB008106-4 strain used in this study has been identified as B. pyrrocinia. B. pyrrocinia CAB080106-4 isolate suppressed the white rot with 69.6% control efficacy in field test. These results suggested that B. pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 isolate could be an effective biological control agent against white rot of garlic.

  15. Evolution of binaries with compact objects in globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical interactions that take place between objects in dense stellar systems lead to frequent formation of exotic stellar objects, unusual binaries, and systems of higher multiplicity. They are most important for the formation of binaries with neutron stars and black holes, which are usually observationally revealed in mass-transferring binaries. Here we review the current understanding of compact object's retention, of the metallicity dependence on the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries...

  16. Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, E.H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2012-12-01

    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.

  18. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  19. Full Ionisation In Binary-Binary Encounters With Small Positive Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, W. L.

    2006-08-01

    Interactions between binary stars and single stars and binary stars and other binary stars play a key role in the dynamics of a dense stellar system. Energy can be transferred between the internal dynamics of a binary and the larger scale dynamics of the interacting objects. Binaries can be destroyed and created by the interaction. In a binary-binary encounter, full ionisation occurs when both of the binary stars are destroyed in the interaction to create four single stars. This is only possible when the total energy of the system is positive. For very small energies the probability of this occurring is very low and it tends towards zero as the total energy tends towards zero. Here the case is considered for which all the stars have equal masses. An asymptotic power law is predicted relating the probability of full ionisation with the total energy when this latter quantity is small. The exponent, which is approximately 2.31, is compared with the results from numerical scattering experiments. The theoretical approach taken is similar to one used previously in the three-body problem. It makes use of the fact that the most dramatic changes in scale and energies of a few-body system occur when its components pass near to a central configuration. The position, and number, of these configurations is not known for the general four-body problem, however, with equal masses there are known to be exactly five different cases. Separate consideration and comparison of the properties of orbits close to each of these five central configurations enables the prediction of the form of the cross-section for full ionisation for the case of small positive total energy. This is the relation between total energy and the probability of total ionisation described above.

  20. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  1. Compact stars and the evolution of binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar limit is of key importance for the evolution of white dwarfs in binary systems and for the formation of neutron stars and black holes in binaries. Mass transfer can drive a white dwarf in a binary over the Chandrasekhar limit, which may lead to a Type Ia supernova (in case of a CO

  2. Mapping Chinese Agricultural and Allied Sciences Journals Indexed in CAB Abstracts Database

    OpenAIRE

    Arundhati Kaushik; Superna Sharma; Lokendra Singh Rajput

    2013-01-01

    CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International) is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural rese...

  3. ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Stephan; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Zobrist, Roger; Hunziker, Patrick R; Hunziker, Sabina

    2013-09-06

    After years of advocating ABC (Airway-Breathing-Circulation), current guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend CAB (Circulation-Airway-Breathing). This trial compared ABC with CAB as initial approach to CPR from the arrival of rescuers until the completion of the first resuscitation cycle. 108 teams, consisting of two physicians each, were randomized to receive a graphical display of either the ABC algorithm or the CAB algorithm. Subsequently teams had to treat a simulated cardiac arrest. Data analysis was performed using video recordings obtained during simulations. The primary endpoint was the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations. The time to execution of the first resuscitation measure was 32 ± 12 seconds in ABC teams and 25 ± 10 seconds in CAB teams (P = 0.002). 18/53 ABC teams (34%) and none of the 55 CAB teams (P = 0.006) applied more than the recommended two initial rescue breaths which caused a longer duration of the first cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations in ABC teams (31 ± 13 vs.23 ± 6 sec; P = 0.001). Overall, the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle was longer in ABC teams (63 ± 17 vs. 48 ± 10 sec; P ABC with an earlier start of CPR and a shorter time to completion of the first 30:2 resuscitation cycle. These findings endorse the change from ABC to CAB in international resuscitation guidelines.

  4. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi 2 CdO 4 phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  5. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong [Xinjiang Univ., Xinjiang (China). School of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi{sub 2}CdO{sub 4} phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  6. PHOTOINITIATED POLYMERIZATION BY ARYLIODONIUM SALT/BENZOPHENONE / TERTIARY AMINE BINARY PHOTOSENSITIZATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Junhui; WANG Erjian

    1990-01-01

    A novel binary photosensitization system composed of benzophenone (BP) /diphenyliodonium chloride ( DPIOC )/triethylamine (TEA), exhibiting a good photoresponse at near UV and visible light regions, was used as the initiator for photopolymerization of MMA. The radical photogeneration in the binary system consists mainly of two parallel reactions, i. e., BP/TEA photohydrogen-abstraction and DPIOC/TEA complex photodecomposition, but the latter is more active than the former. The results of comparative study indicate that the rate of polymerization induced by the binary system (BDT) is remarkably higher than those by the corresponding single systems The polymerization rates are proportional to[BP] 0. 16, [ DPIOC] 0.32, [ TEA ] 0.45 and [MMA ] . The mechanism is also discussed.

  7. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  8. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network

  9. Tidal effects in twin-degenerate binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    The tidal velocity field is calculated for an initially non-rotating low mass white dwarf secondary in a twin-degenerate binary. These motions are used to find the tidal torque on the secondary, to first order in the orbital frequency, and an expression is derived for the synchronization time. For a lobe-filling secondary the synchronization time has a weak dependence on the mass and luminosity of the star, and for the binary G61-29 is found to be of the same order as the estimated lifetime of the system. It is emphasized, however, that tidal excitation of non-radial oscillatory modes in the secondary may significantly shorten the synchronization time. (author)

  10. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  11. EXOSAT and IUE observations of contact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhu, O.; Heise, J.; Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1986-01-01

    EXOSAT observations are reported of the contact binaries W UMa, VW Cep, 44t Boo, XY Leo, and V566 Oph and the detached short-period RS CVn stars ER Vul and HD 209943. Complete X-ray light curves were obtained for W UMa, VW Cep and 44t Boo. Nearly simultaneous IUE observations of VW Cep provide important comparisons of the Mg II emission, the UV continuum, and the FES light curve, pointing to extra hot gas at phase 0.75. The observations indicate that contact binaries have highly structured (in temperature and geometry) and highly variable coronae, not preferentially connected with either of the component stars. The observed dips can be interpreted as due to cool absorbing clouds above localized X-ray emitting regions. For VW Cep, 44t Boo, and XY Leo there is evidence that the neck regions are sites for X-ray-emitting hot gas. 66 references

  12. On the dynamics of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verner, D.A.; Chernin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of close noncontact binary galaxies is investigated. It is demonsrated that the tidal interaction is ineffective for circularization of galaxy orbits. Nonsphericity of galaxies develops a torque in a binary system. For a pair of elliptical galaxies this torque leads to swinging of the galaxies with respect to the orbital plane (which can be observed as a rotation about the minor axis) and to the excitation of internal degrees of freedom. Besides, this pendulum effect may be effective for elliptical galaxies in clusters due to the presence of the torque produced by a cluster as a whole. In the case of spiral galaxies the torque leads to the precession of their rotational axes. However this effect seems to be too weak to be observable

  13. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  14. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P ≤ 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g ≅ 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times 0.9 M ☉ companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  15. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  16. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-05-20

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  17. Stochastic simulation of nucleation in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’vov, P. E.; Svetukhin, V. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we simulate nucleation in binary alloys with respect to thermal fluctuations of the alloy composition. The simulation is based on the Cahn–Hilliard–Cook equation. We have considered the influence of some fluctuation parameters (wave vector cutoff and noise amplitude) on the kinetics of nucleation and growth of minority phase precipitates. The obtained results are validated by the example of iron–chromium alloys.

  18. Evaporative lithographic patterning of binary colloidal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel J; Conrad, Jacinta C; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2009-12-28

    Evaporative lithography offers a promising new route for patterning a broad array of soft materials. In this approach, a mask is placed above a drying film to create regions of free and hindered evaporation, which drive fluid convection and entrained particles to regions of highest evaporative flux. We show that binary colloidal films exhibit remarkable pattern formation when subjected to a periodic evaporative landscape during drying.

  19. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  20. A Bayesian model for binary Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkheir Essebbar

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This note is concerned with Bayesian estimation of the transition probabilities of a binary Markov chain observed from heterogeneous individuals. The model is founded on the Jeffreys' prior which allows for transition probabilities to be correlated. The Bayesian estimator is approximated by means of Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC techniques. The performance of the Bayesian estimates is illustrated by analyzing a small simulated data set.

  1. Unstable mass outflow from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, K [Tokyo Univ., Mitaka (Japan). Tokyo Astronomical Observatory; Sugimoto, D

    1976-12-01

    A contact binary system which fills the outer Lagrangian lobe is unstable against the mass loss from the second Lagrangian point. The effect of the mass loss on the remaining system is studied for several typical cases. It is shown that the separation between the components at the periastron decreases with a high rate in most cases; therefore, the system continues to lose mass once gas begins to flow out from the second Lagrangian point.

  2. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  3. Composition profile determination in isomorphous binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.Y.; Bandeira, I.N.

    1983-07-01

    The inhomogeneity along the growth axis of the pseudo-binary alloys is due to the segregation of the solute which will be mixed in the melt due to convective and diffusive flows. A process for determination of the exact composition profile by measurements of the crystal density, for alloys of the type A sub(1-x) B sub(x), is shown. (Author) [pt

  4. Relativistic apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Claret, L.; Kotková, Lenka; Kučáková, Hana; Kocián, R.; Brát, L.; Svoboda, P.; Šmelcer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 509, January (2010), A18/1-A18/14 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/2063; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  5. Kajian Pendekatan Binary Log dalam Change Data Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Febrian Rachmadhan Amri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The online business era causes the form of transactions to occur so quickly that the information stored in the data warehouse becomes invalid. Companies are required to have a strong system, which is a system that is real time in order to be able to perform data loading into the media repository that resides on different hosts in the near-real time. Data Warehouse is used as a media repository of data that has the nature of subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and is fixed. Data Warehouse can be built into real time management with the advantages possessed and utilize Change Data Capture. Change Data Capture (CDC is a technique that can be used as problem solution to build real time data warehousing (RTDW. The binary log approach in change data capture is made to record any data manipulation activity that occurs at the OLTP level and is managed back before being stored into the Data Warehouse (loading process. This can improve the quality of data management so that the creation of the right information, because the information available is always updated. Testing shows that Binary Log approach in Change Data Capture (BinlogCDC is able to generate real time data management, valid current information, dynamic communication between systems, and data management without losing any information from data manipulation.

  6. Editorial: Let's talk about sex - the gender binary revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2017-08-01

    Sex refers to biological differences and gender to socioculturally delineated masculine and feminine roles. Sex or gender are included as a covariate or effect modifier in the majority of child psychology and psychiatry studies, and differences found between boys and girls have inspired many researchers to postulate underlying mechanisms. Empirical tests of whether including these proposed explanatory variables actually reduces the variance explained by gender are lagging behind somewhat. That is a pity, because a lot can be gained from a greater focus on the active agents of specific gender differences. As opposed to biological sex as such, some of the processes explaining why a specific outcome shows gender differences may be changeable and so possible prevention targets. Moreover, while the sex binary may be reasonable adequate as a classification variable, the gender binary is far from perfect. Gender is a multidimensional, partly context-dependent factor, and the dichotomy generally used in research does not do justice to the diversity existing within boys and girls. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. A homogeneous sample of binary galaxies: Basic observational properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of optical characteristics for 585 binary systems, satisfying a condition of apparent isolation on the sky, is presented. Influences of various selection effects distorting the average parameters of the sample are noted. The pair components display mutual similarity over all the global properties: luminosity, diameter, morphological type, mass-to-luminosity ratio, angular momentum etc., which is not due only to selection effects. The observed correlations must be caused by common origin of pair members. Some features (nuclear activity, color index) could acquire similarity during synchronous evolution of double galaxies. Despite the observed isolation, the sample of double systems is seriously contaminated by accidental pairs, and also by members of groups and clusters. After removing false pairs estimates of orbital mass-to-luminosity ratio range from 0 to 30 f(solar), with the mean value (7.8 plus or minus 0.7) f(solar). Binary galaxies possess nearly circular orbits with a typical eccentrity e = 0.25, probably resulting from evolutionary selection driven by component mergers under dynamical friction. The double-galaxy population with space abundance 0.12 plus or minus 0.02 and characteristic merger timescale 0.2 H(exp -1) may significantly influence the rate of dynamical evolution of galaxies.

  8. Formation and Evolution of Contact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Eggleton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available describe a series of processes, including hierarchical fragmentation, gravitational scattering, Kozai cycles within triple systems, tidal friction and magnetic braking, that I believe are responsible for producing the modest but significant fraction of stars that are observed as contact binaries. I also discuss further processes, namely heat transport, mass transport, nuclear evolution, thermal relaxation oscillations, and further magnetic braking with tidal friction, that influence the evolution during contact. The endpoint, for contact, is that the two components merge into a single star, as recently was observed in the remarkable system V1309 Sco. The single star probably throws off some mass and rotates rapidly at first, and then slows by magnetic braking to become a rather inconspicuous but normal dwarf or subgiant. If however the contact binary was part of a triple system originally–as I suggested above was rather likely–then the result could be a widish binary with apparently non-coeval components. There are several such known.

  9. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.edu, E-mail: jdrsteinfadt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  10. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  11. Study of zirconium-addition binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakova, B.; Kuchar, L.

    1975-01-01

    The curves are given of the solid and the liquid of binary zirconium-addition systems. Most additions reduce the melting temperature of zirconium. The only known additions to increase the melting temperature are nitrogen, oxygen and hafnium. Also given are the transformation curves of the systems and the elements are given which reduce or raise the temperature of α-β transformation. From the Mendeleev table into which are plotted the curves of the solid and the liquid of binary systems it is possible to predict the properties of unknown binary systems. For the calculations of the curves of the solid and the liquid, 1860 degC was taken as the temperature of zirconium melting. For the calculations of transformation curves, 865 degC was taken as the temperature of α-β transformation. The equations are given of the curves of the solid and the liquid and of the transformation curves of some Zr-addition systems. Also given are the calculated equilibrium distribution coefficients and the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the transformation of additions in Zr and their limit values for temperatures approximating the melting point or the temperature of the transformation of pure Zr, and the values pertaining to eutectic and peritectic or eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures. (J.B.)

  12. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  13. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  14. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  15. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  16. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  17. Simulations of nearly extremal binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Scheel, Mark; Hemberger, Daniel; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kuper, Kevin; Boyle, Michael; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Astrophysical black holes could have nearly extremal spins; therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass m and spin S exceeding the Bowen-York limit of S /m2 = 0 . 93 . Using improved methods we simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has S /m2 = 0 . 99 . We also use these methods to simulate a nearly extremal non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have S /m2 = 0 . 994 , nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; and we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions.

  18. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  19. Evolution of massive close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masevich, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the evolution of massive close binary stars are discussed. Most of them are nonevolutionized stars with close masses of components. After filling the Roche cavity and exchange of matter between the components the Wolf-Rayet star is formed. As a result of the supernovae explosion a neutron star or a black hole is formed in the system. The system does not disintegrate but obtains high space velocity owing to the loss of the supernovae envelope. The satellite of the neutron star or black hole - the star of the O or B spectral class loses about 10 -6 of the solar mass for a year. Around the neighbouring component a disc of this matter is formed the incidence of which on a compact star leads to X radiation appearance. The neutron star cannot absorb the whole matter of the widening component and the binary system submerges into the common envelope. As a result of the evolution of massive close binary systems single neutron stars can appear which after the lapse of some time become radiopulsars. Radiopulsars with such high space velocities have been found in our Galaxy [ru

  20. Both positive and negative regulatory elements mediate expression of a photoregulated CAB gene from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castresana, C; Garcia-Luque, I; Alonso, E; Malik, V S; Cashmore, A R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed promoter regulatory elements from a photoregulated CAB gene (Cab-E) isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. These studies have been performed by introducing chimeric gene constructs into tobacco cells via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression studies on the regenerated transgenic plants have allowed us to characterize three positive and one negative cis-acting elements that influence photoregulated expression of the Cab-E gene. Within the upstream sequences we have identified two positive regulatory elements (PRE1 and PRE2) which confer maximum levels of photoregulated expression. These sequences contain multiple repeated elements related to the sequence-ACCGGCCCACTT-. We have also identified within the upstream region a negative regulatory element (NRE) extremely rich in AT sequences, which reduces the level of gene expression in the light. We have defined a light regulatory element (LRE) within the promoter region extending from -396 to -186 bp which confers photoregulated expression when fused to a constitutive nopaline synthase ('nos') promoter. Within this region there is a 132-bp element, extending from -368 to -234 bp, which on deletion from the Cab-E promoter reduces gene expression from high levels to undetectable levels. Finally, we have demonstrated for a full length Cab-E promoter conferring high levels of photoregulated expression, that sequences proximal to the Cab-E TATA box are not replaceable by corresponding sequences from a 'nos' promoter. This contrasts with the apparent equivalence of these Cab-E and 'nos' TATA box-proximal sequences in truncated promoters conferring low levels of photoregulated expression. Images PMID:2901343

  1. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a 2/7 . Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  2. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  3. All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2009-04-01

    To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.

  4. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Massive binaries in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuhl, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fritz, T. K.; Ott, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alexander, T. [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Martins, F., E-mail: pfuhl@mpe.mpg.de [LUPM, Université Montpelier 2, CNRS, Place Eugéne Bataillon, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-20

    A long-term spectroscopic and photometric survey of the most luminous and massive stars in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* revealed two new binaries: a long-period Ofpe/WN9 binary, IRS 16NE, with a modest eccentricity of 0.3 and a period of 224 days, and an eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary with a period of 2.3 days. Together with the already identified binary IRS 16SW, there are now three confirmed OB/WR binaries in the inner 0.2 pc of the Galactic center. Using radial velocity change upper limits, we were able to constrain the spectroscopic binary fraction in the Galactic center to F{sub SB}=0.30{sub −0.21}{sup +0.34} at a confidence level of 95%, a massive binary fraction close to that observed in dense clusters. The fraction of eclipsing binaries with photometric amplitudes Δm > 0.4 is F{sub EB}{sup GC}=3%±2%, which is consistent with local OB star clusters (F {sub EB} = 1%). Overall, the Galactic center binary fraction seems to be similar to the binary fraction in comparable young clusters.

  6. Rotational properties of the binary and non-binary populations in the Trans-Neptunian belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Noll, Keith S.; Ortiz Moreno, Jose Luis; Morales , Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    An exhaustive study about short-term variability as well as derived properties from lightcurves allowed us to draw some conclusions for the Trans-Neptunian belt binary population. Based on Maxwellian fit distributions of the spin rate, we suggested that the binary population rotates slower than the non-binary one. This slowing-down can be attributed to tidal effects between the satellite and the primary, as expected. We showed that no system in this work is tidally locked, but the primary despinning process may have already affected the primary rate (as well as the satellite rotational rate). We used the Gladman et al. (1996) formula to compute the time required to tidally lock the systems, but this formula is based on several assumptions and approximations that do not always hold. The computed times are reasonable in most cases and confirm that none of the systems is tidally locked, assuming that the satellite densities are low and have a high rigidity or have a higher dissipation than usually assumed. The rotational properties of small bodies provide information about important physical properties, such as shape, density, and cohesion (Pravec & Harris 2000; Holsapple 2001, 2004; Thirouin et al. 2010, 2012). For binaries it is also possible to derive several physical parameters of the system components, such as diameters of the primary/secondary and albedo under some assumptions. We compare our results as well as our technique for deriving this information from the lightcurve with other methods, such as: i) thermal or thermophysical modeling, ii) from the mutual orbit of the binary component, iii) from direct imaging or iv) from stellar occultation by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs). Finally, by studying the specific angular momentum of the sample, we proposed possible formation models for several binary TNOs. In several cases, we obtained hints of the formation mechanism from the angular momentum, but for other cases we do not have enough information about the

  7. Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M ☉ BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M ☉ —are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ☉ . Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ☉ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ☉ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple

  9. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  10. Accuracy of binary black hole waveform models for aligned-spin binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-05-01

    Coalescing binary black holes are among the primary science targets for second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Reliable gravitational waveform models are central to detection of such systems and subsequent parameter estimation. This paper performs a comprehensive analysis of the accuracy of recent waveform models for binary black holes with aligned spins, utilizing a new set of 84 high-accuracy numerical relativity simulations. Our analysis covers comparable mass binaries (mass-ratio 1 ≤q ≤3 ), and samples independently both black hole spins up to a dimensionless spin magnitude of 0.9 for equal-mass binaries and 0.85 for unequal mass binaries. Furthermore, we focus on the high-mass regime (total mass ≳50 M⊙ ). The two most recent waveform models considered (PhenomD and SEOBNRv2) both perform very well for signal detection, losing less than 0.5% of the recoverable signal-to-noise ratio ρ , except that SEOBNRv2's efficiency drops slightly for both black hole spins aligned at large magnitude. For parameter estimation, modeling inaccuracies of the SEOBNRv2 model are found to be smaller than systematic uncertainties for moderately strong GW events up to roughly ρ ≲15 . PhenomD's modeling errors are found to be smaller than SEOBNRv2's, and are generally irrelevant for ρ ≲20 . Both models' accuracy deteriorates with increased mass ratio, and when at least one black hole spin is large and aligned. The SEOBNRv2 model shows a pronounced disagreement with the numerical relativity simulation in the merger phase, for unequal masses and simultaneously both black hole spins very large and aligned. Two older waveform models (PhenomC and SEOBNRv1) are found to be distinctly less accurate than the more recent PhenomD and SEOBNRv2 models. Finally, we quantify the bias expected from all four waveform models during parameter estimation for several recovered binary parameters: chirp mass, mass ratio, and effective spin.

  11. COSMIC probes into compact binary formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn

    2018-01-01

    The population of compact binaries in the galaxy represents the final state of all binaries that have lived up to the present epoch. Compact binaries present a unique opportunity to probe binary evolution since many of the interactions binaries experience can be imprinted on the compact binary population. By combining binary evolution simulations with catalogs of observable compact binary systems, we can distill the dominant physical processes that govern binary star evolution, as well as predict the abundance and variety of their end products.The next decades herald a previously unseen opportunity to study compact binaries. Multi-messenger observations from telescopes across all wavelengths and gravitational-wave observatories spanning several decades of frequency will give an unprecedented view into the structure of these systems and the composition of their components. Observations will not always be coincident and in some cases may be separated by several years, providing an avenue for simulations to better constrain binary evolution models in preparation for future observations.I will present the results of three population synthesis studies of compact binary populations carried out with the Compact Object Synthesis and Monte Carlo Investigation Code (COSMIC). I will first show how binary-black-hole formation channels can be understood with LISA observations. I will then show how the population of double white dwarfs observed with LISA and Gaia could provide a detailed view of mass transfer and accretion. Finally, I will show that Gaia could discover thousands black holes in the Milky Way through astrometric observations, yielding view into black-hole astrophysics that is complementary to and independent from both X-ray and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  12. "Binary" and "non-binary" detection tasks: are current performance measures optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, David; Rockette, Howard E; Bandos, Andriy I

    2007-07-01

    We have observed that a very large fraction of responses for several detection tasks during the performance of observer studies are in the extreme ranges of lower than 11% or higher than 89% regardless of the actual presence or absence of the abnormality in question or its subjectively rated "subtleness." This observation raises questions regarding the validity and appropriateness of using multicategory rating scales for such detection tasks. Monte Carlo simulation of binary and multicategory ratings for these tasks demonstrate that the use of the former (binary) often results in a less biased and more precise summary index and hence may lead to a higher statistical power for determining differences between modalities.

  13. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  14. Experimental characterization of a binary actuated parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Carbone

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the BAPAMAN (Binary Actuated Parallel MANipulator) series of parallel manipulators that has been conceived at Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM). Basic common characteristics of BAPAMAN series are described. In particular, it is outlined the use of a reduced number of active degrees of freedom, the use of design solutions with flexural joints and Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators for achieving miniaturization, cost reduction and easy operation features. Given the peculiarities of BAPAMAN architecture, specific experimental tests have been proposed and carried out with the aim to validate the proposed design and to evaluate the practical operation performance and the characteristics of a built prototype, in particular, in terms of operation and workspace characteristics.

  15. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  16. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  17. Pet dogs and child physical activity: the role of child-dog attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, A M; Scribani, M B; Krupa, N; Jenkins, P

    2017-10-01

    Dog ownership has been associated with increased physical activity in children which in turn may mitigate childhood obesity. To measure the association between child-dog attachment and child physical activity and screen time. Cross-sectional study including 370 children (ages 4-10) who had pet dogs in the home. Parents completed the DartScreen, a web-based screener, before a well-child visit. Screener domains included child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time and dog-related questions. The Companion Animal Bonding Scale (CABS) was used to measure child attachment to the dog. Clinic nurses weighed and measured the children. Associations between CABS, BMI z-score, screen time and physical activity were estimated. CABS was strongly associated with time spent being active with the dog (F = 22.81, p dog is associated with increased child physical activity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G. (Turku Univ. (Finland); Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa (USA))

    1989-08-01

    A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes. 39 refs.

  19. Formation and Evolution of Binary Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K. J.; Jacobson, S. A.

    Satellites of asteroids have been discovered in nearly every known small-body population, and a remarkable aspect of the known satellites is the diversity of their properties. They tell a story of vast differences in formation and evolution mechanisms that act as a function of size, distance from the Sun, and the properties of their nebular environment at the beginning of solar system history and their dynamical environment over the next 4.5 G.y. The mere existence of these systems provides a laboratory to study numerous types of physical processes acting on asteroids, and their dynamics provide a valuable probe of their physical properties otherwise possible only with spacecraft. Advances in understanding the formation and evolution of binary systems have been assisted by (1) the growing catalog of known systems, increasing from 33 to ~250 between the Merline et al. (2002) chapter in Asteroids III and now; (2) the detailed study and long-term monitoring of individual systems such as 1999 KW4 and 1996 FG3, (3) the discovery of new binary system morphologies and triple systems, (4) and the discovery of unbound systems that appear to be end-states of binary dynamical evolutionary paths. Specifically for small bodies (diameter smaller than 10 km), these observations and discoveries have motivated theoretical work finding that thermal forces can efficiently drive the rotational disruption of small asteroids. Long-term monitoring has allowed studies to constrain the system's dynamical evolution by the combination of tides, thermal forces, and rigid-body physics. The outliers and split pairs have pushed the theoretical work to explore a wide range of evolutionary end-states.

  20. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba, E-mail: piro@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ∼60%–70% of SGRBs to be from NS–BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  1. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  2. Green binary and phase shifting mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; Hong, Chao-Sin; Wu, Cheng-San; Chen, S. J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Ting, Yung-Chiang

    2009-12-01

    SixNy/Ni thin film green mask blanks were developed , and are now going to be used to replace general chromium film used for binary mask as well as to replace molydium silicide embedded material for AttPSM for I-line (365 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm) and Contact/Proximity lithography. A bilayer structure of a 1 nm thick opaque, conductive nickel layer and a SixNy layer is proposed for binary and phase-shifting mask. With the good controlling of plasma CVD of SixNy under silane (50 sccm), ammonia (5 sccm) and nitrogen (100 sccm), the pressure is 250 mTorr. and RF frequency 13.56 MHz and power 50 W. SixNy has enough deposition latitude to meet the requirements as an embedded layer for required phase shift 180 degree, and the T% in 193, 248 and 365 nm can be adjusted between 2% to 20% for binary and phase shifting mask usage. Ni can be deposited by E-gun, its sheet resistance Rs is less than 1.435 kΩ/square. Jeol e-beam system and I-line stepper are used to evaluate these thin film green mask blanks, feature size less than 200 nm half pitch pattern and 0.558 μm pitch contact hole can be printed. Transmission spectrums of various thickness of SixNy film are inspected by using UV spectrometer and FTIR. Optical constants of the SixNy film are measured by n & k meter and surface roughness is inspected by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

  3. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  4. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  5. Diffusive flux of energy in binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    The diffusive flux of energy j tilde is studied through the reduced diffusive flux of energy K tilde, which obeys equations of the form: sim(delta K tilde/delta grad rho sub(α))= sim(delta K tilde/delta grad theta)=0. By a representation theorem, herein proved, is obtained a general representation for K tilde which is simplified, for the case of binary mixtures, using the principle of objectivity. Some consequences of this representation are discussed such as the symmetry of the partial stresses T 1 tilde and T 2 tilde and the difference between the normal stresses [pt

  6. Energy transfer in contact binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A simple model for the transfer of energy by steady circulation within the envelope of a contact binary system is presented. The model describes the fully compressible, two-dimensional flow of a perfect gas within a rectangular region in a uniform gravitational field. The region is heated non-uniformly from below. Coriolis forces are neglected but the interaction of the circulation with convection is discussed briefly. Numerical solutions of the linearized equations of the problem are discussed in detail, and the results of some non-linear calculations are also presented. The influence of alternative boundary conditions is examined. (author)

  7. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  8. Disordered multihyperuniformity derived from binary plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Enrique; Weis, Jean-Jacques; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Disordered multihyperuniform many-particle systems are exotic amorphous states that allow exquisite color sensing capabilities due to their anomalous suppression of density fluctuations for distinct subsets of particles, as recently evidenced in photoreceptor mosaics in avian retina. Motivated by this biological finding, we present a statistical-mechanical model that rigorously achieves disordered multihyperuniform many-body systems by tuning interactions in binary mixtures of nonadditive hard-disk plasmas. We demonstrate that multihyperuniformity competes with phase separation and stabilizes a clustered phase. Our work provides a systematic means to generate disordered multihyperuniform solids, and hence lays the groundwork to explore their potentially unique photonic, phononic, electronic, and transport properties.

  9. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-01-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' ∼> 10-100 M ⊕ at orbital periods P ≈ 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P ∼ 3 [P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ≈N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P ∼< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing

  10. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  11. X-ray binaries, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G.C.M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optical observations of X-ray binaries and their interpretation are described. A number of early-type stars which are identified as companions of X-ray sources are photometrically and spectroscopically observed. The spectra were obtained with the coude spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Registrations of the spectra were made with the Faul-Coradi microphotometer of the Observatory at Utrecht. To study radial velocity variations, the positions of the spectral lines were measured with the Grant comparator of the University of Groningen

  12. Is the Coma cluster binary dominated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The, L.S.; White, S.D.M.

    1990-01-01

    It is investigated whether the model of an expanding cluster dominated by a massive binary galaxy, first suggested by Valtonen and Byrd (1979), is consistent with optical data on the surface density and velocity dispersion of the Coma cluster. The evolution of this model is simulated for a wide variety of initial conditions. It is found that galaxy counts in the model can be made to agree with observation, but that the observed velocity dispersion profile cannot be reproduced. A number of other arguments suggest that the central galaxies in Coma cannot be as massive as required by the model. This model is not a viable representation of the Coma cluster. 25 refs

  13. A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  15. Clonal sets of a binary relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedam, Lemnaouar; Pérez-Fernández, Raúl; Bouremel, Hassane; De Baets, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    In a recent paper, we have introduced the notion of clone relation of a given binary relation. Intuitively, two elements are said to be "clones" if they are related in the same way w.r.t. every other element. In this paper, we generalize this notion from pairs of elements to sets of elements of any cardinality, resulting in the introduction of clonal sets. We investigate the most important properties of clonal sets, paying particular attention to the introduction of the clonal closure operator, to the analysis of the (lattice) structure of the set of clonal sets and to a distance metric expressing how close two elements are to being clones.

  16. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  17. HD 161306: a radiatively interacting Be binary?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubský, Pavel; Kotková, Lenka; Kraus, Michaela; Yang, S.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Votruba, Viktor; Kubát, Jiří; Kubátová, Brankica; Niemczura, E.; Škoda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 567, July (2014), A57/1-A57/4 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S; GA MŠk LG14026 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project no. 98058; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0715 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : binaries: spectroscopic * stars: emission-line * Be: stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  18. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  19. Thirty New Low-mass Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Hebb, Leslie; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Collier Cameron, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P rot to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P rot, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and by the WASP Consortium. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada

  20. Abnormal scattering of polymer in binary solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kiwing; Kim, Chul A.; Choi, Hyoung J.

    The behavior of a high molecular weight polymer (polyethylene-oxide, PEO) in a binary liquid mixture (nitroethane/3-methyl-pentane, NE/MP) is studied at the one-phase temperature of NE/MP by static and dynamic light scattering methods. We found that the scattering intensity increased abruptly near the critical composition of NE/MP although the sample was very far from the critical temperature of NE/MP. Explanations in terms of critical opalescence and wetting layer inversion are discussed.

  1. UBV photometry of binary galaxies. The cataloque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    The catalogue of photometric UDV-magnitudes and colours of 105 binary galaxies is presented. The integral B magnitudes and (B-V) and (U-B) colours are reduced to the standard UBV system. The observations are corrected for the atmospheric extinction, galactic absorption, red shift, internal absorption and galaxy declination reddening. The data are reduced to the standard D(0) diameter. Fully corrected observations are compared with the data of the RC2 catalogue. On the basis of the obtained catalogue for 210 individual galaxies, the correlation between the colours of the components is discussed. The strong correlation (Holmberg effect) is shown to exist for EE and SS systems [ru

  2. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  3. Improvement of Binary Analysis Components in Automated Malware Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0018 Improvement of Binary Analysis Components in Automated Malware Analysis Framework Keiji Takeda KEIO UNIVERSITY Final...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26 May 2015 to 25 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improvement of Binary Analysis Components in Automated Malware ...analyze malicious software ( malware ) with minimum human interaction. The system autonomously analyze malware samples by analyzing malware binary program

  4. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Tidal Interactions in Solar type Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Meibom, S.; Mathieu, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an ongoing study on tidal interactions in late-type close binary stars. New results on tidal circularization are combined with existing data to test and constrain theoretical predictions of tidal circularization in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase and throughout the main-sequence phase of stellar evolution. Current data suggest that tidal circularization during the PMS phase sets the tidal cutoff period for binary populations younger than ~1 Gyr. Binary populations older than ~1 G...

  5. The Discovery of the Most Accelerated Binary Pulsar

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bassa, C. G.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsars in relativistic binary systems have emerged as fantastic natural laboratories for testing theories of gravity, the most prominent example being the double pulsar, PSR J0737$-$3039. The HTRU-South Low Latitude pulsar survey represents one of the most sensitive blind pulsar surveys taken of the southern Galactic plane to date, and its primary aim has been the discovery of new relativistic binary pulsars. Here we present our binary pulsar searching strategy and report on the survey's fla...

  6. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  7. Non-binary Entanglement-assisted Stabilizer Quantum Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Riguang, Leng; Zhi, Ma

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to construct non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and receiver. We also give an algorithm to determine the circuit for non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes and some illustrated examples. The codes we constructed do not require the dual-containing constraint, and many non-binary classical codes, like non-binary LDPC codes, which do not satisfy the condition, can be used to c...

  8. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  9. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  10. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.

  11. A binary neutron star GRB model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Salmonson, J.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of a model for the production of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through the compressional heating of binary neutron stars near their last stable orbit prior to merger. Recent numerical studies of the general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics in three spatial dimensions of close neutron star binaries (NSBs) have uncovered evidence for the compression and heating of the individual neutron stars (NSs) prior to merger 12. This effect will have significant effect on the production of gravitational waves, neutrinos and, ultimately, energetic photons. The study of the production of these photons in close NSBs and, in particular, its correspondence to observed GRBs is the subject of this paper. The gamma-rays arise as follows. Compressional heating causes the neutron stars to emit neutrino pairs which, in turn, annihilate to produce a hot electron-positron pair plasma. This pair-photon plasma expands rapidly until it becomes optically thin, at which point the photons are released. We show that this process can indeed satisfy three basic requirements of a model for cosmological gamma-ray bursts: (1) sufficient gamma-ray energy release (>10 51 ergs) to produce observed fluxes, (2) a time-scale of the primary burst duration consistent with that of a 'classical' GRB (∼10 seconds), and (3) the peak of the photon number spectrum matches that of 'classical' GRB (∼300 keV). copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Binary operators and their Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three topics are considered. First, the Langevin approach to neutron noise is used as a basis and guide to develop solutions and solution techniques for the ChapmanKolmogorov forward equation approach to neutron noise. The approach followed throughout this first part is that of solution by means of Green's functions. A particular form for the binary operator Green's function was picked on the basis of the Langevin method. Second, the basic solution technique using the particular Green's function form mentioned above is proven to be a correct and a general result. It is proven that the binary operator is always separable and that the Green's function could be written as the product of two single operator Green's functions. This is a new result. Third and finally, the forward equation approach of Chapman-Kolmogorov is generalized to include time allowing differential equations for second and higher order correlation functions to be developed directly. The principal result of the last section, the differential equation for correlation function of the neutron density, is new. Its derivation is really outside of or broader than the scope indicated by the title of the paper

  13. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here

  14. GRAVITATIONAL MEMORY IN BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.

  15. BINARY NEUTRON STARS IN QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Shibata, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-equilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars are constructed for a variety of equations of state in general relativity. Einstein's constraint equations in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation are solved together with the relativistic equations of hydrostationary equilibrium under the assumption of irrotational flow. We focus on unequal-mass sequences as well as equal-mass sequences, and compare those results. We investigate the behavior of the binding energy and total angular momentum along a quasi-equilibrium sequence, the endpoint of sequences, and the orbital angular velocity as a function of time, changing the mass ratio, the total mass of the binary system, and the equation of state of a neutron star. It is found that the orbital angular velocity at the mass-shedding limit can be determined by an empirical formula derived from an analytic estimation. We also provide tables for 160 sequences, which will be useful as a guideline of numerical simulations for the inspiral and merger performed in the near future.

  16. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  17. Gravitational redshift from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steklain, Andre [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work we study the gravitational redshift of a binary system in general relativity. We employ a mixed metric obtained from the matching of a 1PN metric with two perturbed Schwarzschild metrics, based on previous works [Alvi, Phys. Rev. D, 61, 124013 (2000)]. This metric is well known, and has been considered for several applications [Steklain et al, Phys. Lett. A, 373, 188, (2009)]. We consider a massless observer in a timelike geodesic of this metric measuring the redshift of the system. The observer concentrates the redshift measurements in one of the massive bodies and is influenced by the mass of the second body. We find that there is a substantial contribution of the second mass in some cases. We compare with experimental data obtained for real binary systems of white dwarfs [Vennes et al, Astroph. J., L37 (1991)]. We also discuss these results for more massive systems, and make some predictions for very massive systems, like black holes, although it extrapolates the limit of the 1PN approximation used. Is well known that the major contribution of the observed redshift is from the universe expansion, but these results indicate that the influence of the gravitational redshift may be underestimated at some systems. (author)

  18. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q 1 ∼ 7 x 10 10 and Q 2 ∼ 2 x 10 7 , for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q 1 for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  19. A measurement of disorder in binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Longyan; Wang, Haihong; Cheng, Weiwen; Zhao, Shengmei

    2015-03-01

    We propose a complex quantity, AL, to characterize the degree of disorder of L-length binary symbolic sequences. As examples, we respectively apply it to typical random and deterministic sequences. One kind of random sequences is generated from a periodic binary sequence and the other is generated from the logistic map. The deterministic sequences are the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. In these analyzed sequences, we find that the modulus of AL, denoted by |AL | , is a (statistically) equivalent quantity to the Boltzmann entropy, the metric entropy, the conditional block entropy and/or other quantities, so it is a useful quantitative measure of disorder. It can be as a fruitful index to discern which sequence is more disordered. Moreover, there is one and only one value of |AL | for the overall disorder characteristics. It needs extremely low computational costs. It can be easily experimentally realized. From all these mentioned, we believe that the proposed measure of disorder is a valuable complement to existing ones in symbolic sequences.

  20. ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON BINARY AEROELASTICITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Hwa Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.

  1. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  2. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  3. Free and binary rotation of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyukhov, V K

    2003-01-01

    A modification of the quantum-mechanical theory of rotation of polyatomic molecules (binary rotation) is proposed, which is based on the algebra and representations of the SO(4) group and allows the introduction of the concept of parity, as in atomic spectroscopy. It is shown that, if an asymmetric top molecule performing binary rotation finds itself in a spatially inhomogeneous electric field, its rotational levels acquire the additional energy due to the quadrupole moment. The existence of the rotational states of polyatomic molecules that cannot transfer to the free rotation state is predicted. In particular, the spin isomers of a water molecule, which corresponds to such states, can have different absolute values of the adsorption energy due to the quadrupole interaction of the molecule with a surface. The difference in the adsorption energies allows one to explain qualitatively the behaviour of the ortho- and para-molecules of water upon their adsorption on the surface of solids in accordance with experimental data. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  5. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  6. LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Wednesdayevening the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration quietly mentioned that theyd found gravitational waves from yet another black-hole binary back in June. This casual announcement reveals what is so far the lightest pair of black holes weve watched merge opening the door for comparisons to the black holes weve detected by electromagnetic means.A Routine DetectionThe chirp signal of GW170608 detected by LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston. [LIGO collaboration 2017]After the fanfare of the previous four black-hole-binary merger announcements over the past year and a half as well as the announcement of the one neutron-star binary merger in August GW170608 marks our entry into the era in which gravitational-wave detections are officially routine.GW170608, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away, was detected in June of this year. This detection occurred after wed already found gravitational waves from several black-hole binaries with the two LIGO detectors in the U.S., but before the Virgo interferometer came online in Europe and increased the joint ability of the detectors to localize sources.Mass estimates for the two components of GW170608 using different models. [LIGO collaboration 2017]Overall, GW170608 is fairly unremarkable: it was detected by both LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston some 7 ms apart, and the signal looks not unlike those of the previous LIGO detections. But because were still in the early days of gravitational-wave astronomy, every discovery is still remarkable in some way! GW170608 stands out as being the lightest pair of black holes weve yet to see merge, with component masses before the merger estimated at 12 and 7 times the mass of the Sun.Why Size MattersWith the exception of GW151226, the gravitational-wave signal discovered on Boxing Day last year, all of the black holes that have been discovered by LIGO/Virgo have been quite large: the masses

  7. Perceptual biases for rhythm: The Mismatch Negativity latency indexes the privileged status of binary vs non-binary interval ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos Martin, X; Deltenre, P; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Rossion, B; Colin, C

    2007-12-01

    Rhythm perception appears to be non-linear as human subjects are better at discriminating, categorizing and reproducing rhythms containing binary vs non-binary (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:3) as well as metrical vs non-metrical (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:2.5) interval ratios. This study examined the representation of binary and non-binary interval ratios within the sensory memory, thus yielding a truly sensory, pre-motor, attention-independent neural representation of rhythmical intervals. Five interval ratios, one binary, flanked by four non-binary ones, were compared on the basis of the MMN they evoked when contrasted against a common standard interval. For all five intervals, the larger the contrast was, the larger the MMN amplitude was. The binary interval evoked a significantly much shorter (by at least 23 ms) MMN latency than the other intervals, whereas no latency difference was observed between the four non-binary intervals. These results show that the privileged perceptual status of binary rhythmical intervals is already present in the sensory representations found in echoic memory at an early, automatic, pre-perceptual and pre-motor level. MMN latency can be used to study rhythm perception at a truly sensory level, without any contribution from the motor system.

  8. Converting optical scanning holograms of real objects to binary Fourier holograms using an iterative direct binary search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min Chul; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional holographic imaging system. The proposed approach records a complex hologram of a real object using optical scanning holography, converts the complex form to binary data, and then reconstructs the recorded hologram using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The conversion from the recorded hologram to a binary hologram is achieved using a direct binary search algorithm. We present experimental results that verify the efficacy of our approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a hologram of a real object has been reconstructed using a binary SLM.

  9. Viscosity of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid with four organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocirlan, Oana; Croitoru, Oana; Iulian, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viscosities of four binary mixtures of [Emim][BF4] with organic solvents. • Viscosity models based on Eyring’s theory. • Excess functions calculated. • Data for binaries new in the literature, except for system with DMSO. - Abstract: This paper reports experimental values of dynamic viscosity for four binary systems of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Emim][BF4], with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile (ACN), ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,4-dioxane over the temperature ranges from 293.15 K to 353.15 K at p = 0.1 MPa. All binary mixtures were completely miscible over the entire range of mole fraction, except the system with 1,4-dioxane. The viscosity results have been correlated by the one parameter Grunberg–Nissan and Fang and He equations and the two-parameter McAllister, Eyring-UNIQUAC, Eyring-NRTL and Eyring-Wilson models and the results were compared. Additionally, the viscosity deviations, Δη, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow, G"∗"E, were calculated and fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The results show that all Δη values are negative over the whole composition range and the G"∗"E values are positive, except for the system with EG. The results of the excess functions are discussed in terms of molecular interactions.

  10. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, E.; Jovanovic, P.; Bon, N.; Popovic, L. C. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Marziani, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy); Shapovalova, A. I. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Borka Jovanovic, V.; Borka, D. [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Yugoslavia Branch, Belgrade (Serbia); Sulentic, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2012-11-10

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed H{alpha} line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  11. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bon, E.; Jovanović, P.; Bon, N.; Popović, L. Č.; Marziani, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Borka Jovanović, V.; Borka, D.; Sulentic, J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed Hα line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  12. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalmantza, P.; Decarli, R.; Hogg, David W.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for massive black hole binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic database. We focus on bound binaries, under the assumption that one of the black holes is active. In this framework, the broad lines associated with the accreting black hole are expected to show systematic velocity shifts with respect to the narrow lines, which trace the rest frame of the galaxy. For a sample of 54,586 quasars and 3929 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.5, we brute-force model each spectrum as a mixture of two quasars at two different redshifts. The spectral model is a data-driven dimensionality reduction of the SDSS quasar spectra based on a matrix factorization. We identified 32 objects with peculiar spectra. Nine of them can be interpreted as black hole binaries. This doubles the number of known black hole binary candidates. We also report on the discovery of a new class of extreme double-peaked emitters with exceptionally broad and faint Balmer lines. For all the interesting sources, we present detailed analysis of the spectra and discuss possible interpretations.

  13. Test of post-newtonian conservation laws in the binary system PSR 1913+16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Observations that set upper limits on secular changes in the pulsar period and orbital period in the binary system PSR 1913+16 may provide a test of post-Newtonian conservation laws. According to some metric theories of gravitation, the center of mass of a binary system may be accelerated in the direction of the periastron of the orbit because of a violation of post-Newtonian momentum conservation. In the binary system PSR 1913+16, this effect could produce secular changes in both pulsar and orbital periods (changing overall Doppler shift) as large as two parts in 10 6 per year. The size of the effect is proportional to the sine of the angle of periastron, to the difference in the masses of the components of the binary system, and to the combination of parametrized post-Newtonian parameters α 3 +zeta 2 -zeta/subw/. This combination is zero in any theory that predicts conserved total momentum for isolated systems (including general relativity and Brans-Dicke theory). Although solar-system experiments constrain α 3 and zeta/subw/ to be small, no decent direct limit has been placed on zeta 2 . Other possible sources of secular period changes in PSR 1913+16 are discussed and compared with this effect. It is also shown that a breakdown in the equality of active and passive gravitational masses (violation of ''Newton's third law'') leads only to periodic, unobservable orbital effects in a system like PSR 1913+16

  14. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures of xylene isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Separation of aromatic C8 compounds by distillation is a difficult task due to the low relative volatilities of the compounds and to the high degree of purity required of the final commercial products. For rigorous simulation and optimization of this separation, the use of a model capable of describing vapor-liquid equilibria accurately is necessary. Nevertheless, experimental data are not available for all binaries at atmospheric pressure. Vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures were isobarically obtained with a modified Fischer cell at 100.65 kPa. The vapor and liquid phase compositions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The methodology was initially tested for cyclo-hexane+n-heptane data; results obtained are similar to other data in the literature. Data for xylene binary mixtures were then obtained, and after testing, were considered to be thermodynamically consistent. Experimental data were regressed with Aspen Plus® 10.1 and binary interaction parameters were reported for the most frequently used activity coefficient models and for the classic mixing rules of two cubic equations of state.

  15. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  16. CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.

  17. EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S.; Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data

  18. Mapping Chinese Agricultural and Allied Sciences Journals Indexed in CAB Abstracts Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Kaushik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural research in China to merge into the main stream of the world.

  19. Tidal formation of Hot Jupiters in binary star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, M.; Libert, A.-S.; Correia, A. C. M.

    2015-10-01

    More than 150 Hot Jupiters with orbital periods less than 10 days have been detected. Their in-situ formation is physically unlikely. We need therefore to understand the migration of these planets from high distance (several AUs). Three main models are currently extensively studied: disk-planet interactions (e.g. [3]), planet-planet scattering (e.g. [4]) and Kozai migration (e.g. [2]). Here we focus on this last mechanism, and aim to understand which dynamical effects are the most active in the accumulation of planetary companions with low orbital periods in binary star systems. To do so, we investigate the secular evolution of Hot Jupiters in binary star systems. Our goal is to study analytically the 3-day pile-up observed in their orbital period. Our framework is the hierarchical three-body problem, with the effects of tides, stellar oblateness, and general relativity. Both the orbital evolution and the spin evolution are considered. Using the averaged equations of motion in a vectorial formalism of [1], we have performed # 100000 numerical simulations of well diversified three-body systems, reproducing and generalizing the numerical results of [2]. Based on a thorough analysis of the initial and final configurations of the systems, we have identified different categories of secular evolutions present in the simulations, and proposed for each one a simplified set of equations reproducing the evolution. Statistics about spin-orbit misalignements and mutual inclinations between the orbital planes of the Hot Jupiter and the star companion are also provided. Finally, we show that the extent of the 3 day pile-up is very dependent on the initial parameters of the simulations.

  20. Steering Control in a Low-Cost Driving Simulator: A Case for the Role of Virtual Vehicle Cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Lobjois, Régis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate steering control in a low-cost driving simulator with and without a virtual vehicle cab. In low-cost simulators, the lack of a vehicle cab denies driver access to vehicle width, which could affect steering control, insofar as locomotor adjustments are known to be based on action-scaled visual judgments of the environment. Two experiments were conducted in which steering control with and without a virtual vehicle cab was investigated in a within-subject design, using cornering and straight-lane-keeping tasks. Driving around curves without vehicle cab information made drivers deviate more from the lane center toward the inner edge in right (virtual cab = 4 ± 19 cm; no cab = 42 ± 28 cm; at the apex of the curve, p vehicle width. This produces considerable differences in the steering trajectory. Providing a virtual vehicle cab must be encouraged for more effectively capturing drivers' steering control in low-cost simulators.

  1. Study of thermodynamic and transport properties of binary liquid mixture of diesel with biodiesel at 298.15K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Shyam Sunder; Purohit, Suresh

    2018-05-01

    Properties of diesel and biodiesel (produced from corn oil) are used. Densities and viscosities of binary mixture of diesel with biodiesel (produced from corn oil) have been computed by using liquid binary mixture law over the entire range of compositions at T=298.15K and atmospheric pressure. From the computed values of density and viscosities, viscosity deviation (Δη), the excess molar volume (VE) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG#E) have been calculated. The results of excess volume, excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow and viscosity deviation have been fitted to Redlich -Kister models to estimate the binary coefficients. The results are communicated in terms of the molecular interactions and the best suited composition has been found.

  2. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Adaptive Phase Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in template compression and protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Quantization and coding is the straightforward way to extract binary representations

  3. Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Underwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.

  4. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of

  5. Distinguishing Between Formation Channels for Binary Black Holes with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of GW150914 and GW151226 imply an abundance of stellar-mass binary-black-hole mergers in the local universe. While ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are limited to observing the final moments before a binary merges, space-based detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), can observe binaries at lower orbital frequencies where such systems may still encode information about their formation histories. In particular, the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary black holes in the LISA frequency band can be used together to discriminate between binaries formed in isolation in galactic fields and those formed in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters. In this letter, we explore the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary-black-hole populations as they evolve through the LISA frequency band. Overall we find that there are two distinct populations discernible by LISA. We show that up to ~90% of binaries formed either dynamically or in isolation have eccentricities measurable by LISA. Finally, we note how measured eccentricities of low-mass binary black holes evolved in isolation could provide detailed constraints on the physics of black-hole natal kicks and common-envelope evolution.

  6. Binary GCD like Algorithms for Some Complex Quadratic Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2004-01-01

    On the lines of the binary gcd algorithm for rational integers, algorithms for computing the gcd are presented for the ring of integers in where . Thus a binary gcd like algorithm is presented for a unique factorization domain which is not Euclidean (case d=-19). Together with the earlier known b...

  7. Time development of cascades by the binary collision approximation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, A.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1991-01-01

    To link a molecular dynamic calculation to binary collision approximation codes to explore high energy cascade damage, time between consecutive collisions is introduced into the binary collision MARLOWE code. Calculated results for gold by the modified code show formation of sub-cascades and their spatial and time overlapping, which can affect formation of defect clusters. (orig.)

  8. Putting Continuous Metaheuristics to Work in Binary Search Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a number of optimization problems whose search space is restricted to take binary values; however, there are many continuous metaheuristics with good results in continuous search spaces. These algorithms must be adapted to solve binary problems. This paper surveys articles focused on the binarization of metaheuristics designed for continuous optimization.

  9. The spectrographic orbit of the eclipsing binary HH Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrini, C.H.; Mendez, R.H.; Niemela, V.S.; Ferrer, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the eclipsing binary system HH Carinae, and determine for the first time its spectrographic orbital elements. Using the results of a previous photometric study by Soderhjelm, we also determine the values of the masses and dimensions of the binary components. (author)

  10. Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuiderwijk, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)

  11. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...

  12. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...

  13. Learning and generalization errors for the 2D binary perceptron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymovskiy, A.

    2005-01-01

    The statistical mechanics model of the binary perceptron learning is considered. It is proved that under the regularity conditions learning and generalization errors for the binary perceptron with two inputs tend to 0 at the average; the first term of the asymptotics is provided; its behavior with

  14. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  15. RADIAL VELOCITY STUDIES OF CLOSE BINARY STARS. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; DeBond, Heide; De Ridder, Archie; Karmo, Toomas; Thomson, J. R.; Croll, Bryce; Ogloza, Waldemar; Pilecki, Bogumil; Siwak, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) measurements and sine curve fits to the orbital RV variations are presented for 10 close binary systems: TZ Boo, VW Boo, EL Boo, VZ CVn, GK Cep, RW Com, V2610 Oph, V1387 Ori, AU Ser, and FT UMa. Our spectroscopy revealed two quadruple systems, TZ Boo and V2610 Oph, while three stars showing small photometric amplitudes, EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa, were found to be triple systems. GK Cep is a close binary with a faint third component. While most of the studied eclipsing systems are contact binaries, VZ CVn and GK Cep are detached or semidetached double-lined binaries, and EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa are close binaries of uncertain binary type. The large fraction of triple and quadruple systems found in this sample supports the hypothesis of formation of close binaries in multiple stellar systems; it also demonstrates that low photometric amplitude binaries are a fertile ground for further discoveries of multiple systems.

  16. Binary pattern analysis for 3D facial action unit detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose new binary pattern features for use in the problem of 3D facial action unit (AU) detection. Two representations of 3D facial geometries are employed, the depth map and the Azimuthal Projection Distance Image (APDI). To these the traditional Local Binary Pattern is applied,

  17. IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)

  18. Misaligned disks in the binary protostar IRS 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our...

  19. Formation of planetary nebulae with close binary nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livio, M; Salzman, J; Shaviv, G [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1979-07-01

    A model for the formation of planetary nebulae with a close binary as a nucleus is presented. The model is based on mass loss instability at L/sub 2/. The instability is demonstrated. The conditions on the mass loss are formulated and analysed. The observational consequence of the model is described briefly and its relation to symbiotic stars and cataclysmic binaries discussed.

  20. DSIbin : Identifying dynamic data structures in C/C++ binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupprecht, Thomas; Chen, Xi; White, David H.; Boockmann, Jan H.; Luttgen, Gerald; Bos, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Reverse engineering binary code is notoriously difficult and, especially, understanding a binary's dynamic data structures. Existing data structure analyzers are limited wrt. program comprehension: they do not detect complex structures such as skip lists, or lists running through nodes of different

  1. Dynamical Formation and Merger of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy began with Advanced LIGO's 2015 discovery of GWs from coalescing black hole (BH) binaries. GW astronomy holds great promise for testing general relativity, but also for investigating open astrophysical questions not amenable to traditional electromagnetic observations. One such question concerns the origin of stellar mass BH binaries in the universe: do these form primarily from evolution of isolated binaries of massive stars, or do they form through more exotic dynamical channels? The best studied dynamical formation channel involves multibody interactions of BHs and stars in dense globular cluster environments, but many other dynamical scenarios have recently been proposed, ranging from the Kozai effect in hierarchical triple systems to BH binary formation in the outskirts of Toomre-unstable accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes. The BH binaries formed through these processes will have different distributions of observable parameters (e.g. mass ratios, spins) than BH binaries formed through the evolution of isolated binary stars. In my talk I will overview these and other dynamical formation scenarios, and summarize the key observational tests that will enable Advanced LIGO or other future detectors to determine what formation pathway creates the majority of binary BHs in the universe. NCS thanks NASA, which has funded his work through Einstein postdoctoral grant PF5-160145.

  2. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVII. V1130 tauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Olsen, E, H.; Helt, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  3. The Mass-Ratio Distribution of Visual Binary Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The selection effects that govern the observations of Visual Binary Stars are in- vestigated, in order to obtain a realistic statistical distribution of the mass-ratio q = Msec=Mprim. To this end a numerical simulation programme has been developed, which `generates' binary stars and `looks' at

  4. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  5. Black hole/pulsar binaries in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2018-06-01

    We have performed population synthesis calculation on the formation of binaries containing a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) in the Galactic disc. Some of important input parameters, especially for the treatment of common envelope evolution, are updated in the calculation. We have discussed the uncertainties from the star formation rate of the Galaxy and the velocity distribution of NS kicks on the birthrate (˜ 0.6-13 M yr^{-1}) of BH/NS binaries. From incident BH/NS binaries, by modelling the orbital evolution due to gravitational wave radiation and the NS evolution as radio pulsars, we obtain the distributions of the observable parameters such as the orbital period, eccentricity, and pulse period of the BH/pulsar binaries. We estimate that there may be ˜3-80 BH/pulsar binaries in the Galactic disc and around 10 per cent of them could be detected by the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical radio Telescope.

  6. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  7. Black Hole/Pulsar Binaries in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2018-04-01

    We have performed population synthesis calculation on the formation of binaries containing a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) in the Galactic disk. Some of important input parameters, especially for the treatment of common envelope evolution, are updated in the calculation. We have discussed the uncertainties from the star formation rate of the Galaxy and the velocity distribution of NS kicks on the birthrate (˜ 0.6-13 Myr^{-1}) of BH/NS binaries. From incident BH/NS binaries, by modelling the orbital evolution duo to gravitational wave radiation and the NS evolution as radio pulsars, we obtain the distributions of the observable parameters such as the orbital period, eccentricity and pulse period of the BH/pulsar binaries. We estimate that there may be ˜3 - 80 BH/pulsar binaries in the Galactic disk and around 10% of them could be detected by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope.

  8. Statistical Analysis of a Comprehensive List of Visual Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual binary stars are the most abundant class of observed binaries. The most comprehensive list of data on visual binaries compiled recently by cross-matching the largest catalogues of visual binaries allowed a statistical investigation of observational parameters of these systems. The dataset was cleaned by correcting uncertainties and misclassifications, and supplemented with available parallax data. The refined dataset is free from technical biases and contains 3676 presumably physical visual pairs of luminosity class V with known angular separations, magnitudes of the components, spectral types, and parallaxes. We also compiled a restricted sample of 998 pairs free from observational biases due to the probability of binary discovery. Certain distributions of observational and physical parameters of stars of our dataset are discussed.

  9. Tidal and magnetic interactions in close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.G.

    1983-03-01

    The thesis investigates the nature of non-synchronous motions in members of close binary stars under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields existing in these systems, and the evolution of such motions in different classes of binaries. Largely convective stars are considered and a solution is found for the fluid flow associated with the non-synchronous rotation of such a secondary in a close binary system, taking tidal and rotational forces into account. The tidal velocity field is calculated for a low mass white dwarf secondary star in a twin - degenerate binary. It is found that the synchronisation times can be comparable to the lifetime of the binary so that some asynchronism may remain present. (U.K.)

  10. EFFICIENT MERGER OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Just, Andreas; Merritt, David

    2011-01-01

    In spherical galaxies, binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have difficulty reaching sub-parsec separations due to depletion of stars on orbits that intersect the massive binary-the 'final parsec problem'. Galaxies that form via major mergers are substantially non-spherical, and it has been argued that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxies might provide stars to the massive binary at a high enough rate to avoid stalling. Here we test that idea by carrying out fully self-consistent merger simulations of galaxies containing central SMBHs. We find hardening rates of the massive binaries that are indeed much higher than in spherical models and essentially independent of the number of particles used in the simulations. Binary eccentricities remain high throughout the simulations. Our results constitute a fully stellar-dynamical solution to the final parsec problem and imply a potentially high rate of events for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors like LISA.

  11. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...

  12. Orbital motion in pre-main sequence binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simon, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Patience, J., E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    We present results from our ongoing program to map the visual orbits of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at the Keck Observatory. We combine our results with measurements reported in the literature to analyze the orbital motion for each binary. We present preliminary orbits for DF Tau, T Tau S, ZZ Tau, and the Pleiades binary HBC 351. Seven additional binaries show curvature in their relative motion. Currently, we can place lower limits on the orbital periods for these systems; full solutions will be possible with more orbital coverage. Five other binaries show motion that is indistinguishable from linear motion. We suspect that these systems are bound and might show curvature with additional measurements in the future. The observations reported herein lay critical groundwork toward the goal of measuring precise masses for low-mass PMS stars.

  13. Evolution and merging of binaries with compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    In the light of recent observations in which short γ-ray bursts are interpreted as arising from black-hole(BH), neutron-star(NS) or NS-NS mergings we would like to review our research on the evolution of compact binaries, especially those containing NS's. These were carried out with predictions for LIGO in mind, but are directly applicable to short γ-ray bursts in the interpretation above. Most important in our review is that we show that the standard scenario for evolving NS-NS binaries always ends up with a low-mass BH (LMBH), NS binary. Bethe and Brown [1998, Astrophys. J. 506, 780] showed that this fate could be avoided if the two giants in the progenitor binary burned He at the same time, and that in this way the binary could avoid the common envelope evolution of the NS with red giant companion which sends the first born NS into a BH in the standard scenario. The burning of He at the same time requires, for the more massive giants such as the progenitors of the Hulse-Taylor binary NS that the two giants be within 4% of each other in zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass. Applying this criterion to all binaries results in a factor ∼5 of LMBH-NS binaries as compared with NS-NS binaries. Although this factor is substantially less than the originally claimed factor of 20 which Bethe and Brown (1998) estimated, largely because a careful evolution has been carried through here, our factor 5 is augmented by a factor of ∼8 arising from the higher rate of star formation in the earlier Galaxy from which the BH-NS binaries came from. Furthermore, here we calculate the mergers for short-hard gamma-ray bursts, whereas Bethe and Brown's factor 20 included a factor of 2 for the higher chirp masses in a BH-NS binary as compared with NS-NS one. In short, we end up with an estimate of factor ∼40 over that calculated with NS-NS binary mergers in our Galaxy alone. Our total rate is estimated to be about one merging of compact objects per year. Our scenario of NS-NS binaries

  14. An Efficient Binary Differential Evolution with Parameter Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Jia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differential Evolution (DE has been applied to many scientific and engineering problems for its simplicity and efficiency. However, the standard DE cannot be used in a binary search space directly. This paper proposes an adaptive binary Differential Evolution algorithm, or ABDE, that has a similar framework as the standard DE but with an improved binary mutation strategy in which the best individual participates. To further enhance the search ability, the parameters of the ABDE are slightly disturbed in an adaptive manner. Experiments have been carried out by comparing ABDE with two binary DE variants, normDE and BDE, and the most used binary search technique, GA, on a set of 13 selected benchmark functions and the classical 0-1 knapsack problem. Results show that the ABDE performs better than, or at least comparable to, the other algorithms in terms of search ability, convergence speed, and solution accuracy.

  15. Dynamic Inertia Weight Binary Bat Algorithm with Neighborhood Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary bat algorithm (BBA is a binary version of the bat algorithm (BA. It has been proven that BBA is competitive compared to other binary heuristic algorithms. Since the update processes of velocity in the algorithm are consistent with BA, in some cases, this algorithm also faces the premature convergence problem. This paper proposes an improved binary bat algorithm (IBBA to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of IBBA, standard benchmark functions and zero-one knapsack problems have been employed. The numeric results obtained by benchmark functions experiment prove that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the original BBA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Compared with several other heuristic algorithms on zero-one knapsack problems, it also verifies that the proposed algorithm is more able to avoid local minima.

  16. Shock waves in binary oxides memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Federico; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Rozenberg, Marcelo

    2017-09-01

    Progress of silicon based technology is nearing its physical limit, as minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 5 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, it has been mainly the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of essence. In the present work we report a new connection between the resistive switching and shock wave formation, a classic topic of non-linear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen ions that migrate during the commutation in insulating binary oxides may form a shock wave, which propagates through a poorly conductive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations.

  17. Predicting binary choices from probability phrase meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, Thomas S; Jang, Yoonhee

    2008-08-01

    The issues of how individuals decide which of two events is more likely and of how they understand probability phrases both involve judging relative likelihoods. In this study, we investigated whether derived scales representing probability phrase meanings could be used within a choice model to predict independently observed binary choices. If they can, this simultaneously provides support for our model and suggests that the phrase meanings are measured meaningfully. The model assumes that, when deciding which of two events is more likely, judges take a single sample from memory regarding each event and respond accordingly. The model predicts choice probabilities by using the scaled meanings of individually selected probability phrases as proxies for confidence distributions associated with sampling from memory. Predictions are sustained for 34 of 41 participants but, nevertheless, are biased slightly low. Sequential sampling models improve the fit. The results have both theoretical and applied implications.

  18. Statistical investigation of spectroscopic binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Yungelson, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A catalog of physical parameters of about 1000 spectroscopic binary stars (SB), based on the Batten catalog, its extensions, and newly published data has been compiled. Masses of stars' components (M 1 and M 2 ), mass ratios of components (q=M 1 /M 2 ) and orbital angular momenta are computed, wherever possible. It is probable that the initial mass function of the primaries is non-monotonic and is described only approximately by a power-law. A number of assumed 'initial' distributions of M 1 , q and the semiaxes of orbits were transformed with the aim of obtaining 'observed' distributions taking into account the observational selection due to the luminosities of the components, their radial velocities, inclinations of the orbits, and the effects of matter exchange between the components. (Auth.)

  19. The binary collision approximation: Background and introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1992-08-01

    The binary collision approximation (BCA) has long been used in computer simulations of the interactions of energetic atoms with solid targets, as well as being the basis of most analytical theory in this area. While mainly a high-energy approximation, the BCA retains qualitative significance at low energies and, with proper formulation, gives useful quantitative information as well. Moreover, computer simulations based on the BCA can achieve good statistics in many situations where those based on full classical dynamical models require the most advanced computer hardware or are even impracticable. The foundations of the BCA in classical scattering are reviewed, including methods of evaluating the scattering integrals, interaction potentials, and electron excitation effects. The explicit evaluation of time at significant points on particle trajectories is discussed, as are scheduling algorithms for ordering the collisions in a developing cascade. An approximate treatment of nearly simultaneous collisions is outlined and the searching algorithms used in MARLOWE are presented

  20. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouder, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Dyson relations between renormalized and bare photon and electron propagators Z 3 anti D(q)=D(q) and Z 2 anti S(q)=S(q) are expanded over planar binary trees. This yields explicit recursive relations for the terms of the expansions. When all the trees corresponding to a given power of the electron charge are summed, recursive relations are obtained for the finite coefficients of the renormalized photon and electron propagators. These relations significantly decrease the number of integrals to carry out, as compared to the standard Feynman diagram technique. In the case of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare coefficients of the perturbative expansion is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. (orig.)

  1. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  2. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  3. Angular distribution of binary encounter electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.; Richard, P.; Grabbe, S.

    1993-01-01

    The double differential cross section, DDCS, of the binary encounter electrons (BEe) in 1 MeV/u F q+ + H 2 (q = 4, 6, 8, 9) is measured from 0 to 70 degrees with respect to the beam direction. At 0 degrees the data confirm the decrease of the cross section with increasing projectile charge state. At larger observation angles, the data are in fair agreement with the prediction proposed by Shingal et al. where the ratio of the DDCS for 6+ ions to bare ions is less than 1 for θ lab > 30 degrees and greater than 1 for θ lab q+ . We also observed that the energies of the BEe peak are charge state, q, independent at 0 degrees observation angle, but q dependent at larger observation angles

  4. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Capillary condensation and adsorption of binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B; Darkrim-Lamari, F; Levesque, D

    2006-06-21

    The adsorption of equimolar binary mixtures of hydrogen-carbon dioxide, hydrogen-methane, and methane-carbon dioxide in porous material models is determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The material models have an adsorbent surface similar to that of nanofibers with a herringbone structure. Our main result, which is relevant for hydrogen purification and carbon dioxide capture, is that the adsorption selectivities calculated for the mixtures can differ significantly from those deduced from simulations of the adsorption of pure gases, in particular, when one of the adsorbed gases presents a capillary condensation induced by confinement within the pore network. A comparison of our data is also made with theoretical models used in the literature for predicting the properties of the mixture adsorption.

  6. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  7. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.

  8. Dual jets from binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2010-08-20

    The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.

  9. Classical Cepheid luminosities from binary companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.R.

    1991-01-01

    Luminosities for the classical Cepheids Eta Aql, W Sgr, and SU Cas are determined from IUE spectra of their binary companions. Spectral types of the companions are determined from the spectra by comparison with the spectra of standard stars. The absolute magnitude inferred from these spectral types is used to determine the absolute magnitude of the Cepheid, either directly or from the magnitude difference between the two stars. For the temperature range of the companions (A0 V), distinctions of a quarter of a spectral subclass can be made in the comparison between the companions and standard stars. The absolute magnitudes for Eta Aql and W Sgr agree well with the period-luminosity-color relation of Feast and Walker (1987). Random errors are estimated to be 0.3 mag. SU Cas, however, is overluminous for pulsation in the fundamental mode, implying that it is pulsating in an overtone. 58 refs

  10. Dynamics of binary mixtures in inhomogeneous temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnella, G; Piscitelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lamura, A [Istituto Applicazioni Calcolo, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2008-03-14

    A dynamical description for fluid binary mixtures with variable temperature and concentration gradient contributions to entropy and internal energy is given. By using mass, momentum and energy balance equations together with the standard expression for entropy production, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem relation is obtained which takes into account thermal and concentration gradient contributions. Then an expression for the pressure tensor is derived. As examples of applications, interface behavior and phase separation have been numerically studied in two dimensions neglecting the contributions of the velocity field. In the simplest case with a constant thermal gradient, the growth exponent for the averaged size of domains is found to have the usual value z = 1/3 and the domains appear elongated in the direction of the thermal gradient. When the system is quenched by contact with external walls, the evolution of temperature profiles in the system is shown and the domain morphology is characterized by interfaces perpendicular to the thermal gradient.

  11. Irradiation creep in simple binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakawa, J.; Sethi, V.K.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Creep enhancement during 21-MeV deuteron irradiation was examined at 350 0 C for two simple binary alloys with representative microstructures, i.e., solid-solution (Ni - 4 at. % Si) and precipitation-hardened (Ni - 12.8 at. % Al) alloys. Coherent precipitates were found to be very effective in suppressing irradiation-enhanced creep. Si solute atoms depressed irradiation creep moderately and caused irradiation hardening via radiation-induced segregation. The stress-dependence of irradiation creep in Ni - 4 at. % Si should a transition, which seems to reflect a change of mechanism from dislocation climb due to stress-induced preferential absorption (SIPA) to climb-controlled dislocation glide enhanced by irradiation

  12. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2014-01-01

    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  13. Formation of a contact binary star system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The process of forming a contact binary star system is investigated in the light of current knowledge of the W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries and the current rotational braking theories for contracting stars. A preliminary stage of mass transfer is proposed and studied through the use of a computer program which calculates evolutionary model sequences. The detailed development of both stars is followed in these calculations, and findings regarding the internal structure of the star which is receiving the mass are presented. Relaxation of the mass-gaining star is also studied; for these stars of low mass and essentially zero age, the star eventually settles to a state very similar to a zero-age main sequence star of the new mass. A contact system was formed through these calculations; it exhibits the general properties of a W Ursae Majoris system. The initial masses selected for the calculation were 1.29 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.56 M/sub solar mass/. An initial mass transfer rate of about 10 -10 solar masses per year gradually increased to about 10 -8 solar masses per year. After about 2.5 x 10 7 years, the less massive star filled its Roche lobe and an initial contact system was obtained. The final masses were 1.01359 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.83641 M/sub solar mass/. The internal structure of the secondary component is considerably different from that of a main sequence star of the same mass

  14. Thermodynamic properties of binary melts of manganese(II) bromide with lithium, cesium, and francium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritskaya, E.B.; Burylev, B.P.; Mojsov, L.P.; Kritskij, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Relaying on the experimentally ascertained linear dependence of the Gibbs excessive mole energies on alkali metal ordinal number in the systems MnBr 2 -MBr (M=Na, K, Rb), thermodynamic properties of the melts in binary systems MBr 2 -M'Br (M'=Li, Cs, Fr) were prepared. Concentration dependences of the Gibbs energies, and thermodynamic activities of compounds in the above systems at 1125 K were calculated [ru

  15. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  16. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Anastasios

    X-ray binaries - mass-transferring binary stellar systems with compact object accretors - are unique astrophysical laboratories. They carry information about many complex physical processes such as star formation, compact object formation, and evolution of interacting binaries. My thesis work involves the study of the formation and evolution of Galactic and extra-galacticX-ray binaries using both detailed and realistic simulation tools, and population synthesis techniques. I applied an innovative analysis method that allows the reconstruction of the full evolutionary history of known black hole X-ray binaries back to the time of compact object formation. This analysis takes into account all the available observationally determined properties of a system, and models in detail four of its evolutionary evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. Motivated by deep extra-galactic Chandra survey observations, I worked on population synthesis models of low-mass X-ray binaries in the two elliptical galaxies NGC3379 and NGC4278. These simulations were targeted at understanding the origin of the shape and normalization of the observed X-ray luminosity functions. In a follow up study, I proposed a physically motivated prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary properties, such as duty cycle, outburst duration and recurrence time. This prescription enabled the direct comparison of transient low-mass X-ray binary population synthesis models to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two ellipticals NGC3379 and NGC4278. Finally, I worked on population synthesismodels of black holeX-ray binaries in the MilkyWay. This work was motivated by recent developments in observational techniques for the measurement of black hole spin magnitudes in

  17. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period

  18. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interior wall of the cab and 56 inches above the floor. See Figure 1. ER27OC06.005 (5) The observer shall... records of the following data. The records created under this procedure shall be retained and made readily... suspected reason(s) for the failure. [71 FR 63136, Oct. 27, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009] ...

  19. Reduction in cab and psb A RNA transcripts in response to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, B R; Chow, W S; Strid, A; Anderson, J M

    1991-06-17

    The cab and psb A RNA transcript levels have been determined in Pisum sativum leaves exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation. The nuclear-encoded cab transcripts are reduced to low levels after only 4 h of UV-B treatment and are undetectable after 3 days exposure. In contrast, the chloroplast-encoded psb A transcript levels, although reduced, are present for at least 3 days. After short periods of UV-B exposure (4 h or 8 h), followed by recovery under control conditions, cab RNA transcript levels had not recovered after 1 day, but were re-established to ca. 60% of control levels after 2 more days. Increased irradiance during exposure to UV-B reduced the effect upon cab transcripts, although the decrease was still substantial. These results indicate rapid changes in the cellular regulation of gene expression in response to supplementary UV-B and suggest increased UV-B radiation may have profound consequences for future productivity of sensitive crop species.

  20. Binary Star Fractions from the LAMOST DR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Jia; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Ren, Juan-Juan; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Shao-Lan; Yang, Wu-Ming; Liu, Kang; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Li, Tan-Da; Wu, Ya-Qian; Zhang, Jing-Hua

    2018-05-01

    Stellar systems composed of single, double, triple or higher-order systems are rightfully regarded as the fundamental building blocks of the Milky Way. Binary stars play an important role in formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Through comparing the radial velocity variations from multi-epoch observations, we analyze the binary fraction of dwarf stars observed with LAMOST. Effects of different model assumptions, such as orbital period distributions on the estimate of binary fractions, are investigated. The results based on log-normal distribution of orbital periods reproduce the previous complete analyses better than the power-law distribution. We find that the binary fraction increases with T eff and decreases with [Fe/H]. We first investigate the relation between α-elements and binary fraction in such a large sample as provided by LAMOST. The old stars with high [α/Fe] dominate with a higher binary fraction than young stars with low [α/Fe]. At the same mass, earlier forming stars possess a higher binary fraction than newly forming ones, which may be related with evolution of the Galaxy.

  1. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  2. Comments on the evolution and origin of cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the observational data on cataclysmic binaries are discussed and possible correlations between type of behaviour and binary period are noted. A gap between 2 and 3 hr in binary periods is judged to be real. A simple numerical procedure for evolving Roche-lobe-filling stars is described, and applied to white dwarf-red dwarf binaries for various mass loss and angular momentum loss mechanisms, and initial conditions. The results, in which the short-time-scale behaviour of the systems is ignored, are classified into four modes of evolution: normal, nuclear evolution dominated, angular momentum loss dominated and hydrodynamical. The clustering below 2 hr is interpreted in terms of evolution following the hydrodynamical mode, and it is suggested that both stars in such systems are of low mass. This may be the commonest type of cataclysmic binary. A possible explanation for the apparent clustering of classical novae to periods of 3 to 5 hr is given, and evolutionary schemes for cataclysmic binaries outlined. It is suggested that the short-period systems (approximately < 2 hr) arise mainly from late case B mass transfer in the original binary and the longer period systems mainly from case C. (author)

  3. Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.

    2017-09-01

    Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.

  4. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  5. Merger rate of primordial black-hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been a candidate for the elusive dark matter (DM), and remain poorly constrained in the ˜20 - 100 M⊙ mass range. PBH binaries were recently suggested as the possible source of LIGO's first detections. In this paper, we thoroughly revisit existing estimates of the merger rate of PBH binaries. We compute the probability distribution of orbital parameters for PBH binaries formed in the early Universe, accounting for tidal torquing by all other PBHs, as well as standard large-scale adiabatic perturbations. We then check whether the orbital parameters of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe can be significantly affected between formation and merger. Our analytic estimates indicate that the tidal field of halos and interactions with other PBHs, as well as dynamical friction by unbound standard DM particles, do not do significant work on nor torque PBH binaries. We estimate the torque due to baryon accretion to be much weaker than previous calculations, albeit possibly large enough to significantly affect the eccentricity of typical PBH binaries. We also revisit the PBH-binary merger rate resulting from gravitational capture in present-day halos, accounting for Poisson fluctuations. If binaries formed in the early Universe survive to the present time, as suggested by our analytic estimates, they dominate the total PBH merger rate. Moreover, this merger rate would be orders of magnitude larger than LIGO's current upper limits if PBHs make a significant fraction of the dark matter. As a consequence, LIGO would constrain ˜10 - 300 M⊙ PBHs to constitute no more than ˜1 % of the dark matter. To make this conclusion fully robust, though, numerical study of several complex astrophysical processes—such as the formation of the first PBH halos and how they may affect PBH binaries, as well as the accretion of gas onto an extremely eccentric binary—is needed.

  6. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Edwardsiella tarda [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Edwardsiella tarda 名詞 一般 * * * * Edwar...dsiella tarda ... MeSH D020609 200906083854859187 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Edwardsiella tarda

  7. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Edwardsiella ictaluri [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Edwardsiella ictaluri 名詞 一般 * * * * Edwar...dsiella ictaluri ... MeSH D020610 200906051921978774 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Edwardsiella ictaluri

  8. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Ralstonia solanacearum [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Ralstonia solanacearum 名詞 一般 * * * * Ralstonia sol...anacearum ... MeSH D043368 200906091329391991 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Ralstonia solanacearum

  9. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sulfolobus solfataricus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sulfolobus solfataricus 名詞 一般 * * * * Sulfolobus solfataricus ... MeSH D048229 200906045592943760 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sulfolobus solfataricus

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites australis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites australis 名詞 一般 * * * ...* ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites australis

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites communis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites communis 名詞 一般 * * * *... ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites communis

  12. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Dirofilaria immitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dirofilaria immitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Dirofilaria immit...is ... MeSH D004183 200906050138784430 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Dirofilaria immitis

  13. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

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    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomit...ans 名詞 一般 * * * * Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ... MeSH D016976 200906016161948020 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Streptococcus mitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Streptococcus mitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Streptococcus mit...is ... MeSH D034361 200906051281920120 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Streptococcus mitis

  15. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Thiocapsa roseopersicina [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Thiocapsa roseopersicina 名詞 一般 * * * * Thiocapsa rose...opersicina ... MeSH D020616 200906079314739029 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Thiocapsa roseopersicina

  16. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sphingomonadaceae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sphingomonadaceae 名詞 一般 * * * * Sphi...ngomonadaceae ... MeSH D042301 200906094653102667 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Sphingomonadaceae

  17. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Campylobacter upsaliensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Campylobacter upsaliensis 名詞 一般 *... * * * Campylobacter upsaliensis ... MeSH D044885 200906036434053162 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Campylobacter upsaliensis

  18. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Morganella morganii [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Morganella morganii 名詞 一般 * * * * Morganella morg...anii ... MeSH D020613 200906053401612729 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Morganella morganii

  19. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis... 名詞 一般 * * * * Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D016925 200906025325177003 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

  20. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 名詞 一般... * * * * Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D015011 200906011755952514 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis