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Sample records for active air sampling

  1. Uncertainties in monitoring of SVOCs in air caused by within-sampler degradation during active and passive air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana

    2017-10-01

    Degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) occurs naturally in ambient air due to reactions with reactive trace gases (e.g., ozone, NOx). During air sampling there is also the possibility for degradation of SVOCs within the air sampler, leading to underestimates of ambient air concentrations. We investigated the possibility of this sampling artifact in commonly used active and passive air samplers for seven classes of SVOCs, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) typically covered by air monitoring programs, as well as SVOCs of emerging concern. Two active air samplers were used, one equipped with an ozone denuder and one without, to compare relative differences in mass of collected compounds. Two sets of passive samplers were also deployed to determine the influence of degradation during longer deployment times in passive sampling. In active air samplers, comparison of the two sampling configurations suggested degradation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with concentrations up to 2× higher in the denuder-equipped sampler, while halogenated POPs did not have clear evidence of degradation. In contrast, more polar, reactive compounds (e.g., organophosphate esters and current use pesticides) had evidence of losses in the sampler with denuder. This may be caused by the denuder itself, suggesting sampling bias for these compounds can be created when typical air sampling apparatuses are adapted to limit degradation. Passive air samplers recorded up to 4× higher concentrations when deployed for shorter consecutive sampling periods, suggesting that within-sampler degradation may also be relevant in passive air monitoring programs.

  2. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  3. Operational air sampling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products

  4. Directional dependency of air sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A field study was performed by Idaho State University-Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) to examine the directional dependency of low-volume air samplers. A typical continuous low volume air sampler contains a sample head that is mounted on the sampler housing either horizontally through one of four walls or vertically on an exterior wall 'looking down or up.' In 1992, a field study was undertaken to estimate sampling error and to detect the directional effect of sampler head orientation. Approximately 1/2 mile downwind from a phosphate plant (continuous source of alpha activity), four samplers were positioned in identical orientation alongside one sampler configured with the sample head 'looking down'. At least five consecutive weekly samples were collected. The alpha activity, beta activity, and the Be-7 activity collected on the particulate filter were analyzed to determine sampling error. Four sample heads were than oriented to the four different horizontal directions. Samples were collected for at least five weeks. Analysis of the alpha data can show the effect of sampler orientation to a know near source term. Analysis of the beta and Be-7 activity shows the effect of sampler orientation to a ubiquitous source term

  5. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2012-08-02

    Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC) was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity) and in operational (during surgery). The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256) and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7) for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  6. Measurement of the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Baron, Y.; Maro, D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples using classical methods of radiochemistry and beta counting. Three different methods have been tested in order to minimise the detection limit. In the three methods, the first step consists in trapping the atmospheric carbon 14 into NaOH (1N) using a bubbling chamber. The atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with NaOH to form Na 2 CO 3 . In the first method the Na 2 CO 3 solution is mixed with a liquid scintillate and is directly analysed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The detection limit is approximately 1 Bq/m 3 of air samples. The second method consists in evaporating the carbonate solution and then counting the solid residue with a proportional gas circulation counter. The detection limit obtained is lower than the first method (0.4 Bq/m 3 of air samples). In the third method, Na 2 CO 3 is precipitated into CaCO 3 in presence of CaCl 2 . CaCO 3 is then analysed by LSC. This method appear to be the most appropriate, the detection limit is 0.05 Bq/m 3 of air samples. (author)

  7. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  8. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  9. Active AirCore Sampling: Constraining Point Sources of Methane and Other Gases with Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, J. D.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimates of point source gas emissions are essential for reconciling top-down and bottom-up greenhouse gas measurements, but sampling such sources is challenging. Remote sensing methods are limited by resolution and cloud cover; aircraft methods are limited by air traffic control clearances, and the need to properly determine boundary layer height. A new sampling approach leverages the ability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to measure all the way to the surface near the source of emissions, improving sample resolution, and reducing the need to characterize a wide downstream swath, or measure to the full height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The "Active-AirCore" sampler, currently under development, will fly on a fixed wing UAS in Class G airspace, spiraling from the surface to 1200 ft AGL around point sources such as leaking oil wells to measure methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The sampler collects a 100-meter long sample "core" of air in an 1/8" passivated stainless steel tube. This "core" is run on a high-precision instrument shortly after the UAS is recovered. Sample values are mapped to a specific geographic location by cross-referencing GPS and flow/pressure metadata, and fluxes are quantified by applying Gauss's theorem to the data, mapped onto the spatial "cylinder" circumscribed by the UAS. The AirCore-Active builds off the sampling ability and analytical approach of the related AirCore sampler, which profiles the atmosphere passively using a balloon launch platform, but will add an active pumping capability needed for near-surface horizontal sampling applications. Here, we show design elements, laboratory and field test results for methane, describe the overall goals of the mission, and discuss how the platform can be adapted, with minimal effort, to measure other gas species.

  10. Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Tucker, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

  11. Remote tritium-in-air sampling in reactor building at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.R.; Lal Chand

    2000-01-01

    Tritium-in-air activity is an important parameter in PHW reactors from the point of view of internal exposure and heavy water escape from the system. The sampling technique in vogue in PHWRs, for measurement of tritium-in-air activity, requires collection of on the spot sample from different areas using a portable sampler. This sampler uses the bubbler method of sampling. As the areas of sampling are numerous, this technique is time consuming, laborious and can lead to significant internal exposure in areas where tritium-in-air activity is high. This technique is also error prone due to the heavy workload involved. A new scheme, in which the sampling of all the areas of reactor building is done through a sampling station, has been introduced for the first time in NAPS. This sampling station facilitates collection of samples from all the areas of reactor building, remotely and simultaneously at one place thereby reducing time, labour, exposure and error. This paper gives the details of the sampling system installed at NAPS. (author)

  12. Operational air sampling report, July--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-11-01

    Air sampling is one of the more useful ways of assessing the effectiveness of operational radiation safety programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air sampling programs document NTS airborne radionuclide concentrations in various work locations and environments. These concentrations generally remain well below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) values prescribed by the Department of Energy (DOE 5480.11, Attachment 1) or the Derived Concentration Guide (DCG) values prescribed by the Department of Energy DOE 5400.5, Chapter Ill. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) tunnel complexes, Area 12 Test Support Compound and the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry air sampling programs are summarized in this report. Evaluations are based on Analytical Services Department (ASD) Counting Laboratory analyses and Health Protection Department (HPD)/Radiological Field Operations Section (RFOS) radiation protection technician's (RPT) or health physicists' calculations for air samples collected July 1 through December 31, 1991. Of the NTS operational air sampling programs in the tunnel complexes, the initial mining and event reentry and recovery operations represent the only real airborne radioactive inhalation potentials to personnel. Monthly filter and scintillation cell samples were taken and counted in RDA-200 Radon Detectors to document working levels of radon/thoron daughters and picocurie/liter (PCVL) concentrations of radon gas. Weekly Drierite samples for tritium analysis were taken in the active tunnel complexes to document any changes in normal background levels or reentry drifts as they are advanced toward ground zero (GZ) areas. Underground water sources are considered primary transporters of tritium from old event areas

  13. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of 137 Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, 7 Be and 210 Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of 7 Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites

  14. Air sampling program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive air sampling program has been developed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for monitoring the concentrations of radioactive aerosols present in the atmosphere on plantsite as well as in the environs. The program is designed to minimize exposures of employees and the environment to airborne radioactive particulates. Five different air sampling systems, utilizing either filtration or impaction, are employed for measuring airborne alpha and beta-gamma activity produced from 235 U and 234 Th, respectively. Two of the systems have particle selection capabilities: a personal sampler with a 10-mm nylon cyclone eliminates most particles larger than about 10 microns in diameter; and an Annular Kinetic Impactor collects particulates greater than 0.4 microns in diameter which have a density greater than 12-15 gm/cm 3 . A Hi-Volume Air Sampler and an Eberline Model AIM-3 Scintillation Air Monitor are used in collecting short-term samples for assessing compliance with ''ceiling'' standards or peak concentration limits. A film-sort aperture IBM card system is utilized for continuous 8-hour samples. This sampling program has proven to be both practical and effective for assuring accurate monitoring of the airborne activity associated with plant operations

  15. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  16. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  17. Counting systems characterization for air activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Air activity measurements are carried out continuously at all the nuclear power plant (NPP) sites both during pre-operational phase and also during operation of nuclear facility. These measurements provide a trend line for the background air activity in the surrounding environments of an operating NPP. Any increase in air activity over the benchmark level becomes very handy to investigate the releases from the station and to give feedback to the operators of NPP about the prevailing air activity levels and their correlation to the plant releases. This paper compiles the results obtained for air filter samples using different counters operating in GM region and also plastic scintillators

  18. Guidance for air sampling at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslin, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    The principal uses of air sampling at nuclear facilities are to monitor general levels of radioactive air contamination, identify sources of air contamination, and evaluate the effectiveness of contaminant control equipment, determine exposures of individual workers, and provide automatic warning of hazardous concentrations of radioactivity. These applications of air sampling are discussed with respect to standards of occupational exposure, instrumentation, sample analysis, sampling protocol, and statistical treatment of concentration data. Emphasis is given to the influence of spacial and temporal variations of radionuclide concentration on the location, duration, and frequency of air sampling

  19. Sampling for Air Chemical Emissions from the Life Sciences Laboratory II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Sampling for air chemical emissions from the Life Science Laboratory II (LSL-II) ventilation stack was performed in an effort to determine potential exposure of maintenance staff to laboratory exhaust on the building roof. The concern about worker exposure was raised in December 2015 and several activities were performed to assist in estimating exposure concentrations. Data quality objectives were developed to determine the need for and scope and parameters of a sampling campaign to measure chemical emissions from research and development activities to the outside air. The activities provided data on temporal variation of air chemical concentrations and a basis for evaluating calculated emissions. Sampling for air chemical emissions was performed in the LSL-II ventilation stack over the 6-week period from July 26 to September 1, 2016. A total of 12 sampling events were carried out using 16 sample media. Resulting analysis provided concentration data on 49 analytes. All results were below occupational exposure limits and most results were below detection limits. When compared to calculated emissions, only 5 of the 49 chemicals had measured concentrations greater than predicted. This sampling effort will inform other study components to develop a more complete picture of a worker’s potential exposure from LSL-II rooftop activities. Mixing studies were conducted to inform spatial variation in concentrations at other rooftop locations and can be used in conjunction with these results to provide temporal variations in concentrations for estimating the potential exposure to workers working in and around the LSL-II stack.

  20. Evaluation of personal air sampling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Novick, V.J.; Alvarez, J.L.; Huntsman, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Personal air samplers are used to more conveniently obtain breathing zone samples from individuals over periods of several hours. Personal air sampling pumps must meet minimum performance levels under all working conditions to be suitable for use in radiation protection programs. In addition, the pumps should be simple to operate and as comfortable to wear as possible. Ten models of personal air sampling pumps were tested to evaluate their mechanical performance and physical characteristics. The pumps varied over a wide range in basic performance and operating features. Some of the pumps were found to have adequate performance for use in health physics air sampling applications. 3 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  1. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  2. Evaluation of active sampling strategies for the determination of 1,3-butadiene in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    Two analytical methods for determining levels of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial atmospheres were evaluated in this study. Both methods are extensively used for determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and involve collecting samples by active adsorptive enrichment on solid sorbents. The first method uses activated charcoal as the sorbent and involves liquid desorption with carbon disulfide. The second involves the use of a multi-sorbent bed with two graphitised carbons and a carbon molecular sieve as the sorbent, with thermal desorption. Special attention was paid to the optimization of the sampling procedure through the study of sample volume, the stability of 1,3-butadiene once inside the sampling tube and the humidity effect. In the end, the thermal desorption method showed better repeatability and limits of detection and quantification for 1,3-butadiene than the liquid desorption method, which makes the thermal desorption method more suitable for analysing air samples from both industrial and urban atmospheres. However, sampling must be performed with a pre-tube filled with a drying agent to prevent the loss of the adsorption capacity of the solid adsorbent caused by water vapour. The thermal desorption method has successfully been applied to determine of 1,3-butadiene inside a 1,3-butadiene production plant and at three locations in the vicinity of the same plant.

  3. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34... sampling. (a) Stationary sources subject to § 61.32(b) shall locate air sampling sites in accordance with a... concentrations calculated within 30 days after filters are collected. Records of concentrations at all sampling...

  4. Air sampling with solid phase microextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Perry Anthony

    There is an increasing need for simple yet accurate air sampling methods. The acceptance of new air sampling methods requires compatibility with conventional chromatographic equipment, and the new methods have to be environmentally friendly, simple to use, yet with equal, or better, detection limits, accuracy and precision than standard methods. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) satisfies the conditions for new air sampling methods. Analyte detection limits, accuracy and precision of analysis with SPME are typically better than with any conventional air sampling methods. Yet, air sampling with SPME requires no pumps, solvents, is re-usable, extremely simple to use, is completely compatible with current chromatographic equipment, and requires a small capital investment. The first SPME fiber coating used in this study was poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a hydrophobic liquid film, to sample a large range of airborne hydrocarbons such as benzene and octane. Quantification without an external calibration procedure is possible with this coating. Well understood are the physical and chemical properties of this coating, which are quite similar to those of the siloxane stationary phase used in capillary columns. The log of analyte distribution coefficients for PDMS are linearly related to chromatographic retention indices and to the inverse of temperature. Therefore, the actual chromatogram from the analysis of the PDMS air sampler will yield the calibration parameters which are used to quantify unknown airborne analyte concentrations (ppb v to ppm v range). The second fiber coating used in this study was PDMS/divinyl benzene (PDMS/DVB) onto which o-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was adsorbed for the on-fiber derivatization of gaseous formaldehyde (ppb v range), with and without external calibration. The oxime formed from the reaction can be detected with conventional gas chromatographic detectors. Typical grab sampling times were as small as 5 seconds

  5. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded...... in three phases combining a literature review, laboratory experiments and measurements in buildings potentially containing PCBs in indoor air. The laboratory experiments showed a strong influence of air velocity on the PCB partitioning between air and the passive sampler. Based on the results of the first...

  6. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level

  7. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  8. Profiling quinones in ambient air samples collected from the Athabasca region (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnorowski, Andrzej; Charland, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night). The daytime/nocturnal samples demonstrated that nighttime conditions led to lower concentrations and some quinones not being detected. The highest quinone levels were associated with wind directions originating from oil sands exploration sites. The statistical correlation with primary pollutants directly emitted from oil sands industrial activities indicated that the bulk of the detected quinones did not originate directly from primary emission sources and that quinone formation paralleled a reduction in primary source NO x levels. This suggests a secondary chemical transformation of primary pollutants as the origin of the determined quinones. Measurements of 19 quinones included five that have not previously been reported in ambient air or in Standard Reference Material 1649a/1649b and seven that have not been previously measured in ambient air in the underivatized form. This is the first paper to report on quinone characterization in secondary organic aerosols originating from oil sands activities, to distinguish chrysenequinone and anthraquinone positional isomers in ambient air, and to report the requirement of daylight conditions for benzo[a]pyrenequinone and naphthacenequinone to be present in ambient air. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  10. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  11. High efficiency mixed species radioiodine air sampling, readout, and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.; Klemish, J.

    1976-05-01

    Reactor accidents require monitoring to assess the impact to persons in the environment. This implies methods and apparatus to accurately and economically sample and evaluate possible released activity. The development of a prototype iodine air sampling system that can differentiate against noble gas activity and be evaluated by standard Civil Defense instrumentation is reported. The apparatus can efficiently (95 percent) collect organic or inorganic, particulate or gaseous radioiodine in concentrations below stable atmospheric iodine, and under severe ambient conditions. Response to noble fission gases was reduced to less than 4 x 10 -4 of an equal iodine airborne activity by heating the collector to approximately 100 0 C. Reliable sample size, +-5 percent, was achieved by using a simple air flow regulator. Thyroid dose commitment was mathematically and graphically related to the iodine isotope distribution expected in the environment and to the response of the Civil Defense CDV-700 instrument used to evaluate the sample. Sensitivity of the method allows dose assessment of 1 to 2 rads to a child's thyroid

  12. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Watson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear

  14. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  15. Operational air sampling report, January--June 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1992-09-01

    Nevada Test Site postshot and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. air sampling program is designed for measurement of these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. Monthly radon sampling is done for documentation of working levels in the tunnel complexes, which would be expected to hove the highest radon levels for on-site facilities. Out of a total of 281 air samples taken in the tunnel complexes, 25 showed airborne fission products with concentrations well below their respective Derived Air Concentrations (DAC). All of these were related to event reentry or mineback operations. Tritiated water vapor and radon levels were very similar to previously reported levels. The 975 air samples taken at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any DAC calculation standard and negative for any airborne fission products from laboratory analyses

  16. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andersen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ∼ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ∼ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N  =  146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb. The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4 at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s−1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical

  17. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Truls; Scheeren, Bert; Peters, Wouter; Chen, Huilin

    2018-05-01

    We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ˜ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ˜ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N = 146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb). The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4) at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical profile measurements in the early morning hours. Besides

  18. Printed Self-Powered Miniature Air Sampling Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Birmingham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent geo-political climate has increased the necessity for autonomous, chip-sized, lightweight, air sampling systems which can quickly detect and characterize chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE hazardous materials and relay the results. To address these issues, we have developed a self-powered 3-D chip architecture that processes air to produce concentrated size- sorted particle (and vapor samples that could be integrated with on-chip nanoelectronic detectors for the discovery of weapons of mass destruction (WMD. The unique air movement approach is composed of a nanoscale energy harvester that provides electricity to a printed ion-drag pump to push air through coated-microstructured arrays. The self-powered microstructured array air sampler was designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling to collect particles from 1-10 microns at greater than 99.9999 % efficiency with less than 100 Pascal [Pa] pressure drop at a specified air flow rate. Surprisingly, even at minimum air flow rates below specifications, these CFD predictions were matched by experimental results gathered in a Government aerosol chamber. The microstructured array engineered filter equaled the collection capability of a membrane or a high efficiency particle air (HEPA filter at a fraction of the filter pressure drop.

  19. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-06-22

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis ® μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis ® μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis ® μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis ® μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  20. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D’Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations. PMID:28640202

  1. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  2. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6 - 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  3. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6- 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  4. Simple and rapid measurement of α-rays on smear samples using air luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, M.

    1980-01-01

    The α-activity collected on smear samples has been measured indirectly using an air luminescence counting method and a liquid scintillation spectrometer. In this method, air luminescence, attributed to the fluorescence emitted by nitrogen molecules excited by α-rays in air, serves to detect α-rays. Thus, sample preparation and α-ray measurement are simple and rapid, and moreover, no radioactive waste solution is produced. Taking into account a low background and a counting efficiency between 10 and 20%, it is estimated that the detectable limit for α-ray measurement is about 1 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 2 for loose contamination. This method is convenient to use in the routine analysis of α-ray-emitting nuclides on smear paper. (author)

  5. A simple air sampling technique for monitoring nitrous oxide pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J C; Shaw, R; Moyes, D; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    1981-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for the continuous low-flow sampling of air was devised to permit monitoring of pollution by gaseous anaesthetics. The device consisted of a water-filled Perspex cylinder in which a double-walled flexible-film gas sample collection bag was suspended. Air samples could be aspirated into the collection bag at flow rates of as low as 1 ml min-1 by allowing the water to drain from the cylinder at a controlled rate. The maintenance of sample integrity with aspiration and storage of samples of nitrous oxide in air at concentrations of 1000, 100 and 30 p.p.m. v/v was examined using gas chromatography. The sample bags retained a mean 94% of the nitrous oxide in air samples containing nitrous oxide 25 p.p.m. over a 72-h storage period.

  6. Operational air sampling report, July 1--December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    Nevada Test Site postshot and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed for measurement of these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. Monthly radon sampling is done for documentation of working levels in the tunnel complexes, which would be expected to have the highest radon levels for on-site facilities. Out of a total of 628 air samples taken in the tunnel complexes, 24 showed airborne fission products with concentrations well below their respective Derived Air Concentrations (DAC). All of these were related to event reentry or mineback operations. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 838 air samples taken at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any DAC calculation standard and negative for any airborne fission products from laboratory analyses

  7. Design of modified annulus air sampling system for the detection of leakage in waste transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V; Khot, A.R.; Mathew, P.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.; Srivastava, Srishti

    2018-01-01

    Various liquid waste streams are generated during the operation of reprocessing plant. The High Level (HL), Intermediate Level (IL) and Low Level (LL) liquid wastes generated, are transferred from reprocessing plant to Waste Management Facility. These respective waste streams are transferred through pipe-in-pipe lines along the shielded concrete trench. For detection of radioactive leakage from primary waste transfer line into secondary line, sampling of the annulus air between the two pipes is carried out. The currently installed pressurized annulus air sampling system did not have online leakage detection provision. Hence, there are chances of personal exposure and airborne activity in the working area. To overcome these design flaws, free air flow modified online annulus air sampling system with more safety features is designed

  8. Analysis of tree bark samples for air pollution biomonitoring of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Ana Paula G.; Negri, Elnara M.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution is receiving much attention as a public health problem around the world due to its adverse health effects from exposures by urban populations. Within this context, the use of vegetal biomonitoring to evaluate air quality has been investigated throughout the world. Air pollutant levels are high in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil and being the vehicle emissions its main source. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, S, Sb and Zn in tree bark samples used as biomonitor of urban air pollution. Concentrations of these elements were determined in barks collected in trees of the Ibirapuera Park, one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo city. Samples of tree barks were also collected in a site outside the city of Sao Paulo, in a rural area of Embu-Guacu, considered as a control site. The element concentrations were determined by the methods of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The findings of this study showed that tree bark samples may be used as biomonitors of urban air pollution in a micro scale, and both techniques, INAA and EDXRF, can be used to evaluate element concentrations in tree bark samples. (author)

  9. Automated bar coding of air samples at Hanford (ABCASH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.; Brayton, D.D.; McNeece, S.G.

    1992-10-01

    This article describes the basis, main features and benefits of an automated system for tracking and reporting radioactive air particulate samples. The system was developed due to recognized need for improving the quality and integrity of air sample data related to personnel and environmental protection. The data capture, storage, and retrieval of air sample data are described. The automation aspect of the associated and data input eliminates a large potential for human error. The system utilizes personal computers, handheld computers, a commercial personal computer database package, commercial programming languages, and complete documentation to satisfy the system's automation objective

  10. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  11. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Burnett, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 deg C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods. (author)

  12. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  13. Concentration of the 241Pu in air samples from Chernobyl at Belgrade site estimated by a 241Am in growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukanac, I.; Novkovic, D.; Djurasevic, M.; Obradovic, Z.; Kandi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The surface air samples collected in the first half of May 1986 at Vinca- Belgrade site were prepared and measured at the end of the 1991 and beginning of the 1992. year. Activity concentrations of the 137 Cs immediately after the Chernobyl accident were determined by means of gamma spectrometry, while the air activity concentration of 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu were determined by alpha spectrometry, after the plutonium radiochemical separation. The 236 Pu was used as a tracer. The same samples were remeasured after 13 years, during the 2004. The surface air activity concentrations of 241 Pu were estimated by a 241 Am in-growth method. The built up activities of 236 Pu progenies were determined from the recorded spectra and also calculated using the Bateman equations. The 241 Am activity in the remeasured samples, obtained by complex spectral analysis was confirmed by gamma spectrometry. The 241 Pu activity concentration in measured air samples ranged from 240 μBq/m3 to 7800 μBq/m3. The average activity concentration ratio 241 Pu/ 239,240 Pu originated from Chernobyl accident was approximately 100. (authors)

  14. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous 85 Kr air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where 85 Kr was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State-of-the-art 85 Dr sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of 85 Kr

  15. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1984-10-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous krypton-85 air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where krypton-85 was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State of the art krypton-85 sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of krypton-85. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  16. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate...

  17. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) surveyed the current air monitoring and sampling practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate a large diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The differences among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  19. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sampling and identification of gaseous and particle bounded air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettrup, A.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollutants are gaseous, components of aerosols or particle bounded. Sampling, sample preparation, identification and quantification of compounds depend from kind and chemical composition of the air pollutants. Quality assurance of analytical data must be guaranted. (orig.) [de

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria

    2017-08-01

    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the 222 Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the 222 Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sampling density for the quantitative evaluation of air trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, Michael L.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed recently about the radiation burden on patient populations, especially children, undergoing serial radiological testing. To reduce the dose one can change the CT acquisition settings or decrease the sampling density. In this study we determined the minimum desirable sampling density to ascertain the degree of air trapping in children with cystic fibrosis. Ten children with cystic fibrosis in stable condition underwent a volumetric spiral CT scan. The degree of air trapping was determined by an automated algorithm for all slices in the volume, and then for 1/2, 1/4, to 1/128 of all slices, or a sampling density ranging from 100% to 1% of the total volume. The variation around the true value derived from 100% sampling was determined for all other sampling densities. The precision of the measurement remained stable down to a 10% sampling density, but decreased markedly below 3.4%. For a disease marker with the regional variability of air trapping in cystic fibrosis, regardless of observer variability, a sampling density below 10% and even more so, below 3.4%, apparently decreases the precision of the evaluation. (orig.)

  3. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-10-01

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (pair space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (ptransport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (ptransport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  5. In-air micro-pixe analysis of tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Ishii, K.; Komori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Micro-PIXE is capable of providing spatial distributions of elements in the micro-meter scale and its application to biology is useful to elucidate the cellular metabolism. Since, in this method, a sample target is usually irradiated with proton or α-particle beams in vacuum, beam heating results in evaporation of volatile elements an shrinking of the sample. In order to avoid these side effects, we previously developed a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis for samples of cultured cells. In addition to these, analysis of exposed tissue samples from living subjects is highly desirable in biological and medical research. Here, we describe a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis of such tissue samples. The target samples of exposed tissue slices from a Donryu rat, in which a tumor had been transplanted, were analyzed with proton micro-beams of 2.6 MeV. We report that the shape of cells and the distribution of volatile elements in the tissue sample remain uncharged when using a target preparation based on a freeze-drying method. (author)

  6. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor(reg s ign) 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, (1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and (2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended

  7. Low-cost monitoring of campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Löfström, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain......The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two...... standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100...

  8. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for measurement of organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in air sampling matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Dills, Russell L; Yu, Jianbo; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for determination of levels of the organophosphorus (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos (CPF), azinphos methyl (AZM), and their oxygen analogs chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) and azinphos methyl-oxon (AZM-O) on common active air sampling matrices. XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF) matrices were extracted with acetonitrile containing stable-isotope labeled internal standards (ISTD). Analysis was accomplished in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode, and analytes in unknown samples were identified by retention time (±0.1 min) and qualifier ratio (±30% absolute) as compared to the mean of calibrants. For all compounds, calibration linearity correlation coefficients were ≥0.996. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.15-1.1 ng/sample for CPF, CPF-O, AZM, and AZM-O on active sampling matrices. Spiked fortification recoveries were 78-113% from XAD-2 active air sampling tubes and 71-108% from PUF active air sampling tubes. Storage stability tests also yielded recoveries ranging from 74-94% after time periods ranging from 2-10 months. The results demonstrate that LC-MS/MS is a sensitive method for determining these compounds from two different matrices at the low concentrations that can result from spray drift and long range transport in non-target areas following agricultural applications. In an inter-laboratory comparison, the limit of quantification (LOQ) for LC-MS/MS was 100 times lower than a typical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method.

  9. Sample design considerations of indoor air exposure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.G.; Mage, D.T.; Immerman, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the potential for indoor air pollution has prompted recent surveys of radon and NO 2 concentrations in homes and personal exposure studies of volatile organics, carbon monoxide and pesticides, to name a few. The statistical problems in designing sample surveys that measure the physical environment are diverse and more complicated than those encountered in traditional surveys of human attitudes and attributes. This paper addresses issues encountered when designing indoor air quality (IAQ) studies. General statistical concepts related to target population definition, frame creation, and sample selection for area household surveys and telephone surveys are presented. The implications of different measurement approaches are discussed, and response rate considerations are described

  10. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman; Mohd Khalid Matori; Abd Khalik Wood

    2000-01-01

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  11. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju; Jeong, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Sang Hun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kwon, Young Sik; Chung, Sang Wuk; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Nak Bae; Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki.

    1997-09-01

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  12. Air pollution measurements in a semi-arid zine, using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shani, G; Cohen, D

    1977-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for measurement of air pollution in a semi arid zone. After a careful selection of the air filter, air samples were filtered in the city of Beer-Sheva in the south of Israel. The sampling took place over a period of 2 months with each sampling period lasting 2 days. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of the order of 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2/ sec for 1 h and the gamma spectrum was measured several times. The concentration of elements was concluded from the measured gamma spectrum. Several conclusions were obtained by combining the weather conditions with the measurement results. The air pollution can be divided into several sources: dust of a certain origin containing Fe, Co, Cr, Sc, Th and Na (probably from the Dead Sea area), other dust sources containing Sb, Eu, and Hf, and urban pollution due to industry and transportation--Br, Hg. The air pollution has its maxima and minima according to weather or industrial conditions. The pollution requires 4 days to clear out. Other relations to weather conditions were also found.

  13. Air pollution measurements in a semi-arid zone, using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shani, G; Cohen, D [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1977-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for measurement of air pollution in a semi-arid zone. After a careful selection of the air filter, air samples were filtered in the city of Beer-Sheva in the south of Israel. The sampling took place over a period of 2 months with each sampling period lasting 2 days. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of the order of 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2/ sec for 1 h and the gamma spectrum was measured several times. The concentration of elements was concluded from the measured gamma spectrum. Several conclusions were obtained by combining the weather conditions with the measurement results. The air pollution can be divided into several sources: dust of a certain origin containing Fe, Co, Cr, Sc, Th and Na (probably from the Dead Sea area), other dust sources containing Sb, Eu, and Hf, and urban pollution due to industry and transportation-Br, Hg. The air pollution has its maxima and minima according to weather or industrial conditions. The pollution requires 4 days to clear out. Other relations to weather conditions were also found.

  14. Air pollution measurements in a semi-arid zone, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, G.; Cohen, D.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for measurement of air pollution in a semi-arid zone. After a careful selection of the air filter, air samples were filtered in the city of Beer-Sheva in the south of Israel. The sampling took place over a period of 2 months with each sampling period lasting 2 days. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of the order of 10 13 n/cm 2 sec for 1 h and the gamma spectrum was measured several times. The concentration of elements was concluded from the measured gamma spectrum. Several conclusions were obtained by combining the weather conditions with the measurement results. The air pollution can be divided into several sources: dust of a certain origin containing Fe, Co, Cr, Sc, Th and Na (probably from the Dead Sea area), other dust sources containing Sb, Eu, and Hf, and urban pollution due to industry and transportation-Br, Hg. The air pollution has its maxima and minima according to weather or industrial conditions. The pollution requires 4 days to clear out. Other relations to weather conditions were also found. (Auth.)

  15. Advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved computer controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high speed matrix printer, and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction, and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha, and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  16. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG ampersand G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ''on mask'' due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer

  17. Automated Sampling and Extraction of Krypton from Small Air Samples for Kr-85 Measurement Using Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, S.; Hands, J.; Goering, F.; Kirchner, G.; Purtschert, R.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-Trap-Trace-Analysis (ATTA) provides the capability of measuring the Krypton-85 concentration in microlitre amounts of krypton extracted from air samples of about 1 litre. This sample size is sufficiently small to allow for a range of applications, including on-site spot sampling and continuous sampling over periods of several hours. All samples can be easily handled and transported to an off-site laboratory for ATTA measurement, or stored and analyzed on demand. Bayesian sampling methodologies can be applied by blending samples for bulk measurement and performing in-depth analysis as required. Prerequisite for measurement is the extraction of a pure krypton fraction from the sample. This paper introduces an extraction unit able to isolate the krypton in small ambient air samples with high speed, high efficiency and in a fully automated manner using a combination of cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography. Air samples are collected using an automated smart sampler developed in-house to achieve a constant sampling rate over adjustable time periods ranging from 5 minutes to 3 hours per sample. The smart sampler can be deployed in the field and operate on battery for one week to take up to 60 air samples. This high flexibility of sampling and the fast, robust sample preparation are a valuable tool for research and the application of Kr-85 measurements to novel Safeguards procedures. (author)

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Olsen, I L; Poulsen, O M

    1992-01-01

    In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors or approx......In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors...

  19. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1976-10-15

    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  20. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1976-10-01

    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  1. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Gaikwad, R.H.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  2. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Joshi, V.B.; Bhanti, D.P.; Bhagwat, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m 3 (3.73x10 -17 Ci/m 3 ) to 36.41x10 -6 Bq/m 3 (9.84x10 -16 Ci/m 3 ) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  3. Silver zeolite antimicrobial activity in aluminium heating, ventilation and air conditioning system ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, R; Mansi, A; Panatto, D; Rizzitelli, E; Tinteri, C; Sasso, T; Gasparini, R; Crovari, P

    2008-03-01

    Air pollution in confined environments is a serious health problem, in that most people spend long periods indoors (in homes, offices, classrooms etc.). Some people (children, the elderly, heart disease patients, asthmatic or allergic subjects) are at greater risk because of their conditions of frailty. The growing use of air-conditioning systems in many public and private buildings aggravates this health risk, especially when these systems are not correctly installed or regularly serviced. The aim of our study was to verify the capacity of Ag+ ions to stop the growth of bacteria and moulds inside the ducts of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system ducts (HVAC) systems when these ducts were lined with active Ag+ ions zeolite-coated panels. A Y-shaped HVAC model with two branches was used; one branch was made of traditional galvanized iron, as was the whole system, while the other was lined with active Ag+ zeolite-coated polyurethane panels. During the test, samples of dust present inside both ducts were collected and seeded in liquid and solid media to detect bacteria and moulds. The presence of bacteria was also sought in the air emerging from the outlets of both ducts. Tests made on samples of particulate collected from the two different ducts revealed a lower total bacterial load in the samples collected from the Ag+ zeolite-coated duct than in the samples from the traditional Zn galvanized duct. In addition, the values of bacterial load found in the air emerging from the Ag+ ions zeolite-lined duct were 5 times lower than those found in the air from the traditional galvanized iron duct. The utilization of Ag+ zeolite-coated panels in air-conditioning systems could improve the quality of the emerging air in comparison with traditional installations in galvanized iron. This innovation could prove particularly advantageous in the event of accidents during the installation of air-conditioning systems or of contaminated aerosols coming from outside.

  4. Technical basis and evaluation criteria for an air sampling/monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.C.; Bryan, W.L.; Falter, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    Air sampling and monitoring programs at DOE facilities need to be reviewed in light of revised requirements and guidance found in, for example, DOE Order 5480.6 (RadCon Manual). Accordingly, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) air monitoring program is being revised and placed on a sound technical basis. A draft technical basis document has been written to establish placement criteria for instruments and to guide the ''retrospective sampling or real-time monitoring'' decision. Facility evaluations are being used to document air sampling/monitoring needs, and instruments are being evaluated in light of these needs. The steps used to develop this program and the technical basis for instrument placement are described

  5. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  6. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  7. Known volume air sampling pump. Final summary report Jun 1975--Nov 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.E.; Peterson, A.

    1976-11-01

    The purpose of this development program was to design and develop a known volume air sampling pump for use in measuring the amount of radioactive material in the atmosphere of an underground uranium mine. The principal nuclear radiation hazard to underground uranium mines comes from the mine atmosphere. Daughter products of radon-222 are inhaled by the miner resulting in a relatively high lung cancer rate among these workers. Current exposure control practice employs spot sampling in working areas to measure working level values. Currently available personal air sampling pumps fail to deliver known volumes of air under widely changing differential pressures. A unique type of gas pump known as the scroll compressor, developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc., that has no values and few moving parts is expected to provide a practical, efficient, and dependable air pump for use in dosimeters. The three deliverable known volume air sampling pumps resulting from this work incorporate a scroll pump, drive motor, speed control electronics, and battery pack in a container suitable for attachment to a miner's belt

  8. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA processing... determination within 20 workdays, we have instituted multitrack processing of requests. Based on the information... source; responsive records were part of the Air Force's decision-making process, and the prerelease...

  9. [Hygienic evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from Magnitogorsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legostaeva, T B; Ingel', F I; Antipanova, N A; Iurchenko, V V; Iuretseva, N A; Kotliar, N N

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the results of 4-year monitoring of the total mutagenic activity of snow samples from different Magnitogork areas in a test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster. An association was first found between the rate of DLM and the content of some chemical compounds in the ambient air and snow samples; moreover all the substances present in the samples, which had found genotoxic effects, showed a positive correlation with the rate of DLM. Furthermore, direct correlations were first established between the rate of DLM and the air pollution index and morbidity rates in 5-7-year-old children residing in the areas under study. The findings allow the test for induction of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) in the gametes of Drosophila melanogaster to be recommended due to its unique informative and prognostic value for monitoring ambient air pollution and for extensive use in the risk assessment system.

  10. Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, C; Tafuri, S; Montenegro, L; Cassano, M; Notarnicola, A; Lattarulo, S; Montagna, M T; Moretti, B

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the level of microbial contamination of air in operating theatres using active [i.e. surface air system (SAS)] and passive [i.e. index of microbial air contamination (IMA) and nitrocellulose membranes positioned near the wound] sampling systems. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and January 2011 in the operating theatre of the orthopaedics department in a university hospital in Southern Italy. During surgery, the mean bacterial loads recorded were 2232.9 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the IMA method, 123.2 cfu/m(3) with the SAS method and 2768.2 cfu/m(2)/h with the nitrocellulose membranes. Correlation was found between the results of the three methods. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 12 of 60 operations (20%) with the membranes, five (8.3%) operations with the SAS method, and three operations (5%) with the IMA method. Use of nitrocellulose membranes placed near a wound is a valid method for measuring the microbial contamination of air. This method was more sensitive than the IMA method and was not subject to any calibration bias, unlike active air monitoring systems. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Programmable automatic alpha--beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed for routine sample counting by operational health physics personnel. The system is composed of an automatic sample changer utilizing a large silicon diode detector, an electronic counting system with energy analysis capability, an automatic data acquisition controller, an interface module, and a teletypewriter with paper tape punch and paper tape reader. The system is operated through the teletypewriter keyboard and the paper tape reader, which are used to instruct the automatic data acquisition controller. Paper tape programs are provided for background counting, Chi 2 test, and sample counting. Output data are printed by the teletypewriter on standard continuous roll or multifold paper. Data are automatically corrected for background and counter efficiency

  12. An advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high-speed matrix printer and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  13. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  14. Air sampling to assess potential generation of aerosolized viable bacteria during flow cytometric analysis of unfixed bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Inglis, Timothy JJ

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated aerosolized viable bacteria in a university research laboratory during operation of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by sampling room air before, during and after flow cytometer use. The aim was to assess the risk associated with use of an acoustic-assisted flow cytometer analyzing unfixed bacterial suspensions. Air sampling in a nearby clinical laboratory was conducted during the same period to provide context for the existing background of microorganisms that would be detected in the air. The three species of bacteria undergoing analysis by flow cytometer in the research laboratory were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Burkholderia thailandensis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. None of these was detected from multiple 1000 L air samples acquired in the research laboratory environment. The main cultured bacteria in both locations were skin commensal and environmental bacteria, presumed to have been disturbed or dispersed in laboratory air by personnel movements during routine laboratory activities. The concentrations of bacteria detected in research laboratory air samples were reduced after interventional cleaning measures were introduced and were lower than those in the diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratory. We conclude that our flow cytometric analyses of unfixed suspensions of K. pneumoniae, B. thailandensis and S. pneumoniae do not pose a risk to cytometer operators or other personnel in the laboratory but caution against extrapolation of our results to other bacteria and/or different flow cytometric experimental procedures. PMID:29608197

  15. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  16. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  17. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor(reg s ign) 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify

  18. Using silver nano particles for sampling of toxic mercury vapors from industrial air sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osanloo

    2014-05-01

    .Conclusion: The presented adsorbent is very useful for sampling of the trace amounts of mercury vapors from air. Moreover, it can be regenerated easily is suitable or sampling at 25 to 70 °C. Due to oxidation of silver and reduction in uptake of nanoparticles, oven temperature of 245 °C is used for the recovery of metallic silver. Low amount of adsorbent, high absorbency, high repeatability for sampling, low cost and high accuracy are of the advantages of the presented method.

  19. Quantitative analysis of untreated oil samples in in-air PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The method of quantitative analysis of oil samples in in-air PIXE has been developed on the basis of a standard-free method. The components of the continuous X-rays originated from air and backing film can be exactly subtracted using a blank spectrum after normalization by the yields of Ar K-α X-rays. The method was developed using nine oil samples including standard oils and its accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained by the internal-standard method. Validity of the method for practical oil samples was confirmed for various kinds of oils such as engine, machine and cooking oils. It was found that the method is effective for various kinds of oils whatever elements we designate as an index element. (author)

  20. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is 20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  1. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is 20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2--3 microns range and > 50% for particles larger than 4 microns. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives

  2. The use of cryogenic air sampling in the spectroscopy of airborne gamma-ray emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1982-01-01

    Wet air can be sampled over a period of four to twelve hours and, with a transfer into a special Marinelli-dewar, can be counted in a spectrometer for several hours. The present minimum detectable amount is about 4 Bq/m 3 for 222 Rn and 220 Rn with liquid air in the counting dewar equivalent to one cubic meter of ambient air. The amount of ambient air sampled can be determined from ambient pressure, temperature, and absolute humidity determinations. Standard meteorological tables are used to determine the weight of ambient air in grams/litre. This quantity divided into the net weight of liquid yields the total litres of ambient air sampled. Tests run so far with 85 Kr indicate that the noble fission gases behave in a manner similar to radon, allowing measurements of stack gases, reactor plumes, etc. The minimum detectable quantity of 85 Kr appears to be about 300 Bq/m 3 , depending upon the 222 Rn and 220 Rn content of the air

  3. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  4. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sáňka, O.; Melymuk, L.; Čupr, P.; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, oct (2014), s. 88-95 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : passive air sampling * air dispersion modeling * GIS * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * emission inventories Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2014

  5. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-11

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is < 10 cm of water, usually < 5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually > 20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2--3 microns range and > 50% for particles larger than 4 microns. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  6. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Crespo, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  7. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswantoro; Sutanto, W.W

    2013-01-01

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  8. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Nie Nuiling; Wang Pingsheng

    1999-01-01

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  9. Air sampling by pumping through a filter: effects of air flow rate, concentration, and decay of airborne substances

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles the issue of interpreting the number of airborne particles adsorbed on a filter through which a certain volume of sampled air has been pumped. This number is equal to the product of the pumped volume and particle concentration in air, but only if the concentration is constant over time and if there is no substance decomposition on the filter during sampling. If this is not the case, one must take into account the inconstancy of the concentration and the decay law for a give...

  10. Air traffic control activity increases attention capacity in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Amorim, Gutemberg Guerra; Ribas, Renata de Melo Guerra; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Lima, Murilo Duarte Costa; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controllers simultaneously develop complex and multiple tasks in the course of their activities. In this context, concern is raised over the high level of attention needed by these professionals which can ultimately be affected by stress and fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess attention level in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCo air traffic control activity after ten years may be associated with a high level of attention.

  11. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Delta O-17(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, Dorota Janina; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Rockmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20m

  12. Determination of iodine 129 in environmental samples from Austria by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karg, V.; Schoenfeld, T.

    1986-11-01

    For various types of samples (thyroids from humans, from game and cows; ground water, snow and air filters) the 129 I-contents, expressed as 129 I/ 127 I-ratio (R), were determined by neutron activation analysis. The method utilises the neutron induced reactions 129 I(n, γ) 130 I and 127 I(n, 2n) 126 I. Four main steps are involved: 1. Separation of iodine from the sample and conversion to a form suitable for neutron irradiation. 2. Irradiation in a reactor. 3. Chemical processing of the irradiated material, i.e. separation of radio-iodine with addition of carrier. 4. Measurement of activities of 130 I and 126 I with a gammaspectrometer. The 129 I/ 127 I-ratio (R) is then obtained by comparing with the activities produced in a reference sample (usually with R = 1.0 x 10 -8 ) which is irradiated simultaneously. Details of the method are presented in the report. R-values between 0.6 x 10 -8 and 39 x 10 -8 were found. The highest values were those of snow and game thyroids. Ground water contained very little 129 I. The results confirm the expectation that 129 I enters the biosphere mainly via air and precipitation. (Author)

  13. The use of biomonitors and neutron activation analysis in the study of air pollution of Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Adler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitors were used as part of a pollution study of Buenos Aires city atmosphere under the International Atomic Energy Agency Research Contract ARG 7251, from the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear Related Analytical Techniques. Lichens were primarily selected as indicators. Two different approaches were conducted, direct sampling of Parmotrema reticulatum, at a few places and the use of lichen bags, filled with Usnea sulcata from a northern national park, and hung at different sites. Simultaneously, tree bark was tried as biomonitor. Platanus acerifolia and Melia azedarach were selected as candidates, for being the most common trees in the city, but only P. acerifolia was analyzed. All the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of the National Atomic Energy Commission. RA-3) reactor was used for the irradiations, determining: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Concentration values for P. reticulatum compared well with values from literature. For U. sulcata differences were found among the tested sites and also, for some elements an increasing trend with time was observed. Enrichment factors calculated using Sc as reference and Mason's crustal average concentrations showed vehicules and refuse incineration as contributing sources to the aerosol. Tree bark from Buenos Aires and from a smaller city with mainly agricultural activities were analyzed and the results are coincident with those from lichens. This work is the first and preliminar contribution to the study of Buenos Aires aerosol using biomonitors. (author)

  14. Study on air pollution monitoring in Korea using low volume air sampler by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Jong Hwa Moon, Young Ju Chung; Seung Yeon Cho; Sang Hun Kang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the use of nuclear analytical techniques for air pollution studies and to study the feasibility of the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine monitoring tool to reveal environmental pollution sources. For the collection of air particulate samples, the Gent stacked filter unit, low volume sampler with Nucleopore membrane filters were used. Trace elements in samples collected at two suburban residential sites, Taejon and Wonju city in the Republic of Korea, were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the elemental concentrations were measured monthly and the enrichment factors were calculated for the fine (< 2 μm EAD) and coarse size (2-10 μm EAD) fractions. The analytical data were treated statistically to estimate the relationship between the two variables, the concentrations of elements and the total suspended particulate matter. The results were used to describe the emission source and their correlation. (author)

  15. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  16. Physical distributions of radon decay chain activities in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of short-lived radon decay chain activities in air - in time, space and on aerosols - determines their exposure potential and measurement thereof. The radioactive decay constants and flow variables in a flow system combine, yielding activity concentration distributions and ratios of concentrations characteristic of the flow scheme, its source(s) and sink(s). The clock of 'internal' decay constants allows the unraveling of characteristics of the flow scheme from activity concentration measurements of individual members of a decay chain. Basic flow string calculations are shown. These can be assembled to define or simulate concentrations in a single- or multiple-compartment flow network. Response calculations to single- and multiple-step, or continuous changes in sources and sinks yield time-, spatial- and attachment-distributions. For the short-lived 222 Rn and 212 Pb decay chains the decay constants of the shorter-lived progeny in relation to the parent impose air activity ratios on successive chain members. Ratio limits had been used in the past to improve older grab-sampling- or integral gross-alpha measurement procedures for assessing exposure level. Assessment of individual concentrations, ratios and their distributions enables unravelling of dynamic flow systems, with restriction from the range of the parameters of flow and decay. An activity measuring instrument by itself represents a flow system with a response time distribution. Instrument response correction during continuous or quasi-continuous sampling and continuous spectrometric measurement allows far more accurate time-resolved measurement evaluation of continuously varying air concentrations, than previously attainable. Strong diurnal or even shorter (≤ 1 hr) changes probably are the norm in indoor and outdoor air activity concentrations. A mere average response evaluation, as used in steady state instrument calibration, and using less efficient instruments, is usually inadequate

  17. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  18. Air pollution monitoring of an urban dust in Daejeon city, Korea by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Hark-Rho Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2008-01-01

    For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified reference materials. (author)

  19. Recommended radiological air sampling and internal contamination control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.; Ritter, P.D.; Martz, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been recognized by the NRC Technical Staffs that estimating the quantity of radioactivity inhaled by an individual worker involved large uncertainties. General air samples usually produce concentrations lower than those in the workers Breathing Zone (BZ). NRC guides have recognized this problem by specifying air monitoring programs which sample the Breathing Zone or concentrations known to be higher than that actually inhaled. In addition the availability of suitable samplers to obtain BZ samples and the practicality of requiring their use was somewhat in question to the NRC technical staff. AN NRC development contract was issued to provide a detailed review of the technical aspects of the problems and recommendations for practical upgrade of federal guidance. This project accomplished a review of the nuclear industry experience and knowledge through a literature search, site visits to representative licensed facilities, telephone surveys of many others, laboratory testing of personal air samplers (lapel samplers) and aerosol diffusion experiments to verify key conclusions and assumptions

  20. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Foley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao Jin [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Wan, Pingyu [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Foley, Roy [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Cooperative activation of transcription by autoimmune regulator AIRE and CBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Rebane, A.; Rowell, J.; Murumaegi, A.; Stroebel, P.; Moell, K.; Saare, M.; Heikkilae, J.; Doucas, V.; Marx, A.; Peterson, P.

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcriptional regulator that is believed to control the expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymus. Mutated AIRE is responsible for onset of the hereditary autoimmune disease APECED. AIRE is able to form nuclear bodies (NBs) and interacts with the ubiquitous transcriptional coactivator CBP. In this paper, we show that CBP and AIRE synergistically activate transcription on different promoter reporters whereas AIRE gene mutation R257X, found in APECED patients, interferes with this coactivation effect. Furthermore, the overexpression of AIRE and CBP collaboratively enhance endogenous IFNβ mRNA expression. The immunohistochemical studies suggest that CBP, depending on the balance of nuclear proteins, is a component of AIRE NBs. We also show that AIRE NBs are devoid of active chromatin and, therefore, not sites of transcription. In addition, we demonstrate by 3D analyses that AIRE and CBP, when colocalizing, are located spatially differently within AIRE NBs. In conclusion, our data suggest that AIRE activates transcription of the target genes, i.e., autoantigens in collaboration with CBP and that this activation occurs outside of AIRE NBs

  3. Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike; Blöcher, Guido

    2011-09-01

    We report on changes in rock permeability induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air (dry) for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the reaction kinetics, so induced changes in porosity, and the concurrent evolution of sample permeability were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate and complete dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity showed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% to 30%, whilst the initial bulk volume remained unchanged. Within these limits permeability significantly increased with porosity by almost three orders of magnitude from approximately 7 × 10-19 m2 to 3 × 10-16 m2. We show that - when mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks can be excluded - permeability, reaction progress, and porosity are related unequivocally.

  4. A newly developed grab sampling system for collecting stratospheric air over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Honda

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the concentrations of various minor constituents and their isotopic ratios in the stratosphere over Antarctica, a simple grab sampling system was newly developed. The sampling system was designed to be launched by a small number of personnel using a rubber balloon under severe experimental conditions. Special attention was paid to minimize the contamination of sample air, as well as to allow easy handling of the system. The sampler consisted mainly of a 15l sample container with electromagnetic and manual valves, control electronics for executing the air sampling procedures and sending the position and status information of the sampler to the ground station, batteries and a transmitter. All these parts were assembled in an aluminum frame gondola with a shock absorbing system for landing. The sampler was equipped with a turn-over mechanism of the gondola to minimize contamination from the gondola, as well as with a GPS receiver and a rawinsonde for its tracking. Total weight of the sampler was about 11kg. To receive, display and store the position and status data of the sampling system at the ground station, a simple data acquisition system with a portable receiver and a microcomputer was also developed. A new gas handling system was prepared to simplify the injection of He gas into the balloon. For air sampling experiments, three sampling systems were launched at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E, Antarctica and then recovered on sea ice near the station on January 22 and 25,1996.

  5. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  6. Dioxin emission factors for automobiles from tunnel air sampling in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Chang, Shu Hao; Chen, Yuan Wu; Hsu, Hsuan Chien

    2004-06-05

    This study measured PCDD/F concentrations in tunnel air and vehicle exhaust. The ambient air samples were collected with air samplers (Tisch PS-1) complying with USEPA TO-9A. The results indicate that the tunnel air had a PCDD/F TEQ concentration about two times as high as that of outside air (47.3 and 57.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for tunnel air vs. 37.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 and 23.3 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for outside air, respectively). This provides the direct evidence that PCDD/F compounds are emitted from the combustion processes in gasoline- and diesel-fueled engines. According to the tunnel study, the emission factors ranged from 5.83 to 59.2 pg I-TEQ/km for gasoline vehicles and 23.32 to 236.65 pg I-TEQ/km of diesel vehicles. This indicates that the dioxin emission factor in Taiwan is lower than that measured in USA, Norway and Germany. When the speed of the diesel vehicle was set at 40 km/h, the dioxin concentration emitted from diesel vehicle was 278 pg/m3 (6.27 pg-I-TEQ/m3) from tailpipe testing. However, when the diesel vehicle was idled, the dioxin concentration increased greatly to 4078 pg/m3 (41.9 pg-I-TEQ/m3). From the results of tunnel air sampling, the PCDD/Fs emission from automobiles in Taiwan was estimated as 3.69 g I-TEQ per year. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Zhang, Sheng; Ji, Mengmeng; Guan, Chenghua

    2018-03-01

    This study systematically reviewed literature regarding the impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among children and adults. Keyword and reference search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to systematically identify articles meeting all of the following criteria - study designs: interventions or experiments, retrospective or prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies; subjects: adults; exposures: specific air pollutants and overall air quality; outcomes: physical activity and sedentary behaviour; article types: peer-reviewed publications; and language: articles written in English. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size of ambient PM 2.5 air pollution on physical inactivity. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them, six were conducted in the United States, and one was conducted in the United Kingdom. Six adopted a cross-sectional study design, and one used a prospective cohort design. Six had a sample size larger than 10,000. Specific air pollutants assessed included PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O 3 , and NO x , whereas two studies focused on overall air quality. All studies found air pollution level to be negatively associated with physical activity and positively associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Study participants, and particularly those with respiratory disease, self-reported a reduction in outdoor activities to mitigate the detrimental impact of air pollution. Meta-analysis revealed a one unit (μg/m 3 ) increase in ambient PM 2.5 concentration to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 1.1% (odds ratio = 1.011; 95% confidence interval = 1.001, 1.021; p-value air pollution discouraged physical activity. Current literature predominantly adopted a cross-sectional design and focused on the United States. Future studies are warranted to implement a longitudinal study design and evaluate the impact of air pollution on physical

  8. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  9. Sources of present Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in surface air and deposition samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg

    1992-01-01

    The sources of Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in air and deposition samples collected from mid-1986 to end-1990 at Munich- Neuherberg, Germany, were investigated. Local resuspension has been found to be the main source. By comparison with deposition data from other locations it is estimated that within a range from 20 Bq m -2 to 60 kBq m -2 of initially deposited 137 Cs activity ∼2% is re-deposited by the process of local resuspension in Austria, Germany, Japan and United Kingdom, while significantly higher total resuspension is to be expected for Denmark and Finland. Stratospheric contribution to present concentrations is shown to be negligible. This is confirmed by cross correlation analysis between the time series of 137 Cs in air and precipitation before and after the Chernobyl accident and the respective time series of cosmogenic 7 Be, which is an indicator of stratospheric input. Seasonal variations of caesium concentrations with maxima in winter were observed. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city using neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Tafuri, V.; Custo, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Buenos Aires city and its surroundings, has a huge population and very dense traffic. There are many possible pollution sources that can be identified, but other characteristics such as weather and location counteract some of these sources to the benefit of the atmosphere of the city. Although several groups have been working on these subjects, there is not enough information about which elements are present in Buenos Aires air. The aim of this project is to provide information about the elemental profile of the atmosphere of the city and to evaluate and to make an interpretation of the obtained data. Both XRF and INAA are going to be used for analyzing the air filter samples with the participation of the Meteorological Service in sampling and interpretation of the results. By choosing adequate sampling sites and times, differences between day/night, week day/weekend will be looked for. The influence of non-leaded petrols will be studied. Some work on air samples was done before the beginning of this contract to settle future working conditions. Some results from this study are presented only as preliminary ones. Sampling will begin during this April at two sites with different traffic density. For both XRF and NAA suitable standards will be prepared. Medium and long lived nuclides are going to be analyzed by INAA. Plans for 1993 are given as well as possible collaboration with other groups in the country. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  11. Air sampling in the workplace to meet the new part 20 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.; Hickey, E.E.; Knox, W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a Regulatory Guide on air sampling in the workplace to meet the requirements of the revised Part 20. The guide will be accompanied by a technical manual describing and giving examples of how to meet the recommendations in the guide. Draft versions of the guide and manual are scheduled to be published for public comment this year. A final guide and manual, revised to consider the public comments, are scheduled to be published in 1992. This talk will summarize some of the more important features of the guide and manual. In particular, the talk will discuss how to demonstrate that samples taken to estimate worker intakes are representative of the air inhaled by workers and what measurements are necessary if a licensee wants to adjust derived air concentrations to account for particle size

  12. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  13. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkunov, K.A., E-mail: moshkunov@gmail.co [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid, K.; Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M. [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-30

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D{sub 2}O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of {approx}300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  14. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkunov, K.A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M.

    2010-01-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2 O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ∼300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  15. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkunov, K. A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Gasparyan, Yu. M.

    2010-09-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ˜300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  16. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...... with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers....

  17. Sampling strategies for the analysis of reactive low-molecular weight compounds in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, H.

    2006-01-01

    Within this thesis, new sampling and analysis strategies for the determination of airborne workplace contaminants have been developed. Special focus has been directed towards the development of air sampling methods that involve diffusive sampling. In an introductory overview, the current

  18. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy HSRCM-1, the ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual.'' Article 551.4 of that manual states a requirement for a documented study of facility workplace air sampling programs (WPAS). This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE/EH-0256T ''US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual'' as it applies to programs at Hanford. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. There are also several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of 300 Areas' workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance. The areas evaluated were the 340 Facility, the Advanced Reactor Operations Division Facilities, the N Reactor Fuels Supply Facility, and The Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory

  19. Air monitoring activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Mickunas, D.; Campagna, P.; Burchette, S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducted air monitoring activities during the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. This paper describes ERT's response actions and analytical support. It covers ERT activities from the morning of September 11 to October 17, 2001 when ERT was alerted of anthrax activities in Washington, DC and Boca Raton, Florida. ERT members provided technical support regarding respirator/personnel protective equipment selection, decontamination and health and safety protocols. In the first few weeks, ERT was also providing analytical laboratory support to the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York City Department of Health. ERT also provided on-site gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis via the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) bus, providing real-time direct readings to the EPA and the New York Fire Department. Site boundary air monitoring stations were maintained until early November at which point the EPA Region 2 took over all monitoring responsibilities. Air sampling efforts were initially directed at worker health and safety and the surrounding environments. Air sampling was conducted for asbestos, acid gases, heavy metals, phosgene, mercury, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The sampling activities were later expanded to include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Site assessment is still ongoing. What began as a typical emergency response air sampling effort soon became a huge air monitoring effort with the original six stations expanded to more than 20. ERT made every effort to collect, analyze, quality assure and transfer data for posting on publicly accessible website within less than 24 hours. It was noted that one of the lessons learned from the disaster is

  20. Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosy, Caroline; Krampf, Karina; Zeeman, Matthias; Wolf, Benjamin; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-08-01

    The state and composition of the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), i.e., the atmospheric surface layer (SL), reflects the interactions of external forcing, land surface, vegetation, human influence and the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of atmospheric variables in the SL at high spatial (meters) and temporal (1 Hz and better) resolution increase our understanding of these interactions but are still challenging to measure appropriately. Traditional ground-based observations include towers that often cover only a few measurement heights at a fixed location. At the same time, most remote sensing techniques and aircraft measurements have limitations to achieve sufficient detail close to the ground (up to 50 m). Vertical and horizontal transects of the PBL can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Our aim in this case study is to assess the use of a multicopter-type UAV for the spatial sampling of air and simultaneously the sensing of meteorological variables for the study of the surface exchange processes. To this end, a UAV was equipped with onboard air temperature and humidity sensors, while wind conditions were determined from the UAV's flight control sensors. Further, the UAV was used to systematically change the location of a sample inlet connected to a sample tube, allowing the observation of methane abundance using a ground-based analyzer. Vertical methane gradients of about 0.3 ppm were found during stable atmospheric conditions. Our results showed that both methane and meteorological conditions were in agreement with other observations at the site during the ScaleX-2015 campaign. The multicopter-type UAV was capable of simultaneous in situ sensing of meteorological state variables and sampling of air up to 50 m above the surface, which extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of 5.

  1. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ''US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual'' as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms' workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance

  2. Technical assessment of TRUSAF for compliance with work place air sampling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy WHC-CM-1-6, the ''WHC Radiological Control Manual.'' This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. this document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of the TRUSAF workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance

  3. Sampling problems and the determination of mercury in surface water, seawater, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; van der Sloot, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of surface water for mercury comprises the determination of both ionic and organically bound mercury in solution and that of the total mercury content of the suspended matter. Eventually, metallic mercury has to be determined too. Requirements for the sampling procedure are given. A method for the routine determination of mercury in surface water and seawater was developed and applied to Dutch surface waters. The total sample volume is 2500 ml. About 500 ml is used for the determination of the content of suspended matter and the total amount of mercury in the water. The sample is filtered through a bed of previously purified active charcoal at a low flow-rate. The main portion ca. 2000 ml) passes a flow-through centrifuge to separate the solid fraction. One liter is used to separate ''inorganic'' mercury by reduction, volatilization in an airstream and adsorption on active charcoal. The other liter is led through a column of active charcoal to collect all mercury. The procedures were checked with 197 Hg radiotracer both as an ion and incorporated in organic compounds. The mercury is determined by thermal neutron activation, followed by volatilization in a tube furnace and adsorption on a fresh carbon bed. The limit of determination is approximately equal to 1 ng 1 -1 . The rate of desorption from and adsorption on suspended material has been measured as a function of a pH of the solution for Hg +2 and various other ions. It can be concluded that only the procedure mentioned above does not disturb the equilibrium. The separation of mercury from air is obtained by suction of 1 m 3 through a 0.22 μm filter and a charcoal bed. The determination is then performed as in the case of the water samples

  4. Elemental analysis of air particulate samples in Jakarta area by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Yusuf, M.; Mellawati, June; Menry, Yulizon; Surtipanti S

    1998-01-01

    Determination of elements in air particulate samples collected from Jakarta, especially from industrial area Pulo Gadung, also from residence, office, and recreation sites had been carried out. The samples collected periodically from August through December 1996. The elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using QXAS AXIL (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System of x-ray Spectra by Iterative Least squares fitting) and QAES (Quantitative Analyses of Environmental Samples) package program. Results of the analyses showed that the content of heavy metal elements in air particulate samples from all areas studied were still below the maximum permissible concentration. (authors)

  5. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices. - Submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices

  6. Technical assessment of compliance with work place air sampling requirements at T Plant. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE requires its contractors to conduct air sampling to detect and evaluate airborne radioactive material in the workplace. Hanford Reservation T Plant compliance with workplace air sampling requirements has been assessed. Requirements, basis for determining compliance and recommendations are included

  7. Application of two analytic techniques of sampling for the determination of aldehydes in air and in rain water in three areas of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Montero, D. I

    2001-01-01

    The aldehydes are of supreme interest in the quality of the air of Costa Rica; reason why it is very important to determine them qualitative and quantitatively. This study has as objectives the identification and quantification of aldehydes in samples of air and of rain water in three areas of Costa Rica, to compare two methods of taking of samples of air and to correlate the concentration of the aldehydes in the different points of taking of samples. The sampling one carries out in three located stations, in the Hill of the Piroclasticos (3 km. To the Northeast of the active crater of the Volcano Irazu), Escazu (it plants potabilizadora of water) and in Turrucares (facilities of the Rural Watch). The used sampling devices, denuders and cartridges, they were recovered with a breakup of 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina o'clock like absorbent reagent, which I form the corresponding hidrazonas in presence of the aldehydes. The identification and quantification of the aldehydes, one carries out by means of chromatography it liquidates of high resolution. The comparison among the concentrations of the aldehydes in air gathered by the two used sampling methods indicates that a significant difference exists among them, at a level of trust of 95% [es

  8. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  9. Sources of present Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in surface air and deposition samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen-und Umweltforschung Munich, Neuherberg (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1992-06-01

    The sources of Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in air and deposition samples collected from mid-1986 to end-1990 at Munich- Neuherberg, Germany, were investigated. Local resuspension has been found to be the main source. By comparison with deposition data from other locations it is estimated that within a range from 20 Bq m[sup -2] to 60 kBq m[sup -2] of initially deposited [sup 137]Cs activity [approx]2% is re-deposited by the process of local resuspension in Austria, Germany, Japan and United Kingdom, while significantly higher total resuspension is to be expected for Denmark and Finland. Stratospheric contribution to present concentrations is shown to be negligible. This is confirmed by cross correlation analysis between the time series of [sup 137]Cs in air and precipitation before and after the Chernobyl accident and the respective time series of cosmogenic [sup 7]Be, which is an indicator of stratospheric input. Seasonal variations of caesium concentrations with maxima in winter were observed. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  10. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  11. 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  12. Gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-08-01

    A method of gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxygen, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a static system. Conditions for the application of the method in dynamic systems are specified. Sensibility of the method: 5 10 -4 cm 3 Ar per cm 3 of air. (author)

  13. Early Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus from Infected Cattle Using A Dry Filter Air Sampling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, J M; Brito, B; Hartwig, E; Smoliga, G R; Perez, A; Arzt, J; Rodriguez, L L

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. In the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with FDMV A24 Cruzeiro of different virulence levels was sampled to assess the feasibility of applying air sampling as a non-invasive, screening tool to identify sources of FMDV infection. Detection of FMDV RNA in air was compared with first detection of clinical signs and FMDV RNA levels in serum and oral fluid. FMDV RNA was detected in room air samples 1-3 days prior (seven animals) or on the same day (four animals) as the appearance of clinical signs in 11 of 12 individually housed cattle. Only in one case clinical signs preceded detection in air samples by one day. Overall, viral RNA in oral fluid or serum preceded detection in air samples by 1-2 days. Six individually housed animals inoculated with attenuated strains did not show clinical signs, but virus was detected in air in one of these cases 3 days prior to first detection in oral fluid. In groups of four cattle housed together, air detection always preceded appearance of clinical signs by 1-2 days and coincided more often with viral shedding in oral fluid than virus in blood. These data confirm that air sampling is an effective non-invasive screening method for detecting FMDV infection in confined to enclosed spaces (e.g. auction barns, milking parlours). This technology could be a useful tool as part of a surveillance strategy during FMD prevention, control or eradication efforts. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U), plutonium ( 238 Pu, 239/249 Pu), and americium ( 241 Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements

  15. Chemosorption sampling and analysis of formaldehyde in air. Influence on recovery during the simultaneous sampling of formaldehyde, phenol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.; Hallgren, C.; Levin, J.O.; Nilsson, C.A.

    1981-12-01

    A method based on trapping formaldehyde on a 2,4-dinitrodinitrophenylhydrazine-coated porous polymer (Amberlite XAD-2) was evaluated for air sampling in occupational environments. The aldehyde is converted to its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone on the adsorbent. The influence of some organic compounds which often occur together with formaldehyde-furfural, phenol and furfuryl alcohol--was studied. The results show that the method allows the sampling of formaldehyde in the range 0.01--1.0 mg/m3 of air, based on a 3-1 (15 min) sample and a coating of 1%. Furfural, phenol, and furfuryl alcohol do not interfere and may be conveniently sampled at the same time. Formaldehyde and furfural hydrazones were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, phenol and furfuryl alcohol by gas chromatography.

  16. Determination of fragrance allergens in indoor air by active sampling followed by ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-03-19

    Fragrances are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, present in the most of household products, air fresheners, insecticides and cosmetics. Commercial perfumes may contain hundreds of individual fragrance chemicals. In addition to the widespread use and exposure to fragranced products, many of the raw fragrance materials have limited available health and safety data. Because of their nature as artificial fragrances, inhalation should be considered as an important exposure pathway, especially in indoor environments. In this work, a very simple, fast, and sensitive methodology for the analysis of 24 fragrance allergens in indoor air is presented. Considered compounds include those regulated by the EU Directive, excluding limonene; methyl eugenol was also included due to its toxicity. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a very low amount of adsorbent to retain the target compounds, and the rapid ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) using a very low volume of solvent which avoids further extract concentration. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influence of main factors involved in the UAE step (type of adsorbent and solvent, solvent volume and extraction time) was studied using an experimental design approach to account for possible factor interactions. Using the optimized procedure, 0.2 m(-3) air are sampled, analytes are retained on 25 mg Florisil, from which they are extracted by UAE (5 min) with 2 mL ethyl acetate. Linearity was demonstrated in a wide concentration range. Efficiency of the total sampling-extraction process was studied at several concentration levels (1, 5 and 125 microg m(-3)), obtaining quantitative recoveries, and good precision (RSD<10%). Method detection limits were < or =0.6 microg m(-3). Finally, the proposed method was applied to real samples collected in indoor environments in which several of the target compounds were determined. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B

  17. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992

  18. BIBLE A whole-air sampling as a window on Asian biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Sive, Barkley C.; Smith, Felisa A.

    2003-02-01

    Asian trace gas and aerosol emissions into carbon, nitrogen, and other elemental cycles will figure prominently in near term Earth system evolution. Atmospheric hydrocarbon measurements resolve numerous chemical species and can be used to investigate sourcing for key geocarriers. A recent aircraft study of biomass burning and lightning (BIBLE A) explored the East Asian atmosphere and was unique in centering on the Indonesian archipelago. Samples of volatile organics taken over/between the islands of Japan, Saipan, Java, and Borneo are here examined as a guide to whole-air-based studies of future Asian biogeochemistry. The midlatitude onshore/offshore pulse and tropical convection strongly influence concentration distributions. As species of increasing molecular weight are considered, rural, combustion, and industrial source regimes emerge. Methane-rich inputs such as waste treatment and rice cultivation are evidenced in the geostrophic outflow. The Indonesian atmosphere is rich in biomass burning markers and also those of vehicular activity. Complexity of air chemistry in the archipelago is a direct reflection of diverse topography, land use, and local economies in a rapidly developing nation. Conspicuous in its absence is the fingerprint for liquefied petroleum gas leakage, but it can be expected to appear as demand for clean fossil fuels rises along with per capita incomes. Combustion tracers indicate high nitrogen mobilization rates, linking regional terrestrial geocycles with open marine ecosystems. Sea to air fluxes are superimposed on continental and marine backgrounds for the methyl halides. However, ocean hot spots are not coordinated and suggest an intricate subsurface kinetics. Levels of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons attest to the success of international environmental treaties while reactive chlorine containing species track industrial air masses. The dozens of hydrocarbons resolvable by gas chromatographic methods will enable monitoring of

  19. The sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method is suggested for the sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper instead of bubblers. The best aqueous impregnating solution contained potassium hydroxide with glycerol or triethanolamine. The possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. High collection

  20. Rapid sampling of BTEX in air by SPME in the city of Nice and at the Nice-Cote d'Azur airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumbiolo, S.; Gal, J.F.; Maria, P.Ch.; Laborde, P.; Teton, S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a tentative application of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) to the analysis of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) at the μg/m 3 level in indoor and outdoor air. The salient features of the method validation are reported. Sampling by QUALITAIR using Radiello passive samplers, was carried out from 2001 to 2004 in the city of Nice and its airport. Urban traffic impact was proved, but a link between BTX concentrations and the variations of airport activities was not clearly established. During the same period, several samplings were performed using SPME. Taking into account the short (30 minutes) sampling time, rapid changes of BTEX concentrations were evidenced, as for example the start of airplane engines. As field studies have shown, SPME technique appears as a method of choice for fast qualitative analysis and quantitative determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). The small dimensions of the SPME sampling system and the short sampling time let envisage its utilisation for the rapid diagnostic and the monitoring of indoor air quality. (author)

  1. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  2. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  3. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Corzo

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  4. Studies on radioactivities of dust samples in the air at high altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Eri; Muronoi, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of airborne dust samples were studied. The samples had been collected at high altitude by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force from April 2013 to March 2014. The obtained data were used for gross beta radioactivity analysis and gamma nuclide analysis. It is shown that cesium 137 was mainly detected at the 10 km and 3 km altitude of central area of Japan in several samples. Gaseous radioiodine was not detected in all the samples. Radioactive xenon was detected but the concentration did not show significant difference to the background level. (author)

  5. Early air sampling in Higashi-Hiroshima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and subsequent sampling in Minami-Souma City from October 2011 to September 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, air sampling was performed in Higashi-Hiroshima (about 800 km from Fukushima). The sampling began on March 20, and a high-volume air sampler was used. The first radionuclide observed was "1"3"1I (on March 30), and "1"3"7Cs, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"6Cs, and "1"3"2Te were observed thereafter. According to the sampling, the maximum concentration in the air occurred on April 7 and again on April 18. After April 30, no radionuclides released due to the accident were observed. Since "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs have a long half-life (30 and 2 y, respectively), all of the air filters were measured again in February through March of 2012 using a well-type Ge detector. The results of these measurements showed that "1"3"7Cs was already observed on March 21. Later on, air sampling was performed at Minami-Souma City, Fukushima (October 2011 to September 2012). The purpose of this sampling was to investigate whether any radionuclides were released from the forest and flew up into the air from the ground, or were carried by the wind in winter or via pollen in spring. Results showed that the radioactive concentration was quite low and no seasonal variation occurred, indicating that no radionuclides flew up into the air from the ground, nor were any released from the forest via wind or pollen. (author)

  6. Application of the CaF2(Eu) scintillator to 85Kr monitoring in atmospheric air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, Ludmila; Dvorak, Zdenek; Tomasek, Milan; Stukheil, Karel

    1986-01-01

    A detection system with a CaF 2 (Eu) scintillator has been developed for monitoring β-radiation of 85 Kr in atmospheric air samples. The geometry of the detector chamber was optimized to achieve maximum detection efficiency. The design of the detector is described and values of the detection efficiency are presented for various compositions and pressures of the gaseous samples. The conditions for calibration of the detector used for monitoring of 85 Kr in enriched air samples have been established. (author)

  7. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, 237 U, 238 U, 239 Np, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 242 Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for 241 Am and 244 Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Radiation damage of paper samples in in-air PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Endo, H.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Tokai, Y.; Sugimoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Satoh, T.; Orihara, H.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of paper caused by beam irradiation was investigated from a viewpoint of discoloration in PIXE analysis and its application to the paper samples of archaeology. Two types of paper (Japanese paper and fine quality paper) were tested in in-air PIXE analysis with 3 MeV protons. The degree of discoloration was quantitatively measured by the use of a colorimeter. The degree of discoloration was different for each tested paper and corresponded to the radiation dose of ions. It is resulted that even the in-air PIXE analysis should be carefully applied to archaeological treasures. Because discoloration of all tested paper decreased gradually at first but then increased after a few weeks. However, this phenomenon can be used to develop a technique of funny coloration. (author)

  9. Radiation damage of paper samples in in-air PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, S.; Endo, H.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Tokai, Y.; Sugimoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Satoh, T. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Orihara, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    1999-07-01

    Degradation of paper caused by beam irradiation was investigated from a viewpoint of discoloration in PIXE analysis and its application to the paper samples of archaeology. Two types of paper (Japanese paper and fine quality paper) were tested in in-air PIXE analysis with 3 MeV protons. The degree of discoloration was quantitatively measured by the use of a colorimeter. The degree of discoloration was different for each tested paper and corresponded to the radiation dose of ions. It is resulted that even the in-air PIXE analysis should be carefully applied to archaeological treasures. Because discoloration of all tested paper decreased gradually at first but then increased after a few weeks. However, this phenomenon can be used to develop a technique of funny coloration. (author)

  10. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assonov, S.S.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Koeppel, C.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and

  11. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  12. Advances on the study of air pollution in Cordoba by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Jasan, Raquel C.; Pignata, Maria L.

    1999-01-01

    Air pollution biomonitoring has been carried out in an area of 160.000 km 2 by neutron activation analysis of lichen samples (Usnea sp. and Ramalina ecklonii) in the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme of the IAEA and an ARCAL Technical Co-operation Project. The samples were irradiated in the RA-3 reactor and after a decay time of 6, 12 and 30 days, 24 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) were determined by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  13. Molecular Biological Characterization of Air Samples: A Survey of Four Strategically Important Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesconi, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    .... In support of this requirement, the Joint Program Office for Biological Defense initiated an aggressive program incorporating the development of air-sampling and agent detecting devices, coined...

  14. Ambient air sampling of organic pollutants and heavy metals within the EU/93/AIR/22 PHARE Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the project the concentrations of eight heavy metals, vapour mercury, seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's, ten polychlordibenzofuran congeners, eighteen polychlorinated biphenyls, two chlorinated pesticides (hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT), fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, forty-two volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles were analysed. The morphology characterization of collected airborne particles and bioassays aimed at the evaluation of the mutagenic potency of pollutants present in collected air were also performed. Ambient air heavy metals were caught on cellulose filters using the same type of the sampler used for semi-volatile compounds sampling and analysed by atomic spectrometry. Vapour mercury was trapped on gold sand packed in a tube through which about 280 L of ambient air during 24 hours were drawn. On-site analysis was performed by an atomic fluorescence analyzer. Inhalable air particles, i.e particles less than 10 μm in diameter were collected by a sampler equipped with a cascade impactor fractionating into five size fractions involving respirable (<3 μm) fractions. The morphology and composition of the respirable fractions was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

  15. Continuous air monitor correlation to fixed air sample data at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous air monitoring instruments (CAMS) deployed in laboratories in the TA-55 plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) alarmed less than 33 percent of the time when fixed air sample measurements in the same laboratory showed integrated concentrations exceeding 500 DAC-hrs. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of non-instrument variables on alarm sensitivities for properly working CAMS. Non-instrument variables include air flow patterns, particle size of released material, and the energy of the release. Dilution Factors (DFs) for 21 airborne releases in various rooms and of different magnitudes were calculated and compared. The median DF for releases where the CAM alarmed was 13.1 while the median DF for releases where the CAM did not alarm was 179. Particle sizes ranged considerably with many particles larger than 10 μm. The cause of the release was found to be important in predicting if a CAM would alarm with releases from bagouts resulting in the greatest percentage of CAM alarms. The results of this study suggest that a two-component strategy for CAM placement at LANL be utilized. The first component would require CAMs at exhaust points in the rooms to provide for reliable detection for random release locations. The second component would require placing CAMs at locations where releases have historically been seen. Finally, improvements in CAM instrumentation is needed

  16. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  17. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  18. Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis of Heterogeneous Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Tzika, F.

    2018-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) technique was developed for non-destructive analysis of heterogeneous bulk samples. The technique incorporated collimated scanning and combining experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations for the identification of inhomogeneities in large volume samples and the correction of their effect on the interpretation of gamma-spectrometry data. Corrections were applied for the effect of neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation, geometrical factor and heterogeneous activity distribution within the sample. A benchmark experiment was performed to investigate the effect of heterogeneity on the accuracy of LSNAA. Moreover, a ceramic vase was analyzed as a whole demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. The LSNAA results were compared against results obtained by INAA and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. This study showed that LSNAA is a technique capable to perform accurate non-destructive, multi-elemental compositional analysis of heterogeneous objects. It also revealed the great potential of the technique for the analysis of precious objects and artefacts that need to be preserved intact and cannot be damaged for sampling purposes. (author)

  19. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (West Germany))

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, {sup 237}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 242}Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  1. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  2. Spoilage-related activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains in air-stored and vacuum-packed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2011-10-01

    One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall.

  3. Scheduling whole-air samples above the Trade Wind Inversion from SUAS using real-time sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, J. E.; Greatwood, C.; Thomas, R.; Richardson, T.; Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) are increasingly being used in science applications for a range of applications. Here we explore their use to schedule the sampling of air masses up to 2.5km above ground using computer controlled bespoked Octocopter platforms. Whole-air sampling is targeted above, within and below the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI). On-board sensors profiled the TWI characteristics in real time on ascent and, hence, guided the altitudes at which samples were taken on descent. The science driver for this research is investigation of the Southern Methane Anomaly and, more broadly, the hemispheric-scale transport of long-lived atmospheric tracers in the remote troposphere. Here we focus on the practical application of SUAS for this purpose. Highlighting the need for mission planning, computer control, onboard sensors and logistics in deploying such technologies for out of line-of-sight applications. We show how such a platform can be deployed successfully, resulting in some 60 sampling flights within a 10 day period. Challenges remain regarding the deployment of such platforms routinely and cost-effectively, particularly regarding training and support. We present some initial results from the methane sampling and its implication for exploring and understanding the Southern Methane Anomaly.

  4. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen…

  5. Effect of Dissolved Air Flotation Process on Thickening of Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamaleki A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Sludge is an inescapable component of all wastewaters that originated from their treatment. dissolved air flotation (DAF process as an alternative clarifier is used in treatment of drinking water, pretreatment of wastewater, and as a phase separator in sludge activation processes. This study aimed to calibrated the usage of DAF process in a laboratory scale and under various conditions, to achieve the optimum efficiency in recycling the activated sludge. Instrument & Methods: In this experimental study, of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti hospital and immediately transported to the laboratory. The optimal dose of polyaluminum chloride coagulant and pH was determined and then applied in DAF process. Finally turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total solids (TS parameters were measured and compared with control sample. Findings: The optimal pH and optimal dose of coagulant were 6.5 and 25mg/l, respectively. Also Optimal process efficiency to reduce EC, TS and turbidity parameters were 23.4, 44.5 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: Dissolved air flotation process removes the turbidity, EC and TS effectively; however, it has minimal impact on EC and TS.

  6. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Membrive

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 (Karion et al., 2010. It consists of a long (>  100 m and narrow (<  1 cm stainless steel tube that can retain a profile of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives to (i better capture the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4, (ii provide a tool to compare AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by AirCores. This (high-resolution AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube, combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in. (6.35 mm tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h. The AirCore-HR was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada. High-resolution vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 up to 25 km were successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a

  7. High-resolution real-time optical studies of radiological air sample filtration processes in an environmental continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Schery, Stephen D.; Alcantara, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    The need for a continuous air monitor capable of quick and accurate measurements of airborne radioactivity in close proximity to the work environment during waste management, site restoration, and D&D operations led to the Los Alamos National Laboratory development of an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM). Monitoring the hostile work environment of waste recovery, for example, presents unique challenges for detector design for detectors previously used for the clean room conditions of the typical plutonium laboratory. The environmental and atmospheric conditions (dust, high wind, etc.) influence aerosol particle penetration into the ECAM sampling head as well as the build-up of deposits on the ECAM filter.

  8. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Khanh Huynh; Trinh Vu Duc

    2009-01-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  9. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Szpiro, A; Kim, S Y; Sheppard, L

    2015-06-01

    Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate.

  10. Impact of preferential sampling on exposure prediction and health effect inference in the context of air pollution epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A.; Szpiro, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Sheppard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Preferential sampling has been defined in the context of geostatistical modeling as the dependence between the sampling locations and the process that describes the spatial structure of the data. It can occur when networks are designed to find high values. For example, in networks based on the U.S. Clean Air Act monitors are sited to determine whether air quality standards are exceeded. We study the impact of the design of monitor networks in the context of air pollution epidemiology studies. The effect of preferential sampling has been illustrated in the literature by highlighting its impact on spatial predictions. In this paper, we use these predictions as input in a second stage analysis, and we assess how they affect health effect inference. Our work is motivated by data from two United States regulatory networks and health data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. The two networks were designed to monitor air pollution in urban and rural areas respectively, and we found that the health analysis results based on the two networks can lead to different scientific conclusions. We use preferential sampling to gain insight into these differences. We designed a simulation study, and found that the validity and reliability of the health effect estimate can be greatly affected by how we sample the monitor locations. To better understand its effect on second stage inference, we identify two components of preferential sampling that shed light on how preferential sampling alters the properties of the health effect estimate. PMID:29576734

  11. Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  12. Study on sampling conditions for the monitoring of waste air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.J.; Buetefisch, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The technical codes for radiological monitoring of the waste air released from a radwaste repository demand that sampling for determination of aerosol-borne radioactivity is to be made with a screener equipped with a suitable number of measuring probes extending over the entire cross-sectional surface of the vent. Another requirement is to ensure that the waste air stream passing through the measuring channel is representative, containing the typical, operation-induced distribution of aerosols across the surface to be scanned. The study reported was intended to determine in a scaled-down model (1:10) of a repository ventilating duct the typical spatial distribution of aerosols (3D particulate density) in order to establish information on the type of typical distributions of aerosols, to be used for optimisation of the measuring site and monitoring instruments. (orig./CB) [de

  13. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC: 1400 μg m−3, resp.. Then, relative standard error (RSE was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., 10% for the remainders. Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE value of 3.2% (n=11.

  14. An assessment of air sampling location for stack monitoring in nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Bok [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyoung; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Bong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, air sampling locations in the stack of the Advanced Fuel Science Building (AFSB) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were assessed according to the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 specification. The velocity profile, flow angle and 10 μm aerosol particle profile at the cross-section as functions of stack height L and stack diameter D (L/D) were assessed according to the sampling location criteria using COMSOL. The criteria for the velocity profile were found to be met at 5 L/D or more for the height, and the criteria for the average flow angle were met at all locations through this assessment. The criteria for the particle profile were met at 5 L/D and 9 L/D. However, the particle profile at the cross-section of each sampling location was found to be non-uniform. In order to establish uniformity of the particle profile, a static mixer and a perimeter ring were modeled, after which the degrees of effectiveness of these components were compared. Modeling using the static mixer indicated that the sampling locations that met the criteria for the particle profile were 5-10 L/D. When modeling using the perimeter ring, the sampling locations that met the criteria for particle profile were 5 L/D and 7-10 L/D. The criteria for the velocity profile and the average flow angle were also met at the sampling locations that met the criteria for the particle profile. The methodologies used in this study can also be applied during assessments of air sampling locations when monitoring stacks at new nuclear facilities as well as existing nuclear facilities.

  15. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  16. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO2 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO 2 fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m 2 /g and 32.3 m 2 /g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers.

  17. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues

  18. Environmental and emergency response capabilities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's radiological air sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Environmental and emergency response radiological air sampling capabilities of the Environmental Surveillance Group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. The air sampling program provides a supplementary check on the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, determines compliance with applicable protection guides and standards, and assesses potential environmental impacts on site environs. It also allows evaluation of potential individual and total population doses from airborne radionuclides that may be inhaled or serve as a source of external radiation. The environmental program is sufficient in scope to detect fluctuations and long-term trends in atmospheric levels of radioactivity originating onsite. The emergency response capabilities are designed to respond to both onsite unplanned releases and atmospheric nuclear tests

  19. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kaistila, M.

    1983-06-01

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  20. Residues of 2, 4-D in air samples from Saskatchewan: 1966-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, R; Kerr, L A; Wallace, K; Yoshida, K; Maybank, J

    1976-01-01

    Residues of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in air samples from several sampling sites in central and southern Saskatchewan during the spraying seasons in the 1966-68 and 1970-75 periods were determined by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques. Initially, individual esters of 2,4-D were characterized by retention times and confirmed further by co-injection and dual column procedures. Since 1973, however, only total 2,4-D acid levels in air samples have been determined after esterification to the methyl ester and confirmed by gc/ms techniques whenever possible. Up to 50% of the daily samples collected during the spraying season at any of the locations and during any given year contained 2,4-D, with butyl esters being found most frequently. The daily 24-hr mean atmospheric concentrations of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 1.22 mug/m3, 0.01 to 13.50 mug/m3, and 0.05 to 0.59 mug/m3 for the iso-propyl, mixed butyl and iso-octyl esters, respectively. Even when the samples were analysed for the total 2,4-D content, i.e. from 1973 onwards, the maximum level of the total acid reached only 23.14 mug/m3. In any given year and at any of the sampling sites, about 30% of the samples contained less than 0.01 mug/m3 of 2,4-D. In another 40% of the samples, the levels of 2,4-D ranged from 0.01 to 0.099 mug/m3. Only about 30% of the samples contained 2,4-D concentrations higher than 0.1 mug/m3, with only 10% or less exceeding 1 mug/m3. None of the samples, obtained with the high volume particulate sampler, showed any detectable levels of 2,4-D, indicating little or no transport of 2,4-D adsorbed on dust particles or as crystals of amine salts.

  1. Test of methods for retrospective activity size distribution determination from filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisenberg, Oliver; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Determining the activity size distribution of radioactive aerosol particles requires sophisticated and heavy equipment, which makes measurements at large number of sites difficult and expensive. Therefore three methods for a retrospective determination of size distributions from aerosol filter samples in the laboratory were tested for their applicability. Extraction into a carrier liquid with subsequent nebulisation showed size distributions with a slight but correctable bias towards larger diameters compared with the original size distribution. Yields in the order of magnitude of 1% could be achieved. Sonication-assisted extraction into a carrier liquid caused a coagulation mode to appear in the size distribution. Sonication-assisted extraction into the air did not show acceptable results due to small yields. The method of extraction into a carrier liquid without sonication was applied to aerosol samples from Chernobyl in order to calculate inhalation dose coefficients for 137 Cs based on the individual size distribution. The effective dose coefficient is about half of that calculated with a default reference size distribution. - Highlights: • Activity size distributions can be recovered after aerosol sampling on filters. • Extraction into a carrier liquid and subsequent nebulisation is appropriate. • This facilitates the determination of activity size distributions for individuals. • Size distributions from this method can be used for individual dose coefficients. • Dose coefficients were calculated for the workers at the new Chernobyl shelter

  2. Induced radioactivity in air and water at medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Toyoda, A.; Iijima, K.; Kosako, K.; Oishi, K.; Nobuhara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of air and water has been evaluated at the 10 and 15 MeV linear electron accelerator facilities. At 15 MeV irradiation, the activity of 10-min-half-life 13 N was observed in the case of the air in the glove box. Air and water samples were also bombarded by 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon, and the irradiation dose was 10 Gy at the isocenter. Upon the ion-chamber monitoring of the air sampled from the glove box, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C activities were mainly observed. At the end of proton and carbon irradiation, the activity of the water was found to be about 10 kBq·cm -3 and several kBq·cm -3 , respectively. From the decay analysis of the induced activity in water, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C were detected. (author)

  3. Environmental monitoring of tritium in air with passive diffusion samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; Workman, W.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a field trail in which outdoor air was sampled with an active reference sampler and several passive HTO-in-air samplers simultaneously carried out at Chalk River Laboratories. Both passive and active samplers were changed on an approximately monthly schedule from 1990 September 2 to 1991 April 18. Average temperatures for the sampling intervals ranged from -8.06 degrees C to +15.5 degrees C and HTO-in-air concentrations measured by the active sampler were typically 10 Bq/m 3 . A total of 1290 passive HTO-in-air sampler measurements were made during the seven sampling intervals. The passive samplers used for the field trial were prepared with either tritium-free water or a solution of 50% tritium-free water and 50% ethylene glycol. As expected, the samplers prepared with the water-glycol solution performed more consistently than the samplers prepared with water only. Good agreement between passive and active sampler measurements was observed throughout the field trial

  4. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  5. Passive air sampling for persistent organic pollutants: Introductory remarks to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harner, Tom; Bartkow, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Klanova, Jana; Wania, Frank; Gioia, Rosalinda; Moeckel, Claudia; Sweetman, Andrew J.; Jones, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    There have been a number of developments in the need, design and use of passive air samplers (PAS) for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This article is the first in a Special Issue of the journal to review these developments and some of the data arising from them. We explain the need and benefit of developing PAS for POPs, the different approaches that can be used, and highlight future developments and needs. - The context, needs and state-of-the-art of passive air sampling techniques for atmospheric persistent organic pollutants are discussed

  6. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  7. Design and development of multiple sample counting setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, D.P.; Murali, S.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The analysis of active samples on regular basis for ambient air activity and floor contamination from radio chemical lab accounts for major chunk of the operational activity in Health Physicist's responsibility. The requirement for daily air sample analysis on immediate counting and delayed counting from various labs in addition to samples of smear swipe check of lab led to the urge for development of system that could cater multiple sample analysis in a time programmed manner on a single sample loading. A multiple alpha/beta counting system for counting was designed and fabricated. It has arrangements for loading 10 samples in slots in order, get counted in a time programmed manner with results displayed and records maintained in PC. The paper describes the design and development of multiple sample counting setup presently in use at the facility has resulted in reduction of man-hour consumption in counting and recording of the results

  8. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  9. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  10. Lifetime and current sexual assault and harassment victimization rates of active-duty United States Air Force women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Deborah J; Daley, James G

    2007-09-01

    From a stratified random sample, 2,018 active-duty United States Air Force women completed a telephone survey dealing with sexual assault and harassment. The lifetime prevalence of rape among Air Force women (28%) was more than twice as high as the prevalence in a national sample (13%). Nearly half of the military sample had been the victims of rape, molestation, or attempted sexual assault. The majority of both initial rapes (75%) and most recent rapes (56%) involved assault by civilians when the victims were civilians. Family members perpetrated 29% of initial rapes and 33% of most recent rapes. Regarding military status of the perpetrator, 14% of first-time victims were raped by a military member, 26% of multiple-time victims were raped by a military member, 31.8% of military women were sexually harassed by a military supervisor or boss, and 26.7% of military women were sexually harassed by a military coworker.

  11. Portable monitors for measuring radon and its progenies air by intergrated sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqin; Su Jingling; Yao Wanyuan; Liu Jinhua

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of portable monitors have been developed, which can be used to measure the concentration of radon or potential energy concentration of radon or potential energy concentration of radon progenies in air. The thermoluminescent material CaSO 4 (Tm) is used as a detecting element for both of them. The lowest detectable limit of the passive radon monitor is about 1.5 Bq/m 3 for radon in air, as the exposure time being one week. Its main advantages are high reliability and convenient manipulation. The working level monitor for radon progenies in air consists of a mini membrane pump and an integrating probe. The lowest detectable limit is about 6.2 x 10 -9 J/m 3 , as the sampling time being 6 hours. It weights only about 0.35 kg

  12. Influence of Micropore and Mesoporous in Activated Carbon Air-cathode Catalysts on Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Kexun; Ge, Baochao; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Ziqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon samples with different micropore and mesoporous structures are prepared as air-cathode catalyst layer to explore the role of pore structure on oxygen reduction reaction. The results of linear sweep voltammetry and power density show that the commercially-produced activated carbon (CAC) has the best electrochemical performance, and carbon samples with only micropore or mesoporous show lower performance than CAC. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis confirm that CAC has highest surface area (1616 m 2 g −1 ) and a certain amount of micropore and mesoporous. According to Tafel plot and rotating disk electrode, CAC behaves the highest kinetic activity and electron transfer number, leading to the improvement of oxygen reduction reaction. The air permeability test proves that mesoporous structure enhance oxygen permeation. Carbon materials are also analyzed by In situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and H 2 temperature programmed reduction, which indicate that micropore provide active sites for catalysis. In a word, micropore and mesoporous together would improve the electrochemical performance of carbon materials.

  13. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  14. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  15. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; Athens National Technical University, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment was performed for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of a large inhomogeneous sample. The reference sample was developed in-house and consisted of SiO 2 matrix and an Al-Zn alloy 'inhomogeneity' body. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to derive appropriate correction factors for neutron self-shielding during irradiation as well as self-attenuation of gamma rays and sample geometry during counting. The large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) results were compared against reference values and the trueness of the technique was evaluated. An agreement within ±10% was observed between LSNAA and reference elemental mass values, for all matrix and inhomogeneity elements except Samarium, provided that the inhomogeneity body was fully simulated. However, in cases that the inhomogeneity was treated as not known, the results showed a reasonable agreement for most matrix elements, while large discrepancies were observed for the inhomogeneity elements. This study provided a quantification of the uncertainties associated with inhomogeneity in large sample analysis and contributed to the identification of the needs for future development of LSNAA facilities for analysis of inhomogeneous samples. (author)

  16. Spoilage-Related Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum Strains in Air-Stored and Vacuum-Packed Meat ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall. PMID:21784913

  17. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.48-93.9 Bq kg -1 for 234 U and 0.02-12.2 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, 236 U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 μBq m -3 for 238 U, 0.96-38.0 μBq m -3 for 234 U, and 0.05-1.83 μBq m -3 for 235 U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.27-28.1 mBq l -1 for 234 U, and 0.01-0.88 mBq l -1 for 235 U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of

  18. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-09-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 0.48-93.9 Bqkg(-1) for (234)U and 0.02-12.2 Bqkg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, (236)U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 microBqm(-3) for (238)U, 0.96-38.0 microBqm(-3) for (234)U, and 0.05-1.83 microBqm(-3) for (235)U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBql(-1) for (238)U, 0.27-28.1 mBql(-1) for (234)U, and 0.01-0.88 mBql(-1) for (235)U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated

  19. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  20. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  1. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  2. Sample container for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon. (orig./HP) [de

  3. The Comparative Study Of Saprophytic Fungi In Air Canal, Air, Hospital Instruments And Clinical Samples From Patients With Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone Marrow Transplantation is one of the most important therapeutic methods in much malignant and nonmalignant disease. Patients with Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy will suffer from immuno-suppression. Therefore they are susceptible to get saprophytic fungi infection that sometimes are killer. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this cross-sectional survey is isolation of saprophytic fungi from patients with BMT and wards space and instruments. Therefore sampling from ventilator system (HEPA filter and common filter, air canal, air, hospital instruments and clinical samples (nasal discharge, sputum, urine were done and cultured in sabouro dextrose agar with choloramphenicol (SC. In assessing total frequency from 4838 plates of wards space and instruments, 985 fungi colonies includes 21 genus were isolated. Results and Conclusion: Most fungi colonies present were Penicillium , Aspergillus and Cladosporium and low present were Trichoderma ,Stereptomyses, Chrysosporium, Rhizopus.

  4. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ......Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...

  5. The application of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for multielemental analysis of air particulate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rashid Mohamad Yusoff

    1986-01-01

    The performance of XRF spectrometer as a tool for multielemental analysis of air pollution samples was discussed. The non-destructive couples with multielemental nature of the technique satisfactory sensitivity for most elements were the most important characteristics for its popularity as a method of analysis. Thus, the technique promises a significant reduction in cost and time of analysis. As a result, more extensive and revealing air particulates survey should be possible, with consequent improvements in the discovery and positive identification of particulate pollution sources. (author)

  6. Activation of air and concrete in medical isotope production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Adam C.; Shackelton, R. J.; Carr, D. A.; Ismail, A.

    2017-05-01

    Medical isotope facilities operating in the 10 to 25 MeV proton energy range have long been used to generate radioisotopes for medical diagnostic imaging. In the last few years the beam currents available in commercially available cyclotrons have increased dramatically, and so the activation of the materials within cyclotron vaults may now pose more serious radiological hazards. This will impact the regulatory oversight of cyclotron operations, cyclotron servicing and future decommissioning activities. Air activation could pose a hazard to cyclotron staff. With the increased cyclotron beam currents it was necessary to examine the issue more carefully. Therefore the ways in which radioactivity may be induced in air by neutron reactions and neutron captures were considered and it was found that the dominant mechanism is neutron capture on Ar-40. A study of the activation of the air by neutron capture on Ar-40 within a cyclotron vault was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The neutron source energy spectrum used was from the production of the widely used F-18 PET isotope. The results showed that the activation of the air within a cyclotron vault does not pose a significant radiological hazard at the beam intensities currently in use and shows how ventilation affects the results. A second MCNP study on the activation of ordinary concrete in cyclotron vaults by neutron capture was made with a view to determining the optimum thickness of borated polyethylene to reduce neutron activation on both the inner surfaces of the vault and around production targets. This is of importance in decommissioning cyclotrons and therefore in the design of new cyclotron vaults. The distribution of activation on the walls as a function of the source position was also studied. Results are presented for both borated and regular polyethylene, and F-18 and Tc-99 neutron spectra.

  7. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  8. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  9. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  10. Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples with a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.; Sansoni, B.

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of the radionuclides 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce in ground level air and of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in precipitation were determined since 1970 and 1971 respectively at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, by gamma spectrometry using a 60 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. Dust samples were collected twice a month 1 m above ground from about 40,000 m 3 of air on 46 cm x 28 cm microsorbane filters and pressed to small cylinders of 35 cm 3 in size. Sensitivity of the procedure is of the order of 1 fCi/m 3 for air and of 10 pCi/m 2 per month for precipitation samples at a counting time of 1500 min. (author)

  11. Probe sampling measurements and modeling of nitric oxide formation in ethane + air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakov, I.V.; Ruyck, de J.; Konnov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Burning velocity and probe sampling measurements of the concentrations of O2, CO2, CO and NO in the post-flame zone of ethane + air flames are reported. The heat flux method was used for stabilization of laminar, premixed, non-stretched flames on a perforated plate burner at 1 atm. Axial profiles of

  12. Modulation of redox regulatory molecules and electron transport chain activity in muscle of air breathing fish Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Responses of redox regulatory system to long-term survival (>18 h) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in air are not yet understood. Lipid and protein oxidation level, oxidant (H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of respiratory complexes (I, II, III and IV) in mitochondria were investigated in muscle of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25 °C). The increased levels of both H2O2 and tissue oxidation were observed due to the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle under water deprivation condition. However, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups were the highest at 18 h air exposure time. A linear increase in complex II activity with air exposure time and an increase up to 12 h followed by a decrease in activity of complex I at 18 h were observed. Negative correlation was observed for complex III and V activity with exposure time. Critical time to modulate the above parameters was found to be 3 h air exposure. Dehydration induced oxidative stress due to modulation of electron transport chain and redox metabolizing enzymes in muscle of H. fossilis was clearly observed. Possible contribution of redox regulatory system in muscle tissue of the fish for long-term survival in air is elucidated. Results of the present study may be useful to understand the redox metabolism in muscle of fishes those are exposed to air in general and air breathing fishes in particular.

  13. An analytical method for trifluoroacetic Acid in water and air samples using headspace gas chromatographic determination of the methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, D; Seiber, J N

    1996-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of trace levels of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), an atmospheric breakdown product of several of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) replacements for the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, in water and air. TFA is derivatized to the volatile methyl trifluoroacetate (MTFA) and determined by automated headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) with electron-capture detection or manual HSGC using GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method is based on the reaction of an aqueous sample containing TFA with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) in concentrated sulfuric acid in a sealed headspace vial under conditions favoring distribution of MTFA to the vapor phase. Water samples are prepared by evaporative concentration, during which TFA is retained as the anion, followed by extraction with diethyl ether of the acidified sample and then back-extraction of TFA (as the anion) in aqueous bicarbonate solution. The extraction step is required for samples with a relatively high background of other salts and organic materials. Air samples are collected in sodium bicarbonate-glycerin-coated glass denuder tubes and prepared by rinsing the denuder contents with water to form an aqueous sample for derivatization and analysis. Recoveries of TFA from spiked water, with and without evaporative concentration, and from spiked air were quantitative, with estimated detection limits of 10 ng/mL (unconcentrated) and 25 pg/mL (concentrated 250 mL:1 mL) for water and 1 ng/m(3) (72 h at 5 L/min) for air. Several environmental air, fogwater, rainwater, and surface water samples were successfully analyzed; many showed the presence of TFA.

  14. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  15. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  16. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO 4 - in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O 4 - , which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front

  17. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator. Application to low-level alphaspectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionisation chamber with an efficient area of 300 cm 2 and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha-particle spectrometry of air dust. The aerosols were deposited on circular tin-plate dishes of 300 cm 2 by the electrostatic precipitator, which was constructed for continuous operation at an air flow rate of 2 m 3 /h. Collection efficiency is found to be 0.78 for the natural Rn- and Tn-daughter products. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure, the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV fwhm at 5.15 MeV. The integral background is typically 15.7 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha-emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m 3 based on 3s of background as detection limit and 1000 min counting time. (Auth.)

  18. Air and Surface Sampling Method for Assessing Exposures to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouf, Ryan F; Virji, Mohammed Abbas; Ranpara, Anand; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2017-07-01

    This method was designed for sampling select quaternary ammonium (quat) compounds in air or on surfaces followed by analysis using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Target quats were benzethonium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. For air sampling, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters are recommended for 15-min to 24-hour sampling. For surface sampling, Pro-wipe® 880 (PW) media was chosen. Samples were extracted in 60:40 acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid for 1 hour on an orbital shaker. Method detection limits range from 0.3 to 2 ng/ml depending on media and analyte. Matrix effects of media are minimized through the use of multiple reaction monitoring versus selected ion recording. Upper confidence limits on accuracy meet the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 25% criterion for PTFE and PW media for all analytes. Using PTFE and PW analyzed with multiple reaction monitoring, the method quantifies levels among the different quats compounds with high precision (detection limits to capture quats on air sampling filters with only a 15-min sample duration with a maximum assessed storage time of 103 days before sample extraction. This method will support future exposure assessment and quantitative epidemiologic studies to explore exposure-response relationships and establish levels of quats exposures associated with adverse health effects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. Assessing the Effects of Mechanic Activities on Uyo Air Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the advancement of science and technology, our air was fresh, and wholesome. Expansion in the economic sector one of which is mechanic workshops brought along with it advantages and disadvantages, one of which is air pollution. Activities carried out in these workshops included engine repairs, paneling, open ...

  20. Occurrence of commonly used pesticides in personal air samples and their associated health risk among paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, Hazwanee; Ho, Yu Bin; Zaidon, Siti Zulfa; Hashim, Zailina; Saari, Nazamid; Karami, Ali

    2017-12-15

    Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers. Eighty-three farmers from Tangjung Karang, Selangor were involved in this study. A solid sorbent tube was attached to the farmer's breathing zone with a clip, and an air pump was fastened to the belt to collect personal air samples. Pesticides collected in the XAD-2 resin were extracted with acetone, centrifuged, concentrated via nitrogen blowdown and reconstituted with 1mL of 3:1 ultrapure water/HPLC-grade methanol solution. The extract was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were detected with a maximum concentration reaching up to 462.5ngm -3 (fipronil). The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 and the hazard index (HI) value was 3.86×10 -3 , indicating that the risk of pesticides related diseases was not significant. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for pymetrozine was at an acceptable level (LCR<10 -6 ) with 4.10×10 -8 . The results reported in this study can be beneficial in terms of risk management within the agricultural community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  2. Elemental analysis of dust trapped in air conditioner filters for the assessment of Lahore city's air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.

    2011-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Lahore by the elemental analysis of air conditioner (AC) filter dust samples collected from 15 different commercial sites. Samples were prepared using the Leeds Public Analyst Method and were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for up to 31 elements. The elements Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn were detected in all 15 samples whereas the remaining elements have been detected in fewer samples; i.e. Mg, Sb and Tb were detected in 14 samples, Br and V in ten samples, U in nine samples and Ca and Ti in eight samples only. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na were determined in all samples at percentage levels. The concentrations of most elements were found to lie around the mean values for the 15 samples studied and were not orders of magnitude different. However the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sn and Zn were found to be more variable and were found to be dependant on activities such as construction, fruit and vegetable handling, tin plating and transport, respectively. (author)

  3. [Legionella spp. contamination in indoor air: preliminary results of an Italian multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Napoli, Christian; Cannova, Lucia; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Delia, Santi Antonino; Giuliano, Ada; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Rossini, Angelo; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Torregrossa, Maria Valeria; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2014-01-01

    To propose a standardized protocol for the evaluation of Legionella contamination in air. A bathroom having a Legionella contamination in water >1,000 cfu/l was selected in 10 different healthcare facilities. Air contamination was assessed by active (Surface Air System, SAS) and passive (Index of Microbial Air, IMA) sampling for 8 hours, about 1 m away from the floor and 50 cm from the tap water. Two hundred liters of air were sampled by SAS every 12 min, after flushing water for 2 min. The IMA value was calculated as the mean value of colony forming units/16 plates exposed during sampling (2 plates/hour). Water contamination was evaluated at T0, after 4 and 8 hours, according to the standard methods. Air contamination by Legionella was found in three healthcare facilities (one with active and two with passive sampling), showing a concomitant tap water contamination (median=40,000; range 1,100-43,000 cfu/l). The remaining seven hospitals isolated Legionella spp. exclusively from water samples (median=8,000; range 1,200-70,000 cfu/l). Our data suggest that environmental Legionella contamination cannot be assessed only through the air sampling, even in the presence of an important water contamination.

  4. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  5. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  6. Measurement of neutron activation in concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of activation studies of ordinary and barytes concrete samples relevant for research reactor decommissioning are given. Five important long-lived radioactive isotopes ( 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 133 Ba, and 152 Eu) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the irradiated concrete samples. Activation of these samples was also calculated using ORIGEN2 code. Comparison of calculated and measured results is given. (author)

  7. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Frank L; Stickings, Daryl S; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Armstrong, David G; Boulton, Andrew Jm

    2009-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA). Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p air samples was still significantly raised 1 hour post-therapy. The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

  8. Trace-Determination of Cadmium by Neutron Activation. Application to Air-Borne Particulates, Hair and Foodstuffs. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Vries, H.H. de

    1971-01-01

    This study describes a routine-procedure by neutron activation for the determination of cadmium in industrial air-borne particulate samples, collected on filter paper, hair and foodstuffs. The reaction used is 114 Cd(n, γ) 115 Cd (β)/→ T½ = 53.5 h 115m In (β)/ → T½ = 4.5 h 115 In Cadmium is isolated by liquid-liquid extraction with a chloroform solution of dithizone. The activity of the 115 In-daughter is counted. The method was tested by analysis of the standard kale powder. (author)

  9. Air-segmented continuous-flow analysis for molybdenum in various geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harita, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Hori, T.

    2003-01-01

    An air-segmented continuous-flow method has been developed for the determination of molybdenum at ultra trace levels using the catalytic effect of molybdate during the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by hydrogen peroxide. Incorporation of an on-line ion exchange column improved the tolerance limit for various ions. The detection limits with and without the column were 64 pmol L m1 and 17 pmol L m1 , and the reproducibilities at 10 nmol L m1 were 2.1 % and 0.2 %, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of molybdenum in seawater and lake water as well as in rock and sediment samples. This method has the highest sensitivity among the available literature to our knowledge, and is also convenient for routine analysis of molybdenum in various natural samples. (author)

  10. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from...... spores trapped on tape from Burkard spore traps placed in an artificially inoculated sugar beet field trial and in two sugar beet fields with natural infections. R. beticola DNA was detected at variable amounts in the air samples 14 to 16 days prior to first visible symptoms. R. beticola DNA was detected...... in air samples from fields with natural infection at significant and increasing levels from development of the first symptoms, indicating that spore production within the crop plays a major role in the epidemic development of the disease. Sugar beet leaves sampled from the inoculated field trial were...

  11. Influence of Social-economic Activities on Air Pollutants in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Zheng, Wenfeng; Yin, Lirong; Yin, Zhengtong; Song, Lihong; Tian, Xia

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid economic development, the serious air pollution in Beijing attracts increasing attention in the last decade. Seen as one whole complex and grey system, the causal relationship between the social development and the air pollution in Beijing has been quantitatively analyzed in this paper. By using the grey relational model, the aim of this study is to explore how the socio-economic and human activities affect on the air pollution in the city of Beijing, China. Four air pollutants, as the particulate matter with size 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5), particulate matter with size 10 micrometers or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), are selected as the indicators of air pollution. Additionally, fifteen socio-economic indicators are selected to account for the regional socio-economic characteristics (economy variables, energy consumption variables, pollution emissions variables, environment and construction activity variables). The results highlight that all variables are associated with the concentrations of the four selected air pollutants, but with notable differences between the air pollutants. Most of the socio-economic indicators, such as industrial output, total energy consumption are highly correlated with PM2.5, while PM10, SO2, and NOx present in general moderate correlations with most of the socio-economic variables. Contrary to other studies and reports this study reveals that vehicles and life energy do not have the strongest effect on air pollution in Beijing. This study provides useful information to reduce air pollution and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  12. Influence of Social-economic Activities on Air Pollutants in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaolu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic development, the serious air pollution in Beijing attracts increasing attention in the last decade. Seen as one whole complex and grey system, the causal relationship between the social development and the air pollution in Beijing has been quantitatively analyzed in this paper. By using the grey relational model, the aim of this study is to explore how the socio-economic and human activities affect on the air pollution in the city of Beijing, China. Four air pollutants, as the particulate matter with size 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5, particulate matter with size 10 micrometers or less (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NOx, are selected as the indicators of air pollution. Additionally, fifteen socio-economic indicators are selected to account for the regional socio-economic characteristics (economy variables, energy consumption variables, pollution emissions variables, environment and construction activity variables. The results highlight that all variables are associated with the concentrations of the four selected air pollutants, but with notable differences between the air pollutants. Most of the socio-economic indicators, such as industrial output, total energy consumption are highly correlated with PM2.5, while PM10, SO2, and NOx present in general moderate correlations with most of the socio-economic variables. Contrary to other studies and reports this study reveals that vehicles and life energy do not have the strongest effect on air pollution in Beijing. This study provides useful information to reduce air pollution and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  13. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Lu, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  14. Crossett Hydrogen Sulfide Air Sampling Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the EPA’s hydrogen sulfide air monitoring conducted along Georgia Pacific’s wastewater treatment system and in surrounding Crossett, AR, neighborhoods in 2017.

  15. Induced activity in accelerator structures, air and water

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    A summary is given of several 'rules of thumb' which can be used to predict the formation and decay of radionuclides in the structure of accelerators together with the dose rates from the induced radioactivity. Models are also given for the activation of gases (air of the accelerator vault) and liquids (in particular cooling water), together with their transport front the activation region to the release point. (18 refs).

  16. Induced activity in accelerator structures, air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    A summary is given of several 'rules of thumb' which can be used to predict the formation and decay of radionuclides in the structure of accelerators together with the dose rates from the induced radioactivity. Models are also given for the activation of gases (air of the accelerator vault) and liquids (in particular cooling water), together with their transport from the activation region to the release point. (author)

  17. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  18. Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-11-01

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m 3 (maximum 920 µg/m 3 ). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GM Air = 48 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM Air = 43 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GM Air = 0.85 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GM AIR = 0.62 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in

  19. Air pollution biomonitoring in Argentina, application of neutron activation analysis to the study of biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, M.L.; Pla, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of baseline levels of atmospheric pollutants and the identification of polluted areas is a complex problem, as pollutant contents at a certain geographical location is usually a combination of contributions from various diverse sources, including long-range transport. Elemental chemical characterization of atmospheric pollutants is thus of great importance and Neutron Activation Analysis has proved to be a powerful technique for multielemental determination of trace elements in biomonitors and aerosols. The general objective of this project is to study the use of biomonitors, specially lichens, for evaluating pollutant levels over a wide geographic area of Argentina and for establishing baseline values and assessing time trends. Two lichen species (Usnea sp. and Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot) have been identified as suitable monitors of air pollution, with potential regional application at the central area of the country (province of Cordoba) and pilot studies have been initiated to test the practicability of sampling and sample collection. An area of approximately 40,000 km 2 will be covered by a sampling network, using in situ growing lichens. The distribution maps for the two selected species are already drawn and sampling of local soils will also be conducted. Current efforts at the Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory are put on assessing, for the selected lichen species, the influence of sample preparation methods on trace element concentrations. The use of other analytical techniques will allow the evaluation of the bioindicator chemical response and its relationship to different atmospheric quality levels. Source identification and apportionment will be done by statistical fingerprinting of the elemental concentrations, as sources of pollution are characterized by being composed of different mixtures of elements in different proportions. In this way and as a long-term objective, regional maps will be drawn showing the

  20. Air pollution monitoring in Czech Republic by neutron activation analysis and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucear, J.; Faltejsek, J.; Starkova, B.

    1994-01-01

    High levels of air pollution occur in several areas of the Czech Republic due to both inland emissions sources (mainly coal-fired power plants) and those from other parts of Europe by local and long-range pollution processes, respectively. Therefore, regular air pollution monitoring is carried out both in the vicinity of large power plants in rural, locally unpolluted regions as well. Other emission sources (municipal waste incinerators, metallurgical plants, motor vehicles) are also examined to enable apportionment of individual emission sources types to the level of pollution in a particular area by receptor modelling. In this project, a study of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter in areas with high and low levels of pollution using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is proposed. Several elements, namely Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb will be determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Selected biological indicators of air pollution (mosses) will also be analyzed using INAA, radiochemical NAA (RNAA), and AAS. In addition, measurement of chemical composition of precipitation samples (selected elements, anions, cations, pH, and conductivity) will be carried out using AAS, INAA, RNAA, ion chromatography, and spectrophotometry. Quality assurance of the analyses will be pursued by concurrent analyses of suitable matrix-based reference materials and by participation in interlaboratory comparisons. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  1. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  2. A whole-air relaxed eddy accumulation measurement system for sampling vertical vapour exchange of elemental mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Sommar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus relying on relaxed eddy accumulation (REA methodology has been designed and developed for continuous-field measurements of vertical Hg0 fluxes over cropland ecosystems. This micro-meteorological technique requires sampling of turbulent eddies into up- and downdraught channels at a constant flow rate and accurate timing, based on a threshold involving the sign of vertical wind component (w. The fully automated system is of a whole-air type drawing air at a high velocity to the REA sampling apparatus and allowing for the rejection of samples associated with w-fluctuations around zero. Conditional sampling was executed at 10-Hz resolution on a sub-stream by two fast-response three-way solenoid switching valves connected in parallel to a zero Hg0 air supply through their normally open ports. To suppress flow transients resulting from switching, pressure differentials across the two upstream ports of the conditional valves were minimised using a control unit. The Hg0 concentrations of the up- and downdraught channel were sequentially (each by two consecutive 5-minute gas samples determined after enhancement collection onto gold traps by an automated cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CVAFS instrument. A protocol of regular reference sampling periods was implemented during field campaigns to continuously adjust for bias that may exist between the two conditional sampling channels. Using a 5-minute running average was conditional threshold, nearly-constant relaxation coefficients (β s of ~0.56 were determined during two bi-weekly field deployments when turbulence statistics were assured for good quality, in accordance with previously reported estimates. The fully developed REA-CVAFS system underwent Hg0 flux field trial runs at a winter wheat cropland located in the North China Plain. Over a 15-d period during early May 2012, dynamic, often bi-directional, fluxes were observed during the course of a day with a tendency of

  3. Develop of a system of sampling of condensable species with the vapor of water in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Beermann, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Implements a method for the determination of the dioxide of dissolved sulfur when condensing the vapor of water in samples of air. To carry out this project it was necessary to design, to build and to gauge the sampling system, a generating SO 2 , a meter of relative humidity, a system of dilution of gases and the system to make the laundries of the glassware, as well as a device to carry out the mensuration of the flow of air. The determination of the anions dissolved in those condensed one carries out for ionic chromatography. The calibration test made to the system of designed sampling demonstrated that behaves of stable form and reproducible for flows between 0,3 and 1,0 L/min. Of the tests of efficiency in the gathering of dioxide of sulfur, it was found that this it reached a maximum of 93% for a sampling flow 0,6 L/min. Lower conditions of relative humidity of 66%. It was found that using this sampling method and the later analysis of the one condensed by ionic chromatography is possible to detect the anions fluoride, chloride, saltpeter, nitrate and sulfate dissolved in concentrations of approximately 1 μg/m 3 . the limit of detection obtained for the soluble species in μg/m 3 of air it was of 1,0 for the fluoride, 4,0 for chloride, 5,0 for saltpeter, 8,0 for nitrate and 8,0 for dioxide of sulfur (reported as sulfate) [es

  4. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity in soil samples and comparison of direct and indirect measurement of environmental air kerma rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnaesakki, S.; Manish Chopra; Sartandel, S.J.; Bara, S.V.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Sanjeev Kumar; Vishal Arora; Bajwa, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometric measurement of natural radioactivity mainly due to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples collected in Ferozepur and Faridkot district of Punjab, India. 226 Ra activity varied from 28.6 to 51.1 Bq kg -1 with the mean of 39.7 Bq kg -1 . The range and mean activity of 232 Th were 42.9 - 73.2 and 58.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 40 K activity was in the range of 470.9 - 754.9 Bq kg -1 with the mean of 595.2 Bq kg -1 . The air kerma rate (AKR) at 1 m height from the ground was also measured using gamma survey meter in all the sampling locations, which was ranging from 92.1 to 122.8 nGy h -1 with the mean of 110.6 nGy h -1 . The radiological parameters such as Raeq and activity index of the soil samples were also evaluated, which are the tools to assess the external radiation hazard due to building materials. The mean and range of the Raeq values were 168.7 and 132.9 - 210.4 Bq kg -1 , respectively, whereas the activity index varied from 0.5 to 0.8 with the mean value of 0.62. These indices show that the indoor external dose due to natural radioactivity in the soil used for the construction will not exceed the dose criteria. The AKR was also evaluated from soil activity concentration and altitude correction of cosmic radiation contribution. The statistical tests such as Pearson correlation, spearman rank correlation, box and whisker plot, the Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test, were used to compare the measured AKR with evaluated AKR, which indicates good correlation. (author)

  6. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  7. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    that is normally performed at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz. With the ActiGraph model GT3X one has the option to select sample frequency from 30 to 100 Hz. This study investigated the effect of the sampling frequency on the ouput of the bandpass filter.Methods: A synthetic frequency sweep of 0-15 Hz was generated...... in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5......-15 Hz escaped the bandpass filter when sampled at 40, 50, 70, 80 and 100 Hz, while this was not the case when sampled at 30, 60 and 90 Hz. During the ambulatory activities this artifact resultet in different activity count output from the ActiLife software with different sampling frequency...

  8. Identification of chemical composition and measurement of V, As, Cr and Fe in Yogyakarta ambient air particulate by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede-Sutresna W; Sutjipto

    1996-01-01

    Activation neutron analysis can be used to identify chemical composition and measure V, As, Cr and Fe contents in Yogyakarta ambient particulate. The air sampling has been done around Yogyakarta city such as: Gg. Narada Gandok around North Ring road (A1 post), Mentri Supeno cross road (A2 post), Purbanegaran GK II (A3 post), Wirobrajan cross road (A4 post), Adisutjipto (A5 post), and in front of Sentul market on JI. Sultan Agung with low volume sampler equipped with AP millipore fiber glass filter. Other places used for air sampling were around PPNY, JI. Babarsari (B1) and Jl. Gejayan (B2) by using high volume sampler equipped with TF A 21133 series filter. The filter was irradiated at Kartini reactor at the average of 1.04 x 10 1 1 n.cm -2 .s -1 on January 10, 1995. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air around Yogyakarta respectively was: 81.5 - 264.9 ng/m 3 air; 56.7 - 596.4 ng/m 3 air; 30.5 - 153.8 ng/m 3 air and 22.4 - 108μg/m 3 air. The accuracy of the analysis method was checked by comparing the analysis result to the certificate label of the reference material SRM 1633a. The accuracy was: 21.1%; 13.9%; 7.7% and 13.3% for V, As, Cr and Fe. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air particulate around Yogyakarta is still the below permissible level of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987

  9. Control method of air activity levels by the presence of radioactive aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Alonso J, M.T.; Zerquera, J.T.; Barroso P, I.

    1996-01-01

    The filtration of great air volumes and further measurement of suitable filter gross beta activity have been the method used by The National Radiological Environmental Monitoring Network of the Republic of Cuba in order to asses, quantitatively, the beta activity in air. The values measured by the three aerosol monitoring laboratories in the country show that the volumetric activity of short-lived radionuclides varied from 0.62 to 6.9 Bq/m 3 . The gross activity values, due to the presence of long-lived radionuclides in air have not been higher than the detection limit of 4 mBq/m 3 . The annual effective dose estimation due to the inhalation of radioactive aerosol from natural sources ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 mSv. These values were lower than the world-wide mean dose (0.80 mSv) and were related to the features of our natural environment. (authors). 6 refs., 1 tab

  10. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  11. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  12. HPLC determination of chlorine in air and water samples following precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A. (Rani Durgavati Univ., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Verma, K.K. (Rani Durgavati Univ., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-11-01

    Chlorine has been determined in air and water samples by a rapid and sensitive method entailing precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide. A mixed potassium bromide - acetanilide reagent was used as a trapping agent for chlorine in air, and for its derivatization. The 4-bromoacetanilide formed was determined by reversed-phase HPLC on an ODS column, using methanol-water, 65:35 (v/v) as mobile phase; detection was at 240 nm. A rectilinear calibration graph was obtained for the range 0.1-30 [mu]g mL[sup -1] chlorine; the limit of detection found to be 0.01 [mu]g mL[sup -1]. The precolumn derivative has been found to have a shelf-life of at least 21 days; this enables the use of the method for samples transported from the field to the analytical laboratory, or the testing of a variety of conditions for chlorine scrubbing studies without the need for immediate analysis of samples. Humic substances do not cause any interference with the proposed method and the presence of nitrite does not lead to artificially high results and consequent misleading conclusions of the presence of high levels of chlorine. (orig.)

  13. HPLC determination of chlorine in air and water samples following precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.; Verma, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorine has been determined in air and water samples by a rapid and sensitive method entailing precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide. A mixed potassium bromide - acetanilide reagent was used as a trapping agent for chlorine in air, and for its derivatization. The 4-bromoacetanilide formed was determined by reversed-phase HPLC on an ODS column, using methanol-water, 65:35 (v/v) as mobile phase; detection was at 240 nm. A rectilinear calibration graph was obtained for the range 0.1-30 μg mL -1 chlorine; the limit of detection found to be 0.01 μg mL -1 . The precolumn derivative has been found to have a shelf-life of at least 21 days; this enables the use of the method for samples transported from the field to the analytical laboratory, or the testing of a variety of conditions for chlorine scrubbing studies without the need for immediate analysis of samples. Humic substances do not cause any interference with the proposed method and the presence of nitrite does not lead to artificially high results and consequent misleading conclusions of the presence of high levels of chlorine. (orig.)

  14. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  15. Novel sampling methods for atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in a high altitude alpine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenthaler, I. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria); Jakobi, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Kaiser, A. [ZAMG-Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geo-dynamik (Austria); Kirchner, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Niedermoser, B. [ZAMG-Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geo-dynamik (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (German Research Centre for Environmental Health) (Germany); Sedivy, I. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Staudinger, M. [ZAMG-Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geo-dynamik (Austria); Thanner, G.; Weiss, P. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria); Moche, W., E-mail: wolfgang.moche@umweltbundesamt.a [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    High- and low-volume active air samplers as well as bulk deposition samplers were developed to sample atmospheric SOCs under the adverse conditions of a mountain environment. Active sampling employed separate filters for different European source regions. Filters were switched depending on daily trajectory forecasts, whose accuracy was evaluated post hoc. The sampling continued on three alpine summits over five periods of four months. The prevailing trajectories varied stronger between sampling periods than between stations. The sampling equipment (active and bulk deposition) proved dependable for operation in a mountain environment, with idle times being mainly due to non-routine manipulations and connectivity. - Equipment for direction-specific air sampling and bulk deposition sampling in mountains was developed and tested.

  16. Ten-year mortality in a sample of an adult population in relation to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyzanowski, M; Wojtyniak, B

    1982-12-01

    The 10-year mortality in a sample of adult inhabitants of Cracow, Poland, was analysed according to the levels of air pollution in the area of residence. Smoking habit and several social and occupational factors were considered in the analysis, which was carried out with the use of a multivariate method for categorical variables. Among men the main effect of air pollution was marginally significant, but there was a significant interaction between air pollution and smoking. Among women no such relation could be detected. Also, the association between female mortality and smoking was not significant. From other factors considered in the analysis, only exposure at work to dust, high humidity, and variable temperature was related to mortality in both men and women. In addition among women higher mortality was related to a lower level of education.

  17. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  18. On exposure to air-borne particulate activity in a radiological laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Bara, Vivek; Jat, Deepika; Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate different exposure scenarios in a laboratory having once through ventilation. It has been considered a laboratory of volume V (m 3 ) which has once through ventilation rate of λ(hr -1 ). It is assumed that a certain amount, q Bq, of long lived activity has got released into the laboratory and the air-bone activity instantaneously got distributed throughout the volume of the laboratory. In the study a simple mathematical expression is applied for the source term for generic cases of containment breach leading to air-borne activity. It is analysed, considering different time duration of release as less than total time of exposure, for duration of 7 hour exposure

  19. Trace Analysis in End-Exhaled Air Using Direct Solvent Extraction in Gas Sampling Tubes: Tetrachloroethene in Workers as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris-Elmo Ziener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective analytical methods are required to overcome the barriers preventing the use of exhaled air in routine occupational biological monitoring. Against this background, a new method is proposed that simplifies the automation and calibration of the analytical measurements. End-exhaled air is sampled using valveless gas sampling tubes made of glass. Gaseous analytes are transferred to a liquid phase using a microscale solvent extraction performed directly inside the gas sampling tubes. The liquid extracts are analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped, as usual, with a liquid autosampler, and liquid standards are used for calibration. For demonstration purposes, the method’s concept was applied to the determination of tetrachloroethene in end-exhaled air, which is a biomarker for occupational tetrachloroethene exposure. The method’s performance was investigated in the concentration range 2 to 20 μg tetrachloroethene/L, which corresponds to today’s exposure levels. The calibration curve was linear, and the intra-assay repeatability and recovery rate were sufficient. Analysis of real samples from dry-cleaning workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethene and from nonexposed subjects demonstrated the method’s utility. In the case of tetrachloroethene, the method can be deployed quickly, requires no previous experiences in gas analysis, provides sufficient analytical reliability, and addresses typical end-exhaled air concentrations from exposed workers.

  20. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region.

  1. Direct measurements of sample heating by a laser-induced air plasma in pre-ablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Janna; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Angel, S Michael

    2012-08-01

    Direct measurements of temperature changes were made using small thermocouples (TC), placed near a laser-induced air plasma. Temperature changes up to ~500 °C were observed. From the measured temperature changes, estimates were made of the amount of heat absorbed per unit area. This allowed calculations to be made of the surface temperature, as a function of time, of a sample heated by the air plasma that is generated during orthogonal pre-ablation spark dual-pulse (DP) LIBS measurements. In separate experiments, single-pulse (SP) LIBS emission and sample ablation rate measurements were performed on nickel at sample temperatures ranging from room temperature to the maximum surface temperature that was calculated using the TC measurement results (500 °C). A small, but real sample temperature-dependent increase in both SP LIBS emission and the rate of sample ablation was found for nickel samples heated up to 500 °C. Comparison of DP LIBS emission enhancement values for bulk nickel samples at room temperature versus the enhanced SP LIBS emission and sample ablation rates observed as a function of increasing sample temperature suggests that sample heating by the laser-induced air plasma plays only a minor role in DP LIBS emission enhancement.

  2. Measurements of {sup 55}Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curioni, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dinar, N. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Université de Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas-Mann, 75013 Paris (France); La Torre, F.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Leidner, J., E-mail: johannes.leidner@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Murtas, F. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S.; Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-21

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the {sup 55}Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the {sup 55}Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  3. Measurement of arsenic in sectioned hair samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas-Guinn, M.; Demiralp, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent Texas murder case, bundles of head hair from the female victim (aligned with all root ends together) were washed, cut into 7 mm sections, air-dried and weighed, activated in a nuclear reactor neutron flux, and then counted with a Ge(Li) detector/4096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer. In each of the 15 samples, the 559 keV gamma-ray peak of 26.3 hour 76 As was measured. In the section closest to the scalp, an arsenic concentration of 107 ppm was found (cf. a 'normal' level of about 1 ppm As). Barium ingestion was also possible so Ba was looked for, but not found. The victim's husband was found guilty of murder by chronic arsenic poisoning. (author) 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoszka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG) as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1).

  5. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoszka Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1.

  6. Variations of radon volume activities in soil and indoor air and their correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzes, A.

    1998-01-01

    Some manual measurements of volume activity of 222 Rn ai soil air and in indoor air of building together with parallel measurements of some meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and pressure) of both atmospheric and indoor air were carried out. The measurements were performed in the building of Faculty and in its subsoil which consists of slope loams of the base of SW slopes of granitic Male Karpaty Mountains in the area of confluence of the Vidrica Creek with an arm of the Donau river. The monitoring measurements lasted form more than one and a half year, from January 1977 to August 1998, with the frequency of approximately once a week in each object. The soil air was taken from a permanently set up and sealed pipe from the depth of 0.8 m which was placed approximately 10 m from the building at the open air. All measurements of 222 Rn volume activities were performed with a portable fully automatic scintillation detector based on exchangeable Lucas cells. There were also performed the parallel measurements of some meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and pressure) of air in each object. The geological basement of building is a source of indoor radon. The volume activities of soil 222 Rn range from about 2 kBq/m 3 to about 20 kBq/m 3 with the average of 9.26 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation of 2.95 kBq/m 3 . The volume activities of indoor air in basement room were form 150 Bq/m 3 to 225 Bq/m 3 and on the third story they were from 125 Bq/m 3 to 175 Bq/m 3 (approximately). The results of monitoring measurements during 20 months period point out the intensity of interaction of geological substrate with building interior through the values of the volume activity of 222 Rn. Therefore a method of building foundation is one of the most important factors which determines the quantity of radon in indoor air. In the light of quality, the fluctuation of radon presence in the bottom part of the buildings is strongly determined by the variations of

  7. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  8. Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Transducers with Active Polypropylene Foam Matching Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás E. Gómez Alvarez-Arenas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, construction and characterization of air-coupled piezoelectric transducers using 1–3 connectivity piezocomposite disks with a stack of matching layers being the outer one an active quarter wavelength layer made of polypropylene foam ferroelectret film. This kind of material has shown a stable piezoelectric response together with a very low acoustic impedance (<0.1 MRayl. These features make them a suitable candidate for the dual use or function proposed here: impedance matching layer and active material for air-coupled transduction. The transducer centre frequency is determined by the l/4 resonance of the polypropylene foam ferroelectret film (0.35 MHz, then, the rest of the transducer components (piezocomposite disk and passive intermediate matching layers are all tuned to this frequency. The transducer has been tested in several working modes including pulse-echo and pitch-catch as well as wide and narrow band excitation. The performance of the proposed novel transducer is compared with that of a conventional air-coupled transducers operating in a similar frequency range.

  9. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embarch, K.; Moutea, Z.; Bounakhla, M.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chouak, A.; Lferde, M.; Gaudry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces. [fr

  10. Multistage open-tube trap for enrichment of part-per-trillion trace components of low-pressure (below 27-kPa) air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, D.; Vo, T.; Vedder, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A multistage open-tube trap for cryogenic collection of trace components in low-pressure air samples is described. The open-tube design allows higher volumetric flow rates than densely packed glass-bead traps commonly reported and is suitable for air samples at pressures below 27 kPa with liquid nitrogen as the cryogen. Gas blends containing 200 to 2500 parts per trillion by volume each of ethane and ethene were sampled and hydrocarbons were enriched with 100 + or - 4 percent trap efficiency. The multistage design is more efficient than equal-length open-tube traps under the conditions of the measurements.

  11. SU-F-T-656: Monte Carlo Study On Air Activation Around a Medical Electron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, F; Fehrenbacher, G; Zink, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In high energy photon therapy, several radiation protection issues result from photonuclear reactions. The activation of air - directly by photonuclear reactions as well as indirectly by capture of photoneutrons generated inside the linac head - is a major point of concern for the medical staff. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual effective dose to medical workers due to activated air around a medical high energy electron linac by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The treatment head of a Varian Clinac in 18 MV-X mode as well as the surrounding concrete bunker were modeled and the radiation transport was simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, starting from the primary electron striking the bremsstrahlung target. The activation yields in air from photo-disintegration of O-16 and N-14 nuclei as well as from neutron capture on Ar-40 nuclei were obtained from the simulations. The activation build-up, radioactive decay and air ventilation were studied using a mathematical model. The annual effective dose to workers was estimated by using published isotope specific conversion factors. Results: The oxygen and nitrogen activation yields were in contrast to the argon activation yield found to be field size dependent. The impact of the treatment room ventilation on the different air activation products was investigated and quantified. An estimate with very conservative assumptions gave an annual effective dose to workers of < 1 mSv/a. Conclusion: From the results of this study it can be concluded that the contribution of air activation to the radiation exposure to medical workers should be negligible in modern photon therapy, especially when it is compared to the dose due to prompt neutrons and the activation of heavy solid materials such as the jaws and the collimators inside the linac head.

  12. SU-F-T-656: Monte Carlo Study On Air Activation Around a Medical Electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, F [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbacher, G [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In high energy photon therapy, several radiation protection issues result from photonuclear reactions. The activation of air - directly by photonuclear reactions as well as indirectly by capture of photoneutrons generated inside the linac head - is a major point of concern for the medical staff. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual effective dose to medical workers due to activated air around a medical high energy electron linac by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The treatment head of a Varian Clinac in 18 MV-X mode as well as the surrounding concrete bunker were modeled and the radiation transport was simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, starting from the primary electron striking the bremsstrahlung target. The activation yields in air from photo-disintegration of O-16 and N-14 nuclei as well as from neutron capture on Ar-40 nuclei were obtained from the simulations. The activation build-up, radioactive decay and air ventilation were studied using a mathematical model. The annual effective dose to workers was estimated by using published isotope specific conversion factors. Results: The oxygen and nitrogen activation yields were in contrast to the argon activation yield found to be field size dependent. The impact of the treatment room ventilation on the different air activation products was investigated and quantified. An estimate with very conservative assumptions gave an annual effective dose to workers of < 1 mSv/a. Conclusion: From the results of this study it can be concluded that the contribution of air activation to the radiation exposure to medical workers should be negligible in modern photon therapy, especially when it is compared to the dose due to prompt neutrons and the activation of heavy solid materials such as the jaws and the collimators inside the linac head.

  13. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator and their application to low-level alpha-spectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionization chamber with an efficient area of 3000 cm 2 , and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha spectrometry of air dust. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m 3 taking 3 Σσ of background as the detection limit with 1000 min counting time. (author)

  14. Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Bäcklund, Are; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2018-01-15

    Ambient air is a core medium for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention and is used in studies of global transports of POPs and their atmospheric sources and source regions. Still, data based on active air sampling remain scarce in many regions. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) monitor concentrations of selected POPs in air outside West Africa, and (ii) to evaluate potential atmospheric processes and source regions affecting measured concentrations. For this purpose, an active high-volume air sampler was installed on the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory at Cape Verde outside the coast of West Africa. Sampling commenced in May 2012 and 43 samples (24h sampling) were collected until June 2013. The samples were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes. The concentrations of these POPs at Cape Verde were generally low and comparable to remote sites in the Arctic for several compounds. Seasonal trends varied between compounds and concentrations exhibited strong temperature dependence for chlordanes. Our results indicate net volatilization from the Atlantic Ocean north of Cape Verde as sources of these POPs. Air mass back trajectories demonstrated that air masses measured at Cape Verde were generally transported from the Atlantic Ocean or the North African continent. Overall, the low concentrations in air at Cape Verde were likely explained by absence of major emissions in areas from which the air masses originated combined with depletion during long-range atmospheric transport due to enhanced degradation under tropical conditions (high temperatures and concentrations of hydroxyl radicals). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A directional passive air sampler for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Liu, Y.N.; Lang, C.; Wang, W.T.; Yuan, H.S.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qiu, W.X.; Liu, J.M.; Liu, Z.G.; Liu, S.Z.; Yi, R.; Ji, M.; Liu, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    A passive air sampler was developed for collecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass from various directions. The airflow velocity within the sampler was assessed for its responses to ambient wind speed and direction. The sampler was examined for trapped particles, evaluated quantitatively for influence of airflow velocity and temperature on PAH uptake, examined for PAH uptake kinetics, calibrated against active sampling, and finally tested in the field. The airflow volume passing the sampler was linearly proportional to ambient wind speed and sensitive to wind direction. The uptake rate for an individual PAH was a function of airflow velocity, temperature and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient of the PAH. For all PAHs with more than two rings, the passive sampler operated in a linear uptake phase for three weeks. Different PAH concentrations were obtained in air masses from different directions in the field test. - A novel directional passive air sampler was developed and tested for monitoring PAHs in air masses from different directions

  16. Mechanical activation of graphite in air: A way to advanced carbon nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklanova, O.N., E-mail: baklanova@ihcp.ru; Drozdov, V.A.; Lavrenov, A.V.; Vasilevich, A.V.; Muromtsev, I.V.; Trenikhin, M.V.; Arbuzov, A.B.; Likholobov, V.A.; Gorbunova, O.V.

    2015-10-15

    A high-energy planetary mill AGO-2 was used for mechanical activation of synthetic graphite with the particle size of 25–30 μm and specific surface area S{sub BET} = 3.0 m{sup 2}/g in air for 1–60 min at a 100 g acceleration of milling bodies. The X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies showed that the 60 min mechanical activation of graphite decreases the number of graphene layers in graphite crystallites to 8–12 and induces their turbostratic disorder. The size of graphite particles decreases to 6.9 μm after 30 min of mechanical activation and increases to 12.1 μm when the time of mechanical activation is extended to 60 min. Similar changes are observed for the true density of graphite: after 60 min of mechanical activation it becomes equal to 2.48 ⋅ 10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 3}, which is by 10% higher than the true density of graphite not subjected to such treatment. The specific adsorption surface of graphite (S{sub BET}) reaches its maximum values, 427–460 m{sup 2}/g, after 7–12 min of mechanical activation. A further increase in the activation time to 30–60 min decreases S{sub BET} of graphite to 230–250 m{sup 2}/g. Due to attrition of steel milling bodies caused by mechanical activation, iron is accumulated in the samples and its content exceeds 5%. Iron is distributed uniformly in the graphite as the 30–100 and 3–5 nm particles of hematite and iron carbide. The IR spectroscopy study revealed the formation of 0.8 mEq/g of the hydroxyl, phenolic, lactone and carbonyl groups on the graphite surface in the course of mechanical activation. - Highlights: • Graphite was mechanically activated in air at a 100 g acceleration of milling bodies. • The amount of graphenes in graphite crystallites decreases to 8–12. • Graphite transforms into a nanocrystalline X-ray amorphous state. • A metal–graphite composite with the 30–100 and 3–5 nm iron particles is formed. • Oxygen-containing groups in the amount of

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR BLOWN BY WARM AIR HAND DRYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai OÐUR; Omer Faruk TEKBAS; Osman HANCI; Umut OZCAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of air blown from warm air hand dryers, and to compare findings with the microbiological characteristics of indoor air in which the dryer settled. Air samples was taken from different public places (shopping centers, restaurants and hospitals and investigated for total viable counts, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and enteric pathogens. There were differences between sampling indoor places for some of the microorganisms, but all of the air samples taken from dryers contained more microorganisms than indoor air, and the differences between hand dryers and indoor air were statistically significant (p<0.05 except for enteric pathogens. As a result it could be said that warm air hand dryers could be microbiological contamination sources in restrooms or the other places that they are used. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 1-7

  18. The determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripirom, Lopchai.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium in environmental samples such as soil, water, and surface air in the middle part of Thailand were studied. The surface air were collected only at the fifth floor of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). Plutonium-242 was used as a tracer. Soil and air samples were dissolved by pyrosulphate fusion, and plutonium was co-precipitated with barium sulfate. Then dissolved the precipitate in perchloric acid. Plutonium was extracted out by using solvent bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Plutonium in water samples were coprecipitated with iron (III) hydroxide and were dissolved in 8 M. nitric acid. Then the plutonium was separated out by using anion exchange resin, Dowex 1x4. After the solvent extraction or the anion exchange, plutonium was coprecipitated with cerous hydroxide. The activities of plutonium were measured by a surface barrier detector for about 24 hours. Lower limit of detection for 1,440 minutes is 0.012 pCi. These studies showed that only plutonium-239, 240 was observed. The range of activities of plutonium-239, 240 in soil were 0.002-0.157 pCi/g (dry), in water were 0.1-81 f Ci/l, and in air were 7-330 a Ci/m 3 . However, the plutonium concentrations in these studies are far below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general population which is equal to 3x10 8 f Ci/l of water and 5x10 6 a Ci/m 3 of air

  19. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  20. Measurement of a thermal neutron flux using air activation; Mesure de flux de neutrons thermiques par activation d'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyonvarh, M; Lecomte, P; Le Meur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    It is necessary to know, in irradiation loops, the thermal neutron flux after the irradiation device has been introduced and without being obliged to wait for the discharge of this device. In order to measure the flux and to control it continuously, one possible method is to place in the flux a coiled steel tube through which air passes. By measuring the activity of argon 41, and with a knowledge of the flow rate and the temperature of the air, it is possible to calculate the flux. An air-circulation flux controller is described and the relationship between the flux and the count rate is established The accuracy of an absolute measurement is about 14 per cent; that of a relative measurement is about 3 per cent. The measurement can be carried out equally well whether the reactor is operating at maximum or at low power. The measurement range goes from 10{sup 9} to lO{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.sec{sup -1}, and it would be possible after a few modifications to measure fluxes between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.sec{sup -1}. Finally, the method is very safe to operate: there is little risk of irradiation because of the low specific activity of the argon-41 formed, and no risk of contamination because the decay product of argon-41 is stable. This method, which is now being used in loops, is thus very practical. (authors) [French] Sur des boucles d'irradiation il est necessaire de connaitre le flux de neutrons thermiques apres mise en place du dispositif d'irradiation et sans etre oblige d'attendre le detournement de ce dispositif. Pour mesurer le flux et le controler en permanence, une methode consiste a placer sous flux un serpentin en acier dans lequel on fait circuler de l'air. La mesure d'activite d'argon 41 permet de calculer le flux, connaissant le debit et la temperature de l'air. Un controleur de flux par circulation d'air est decrit et la relation entre le flux et le taux de comptage est etablie. La precision d'une mesure absolue est de l'ordre de 14 pour

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  2. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  3. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, T M; Barry, P J; Jahangir, A; Finn, C; Buckley, B M; El-Gammal, A

    2011-01-01

    Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a 'mixed' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO₂ in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO₂, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  5. Fogwater Chemistry and Air Quality in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, R. R.; Raja, S.; Ravikrishna, R.; Murugesan, K.; Collett, J. L.; Valsaraj, K.

    2007-05-01

    The presence of fog water in polluted atmosphere can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The study of interactions between fog water and atmospheric gases and aerosols are very important in understanding the atmospheric fate of the pollutants. In this Study several air samples and fogwater samples were collected in the heavily industrialized area of Gulf Coast corridor( Houston, TX and Baton Rouge, LA). A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected, comprising of nine fog events in Baton Rouge (Nov 2004 to Feb 2005) and two fog events in Houston (Feb, 2006), during the fog sampling campaigns. These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved carbon, major inorganic ions, organic acids, and aromatics, aldehydes, VOCs, and linear alkanes organic compounds. Fogwater samples collected in Houston show clear influence of marine and anthropogenic environment, while Baton Rouge samples reveal a relatively less polluted environment. Also, a time series observation of air samples indicated that fog event at the monitoring site impacted the air concentrations of the pollutants. This is attributed to presence of surface active organic matter in fog water.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  7. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  8. Cryogenic separation of an oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for the determination of isotope and molecular ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedakkadan, Habeeb Rahman; Abe, Osamu

    2015-04-30

    The separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures are critical in the high-precision analysis of Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) for geochemical applications. At present, chromatographic methods are used for the separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures or pure oxygen, but these methods require the use of high-purity helium as a carrier gas. Considerable interest has been expressed in the development of a helium-free cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples. The precise and simplified cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures from natural air samples presented here was made possible using a single 5A (30/60 mesh) molecular sieve column. The method involves the trapping of eluted gases using molecular sieves at liquid nitrogen temperature, which is associated with isotopic fractionation. We tested the proposed method for the determination of isotopic fractionations during the gas exchange between water and atmospheric air at equilibrium. The dependency of fractionation was studied at different water temperatures and for different methods of equilibration (bubbling and stirring). Isotopic and molecular fractionations during gas desorption from molecular sieves were studied for different amounts and types of molecular sieves. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (±SD) of 0.021 ‰, 0.044 ‰, 15 per meg and 1.9 ‰ for δ(17) O, δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) values, respectively. We applied the method to determine equilibrium isotope fractionation during gas exchange between air and water. Consistent δ(18) O and Δ(17) O results were obtained with the latest two studies, whereas there was a significant difference in δ(18) O values between seawater and deionized water. We have revised a helium-free, cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratio analysis. The use of a single 13X (1/8" pellet) molecular sieve yielded the smallest isotopic

  9. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.N.; Xie, Z.Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L.B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  10. System for measuring of air concentration in air-steam mixture during the transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, Gennady A.; Gakal, Pavlo G.; Epifanov, Konstantin S.; Osokin, Gennady V.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2006-01-01

    Description of system for air concentration measuring in air-steam mixture during the transients is represented. Air concentration measuring is based on discrete sampling method. The measuring system consists of sampler, transport pipeline, distributor and six measuring vessels. From the sampler air-steam mixture comes to distributor through transport pipeline and fills consecutively the measuring vessels. The true air concentration in place of measurement was defined based on measured air concentration in samples taken from measuring vessels. For this purpose, the mathematical model of transients in measuring system was developed. Air concentration transient in air-steam mixture in place of measurement was described in mathematical model by air concentration time-dependent function. The function parameters were defined based on air concentration measured in samples taken from measuring vessels. Estimated error of air concentration identification was about 10%. Measuring system was used in experiments on EREC BKV-213 test facility intended for testing of VVER-440/V-213 reactor barbotage-vacuum system

  11. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  12. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Air pollution biomonitoring in Argentina, application of neutron activation analysis to the study of biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, Maria Luisa; Pla, Rita R.

    2001-01-01

    Due to low population density, total air pollutant emissions in Argentina are still low if compared with highly industrialised countries. Although a significant deterioration of air quality has been observed for a long time, air monitoring did not begin until the 90's and only in a few cities. The use of air pollution biomonitors represents an important contribution to Argentina, as measurements of air pollutants in large areas would require especial technical equipment not easily available and operated. In this project, two lichen species (Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng) Mey and Flot and Usnea amblyoclada (Muell. Rg.) Zahlbr.) and a Bromeliaceae (Tillandsia capillaris) are used as biomonitors of air pollution at a 50, 000 km 2 area in Cordoba province (central Argentina). AAS and INAA have been applied for the analysis of samples, determining As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Gd, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. The following physiological parameters were also determined: chlorophyll a, chloropyll b, phaeophytin a, phaeophytin b, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malonaldehide and sulphur. Some of these parameters were used for calculating a pollution index. These determinations were carried out on pools collected at the sampling sites. AAS and physiological parameters were also applied to the analysis of five-replicate samples in order to study variability sources. For data evaluation, different statistical and other evaluating tools were used: descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation analysis were used on data from the three biomonitor species while factor analysis and mapping, only for R. ecklonii results. (author)

  14. EPA's Response to the February 2014 Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): EPA's WIPP Air Sampling Data from April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) environmental monitoring and assessment team members reviewed DOE's air sampling plan, visited DOE's air samplers and placed air samplers onsite near existing DOE samplers to corroborate results.

  15. Radiation impact caused by activation of air from the future GSI accelerator facility fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutermuth, F.; Wildermuth, H.; Radon, T.; Fehrenbacher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is planning a new accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Two future experimental areas are regarded to be the most decisive points concerning the activation of air. One is the area for the production of antiprotons. A second crucial experimental area is the so-called Super Fragment Separator. The production of radioactive isotopes in air is calculated using the residual nuclei option of the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The results are compared with the data for the activation of air given by Sullivan and in IAEA report 283. The resulting effective dose is calculated using a program package from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, the Bundesamt fuer Stranlenschutz. The results demonstrate that a direct emission of the total radioactivity produced into the air will probably conflict with the limits of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Special measures have to be planned in order to reduce the amount of radioactivity released into the air. (authors)

  16. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  17. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. OBJECTIVES......: To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel...

  18. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  19. The Predictive Factors of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Air Force Squadron Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Dana

    2001-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between beliefs about physical activity, physical activity levels, age and the promotional practices for physical activity employed by Air Force squadron commanders...

  20. Measurement of 131I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudecki, K; Szczodry, A; Mróz, T; Kowalska, A; Mietelski, J W

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of 131 I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of 131 I ("hot room") and at a nurse station. 131 I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the "hot room" and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement. The activities in the gaseous fraction ranged from (28 ± 1 Bq m -3 ) to (492 ± 4) Bq m -3 . At both sampling sites, the activity of the gaseous iodine fraction trapped on activated charcoal was significantly higher than that of the aerosol fraction captured on Petrianov filter cloth. Based on these results, an attempt has been made to estimate annual inhalation effective doses, which were found to range from 0.47 mSv (nurse female) to 1.3 mSv (technician male). The highest annual inhalation equivalent doses have been found for thyroid as 32, 27, 13, and 11 mSv, respectively, for technician male, technical female, nurse male, and nurse female. The method presented here allows to fill the gaps in internal doses measurements. Moreover, because method has been successful used for many years in radioactive contamination monitoring of air in cases of serious nuclear accidents, it should also be used in nuclear medicine.

  1. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  2. In-situ Electrodeposition of Highly Active Silver Catalyst on Carbon Fiber Papers as Binder Free Cathodes for Aluminum-air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qingshui; Lu, Huimin

    2017-06-13

    Carbon fiber papers supported Ag catalysts (Ag/CFP) with different coverage of electro-active site are prepared by electrochemical deposition and used as binder free cathodes in primary aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction studies are carried out to characterize the as-prepared Ag/CFP air cathodes. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities on these air cathodes in alkaline solutions are systematic studied. A newly designed aluminum-air cell is used to further determine the cathodes performance under real operation condition and during the test, the Ag/CFP electrodes show outstanding catalytic activity for ORR in concentrated alkaline electrolyte, and no obvious activity degradation is observed after long-time discharge. The electrochemical test results display the dependence of coverage of the electro-active Ag on the catalytic performance of the air cathodes. The resulting primary Al-air battery made from the best-performing cathode shows an impressive discharge peak power density, outperforming that of using commercial nano-manganese catalyst air electrodes.

  3. Application of Fast Neutron Activity for Analysing Element Content on the Air Particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Ngasifudin; Sunardi; Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The research on application of fast neutron activation analysis for analysing element content on the air particulate has been done. The research about analysis of the particulate matters contained in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, had been done using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis Method. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis method is one of the element analysis method which it's basic principle causes radioactivity appearance from the samples after being irradiated by neutron. The qualitative analysis method is based on the measuring of specific energy which was radiated by radioactive's nucleus and quantitative analysis method is based on the measuring of the intensity of each peak gamma energy. The qualitative analysis results showed, some element were identified i.e : 51 V ; 200 Pb, 27 Al and 52 Cr. The result showed that Pb level is 2.21 ± 0.09x10 -1 mg/m 3 in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and 2.78 ± 0.11x10 -1 mg/m 3 full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, this value greater than threshold value according 6.0x10 -2 mg/m 3 . (author)

  4. A workplace air monitor for uranium particulate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, J.E.; Monroe, F.E. Jr.; Smith, D.D.; Wallace, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    An air monitor has been developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to sample the air in enriched uranium processing areas and to detect elevated particulate concentrations due to an upset condition. The monitor measures the alpha particle activity from material collected on 47-mm filter paper. Three energy windows are used to allow quantification of background activity from radon and thoron daughters and correction of their spillage into the uranium window. There is sufficient monitor memory to hold a history file of six days' activity from three sampling heads at 20-min status intervals. Alarm signals are activated if the absolute level of activity on a filter exceeds a predefined level, or if an excessively fast rate of buildup is occurring, which would cause the absolute level to be exceeded. This monitor was combined with an absolute particle counter and data were collected at a processing station where uranium dust is known to be present. The occurrence of high particle count activity in the 3.0-10.0-μ range was followed by increased alpha activity on the filter paper. This strong correlation has not been reported

  5. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  6. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.

    1983-01-01

    A fast method for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples is described. The method is intended for samples having background concentrations of gold. The method is based on the dissolution of samples with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia followed by the dissolution of the fluorides with boric acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold is then adsorbed on activated carbon by filtrating the solution through a thin carbon layer. The activity measurements are carried out using a Ge(Li)-detector and a multichannel analyzer. The chemical yields of the separation determined by reirradiation vary between 60 and 90%. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 ng/g gold in rock samples. USGS standard rocks and exploration reference materials are analyzed and the results are presented and compared with literature data. (author)

  7. Comparison of personal air samplers and static air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Lumsden, B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that radioactive air contamination levels calculated from PAS results will always be higher than air contamination levels calculated from SAS results, other conditions being equal. The most probable explanation seems to be in a relationship between the sampling velocity and the particle size of the dust sampled

  8. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  9. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  10. Distribution of Gas Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Selected Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples of Malaysia: a Case Study in Serdang, Selangor and Bachang, Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the gas phase of air from selected indoor and outdoor areas of Selangor and Malacca, Malaysia has been investigated. A locally designed Semi Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD was applied for passive air sampling for 37 days at selected locations. Cleanup was carried out with Gas Purge - Micro Syringe Extraction (GP-MSE and the final analysis was using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. In this study, 6 indoor and 12 outdoor locations were selected for air sampling. A total of 10 compounds of PAHs (Ʃ10PAHs were determined in the range of 0.218 ng/m3 - 1.692 ng/m3 and 0.378 ng/m3 - 1.492 ng/m3 in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. In the outdoor samples, locations such as near a petrol station and heavy traffic showed the maximum levels of Ʃ10PAHs, while rooftop samples showed the lowest Ʃ10PAHs. The distribution of gas phase Ʃ10PAHs was influenced by vehicular emission. Low molecular weight (LMW compounds (2-3 rings were dominant in all samples (>70% indicating that SPMD has successfully sampled the gas phase of the air.

  11. Shielding design of highly activated sample storage at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been one of the most important things considered in Reaktor Triga PUSPATI (RTP) management. Currently, demands on sample activation were increased from variety of applicant in different research field area. Radiological hazard may occur if the samples evaluation done were misjudge or miscalculated. At present, there is no appropriate storage for highly activated samples. For that purpose, special irradiated samples storage box should be provided in order to segregate highly activated samples that produce high dose level and typical activated samples that produce lower dose level (1 - 2 mR/ hr). In this study, thickness required by common shielding material such as lead and concrete to reduce highly activated radiotracer sample (potassium bromide) with initial exposure dose of 5 R/ hr to background level (0.05 mR/ hr) were determined. Analyses were done using several methods including conventional shielding equation, half value layer calculation and Micro shield computer code. Design of new irradiated samples storage box for RTP that capable to contain high level gamma radioactivity were then proposed. (author)

  12. Determination of mercury in air by adsorption on Hopcalite and by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyni-Barbaz, D.; Zikovsky, L.; Poissant, L.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of mercury in air has been developed. It combines the adsorption of mercury on Hopcalite (a material approved for this purpose by the National Institute of Health of the United States) and its quantification by neutron activation. The concentrations of mercury in office air in Montreal, Canada, were determined by instrumental semiabsolute neutron activation analysis. They varied from 39 to 48 ng/m 3 . The results were compared with the concentrations of mercury in office air determined simultaneously at the same place by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. A close correlation between the results of the 2 methods was obtained. The detection limit of our method is about 14 ng/m 3 . (author)

  13. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  14. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  15. Measurement of volatile organic compounds during start-up of bioremediation of French limited superfund site in Crosby Texas using wind dependent whole-air sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleil, J.D.; Fortune, C.R.; Yoong, M.; Oliver, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Whole-air sampling was performed before and after the start-up of the bioremediation of an industrial (primarily petrochemical) waste lagoon in Crosby Texas, near Houston. Four 'Sector Samplers' were deployed at the four corners of the French Limited Superfund Site. These samplers collect air into one of two SUMMA polished canisters depending upon wind direction and speed. When the wind blows at the sampler from across the waste lagoon, air is routed to the 'IN' sector canister, otherwise sample is collected in the 'OUT' sector canister. As such, each sampler provides its own background sample, and, upon gas chromatographic analysis, individual compounds can be associated with the waste lagoon. Five sets of 24-hour sector samples were taken; the first set was collected prior to the start of the bioremediation effort and the remaining four sets were taken sequentially for four 24-hour periods after the start-up of the procedure

  16. Effect of a disinfectant powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs, bedding and air samples under simulated farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    applications of the disinfectant. MRSA load was measured in samples from pigs, bedding material and air and analysed statistically. While pigs remained positive with variable MRSA counts, the amount of MRSA in the air and bedding material increased significantly during the first week and then was gradually...... reduced in both groups. MRSA couldn’t be isolated from air and bedding material in the treatment group after seven applications and the load of MRSA increased immediately after discontinuation of treatment. This study suggests that this type of disinfectant is not able to eradicate LA-MRSA from animals...

  17. Measurements of CO2 Mole Fractionand δ13C in Archived Air Samples from Cape Meares, Oregon (USA) 1977 - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, O.; Rice, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant, anthropogenically forced greenhouse gas (GHG) in the global atmosphere. Emissions of CO2 account for approximately 75% of the world's total GHG emissions. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are higher now than they've been at any other time in the past 800,000 years. Currently, the global mean concentration exceeds 400 ppm. Today, global networks regularly monitor CO2 concentrations and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ18O). However, past data is sparse. Over 200 ambient air samples from Cape Meares, Oregon (45.5°N, 124.0°W), a coastal site in Western United States, were obtained by researchers at Oregon Institute of Science and Technology (OGI, now Oregon Health & Science University), between the years of 1977 and 1998 as part of a global monitoring program of six different sites in the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Air liquefaction was used to compress approximately 1000L of air (STP) to 30bar, into 33L electropolished (SUMMA) stainless steel canisters. Select archived air samples from the original network are maintained at Portland State University (PSU) Department of Physics. These archived samples are a valuable look at changing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and δ13C, which can contribute to a better understanding of changes in sources during this time. CO2 concentrations and δ13C of CO2 were measured at PSU, with a Picarro Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer, model G1101-i analytical system. This study presents the analytical methods used, calibration techniques, precision, and reproducibility. Measurements of select samples from the archive show rising CO2 concentrations and falling δ13C over the 1977 to 1998 period, compatible with previous observations and rising anthropogenic sources of CO2. The resulting data set was statistically analyzed in MATLAB. Results of preliminary seasonal and secular trends from the archive samples are presented.

  18. Measurement of {sup 131}I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudecki, K.; Mietelski, J.W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Szczodry, A.; Kowalska, A. [Department of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine Holycross Cancer Center, Kielce (Poland); Mroz, T. [Pedagogical University in Cracow, Krakow (Poland)

    2018-03-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 131}I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of {sup 131}I (''hot room'') and at a nurse station. {sup 131}I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the ''hot room'' and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement. The activities in the gaseous fraction ranged from (28 ± 1 Bq m{sup -3}) to (492 ± 4) Bq m{sup -3}. At both sampling sites, the activity of the gaseous iodine fraction trapped on activated charcoal was significantly higher than that of the aerosol fraction captured on Petrianov filter cloth. Based on these results, an attempt has been made to estimate annual inhalation effective doses, which were found to range from 0.47 mSv (nurse female) to 1.3 mSv (technician male). The highest annual inhalation equivalent doses have been found for thyroid as 32, 27, 13, and 11 mSv, respectively, for technician male, technical female, nurse male, and nurse female. The method presented here allows to fill the gaps in internal doses measurements. Moreover, because method has been successful used for many years in radioactive contamination monitoring of air in cases of serious nuclear accidents, it should also be used in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  19. Durability and regeneration of activated carbon air-cathodes in long-term operated microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Yu, Qingling; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-08-01

    The performance of activated carbon catalyst in air-cathodes in microbial fuel cells was investigated over one year. A maximum power of 1722 mW m-2 was produced within the initial one-month microbial fuel cell operation. The air-cathodes produced a maximum power >1200 mW m-2 within six months, but gradually became a limiting factor for the power output in prolonged microbial fuel cell operation. The maximum power decreased by 55% when microbial fuel cells were operated over one year due to deterioration in activated carbon air-cathodes. While salt/biofilm removal from cathodes experiencing one-year operation increased a limiting performance enhancement in cathodes, a washing-drying-pressing procedure could restore the cathode performance to its original levels, although the performance restoration was temporary. Durable cathodes could be regenerated by re-pressing activated carbon catalyst, recovered from one year deteriorated air-cathodes, with new gas diffusion layer, resulting in ∼1800 mW m-2 of maximum power production. The present study indicated that activated carbon was an effective catalyst in microbial fuel cell cathodes, and could be recovered for reuse in long-term operated microbial fuel cells by simple methods.

  20. Determination of trace elements in lichen samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Horimoto, Lidia K.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Marcelli, Marcelo P.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of Canoparmelia texana lichen collected in different sites of Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil, were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain preliminary information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. Also Tadescantia pallida plant has been analysed in order to study the viability of using this specimen in environmental pollution monitoring. Lichens samples were collected from tree barks which were also collected to investigate the contribution of substrate derived elements to elements present in lichens. Young and old leaves of T. pallida were collected separately in order to study the leaf age effects on their elemental levels. The samples were cleaned, washed with distilled water, dried and ground for the analyses. Samples and standards were irradiated at the IEA-Rlm nuclear reactor for short and long periods and concentrations of the elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, D, Th, U, V Zn and lanthanides were determined. Preliminary results obtained for T. texana lichen indicated that three sites (Ibiuna, Botanical Garden and Parque de Vila Velha) present low concentrations of the most elements analysed. Therefore lichens from these regions could be analysed to establish baseline levels of elements for monitoring purposes. Samples collected in open areas presented high concentrations of some elements probably due to the accumulation of elements originating from soil and from heavy vehicular traffic. Elemental concentrations obtained in outer barks were similar or smaller than those results obtained for lichens. Results obtained for T. pallida indicated that concentrations of elements in old leaves of this plant are of the same magnitude or slightly higher than those presented in young ones. (author)

  1. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  2. A system for high-quality CO2 isotope analyses of air samples collected by the CARIBIC Airbus A340-600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assonov, S; Taylor, P; Brenninkmeijer, C A M

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, JRC-IRMM began a series of atmospheric CO2 isotope measurements, with the focus on understanding instrumental effects, corrections as well as metrological aspects. The calibration approach at JRC-IRMM is based on use of a plain CO2 sample (working reference CO2) as a calibration carrier and CO2-air mixtures (in high-pressure cylinders) to determine the method-related correction under actual analytical conditions (another calibration carrier, in the same form as the samples). Although this approach differs from that in other laboratories, it does give a direct link to the primary reference NBS-19-CO2. It also helps to investigate the magnitude and nature for each of the instrumental corrections and allows for the quantification of the uncertainty introduced. Critical tests were focused on the instrumental corrections. It was confirmed that the use of non-symmetrical capillary crimping (an approach used here to deal with small samples) systematically modifies delta13C(CO2) and delta18O(CO2), with a clear dependence on the amount of extracted CO2. However, the calibration of CO2-air mixtures required the use of the symmetrical dual-inlet mode. As a proof of our approach, we found that delta13C(CO2) on extracts from mixtures agreed (within 0.010 per thousand) with values obtained from the 'mother' CO2 used for the mixtures. It was further found that very low levels of hydrocarbons in the pumping systems and the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument itself were critical. The m/z 46 values (consequently the calculated delta18O(CO2) values) are affected by several other effects with traces of air co-trapped with frozen CO2 being the most critical. A careful cryo-distillation of the extracted CO2 is recommended. After extensive testing, optimisation, and routine automated use, the system was found to give precise data on air samples that can be traced with confidence to the primary standards. The typical total combined uncertainty in delta13C(CO2) and

  3. Measurement of the concentration of radon in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, J.B.Th.; Bierhuizen, H.W.J.; Hoek, L.P. van; Ros, D.; Weber, J.

    1975-01-01

    A simple transportable air monitoring apparatus was developed for controlling the radon contamination of air in laboratory rooms. It is not highly accurate but is sufficient to register the order of magnitude of the radon concentration. Air is pumped through a filter for one or two hours and an alpha decay curve of the dust on the filter is determined. Scintillation counting forty minutes after sampling indicates the radon activity. The calibration method of measuring the equilibrium of daughter product concentrations is discussed extensively

  4. Air emissions assessment from offshore oil activities in Sonda de Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Miranda, A; López-Salinas, E

    2005-10-01

    Air emission data from offshore oil platforms, gas and oil processing installations and contribution of marine activities at the Sonda de Campeche, located at the Gulf of Mexico, were compiled and integrated to facilitate the study of long range transport of pollutants into the region. From this important region, roughly 76% of the total Mexican oil and gas production is obtained. It was estimated that the total air emissions of all contaminants are approximately 821,000 tons per year. Hydrocarbons are the largest pollutant emissions with 277,590 tons per year, generated during flaring activities, and SOx in second place with 185,907 tons per year. Marine and aviation activities contribute with less than 2% of total emissions. Mass of pollutants emitted per barrel of petroleum produced calculated in this work, are in the range reported by similar oil companies.

  5. Physical Activity, Air Pollution and the Risk of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E; Loft, Steffen; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Physical activity enhances uptake of air pollutants in the lung, possibly augmenting their harmful effects on chronic lung disease during exercise. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benefits of physical activity with respect to the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...... (COPD) are moderated by exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: A total of 53,113 subjects (50-65 yr) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort reported physical activity at recruitment (1993-1997) and were followed until 2013 in the National Patient Register.......03-1.27]) hospitalizations (comparing ≥21.0 μg/m(3) to pollution during exercise does not outweigh beneficial effects of physical activity...

  6. Mathematical solutions to problems in radiological protection involving air sampling and biokinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.

    1989-04-01

    Intakes of radionuclides are estimated with the personal air sampler (PAS) and by biological monitoring techniques: in the case of plutonium, there are problems with both methods. The statistical variation in activity collected when sampling radioactive aerosols with low number concentrations was investigated. It was shown that the PAS is barely adequate for monitoring plutonium at annual limit of intake (ALI) levels in typical workplace conditions. Two algorithms were developed, enabling non-recycling and recycling compartmental models to be solved. Their accuracy and speed were investigated, and methods of dealing with partitioning, continuous intake, and radioactive progeny were discussed. Analytical, rather than numerical, methods were used. These are faster, and thus ideally suited for implementation on microcomputers. The algorithms enable non-specialists to solve quickly and easily any first order compartmental model, including all the ICRP metabolic models. Non-recycling models with up to 50 compartments can be solved in seconds: recycling models take a little longer. A biokinetic model for plutonium in man following systemic uptake was developed. The proposed ICRP lung model (1989) was represented by a first order compartmental model. These two models were combined, and the recycling algorithm was used to calculate urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium following acute or chronic intake by inhalation. The results indicate much lower urinary excretion than predicted by ICRP Publication 54. (author)

  7. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  8. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  9. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 119 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2891/ST) was sent on 1 August 2003 to four firms, in three Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received two tenders from one firm and one consortium, in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with ICARE (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply of automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments for a total amount not exceeding 1 750 000 euros (2 714 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007 with options for air-sampling smoke detection systems for electrical racks, for an additional amount of 400 000 euros (620 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 2 150 000 euros...

  10. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  11. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  12. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-01-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the

  13. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  14. Influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on measurements of benzene in ambient air by transportable GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Trigueros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of in situ analysers of air pollutants is usually done with dry standards. In this paper, the influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on benzene measurements by gas chromatography coupled with a photoionisation detector (GC-PID is studied. Two reference gas mixtures (40 and 5 µg m−3 nominal concentration benzene in air were subjected to two temperature cycles (20/5/20 °C and 20/35/20 °C and measured with two identical GC-PIDs. The change in sample temperature did not produce any significant change in readings. Regarding ambient humidity, the chromatographs were calibrated for benzene with dry gases and subjected to measure reference standards with humidity (20 and 80 % at 20 °C. When measuring a concentration of 0.5 µg m−3 benzene in air, the levels of humidity tested did not produce any significant interference in measurements taken with any of the analysers. However, when measuring a concentration of 40 µg m−3, biases in measurements of 18 and 21 % for each respective analyser were obtained when the relative humidity of the sample was 80 % at 20 °C. Further tests were carried out to study the nature of this interference. Results show that humidity interference depends on both the amount fractions of water vapour and benzene. If benzene concentrations in an area are close to its annual limit value (5 µg m−3, biases of 2.2 % can be expected when the absolute humidity is 8.6 g cm−3 – corresponding to a relative humidity of 50 % at 20 °C. This can be accounted for in the uncertainty budget of measurements with no need for corrections. If benzene concentrations are above the annual limit value, biases become higher. Thus, in these cases, actions should be taken to reduce the humidity interference, as an underestimation of benzene concentrations may cause a mismanagement of air quality in these situations.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  16. Modelling and Evaluating Air Quality with Fuzzy Logic Algorithm-Ankara-Cebeci Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Atacak, Ismail; Arici, Nursal; Guner, Dilem

    2017-01-01

    Air is one of the most important life sources for all living things. Gases that are present and absent in the composition of clean air also considered as pollutants in the atmosphere. If the pollutants rise above a certain concentration level, air pollution occurs. Air pollution damages all living things, especially human health. Accurate estimation of pollutant concentrations through air pollution modeling has an important effect in reducing the adverse effects of pollution and taking necess...

  17. Measurement of radon progeny concentrations in air by alpha-particle spectrometey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1975-07-01

    A technique is presented for measuring air concentrations of the short-lived progeny of radon-222 by the use of alpha spectrometry. In this technique, the concentration of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. The influence of air sampling and counting intervals of time on the accuracy of the calculated concentrations is discussed in the report. A computer program is presented for use with this technique. It is written in the BASIC language. The program will calculate the air concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC, and will estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. (U.S.)

  18. Use of CITATION code for flux calculation in neutron activation analysis with voluminous sample using an Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Bode, P.

    2002-01-01

    The CITATION code based on neutron diffusion theory was used for flux calculations inside voluminous samples in prompt gamma activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source (Am-Be). The code uses specific parameters related to the energy spectrum source and irradiation system materials (shielding, reflector). The flux distribution (thermal and fast) was calculated in the three-dimensional geometry for the system: air, polyethylene and water cuboidal sample (50x50x50 cm). Thermal flux was calculated in a series of points inside the sample. The results agreed reasonably well with observed values. The maximum thermal flux was observed at a distance of 3.2 cm while CITATION gave 3.7 cm. Beyond a depth of 7.2 cm, the thermal flux to fast flux ratio increases up to twice and allows us to optimise the detection system position in the scope of in-situ PGAA

  19. Investigation of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.

    2004-01-01

    A project has been undertaken to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analyzed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, have participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. Activities carried out within the framework of this project are described. (author)

  20. Determination of Glycol Ethers in Ambient Air by Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis: Performance Evaluation and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyo Seo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE are known to be toxic and classified as hazardous air pollutants in USA, Japan and Germany. In Korea, however, there has been no study conducted so far for these compounds in ambient air. In addition, no clear methodologies for the measurement of glycol ethers have been yet established. We carried out this study to evaluate a sampling and analytical method for the determination of glycol ethers, in ambient air samples collected in specific industrial areas of South Korea. To measure glycol ethers, adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC/MS analysis were used in this study. The analytical method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity. The lower detection limits were estimated to be approximately 0.3∼0.5 ppb. Based on storage tests, it was suggested that samples should be analyzed within two weeks. It was also demonstrated that this method can be used for the simultaneous measurement of glycol ethers and other aromatic VOCs such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Field sampling campaign was carried out at 2 sites, located in a large industrial area, from October 2006 to June 2007, and a total of 480 samples were collected seasonally. Among them, 2-ME was not detected from any samples, while 2-EE and 2-Ethyloxyethylacetate (2-EEA were found in 7 and 70 samples, respectively. The measured concentrations of 2-EE and 2-EEA for samples were ranged from 0.7-2.5 ppb and from 0.5-10.5 ppb, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement report for glycol ethers in the ambient atmosphere not only in Korea but also the rest of the world.

  1. Active learning and adaptive sampling for non-parametric inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a general discussion of active learning and adaptive sampling. In many practical scenarios it is possible to use information gleaned from previous observations to focus the sampling process, in the spirit of the "twenty-questions" game. As more samples are collected one can

  2. The potential effect of differential ambient and deployment chamber temperatures on PRC derived sampling rates with polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Karen, E-mail: k.kennedy@uq.edu.a [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Hawker, Darryl W. [Griffith University, School of Environment, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Bartkow, Michael E. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Carter, Steve [Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia); Ishikawa, Yukari; Mueller, Jochen F. [University of Queensland, EnTox (National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology), 39 Kessels Rd., Coopers Plains QLD 4108 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Performance reference compound (PRC) derived sampling rates were determined for polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in both sub-tropical and temperate locations across Australia. These estimates were on average a factor of 2.7 times higher in summer than winter. The known effects of wind speed and temperature on mass transfer coefficients could not account for this observation. Sampling rates are often derived using ambient temperatures, not the actual temperatures within deployment chambers. If deployment chamber temperatures are in fact higher than ambient temperatures, estimated sampler-air partition coefficients would be greater than actual partition coefficients resulting in an overestimation of PRC derived sampling rates. Sampling rates determined under measured ambient temperatures and estimated deployment chamber temperatures in summer ranged from 7.1 to 10 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} and 2.2-6.8 m{sup 3} day{sup -1} respectively. These results suggest that potential differences between ambient and deployment chamber temperatures should be considered when deriving PRC-based sampling rates. - Internal deployment chamber temperatures rather than ambient temperatures may be required to accurately estimate PRC-based sampling rates.

  3. Infrequent air contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii of air surrounding known colonized or infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; Harris, Anthony D; Johnson, J Kristie; Bischoff, Werner E; Thom, Kerri A

    2015-07-01

    Using a validated air sampling method we found Acinetobacter baumannii in the air surrounding only 1 of 12 patients known to be colonized or infected with A. baumannii. Patients' closed-circuit ventilator status, frequent air exchanges in patient rooms, and short sampling time may have contributed to this low burden.

  4. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V b ) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel's color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber

  5. [Demographic dynamics, migrants from bordering countries and economic activity in Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattes, A E; Bertoncello, R

    1997-04-01

    The growth and changes--by age, sex, and place of birth--in the structure of the total population of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and of the subpopulation over 15 years of age and economically active are analyzed for the decade of the 1980s. Study of the economic participation of migrants and its possible influence on levels of employment or unemployment should be carried out within the framework of changes in the population's structure and economic participation. The 1981 and 1991 censuses and the Permanent Survey of Households were the sources of data. Immigration to Argentina has declined considerably in recent years, but it is still a factor in the population growth of metropolitan Buenos Aires. Between the 1981 and 1991 censuses, the population aged 15 and over grew by 10.9/1000, or a total of 827,806 people. Migrants from bordering countries increased in number (by 85,109, or 10.3%) and in proportion to the total population (from 3.9% to 4.6%). Migrant women increased at the highest rate (30.1/1000). The greatest growth occurred among men aged 40 and over and among women aged 35 and over. The growth of the economically active population over age 15 for different groups of national origin, sex, and age showed much greater heterogeneity. In 1991, women from bordering countries represented 3.8% of all women in metropolitan Buenos Aires but 5.7% of the total economically active female population and nearly 7% of the economically active female population aged 35 and over. Women from neighboring countries were responsible for 10.3% of the growth in the economically active female population aged 30-34 and 40-44 between 1981 and 1991. The absolute and relative increases in migrants from neighboring countries and their greater economic participation tend to increase the general level of economic activity.

  6. Monitoring of the vegetable garden open air spinach and soil radioactivity in Beijing during the Japan Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiang; Xu Cuihua; Tuo Fei; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhang Qing; Zhang Weijun; Zhang Jianfeng; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect artificial radionuclide content in the spinach and soil in open air vegetable garden in Beijing during Fukushima nuclear accident and to study the radioactive contamination characteristics of the samples. Methods: 6 spinach samples and 3 soil samples in open air vegetable garden were obtained through continuously sampling. High-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry was used to analyze activity concentrations of artificial radionuclide 131 I etc in these samples. Results: Artificial radionuclide 131 I was detected in the 6 open air spinach samples. Artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was detected in 3 vegetable garden soil samples, trace amount of 131 I was detected in 1 open-air surface soil sample alone. Conclusions: Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, spinach in Beijing's open-air vegetable garden was slightly polluted by artificial radionuclide 131 I, with the highest values of pollution appeared around April 4, 2011, but it could not cause harm to human health. (authors)

  7. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is conducted by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. A structure preserving model is applied to the multi-bus power system, in which air conditioners are aggregated at certain load buses. An inner-outer iteration scheme is adopted to solve power system dynamics. An experiment is conducted on a test air conditioner to examine the performance of the proposed decentralized control law. Simulation results on a test power system verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for air conditioners participating in frequency control.

  8. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Sumitra, Tatchai

    2003-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  9. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  10. Causes of seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    In winter months maxima of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in air are observed at several locations in Europe. To clarify this phenomenon, from October 1991 to November 1992 we performed a program for aerosol collection on a short-term scale based on collecting intervals of 48-72 hours. The local meteorological parameters were determined simultaneously. Statistical analysis of these observations reveiled a highly significant positive correlation between Cs-137 activity concentration and the so-called 'Stagnationsindex'. Based on this relationship the seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 concentrations in ground-level air can be explained by atmospheric inversion conditions frequently occurring during fall- and wintermonths. (orig.) [de

  11. In-situ Electrodeposition of Highly Active Silver Catalyst on Carbon Fiber Papers as Binder Free Cathodes for Aluminum-air Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Qingshui; Lu, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    Carbon fiber papers supported Ag catalysts (Ag/CFP) with different coverage of electro-active site are prepared by electrochemical deposition and used as binder free cathodes in primary aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction studies are carried out to characterize the as-prepared Ag/CFP air cathodes. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities on these air cathodes in alkaline solutions are systematic studied. A newly designed aluminum-air cell is use...

  12. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  13. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  14. Is physical activity a modifier of the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness in older adults: The SAPALDIA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, Simon; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Caviezel, Seraina; Dratva, Julia; Stolz, Daiana; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA). We assessed arterial stiffness as the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV [m/s]) with an oscillometric device. We administered a self-reported physical activity questionnaire to classify each subject's physical activity level. Air pollution exposure was estimated by the annual average individual home outdoor PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter air pollution exposure and physical activity while adjusting for relevant confounders. We found evidence that the association of air pollution exposure with baPWV was different between inactive and active participants. The probability of having increased baPWV was significantly higher with higher PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 , PNC and LDSA exposure in inactive, but not in physically active participants. We found some evidence of an interaction between physical activity and ambient air pollution exposure for PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 (p interaction =0.06, 0.09, and 0.04, respectively), but not PNC and LDSA (p interaction =0.32 and 0.35). Our study provides some indication that physical activity may protect against the adverse vascular effects of air pollution in low pollution settings. Additional research in large prospective cohorts is needed to assess whether the observed effect modification translates to high pollution settings in mega-cities of middle and low-income countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample flow meter for batch sampling... Sample flow meter for batch sampling. (a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample flow... difference between a diluted exhaust sample flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow...

  16. Integrated sampling and analysis unit for the determination of sexual pheromones in environmental air using fabric phase sorptive extraction and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-03-10

    This article presents a novel unit that integrates for the first time air sampling and preconcentration based on the use of fabric phase sorptive extraction principles. The determination of Tuta absoluta sexual pheromone traces in environmental air has been selected as analytical problem. For this aim, a novel laboratory-built unit made up of commercial brass elements as holder of the sol-gel coated fabric extracting phase has been designed and optimized. The performance of the integrated unit was evaluated analyzing environmental air sampled in tomato crops. The unit can work under sampling and analysis mode which eliminates any need for sorptive phase manipulation prior to instrumental analysis. In the sampling mode, the unit can be connected to a sampling pump to pass the air through the sorptive phase at a controlled flow-rate. In the analysis mode, it is placed in the gas chromatograph autosampler without any instrumental modification. It also diminishes the risk of cross contamination between sampling and analysis. The performance of the new unit has been evaluated using the main components of the sexual pheromone of Tuta absoluta [(3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate] as model analytes. The limits of detection for both compounds resulted to be 1.6μg and 0.8μg, respectively, while the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was better than 3.7%. Finally, the unit has been deployed in the field to analyze a number of real life samples, some of them were found positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxic air pollutants notice of construction for rotary mode core sampling systems three and four and modification system two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyekman, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) approved the construction and operation of Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) System Two on November 22, 1993 (NOC-93-04). This approval supported the characterization of waste in the single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTS) on the Hanford Site. The waste tank characterization sampling and analysis effort is vital to the safe operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, and the timely collection of the information necessary to support retrieval, pretreatment, disposal planning, and final closure strategy. This is based on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-05 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL-94-001), US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) proposed the expedited construction and operation of two additional RMCS systems to support characterization of waste stored in SSTs and DSTS. RMCS currently is scheduled for approximately 50 (active or passively ventilated) of the 149 SSTs in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. If necessary, the RMCS will be used to sample other tanks currently not scheduled, subject to the requirements of this document and any applicable Ecology approval order. The typical components of the RMCS systems are shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that the Flammable Gas Detector cart is not being used during RMCS at this time. RMCS is scheduled for approximately 40 tanks that are not actively ventilated. These tanks operate at atmospheric pressure with passive (breather) high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The RMCS system uses nitrogen gas to cool and purge the drill bit assembly. Without the use of a portable ventilation system, the additional gas from RMCS might unsafely pressurize tanks that are not actively ventilated. The RMCS system also will generate aerosols and dust in the tank vapor head space. HEPA filters will be required on the portable exhauster during rotary mode core drilling to control radionuclide

  18. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  19. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Santos, Marina dos

    2007-01-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  20. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Tafuri, V.; Cussto, G.S.; Adler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  1. Continual monitoring of radon decay products concentration in indoor and outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruf, P.; Holy, K.; Stanys, T.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work was the development of the method and construction and testing of measurement device for continual monitoring of radon daughters concentrations in the indoor and outdoor environment with regard to make possible to determine very low activities in the outdoor air (below % Bq/m 3 ). In this method air sample is drawn through the appropriate filter material. Radon and thoron daughters both attached and unattached on aerosols particles are collected on the filter surface and then the filter activity is counted. The silicon surface barrier detector with the active area of 200 mm 2 in monitor was used. The Millipore AW19-type filter was chosen and sampling rate of 30 l/min for collecting of the air samples. The determination of the individual activity concentrations in three-count method is based on the solution of the simultaneous equations describing the number of atoms of measured nuclides on the filter during and after sampling. The monitor was tested in three different environments (the average values of the activity concentrations of radon and its decay products in Bq/m 3 are given): in the basement of the building: 61.4 ± 5.0 of 222 Rn, 29.5 ± 2.8 of 218 Po, 14.1 ± 1.8 of 214 Pb and 12.1 ± 1.6 of 214 Bi; in the room on the second floor of the same building:22.2 ± 7.9 of 222 Rn, 7.3 ± 2.8 of 218 Po, 4.6 ± 1.9 of 214 Pb and 2.6 ± 1.2 of 214 Bi ; in the outdoor air in front of the building: 4.1 ± 2.7 of 222 Rn, 2.3 ± 0.9 of 218 Po, 1.5 ± 0.8 of 214 Pb and 1.4 ± 0.6 of 214 Bi. The results show a good agreement with expectations of the activity concentrations in three different environments. The monitor enables to determine low activity concentrations in the outdoor with an acceptable precision during one hour counting. The monitor can be used for the research of the correlation between the atmospheric stability and activity concentrations of radon decay products

  2. Quantitative analysis of semivolatile organic compounds in selected fractions of air sample extracts by GC/MI-IR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childers, J.W.; Wilson, N.K.; Barbour, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are currently investigating the capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in environmental air sample extracts. Their efforts are focused on the determination of SVOCs such as alkylbenzene positional isomers, which are difficult to separate chromatographically and to distinguish by conventional electron-impact ionization GC/mass spectrometry. They have performed a series of systematic experiments to identify sources of error in quantitative GC/MI-IR analyses. These experiments were designed to distinguish between errors due to instrument design or performance and errors that arise from some characteristic inherent to the GC/MI-IR technique, such as matrix effects. They have investigated repeatability as a function of several aspects of GC/MI IR spectrometry, including sample injection, spectral acquisition, cryogenic disk movement, and matrix deposition. The precision, linearity, dynamic range, and detection limits of a commercial GC/MI-IR system for target SVOCs were determined and compared to those obtained with the system's flame ionization detector. The use of deuterated internal standards in the quantitative GC/MI-IR analysis of selected fractions of ambient air sample extracts will be demonstrated. They will also discuss the current limitations of the technique in quantitative analyses and suggest improvements for future consideration

  3. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  4. Influence of drying conditions on the effective diffusivity and activation energy during convective air and vacuum drying of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SEREMET (CECLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the work is to investigate the efficiency of convective air and vacuum processing on pumpkin drying kinetics. The pumpkin samples were of two different geometrical shapes (cylinder and cube and were dried in a laboratory scale hot air dryer using some specific parameters (constant air velocity of 1.0 m/s, three different temperatures 50, 60 and 70ºC suited to relative humidity (RH values of 9.8, 6.5, and 5.4% respectively. The vacuum drying was led at constant pressures of 5 kPa and accordance temperatures of 50, 60 and 70ºC. Moisture transfer from pumpkin slices was described by applying Fick’s diffusion model. Temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius-type equation. Cylindrical samples have a slightly better behaviour compared to cubic samples, due to the disposition of the tissues, and the mass and thermic transfer possibilities. Analysing the results of both drying methods, it was deduced that the most efficient method is convective air drying at 70ºC.

  5. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  6. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  7. Microbial communities in air and wine of a winery at two consecutive vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Fernández-González, Mónica; Arévalo, María; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-11-03

    The aim of this study was to assess, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in air and wine of a winery, in order to evaluate the possible exchange of microorganisms between them. Samples were taken in a winery located in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) during the winemaking period of two consecutive vintages (2011 and 2012). The microbial composition was determined by using both a culture-dependent method and a culture-independent method, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In addition, genetic characterization of isolates from plates was carried out. A high diversity of species was detected in air and wine samples from both vintages. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the predominant lactic acid bacteria in air from both vintages while Oenococcus oeni was the predominant in wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequently isolated yeast in both air and wine. Typing of O. oeni and S. cerevisiae isolates from air and wine samples showed the presence of coincident genotypes in both samples, that would confirm the exchange of microorganisms between the two environments, air and wine, and furthermore some of these genotypes were also found at samples taken at different vintages, indicating that they would remain in the winery. The results display the influence of the activity taking place in the winery and the moment of fermentation of the wines in tanks, on the microorganisms present in the air and the role of the air for the dispersal of microorganisms within the winery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation Of Radioactivity Of Released Air During Postirradiation Examination At The RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno, B.; Eko, Pudjadi

    1998-01-01

    Radioactivity evaluation of released air during post-irradiation examination at RMI has been done since january 1993 to december 1996. The released air radioactivity has been observed during post-irradiation examinations of irradiated fuels and structure materials in the hot cell. Analysis method employed has been by air sampling and measurement of the alpha and beta activities by using alpha beta aerosol LB 150 D model. Air release from RMI was sucked by using an air pump having 40 m3/hour capacity which is equipped with a 200 mm diameter filter paper. The filter paper is automatically counted by the detector of the instrument. The average of the daily maximum counting result in a month has been used as monthly data. It has been shown that there have been increase in the released air radioactivity caused by the post-irradiation examination activity. The data of the released air activity obtained have been used to calculate the radioactivity concentration and radioactivity on the soil surface based on Gauss Plumes. The calculation result have shown that the alpha and beta radioactivity concentration at stacks and on the soil surface are less then the set maximum permissible concentration (MPC)

  9. Determination of samples with TSP size at PLTU Pacitan, Jawa Timur have been done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmanto, Tri; Mulyono; Irianto, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is done using equipment High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) and analysis using gamma spectrometer. Sampling at 3 locations, each location of the sampling carried out 24 hours, air samples on filter conditioned at room temperature, weighed to a contained weight, counting for 24 hours with gamma spectrometer. The result of qualitative and quantitative analysis of filter TSP was contained of locations I Ra-226 = 0,000888 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000356 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,000859 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000712 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,004447 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,035454 Bq/m 3 ) , Locations II Ra-226 = 0,00113 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,00079 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,001351 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000433 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,007138 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,018532 Bq/m 3 , Locations III Ra-226 = 0,001424 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000208 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 000052 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,001408 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,008362 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,020536 Bq/m 3 . Radionuclides activity was all still below quality of air enabled by BAPETEN. Become the activities of ambient air of PLTU area still be peaceful enough as settlement area. (author)

  10. Correction for the absorption of plutonium alpha particles in filter paper used for dust sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, J G

    1956-01-01

    This sample of air-borne dust collected on a filter paper when laboratory air is monitored for plutonium with the 1195 portable dust sampling unit may be regarded, for counting purposes, as a thick source with a non-uniform distribution of alpha-active plutonium. Experiments have been carried out to determine a correction factor to be applied to the observed count on the filter paper sample to correct for internal absorption in the paper and on the dust layer. From the results obtained it is recommended that a correction factor of 2 be used.

  11. Methyl iodide trapping efficiency of aged charcoal samples from Bruce-A emergency filtered air discharge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J.; Rasmussenn, M.T.; Weaver, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Charcoal filters are installed in the emergency filtered air discharge system (EFADS) of multiunit stations to control the release of airborne radioiodine in the event of a reactor accident. These filters use highly activated charcoal impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA). The TEDA-impregnated charcoal is highly efficient in removing radioiodine from flowing airstreams. The iodine-removal efficiency of the charcoal is presumed to deteriorate slowly with age, but current knowledge of this effect is insufficient to predict with confidence the performance of aged charcoal following an accident. Experiments were performed to determine the methyl iodide removal efficiency of aged charcoal samples taken from the EFADS of Ontario Hydro's Bruce-A nuclear generating station. The charcoal had been in service for ∼4 yr. The adsorption rate constant and capacity were measured under post-loss-of-coolant accident conditions to determine the efficiency of the aged charcoal. The adsorption rate constants of the aged charcoal samples were observed to be extremely high, yielding a decontamination factor (DF) for a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal >1 X 10 15 . The results show that essentially no CH 3 I would escape from a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal and that the requirement for a DF of 1000 for organic iodides in the EFADS filters would be exceeded by a tremendous margin. With such high DFs, the release of iodine from a 20-cm-deep bed would be virtually impossible to detect. The adsorption capacities observed for the aged charcoal samples approach the theoretical chemisorption capacity of 5 wt% TEDA charcoal, indicating that aging in the EFADS for 4 yr has had a negligible impact on the adsorption capacity. The results indicate that the short- and long-term performances of the aged charcoal in the EFADS of Bruce-A following an accident would still far exceed performance requirements. (author)

  12. Sorption tubes packed with polydimethylsiloxane: a new and promising technique for the preconcentration of volatiles and semi-volatiles from air and gaseous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, H.A.; David, F.; Sandra, P.J.F.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determination of volatile and semi-volatile organic components in air and gaseous (headspace) samples, focusing primarily on polar analytes. Samples were analyzed by preconcentration on different (ad)sorbents followed by thermal desorption and analysis by capillary

  13. Use of the Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-standardized method, in the evaluation of the air quality in critical points of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Igor Felipe S.; Cruz, Ananda B.; Cesar, Raisa H.S.; Oliveira, Aline F.G. de; Barreto, Alberto A.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear

    2017-01-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais, is one of the largest cities in Brazil. It is geographically centered on a region with intense mining and industrial activity and a fleet of more than 1.5 million vehicles. The numerous sources of atmospheric emissions of particulate matter in this capital and its vicinity offer a considerable risk to the degradation of air quality. In order to contribute with elemental composition of particulate matter, the Nuclear Technology Development Center / Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, and the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais has developed a research based on environmental samples. This work aims to present the sampling methodology, the concentration values of sampled particulate matter, the methodology of analysis of elemental concentration using the nuclear technique of neutron activation analysis, k_0-standardized method, and interpreted through statistical techniques and values of the elemental concentrations more representative of the samplings carried out. The results pointed out the vehicle emissions as the major source that contributes to airborne particulate matter followed by soil resuspension. (author)

  14. Use of the Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-standardized method, in the evaluation of the air quality in critical points of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Igor Felipe S.; Cruz, Ananda B.; Cesar, Raisa H.S.; Oliveira, Aline F.G. de; Barreto, Alberto A.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: igorfelipedx@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: abc@cdtn.br, E-mail: raisa.santana@hotmail.com, E-mail: afgo@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Divisão de Meio Ambiente

    2017-07-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais, is one of the largest cities in Brazil. It is geographically centered on a region with intense mining and industrial activity and a fleet of more than 1.5 million vehicles. The numerous sources of atmospheric emissions of particulate matter in this capital and its vicinity offer a considerable risk to the degradation of air quality. In order to contribute with elemental composition of particulate matter, the Nuclear Technology Development Center / Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, and the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais has developed a research based on environmental samples. This work aims to present the sampling methodology, the concentration values of sampled particulate matter, the methodology of analysis of elemental concentration using the nuclear technique of neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardized method, and interpreted through statistical techniques and values of the elemental concentrations more representative of the samplings carried out. The results pointed out the vehicle emissions as the major source that contributes to airborne particulate matter followed by soil resuspension. (author)

  15. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePeter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the effects of flood induced excess-air formationon organic carbon and nitrogen transformations in groundwater of different riparian zones of a restored section of the River Thur, Switzerland. The results show that the flood event triggered high aerobic respiration activity in the groundwater below a zone densely populated with willow plants. The flood introduced high concentrations of O2 (230 µmol L–1 to the groundwater through the formation of excess air and transported up to ~400 µmol L 1 organic carbon from the soil/root layer into groundwater during the movement of the water table. A rapid respiration process, quantified via the measurements of O2, CO2 and noble-gas concentrations, led to fast depletion of the introduced O2 and organic carbon and to high CO2 concentration (590 µmol L–1 in the groundwater shortly after the flood. The synchronous analysis of different nitrogen species allowed studying the importance of denitrification activity. The results indicate that in the willow zone excess-air formation inhibited denitrification through high O2 concentration input. Instead, the observed decrease in nitrate concentration (~50 µmol N L 1 may be related to fostered nitrate uptake by plants. In the other riparian zones closer to the river, no significant excess-air formation and corresponding respiration activity was observed. Overall, analyzing the dissolved gases in the groundwater significantly contributed to deciphering biogeochemical processes in

  16. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  17. Determination of Sr-90 in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Bajlo, M.; Bauman, A.

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 concentrations were determined in high-volume air samples (up to 10000 m 3 ) during 12 months. In 1981 radioactivity varied around a value of 2.7 x 10 - 5 Bq m 3 . The results are in agreement with the activities recorded in the same year in New York, USA and in France. (author)

  18. Measurement of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.

    1977-01-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the alpha radioactivity of a number of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of some nuclear power stations, of water effluent samples from all german nuclear power stations and of samples from the primary coolant water of one nuclear power reactor was measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for alpha spectrometry of the samples in large area gridded ionization chambers were used; cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen, coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate, and evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on stainless steel plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the alpha radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242, Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. Detection limits of the procedures used for the analysis of the above stated transuranium nuclides were in the order of 0,1 fCi per m 3 for the aerosol samples and of 0.2 pCi per 1 for the liquid samples. For the effluent air and water samples in most cases specific activities near the detection limit or somewhat higher were found. On the basis of the measurements, an estimation of the annual actinides releases from nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  19. Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Napoli, Christian; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Righi, Elena; Farruggia, Patrizia; Tesauro, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria V; Montagna, Maria T; Colucci, Maria E; Gallè, Francesca; Masia, Maria D; Strohmenger, Laura; Bergomi, Margherita; Tinteri, Carola; Panico, Manuela; Pennino, Francesca; Cannova, Lucia; Tanzi, Marialuisa

    2012-03-15

    A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in ten dental clinics in Italy. Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days, for one week per month, for a three-month period. Water and surfaces were sampled before and after clinical activity; air was sampled before, after, and during clinical activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and for the different sampling times. Before clinical activity, microbial water contamination in tap water reached 51,200cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter), and that in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWSs) reached 872,000cfu/mL. After clinical activity, there was a significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) in tap water and in DUWSs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 2.38% (7/294) of tap water samples and in 20.06% (59/294) of DUWS samples; Legionella spp. was found in 29.96% (89/297) of tap water samples and 15.82% (47/297) of DUWS samples, with no significant difference between pre- and post-clinical activity. Microbial air contamination was highest during dental treatments, and decreased significantly at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). The microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. This study provides data for the establishment of standardized sampling methods, and threshold values for contamination monitoring in dentistry. Some very critical situations have been observed which require urgent intervention. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for research aimed at defining effective managing strategies for dental clinics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Windowed active sampling for reliable neural learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I; Spaanenburg, L

    The composition of the example set has a major impact on the quality of neural learning. The popular approach is focused on extensive pre-processing to bridge the representation gap between process measurement and neural presentation. In contrast, windowed active sampling attempts to solve these

  1. Improvement of thermal regeneration of spent granular activated carbon using air agent : Application of sintering and deoxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joon-Hyung; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Oh, Kwang-Joong; Kim, Yoon-Su; Seo, Jong-Beom; Jung, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Thermal regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) using sintering, air-activation, and deoxygenation was investigated to determine the potential of this method for overcoming the drawbacks of thermal regeneration. The conditions for each step were optimized. The physicochemical properties of four regenerated GACs were assessed using BET, SEM, and FT-IR analysis. The suitability of the regenerated GACs for liquid-phase applications was assessed by phenol adsorption, using adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Sintering increased the micropore area and volume of regenerated GAC by 19% and 16%, respectively, and controlled excessive burn-off, reducing it by 19%. Air-activation has economic advantages because the reaction time is 80% less than that for steam activation. Deoxygenation improved the maximum adsorption capacity by 7%, although the number of micropores was reduced. Regenerated GAC by sintering, air-activation, and deoxygenation was best for liquid-phase applications; the results show that these steps help to overcome the drawbacks of thermal regeneration

  2. Improvement of thermal regeneration of spent granular activated carbon using air agent : Application of sintering and deoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joon-Hyung; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Oh, Kwang-Joong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Su [Kolon Global Corporation, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jong-Beom [HyunDai Steel Company, Dangjin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jong-Hyeon [Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Thermal regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) using sintering, air-activation, and deoxygenation was investigated to determine the potential of this method for overcoming the drawbacks of thermal regeneration. The conditions for each step were optimized. The physicochemical properties of four regenerated GACs were assessed using BET, SEM, and FT-IR analysis. The suitability of the regenerated GACs for liquid-phase applications was assessed by phenol adsorption, using adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Sintering increased the micropore area and volume of regenerated GAC by 19% and 16%, respectively, and controlled excessive burn-off, reducing it by 19%. Air-activation has economic advantages because the reaction time is 80% less than that for steam activation. Deoxygenation improved the maximum adsorption capacity by 7%, although the number of micropores was reduced. Regenerated GAC by sintering, air-activation, and deoxygenation was best for liquid-phase applications; the results show that these steps help to overcome the drawbacks of thermal regeneration.

  3. Determination of average activating thermal neutron flux in bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doczi, R.; Csikai, J.; Doczi, R.; Csikai, J.; Hassan, F. M.; Ali, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within bulky samples has been applied for the measurements of hydrogen contents of different samples. An analytical function is given for the description of the correlation between the activity of Dy foils and the hydrogen concentrations. Results obtained by the activation and the thermal neutron reflection methods are compared

  4. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a \\'mixed\\' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. METHODS: Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. RESULTS: Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 . venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded.

  5. The role of open-air inhalatoria in the air quality improvement in spa towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkowska-But, Aleksandra; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek

    2014-08-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating microbiological contamination of air in Ciechocinek and Inowrocław - Polish lowland spa towns. Additionally, the impact of open-air inhalatoria on the quality of air was evaluated. Air samples were collected seasonally in the urban areas, in the recreation areas and in the vicinity of inhalatoria in both towns using impaction. The numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria and actinomycetes were determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/02. The number of moulds was determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/03. While the highest numbers of microorganisms were noted at the sites located in the urban areas, the lowest numbers were noted in the vicinity of the open-air inhalatoria. In all the investigated air samples the values of bioaerosol concentrations were below the recommended TLVs (≤ 5000 CFU×m(-3) for both bacteria and fungi in outdoor environments). Location of the sampling site was invariably a decisive factor in determining the number of microorganisms in the air. The aerosol which is formed in the open-air inhalatoria has a positive influence on microbiological air quality. Owing to a unique microclimate and low air contamination, Ciechocinek and Inowrocław comply with all necessary requirements set for health resorts specializing in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

  6. The sampling of hydrogen fluoride in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method isproposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen fluoride in air by drawing a known quantity of the air through filter paper impregnated with solutions of potassium hydroxide and glycerol or triethanolamine. Somu possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed.

  7. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  8. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  9. [An AIDS-related cognitive map in a sample of drug abusers in Buenos Aires City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblit, A L; Bilyk, A

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an approach to AIDS as a topic among a drug abusers sample of the city of Buenos Aires. Research was carried out on the basis of a qualitative methodology. In an attempt at surveying opinions and attitudes of such a sample as regards AIDS (i.e. subjects' cognitive map), 21 drug abusers from three different rehabilitation programs operating in the B.A. area were interviewed. On the basis of the research performed, the authors elaborate communication strategies among drug abusers that would be helpful for authorities engaged in AIDS prevention to adopt. To boost a strategy likely to break up the AIDS-drug association existing in the mind of many an abuser would be highly advisable so that a separation be settled between both representations, thus giving drug abusers a higher motivation for self-care practice.

  10. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  11. Field-Based Procedures for Screening Diver's Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillo, R

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Navy Diver's Air Sampling Program coordinates use mandatory semi-annual air purity testing of compressors used to supply diver's air in the Fleet The current approach of sending gas-sampling kits...

  12. KERENTANAN KAWASAN TEPI AIR TERHADAP KENAIKAN PERMUKAAN AIR LAUT Kasus Kawasan Tepi Air Kota Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Suprijanto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though global warming are still debates whether it will or not be happened, the changes on climate will influence activities of human. Regarding global warming issue, one of the impact that is very interesting to be investigated is sea level rise. Sea level rise is predicted has very big impact since, in general, in coastal areas locate a lot of important activities for such city or country. On the context of Indonesian locality, most of big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, Makasar, etc. are located on the coastal area. Since a lot of important activities located on those cities, in general, sea level rise will influence the development processes of those cities. On the basis of the observation gathering in Surabaya City, the impact of sea level rise will influence not only the development of coastal area but also development of Surabaya City in general. The influence is because the area accommodates activities which are very important in city development both for present and future. The activities are port, industrial estate and location for new housing. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Terlepas dari ketidakpastian mengenai terjadi atau tidaknya pemanasan global, setiap perubahan iklim di bumi akan memberikan dampak terhadap kelangsungan hidup manusia. Salah satu kajian yang saat ini banyak dilakukan berkaitan dengan isu pemanasan global adalah mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut. Pengkajian mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut tersebut penting mengingat dampak yang akan ditimbulkannya dan dengan kenyataan secara umum kawasan tepi air memegang peranan penting dalam perkembangan suatu kota ataupun negara. Hal ditandai dengan banyaknya aktivitas yang berlokasi di kawasan tepi air. Kondisi geografis Indonesia dengan duapertiga bagian wilayahnya adalah perairan, menjadikan Indonesia memiliki garis pantai terpanjang di dunia. Hal tersebut menjadikan pula beberapa bagian wilayah di Indonesia merupakan kawasan pesisir atau tepi air

  13. Brazilian samples of bee samples pollen: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Vanilda Aparecida Soares de; Santos, Alexandre V. dos; Figueiredo, Davi; Meira, Sampaio; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Barth, Ortrud M.; Freitas, Alex da Silva de; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia Bicudo

    2012-01-01

    Total phenolic and flavonoids phytochemical concentration was measured in bee pollen samples, Appis Mellifera , as well as their botanical origin, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. Pollen loads were washed with 70% ethanol and identified using a 400x magnification. The content of total polyphenols and flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically with gallic acid and quercetin as standard. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the linking capacity of (i)the fre...

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis to trace element determinations in lung samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocero, Sizue Ota

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply the instrumental neutron activation analysis method to determine trace elements in lung samples from smokers and non smokers. Samples of lung tissues and lymph nodes from pulmonary hilum analyzed were collected from autopsies by researchers from the Medicine College of the University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Adequate conditions for preparation and analysis of samples were previously established. The preparation of samples consisted of homogenization, lyophilization and sterilization in 60 Co source. The samples and standards were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor under thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 for 30 min to determine Cl, K, Mn and Na and for 16 h under flux of 10 19 n.cm -2 .s -1 for the determination of Au, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and Zn. The counting were carried out with a hiperpure (ge) detector connected to a 4096 channels analyzer and a microcomputer. the results obtained for lung sample analyses indicated a good reproducibility of the method for most of the elements determined with relative standard deviations lower than 10.5%. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing reference materials such as IAEA Animal Muscle H-4, NIST Bovine Liver 1577a, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIES Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. The results obtained from these analyzes agreed with the values of the literature for several elements with relative errors less than 20%. Less precise and accurate results were obtained for elements with concentrations at the Mup/Kg levels. Elemental concentrations obtained in the lung tissue analyses were within the range of reference values for normal subjects presented in the literature, except for the Cl concentrations for non smokers, Hf in both groups and Sb for the smokers. By comparing results obtained for lung samples from smokers and non smokers, the concentrations of Ce, Cr and Sb were higher in lungs from smokers and the others elements were

  15. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  16. Remote control air sampling and fast chemical analysis of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuczka, A; Golisz, T

    1981-01-01

    In 1979 the Central mine rescue station in Bytom (Poland) developed and introduced into use a new method of remote control air and gas (from fires) sampling and swift chemical analysis of the samples' composition. The device in this method includes: a probe (situated beyond the fire detector directly in the control zone), thick-walled elastic hose, direr, piston pump, rotameter, chromatograph and minicomputer. The basic technical data included in the set: the capacity of the pump 8 1/min, 2.5 kg mass. run on 12 V current (built at the Main Mining Affairs Inst. in Poland); the chromatograph is VARIAN 1420-10 (USA produced),the working gas is helium (balloon volume 40 1), feed--alternating 220V, capacity--1.5 kW, time for measuring gas from fires-- 15 to 20 min (as apposed to the 1.5h spent before when the SRC device was being used) at an accuracy of /sup + -/ 0.05% (volume); the chromatograph works with a mini-computer (model CDS-111C) with a 20 kg mass.and a size of 16 x 46 x 56 cm. As tests in Moszczenica coal mines, where a fire in 504/2 occurred, showed (the chromatograph was located 750m from the probe for burning gases), the method proved to be a good one although the VARIAN 1420-10 was insufficiently reliable and the VARIAN-1400-AEROGRAF proved to be better.

  17. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  18. Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis: A Challenge in Cultural Heritage Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.

    2007-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined

  19. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management

  20. Novel sampling methods for atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in a high altitude alpine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenthaler, I; Jakobi, G; Kaiser, A; Kirchner, M; Kräuchi, N; Niedermoser, B; Schramm, K-W; Sedivy, I; Staudinger, M; Thanner, G; Weiss, P; Moche, W

    2009-12-01

    High- and low-volume active air samplers as well as bulk deposition samplers were developed to sample atmospheric SOCs under the adverse conditions of a mountain environment. Active sampling employed separate filters for different European source regions. Filters were switched depending on daily trajectory forecasts, whose accuracy was evaluated post hoc. The sampling continued on three alpine summits over five periods of four months. The prevailing trajectories varied stronger between sampling periods than between stations. The sampling equipment (active and bulk deposition) proved dependable for operation in a mountain environment, with idle times being mainly due to non-routine manipulations and connectivity.

  1. Characterization of atmospheric aerosol in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasan, R.C.; Pla, R.R.; Invernizzi, R.; Dos Santos, M.

    2009-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were taken using a Gent sampler to characterize the atmospheric aerosol of Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A total of 114 samples were collected from October 2005 to October 2006 at one urban site, every third day, for 24 h. Samples were analyzed by neutron activation, and black carbon and mass concentration were determined. In both fractions, elemental and gravimetric mass concentrations were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors, backward trajectories and factor analysis were calculated. The attribution of pollution sources is discussed. (author)

  2. Computer-controlled sampling system for airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Koval, J.S.; Phelps, P.L.; Steinhaus, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A self-contained, mobile, computer-controlled air-sampling system has been designed and fabricated that also collects and records the data from eight meteorological sensors. The air-samplers are activated automatically when the collected meteorological data meet the criteria specified at the beginning of the data-collection run. The filters from the samplers are intended to collect airborne 239 Pu for later radionuclide analysis and correlation with the meteorological data for the study of resuspended airborne radioactivity and for the development of a predictive model. This paper describes the system hardware, discusses the system and software concepts, and outlines the operational procedures for the system

  3. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlan Nazirah; Nurhalimatul Husna Ahmad Siti; Aminuddin Eeydzah; Abdul Hamid Hazrul; Khalijah Yaman Siti; Halid Abdullah Abd

    2017-01-01

    Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR), E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling wa...

  4. Health physics experience in commissioning and operation of radiation and air activity monitoring system at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Viswanathan, S.; Bala Sundar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Suriyamurthy, N.; Ravi, T.; Subramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation and Air Activity Monitoring System (RAAMS) at Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is meant to monitor and record the radiation and air activity levels at various potentially active areas in FBTR complex. Health Physics Group, FBTR was associated during commissioning of RAAMS in fixing the alarm settings for the monitors, their relocation and in formulating the surveillance procedures. The areas were surveyed to check for any release of activity for confirming the observed readings during operation of the reactor. In such cases, augmentation of shielding was recommended and was promptly implemented by the station management. The details of the long and fruitful experience gained by the Health Physics Group, FBTR are described in this paper. (author)

  5. Joint determination of the concentrations of the 222Rn and 220Rn decay products in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a modification of the Kuznets and Markov methods normally employed for the determination of radon 220 and 222 daughter alpha product concentration in air in which an air sample is taken for 10 minutes on a filter at a flow rate of 10-40 liters per minute. After the conclusion of sampling the filter activity is measured for another 10 minutes. In order to then determine the latent energy of the radon 222 daughter products and to bring into account the radon 220 daughter products in the total activity measurements of the filter are taken for a second time for 30 minutes five hours after initial sampling. The level of latent energy of the combined daughter products are calculated by an equation which incorporates alpha particle detection efficiency, aerosol retention efficiency in the filter, and the Kuznets coefficients, and analyzes the separate and combined contributions of both daughter products from both sampling periods. A statistical analysis employing the Markov method is also depicted in modified form and is recommended when a more rapid analysis of air radioactivity is mandated

  6. Radiological characterisation and radon equilibrium factor in the outdoor air of a post-industrial urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozas, S.; Idoeta, R.; Alegría, N.; Herranz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of outdoor air is always a complicated task due to the several radioactive emissions coming from the different radionuclides and also because of the very short half-lives of radionuclides in the natural radioactive series. In some places, this characterisation could result in unusual values because the natural presence of radionuclides with terrestrial origin can be modified by manmade activities. Nonetheless, this characterisation is useful not only for air quality control purposes but also because radon and its progeny in the outdoor air are the main contributors to human exposure from natural sources. In this study, we have carried out air particle sampling, followed by gamma-ray spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and beta counting determinations for this purpose. Subsequently, the outdoor air has been radiologically characterised through the obtained data and using a pre-existing analytical method to take into account the radioactive decays of short half-life radionuclides during sampling, sample preparation and measuring times. Bilbao was chosen to carry out this work. It is a medium-sized town located in northern Spain, close to the Atlantic Ocean and at sea level. This city has a recent industrial past as there were numerous steel mills and other heavy industries, including some quarries, and some open pit mines close to it, which concluded in a remediation program. So, it is a place where the air is potentially modified by manmade activities. The obtained results show that activity concentration values for long-lived radionuclides that precede radon and thoron are in the order of 10 −6  Bq m −3 and long-lived ones after radon are around 10 −4  Bq m −3 . Thoron progeny are around 2 × 10 −2  Bq m −3 and radon progeny are around 1.8 Bq m −3 . The mean radon equilibrium factor was 0.18. All of these values are close to the minimum UNSCEAR values, but show some variability, which highlights the importance

  7. Use of dust fall filters as passive samplers for metal concentrations in air for communities near contaminated mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, P I; Sugeng, A J; Kelly, M D; Lothrop, N; Klimecki, W; Wilkinson, S T; Loh, M

    2014-05-01

    Mine tailings are a source of metal exposures in many rural communities. Multiple air samples are necessary to assess the extent of exposures and factors contributing to these exposures. However, air sampling equipment is costly and requires trained personnel to obtain measurements, limiting the number of samples that can be collected. Simple, low-cost methods are needed to allow for increased sample collection. The objective of our study was to assess if dust fall filters can serve as passive air samplers and be used to characterize potential exposures in a community near contaminated mine tailings. We placed filters in cylinders, concurrently with active indoor air samplers, in 10 occupied homes. We calculated an estimated flow rate by dividing the mass on each dust fall filter by the bulk air concentration and the sampling duration. The mean estimated flow rate for dust fall filters was significantly different during sampling periods with precipitation. The estimated flow rate was used to estimate metal concentration in the air of these homes, as well as in 31 additional homes in another rural community impacted by contaminated mine tailings. The estimated air concentrations had a significant linear association with the measured air concentrations for beryllium, manganese and arsenic (p passive air sampler is a simple low-cost method to assess potential exposures near contaminated mining sites.

  8. Facilitated Oxygen Chemisorption in Heteroatom-Doped Carbon for Improved Oxygen Reaction Activity in All-Solid-State Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mengfan; Sun, Xinyi; Xu, Na; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuzhou; Qian, Tao; Yan, Chenglin

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the intensified demand for energy storage systems with high-power density and safety, all-solid-state zinc-air batteries have drawn extensive attention. However, the electrocatalyst active sites and the underlying mechanisms occurring in zinc-air batteries remain confusing due to the lack of in situ analytical techniques. In this work, the in situ observations, including X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, of a heteroatom-doped carbon air cathode are reported, in which the chemisorption of oxygen molecules and oxygen-containing intermediates on the carbon material can be facilitated by the electron deficiency caused by heteroatom doping, thus improving the oxygen reaction activity for zinc-air batteries. As expected, solid-state zinc-air batteries equipped with such air cathodes exhibit superior reversibility and durability. This work thus provides a profound understanding of the reaction principles of heteroatom-doped carbon materials in zinc-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Standard of care of erectile dysfunction in U.S. Air Force aircrew and active duty not on flying status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Justin B

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, over 3,000 active duty U.S. Air Force (USAF) members were prescribed a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEI). PDEIs are first-line therapy for treating erectile dysfunction and can have significant side effects that could impact aircrew performance. In total, 200 eligible subject records were randomly sampled from the active duty USAF population of those males filling a prescription for a PDEI in June 2011; 100 of those records were from aviators. The electronic records were reviewed and scored to determine if USAF aeromedical standards for prescribing PDEIs were followed, with a minimum score of 0 for no standards met and a maximum of 3 for all standards met. The average score for both groups was 1, with no significant difference between the group scores. A proper aeromedical disposition was documented in 67% of the aviator records. Although there was no significant difference in standard of care for aviators and nonaviators, the overall documented standard of care was poor. Lack of documentation was the primary reason for the low scores and the low percentage of properly rendered aeromedical dispositions. Proper medical record documentation is important for evaluating quality of care and ensuring compliance with regulations in an Air Force aviator population. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Study of air pollution scavenging. Fifteenth progress report. [Air pollution over St. Louis, Missouri and rural Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Ackerman, B.; Gatz, D.F.; Rilberg, S.D.; Peden, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.K.; Stensland, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    Selected analyses of air and rainwater chemistry and meteorological data are presented as part of the final efforts on the 5-year METROMEX study. The size characterization, air concentration, and source identification of aerosols over and near St. Louis are related to the urban-industrial activities of the metropolitan area. The precipitation studies are comprised of a comparison of chemical analyses of simulated rain samples between several laboratories, including the Survey. The results showed that the analytical technique used by the Survey for the chemical analysis of the METROMEX samples is excellent for increasing confidence in the published data. Other precipitation analyses are directed toward the acid rain problem as demonstrated by historical and current measurements in Illinois. The meteorological investigations consist of analysis of diurnal temperature and moisture cycles at urban and rural sites which relates to the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as perturbed by the city. The three-dimensional character of the PBL is also presented as determined by the radiosonde operations during METROMEX. Finally, the technique to calculate three-dimensional trajectories of air motion using the numerous pilot balloon observations acquired during the project is presented. These data are essential for the full interpretation of the air and rain chemistry observations, and the development of empirical models of pollutant scavenging.

  11. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo; Gras, Nuri; Andonie, Oscar; Sepulveda, Susana; Pereira, Iris

    2001-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities undertaken within the framework of this project. Sampling of different lichens species has been performed in clean areas (native forest), preparation of such samples has been done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis. Participation in an intercomparison run organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples, has also been carried out. Transplant of lichens collected in clean areas has been done in Santiago. (author)

  12. Measuring PM2.5, Ultrafine Particles, Nicotine Air and Wipe Samples Following the Use of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melstrom, Paul; Koszowski, Bartosz; Thanner, Meridith Hill; Hoh, Eunha; King, Brian; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Measure PM2.5 (particles e-cigarette exposure. E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for 2 hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858 ft3 room. We recorded: uncorrected PM2.5 (using SidePak); UF (using P-Trak); air nicotine concentrations (using air samplers; SKC XAD-4 canisters); ambient air exchange rate (using an air capture hood). Wipe samples were taken by wiping 100 cm2 room surfaces pre- and post- both sessions, and clean cloth wipes were worn during the exposure and collected at the end. Uncorrected PM2.5 and UF were higher (p e-cigarette use can produce: elevated PM2.5; elevated UF; nicotine in the air; and accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing. Short-term indoor e-cigarette use produced accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing, which could lead to dermal exposure to nicotine. Short-term e-cigarette use produced elevated PM2.5 and ultrafine particles, which could lead to secondhand inhalation of these particles and any chemicals associated with them by bystanders. We measured significant differences in PM2.5 and ultrafine particles between disposable e-cigarettes and tank-style e-cigarettes, suggesting a difference in the exposure profiles of e-cigarette products. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, M. T.; Bediako-Bowan, A.; Andersen, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    . Aim: To assess microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a Ghanaian teaching hospital and the association with door-openings and number of people present. Moreover, we aimed to document reasons for door-opening. Methods: We conducted active air-sampling using an MAS 100® portable impactor...

  14. Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide in open air and in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, A.E.; Zhdanov, V.A.; Markov, V.L.; Shvangiradze, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide according to annealing temperature in open air and in vacuum are investigated. It is established that the indium oxide begins to change its chemical composition during the annealing in the open air from 1200 deg C, and in the vacuum - form 800 deg C. During the annealing of the samples in ths open air in the temperature range of 1200-1450 deg C the lattice of the indium oxide loses probably, only oxygen; this process is accompanied by change of the samples color, electrophysical properties, lattice parameter density. Cation sublattice is disturbed in the vacuum beginning from 900 deg C, which is accompanied by destruction of the color centers. X-ray density and the activation energy of the reduction accounting the formation of the color centers are calculated on the base of the X-ray data and the deviation from stoichiometry of the indium oxide depending on the annealing temperature in the open air

  15. Predictors of Indoor Air Concentrations in Smoking and Non-Smoking Residences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Guay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants’ activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants.

  16. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber; Pomiar koncentracji radonu za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author). 4 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Microbiological contamination of compressed air used in dentistry: an investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M; Lynch, R M; Robson, M G

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to examine the possibility of cross-contamination between a dental-evacuation system and the compressed air used in dental operatories and 2) to capture and identify the most common microflora in the compressed-air supply. The investigation used swab, water, and air sampling that was designed to track microorganisms from the evacuation system, through the air of the mechanical room, into the compressed-air system, and back to the patient. Samples taken in the vacuum system, the air space in the mechanical room, and the compressed-air storage tank had significantly higher total concentrations of bacteria than the outside air sampled. Samples of the compressed air returning to the operatory were found to match the outside air sample in total bacteria. It was concluded that the air dryer may have played a significant role in the elimination of microorganisms from the dental compressed-air supply.

  18. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposure of miners. (i) A ventilating air quantity that is less than what is required by paragraph... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance with applicable TLV ®'s. (j) If during sampling required by § 70.1900(c) of this subchapter the ventilating air is...

  19. The determination of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in air. Sampling rate and efficiency of diffuse samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, U.; Stenner, H.; Kettrup, A.

    1989-05-01

    When applicating diffusive sampling-systems to workplace air-monitoring it is necessary to know the behaviour of the diffusive-rate and the efficiency in dependence of concentration, exposition time and the type of pollutant. Especially concerning mixtures of pollutants there are negative influences by competition and mutual displacement possible. Diffusive-rate and discovery for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ and CHCl/sub 3/ were investigated using two different types of diffuse samplers. For this it was necessary to develop suitable defices for standard gas generation and for the exposition of diffusive-samplers to a standard gas mixture. (orig.).

  20. Effect of oxygen-breathing during a decompression-stop on bubble-induced platelet activation after an open-sea air dive: oxygen-stop decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, J-M; Lambrechts, K

    2014-06-01

    We highlighted a relationship between decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet micro-particle (PMP) release after a scuba air-dive. It is known that decompression protocol using oxygen-stop accelerates the washout of nitrogen loaded in tissues. The aim was to study the effect of oxygen deco-stop on bubble formation and cell-derived MP release. Healthy experienced divers performed two scuba-air dives to 30 msw for 30 min, one with an air deco-stop and a second with 100% oxygen deco-stop at 3 msw for 9 min. Bubble grades were monitored with ultrasound and converted to the Kisman integrated severity score (KISS). Blood samples for cell-derived micro-particle analysis (AnnexinV for PMP and CD31 for endothelial MP) were taken 1 h before and after each dive. Mean KISS bubble score was significantly lower after the dive with oxygen-decompression stop, compared to the dive with air-decompression stop (4.3 ± 7.3 vs. 32.7 ± 19.9, p air-breathing decompression stop, we observed an increase of the post-dive mean values of PMP (753 ± 245 vs. 381 ± 191 ng/μl, p = 0.003) but no significant change in the oxygen-stop decompression dive (329 ± 215 vs. 381 +/191 ng/μl, p = 0.2). For the post-dive mean values of endothelial MP, there was no significant difference between both the dives. The Oxygen breathing during decompression has a beneficial effect on bubble formation accelerating the washout of nitrogen loaded in tissues. Secondary oxygen-decompression stop could reduce bubble-induced platelet activation and the pro-coagulant activity of PMP release preventing the thrombotic event in the pathogenesis of decompression sickness.

  1. Health effects from indoor air pollution: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L E; Clarkson, J R; Chang, S N

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the health effects associated with the presence of contaminants in indoor air. Numerous agents can accumulate in public buildings, homes and automobiles as a result of ongoing activities that normally occur in these closed spaces. Ventilation is a major factor in the control of indoor air pollutants since proper movement of air can prevent or minimize the build up of compounds in buildings. The recent emphasis on energy conservation has lead to measures which economize on energy for heating and air conditioning, but which also trap pollutants within a building. Three cases of indoor air pollution were investigated. A typical investigation of indoor air pollutant problems includes the following: interviews with building occupants; history of the building with regard to maintenance, pesticide treatment, etc.; a survey of the building and ventilation; and when warranted, sampling and analysis of air. Each case presented is unique in that atypical situations caused agents to accumulate in a building or section of a building. The indoor air problems in these cases were solved by identifying and removing the source of the offending agent and/or improving the ventilation in the building.

  2. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices.

  3. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of <10 min. Apolux's degree of temporal resolution varied across manufacturers, mobile networks, and the time of day that data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  4. A monitor for beta activity in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansode, P.Y.; Karpagam, R.; Phatak, P.R.; Jakati, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation monitors using compensated ion chamber technique have been in use in nuclear power plants and facilities for measurement of beta activity in presence of gamma background. This paper describes a system based on auto-ranging electrometer with provision for selecting alarm-level and giving out measurement and status information on RS232 serial link for remote use such as PC or notebook computer via RadNet protocol. The over all system incorporates indigenously developed 40 litre ion-chamber reported in the literature and facility for circulating air through the chamber using pumping system. The setup is housed in standard racks with wheels for easy transport within the laboratory building. The data acquiring and I/O processing is carried out using Philips 80c552 micro-controller. (author)

  5. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  6. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H., E-mail: Ian.Jarvis@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergvall, Christoffer, E-mail: Christoffer.Bergvall@anchem.su.se [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bottai, Matteo, E-mail: Matteo.Bottai@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Westerholm, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Westerholm@anchem.su.se [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla, E-mail: Ulla.Stenius@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Dreij, Kristian, E-mail: Kristian.Dreij@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  7. Evaluation of polyurethane foam passive air sampler (PUF) as a tool for occupational PAH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Bo; Julander, Anneli; Sjöström, Mattias; Lewné, Marie; Koca Akdeva, Hatice; Bigert, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs). These rates were then used to estimate the occupational exposure of firefighters and police forensic specialists to 32 PAHs. The work environments studied were heavily contaminated by PAHs with (for example) benzo(a)pyrene ranging from 0.2 to 56 ng m -3 , as measured via active sampling. We show that, even after short exposure times, PUF can reliably accumulate both gaseous and particle-bound PAHs. The Rs-values are almost independent of variables such as the concentration and the wind speed. Therefore, by using the Rs-values (2.0-20 m 3 day -1 ), the air concentrations can be estimated within a factor of two for gaseous PAHs and a factor of 10 for particulate PAHs. With very short sampling times (1 h), our method can serve as a (i) simple and user-friendly semi-quantitative screening tool for estimating and tracking point sources of PAH in micro-environments and (ii) complement to the traditional active pumping methods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Outola, I.; Pulli, S. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Tarvainen, M.; Ristonmaa, S. [Finnish Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Zilliacus, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ossintsev, A.; Larin, V. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m{sup 3} volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. {sup 137}Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median {sup 239,240}Pu activities were 100 nBq/m{sup 3} and {sup 238}Pu activities 34 nBq/m{sup 3}. The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, and in half of the filters the {sup 238}Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 {mu}Sv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  9. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  10. Investigation of storage-phosphor autoradiography for the rapid quantitative screening of air filters for emergency response purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Athena Marie

    Past nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl, resulted in a large release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Radiological assessment of the vicinity of the site of the incident is vital to assess the exposure levels and dose received by the population and workers. Therefore, it is critical to thoroughly understand the situation and risks associated with a particular event in a timely manner in order to properly manage the event. Current atmospheric radiological assessments of alpha emitting radioisotopes include acquiring large quantities of air samples, chemical separation of radionuclides, sample mounting, counting through alpha spectrometry, and analysis of the data. The existing methodology is effective, but time consuming and labor intensive. Autoradiography, and the properties of phosphor imaging films, may be used as an additional technique to facilitate and expedite the alpha analysis process in these types of situations. Although autoradiography is not as sensitive to alpha radiation as alpha spectrometry, autoradiography may benefit alpha analysis by providing information about the activity as well as the spatial distribution of radioactivity in the sample under investigation. The objective for this research was to develop an efficient method for quantification and visualization of air filter samples taken in the aftermath of a nuclear emergency through autoradiography using 241Am and 239Pu tracers. Samples containing varying activities of either 241Am or 239Pu tracers were produced through microprecipitation and assayed by alpha spectroscopy. The samples were subsequently imaged and an activity calibration curve was produced by comparing the digital light units recorded from the image to the known activity of the source. The usefulness of different phosphor screens was examined by exposing each type of film to the same standard nuclide for varying quantities of time. Unknown activity samples created through microprecipiation containing activities of

  11. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  12. Sampling and examination methods used for TMI-2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, A.W.; Akers, D.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the sampling and examination techniques that were used in the collection and analysis of TMI-2 samples. Samples ranging from auxiliary building air to core debris were collected and analyzed. Handling of the larger samples and many of the smaller samples had to be done remotely and many standard laboratory analytical techniques were modified to accommodate the extremely high radiation fields associated with these samples. The TMI-2 samples presented unique problems with sampling and the laboratory analysis of prior molten fuel debris. 14 refs., 8 figs

  13. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  14. Air Force Supply Management Analysis of Activity Groups Financial Reports, Prices, and Cash Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Air Force supply management activity group provides about two million types of inventory items, including weapon system spare parts, fuels, and medical-dental supplies, to customers which consist...

  15. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...... transformation) structure in the connection between the parametric faults and the matrix transfer function (also known as the fault signature matrix) applied for AFD is not directly preserved for sampled-data system. As a consequence of this, the AFD methods cannot directly be applied for sampled-data systems....... Two methods are considered in this paper to handle the fault signature matrix for sampled-data systems such that standard AFD methods can be applied. The first method is based on a discretization of the system such that the LFT structure is preserved resulting in the same LFT structure in the fault...

  16. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Palmgren Jensen, F.; Kemp, K.

    1976-03-01

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  17. Spatial variability of POPs in European background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Halse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive air samplers (PAS were deployed at 86 European background sites during summer 2006 in order (i to gain further insight into spatial patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in European background air and, (ii to evaluate PAS as an alternative sampling technique under EMEP (Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmissions of air pollutants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for selected PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, HCB, PAHs and chlordanes, and air concentrations were calculated on the basis of losses of performance reference compounds. Air concentrations of PCBs were generally lowest in more remote areas of northern Europe with elevated levels in more densely populated areas. γ-HCH was found at elevated levels in more central parts of Europe, whereas α-HCH, β-HCH and DDTs showed higher concentrations in the south-eastern part. There was no clear spatial pattern in the concentrations for PAHs, indicative of influence by local sources, rather than long range atmospheric transport (LRAT. HCB was evenly distributed across Europe, while the concentrations of chlordanes were typically low or non-detectable. A comparison of results obtained on the basis of PAS and active air sampling (AAS illustrated that coordinated PAS campaigns have the potential serve as useful inter-comparison exercises within and across existing monitoring networks. The results also highlighted limitations of the current EMEP measurement network with respect to spatial coverage. We finally adopted an existing Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART as recently modified to incorporate key processes relevant for POPs to evaluate potential source regions affecting observed concentrations at selected sites. Using PCB-28 as an example, the model predicted concentrations which agreed within a factor of 3 with PAS measurements for all except 1 out of the 17 sites selected for this analysis.

  18. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  19. Chapter 12. Sampling and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Cook, P.G.; Solomon, D.K.; Han, L.F.; Groening, M.; Oster, H.

    2006-01-01

    When water samples are taken for the analysis of CFCs, regardless of the sampling method used, contamination of samples by contact with atmospheric air (with its 'high' CFC concentrations) is a major concern. This is because groundwaters usually have lower CFC concentrations than those waters which have been exposed to the modern air. Some groundwaters might not contain CFCs and, therefore, are most sensitive to trace contamination by atmospheric air. Thus, extreme precautions are needed to obtain uncontaminated samples when groundwaters, particularly those with older ages, are sampled. It is recommended at the start of any CFC investigation that samples from a CFC-free source be collected and analysed, as a check upon the sampling equipment and methodology. The CFC-free source might be a deep monitoring well or, alternatively, CFC-free water could be carefully prepared in the laboratory. It is especially important that all tubing, pumps and connection that will be used in the sampling campaign be checked in this manner

  20. Adsorption onto activated carbons in environmental engineering: some trends in water and air treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cloirec, P. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6144 GEPEA, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Adsorption is commonly used in environmental protection processes and particularly in water and air treatment systems. Organic pollutants in aqueous or gaseous phases are transferred and adsorbed onto porous materials. Activated carbon (powder, grains) treatment is usually carried out and filters are used to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOC), odors or micropollutants. The main objectives of this paper are to present examples of classical or new activated carbon processes used in drinking water production, wastewater purification or in air treatment in terms of processes, performances and modeling. - Water treatment: Micropollutants such as pesticides, herbicides... are classically removed by activated carbon granular systems in drinking water treatment plants. In order to get a good water quality and to safe money, the breakthrough time has to be accurately determined. Models with mass balance and transfer equations are proposed. However, some difficulties are found especially for complex solutions to get good agreement between experimental data and calculated values. A statistical approach using neural networks is proposed to simulate breakthrough curves. Examples are presented and compared to deterministic models. In order to intensify processes, a combination of ultrafiltration and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) is presented to remove the large spectra of particles and organic molecules present in water. Systems (UF/ACFC) for surface water and industrial colored wastewater are applied and performances are determined as a function of operating conditions. - Air treatment: Activated carbon grain filters are used to control VOC emissions. Due to an exothermic reaction, an increase of local temperature in the reactor is noted and some fire accidents have been reported. For safety technologies, this temperature has to be previously determined. A model is proposed to simulate the breakthrough curves and temperatures

  1. Adsorption onto activated carbons in environmental engineering: some trends in water and air treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cloirec, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Adsorption is commonly used in environmental protection processes and particularly in water and air treatment systems. Organic pollutants in aqueous or gaseous phases are transferred and adsorbed onto porous materials. Activated carbon (powder, grains) treatment is usually carried out and filters are used to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOC), odors or micropollutants. The main objectives of this paper are to present examples of classical or new activated carbon processes used in drinking water production, wastewater purification or in air treatment in terms of processes, performances and modeling. - Water treatment: Micropollutants such as pesticides, herbicides... are classically removed by activated carbon granular systems in drinking water treatment plants. In order to get a good water quality and to safe money, the breakthrough time has to be accurately determined. Models with mass balance and transfer equations are proposed. However, some difficulties are found especially for complex solutions to get good agreement between experimental data and calculated values. A statistical approach using neural networks is proposed to simulate breakthrough curves. Examples are presented and compared to deterministic models. In order to intensify processes, a combination of ultrafiltration and activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) is presented to remove the large spectra of particles and organic molecules present in water. Systems (UF/ACFC) for surface water and industrial colored wastewater are applied and performances are determined as a function of operating conditions. - Air treatment: Activated carbon grain filters are used to control VOC emissions. Due to an exothermic reaction, an increase of local temperature in the reactor is noted and some fire accidents have been reported. For safety technologies, this temperature has to be previously determined. A model is proposed to simulate the breakthrough curves and temperatures

  2. A radioactive aerosols in air monitoring system - 'ASIA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaish, I.; Levinson, S.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Laichter, Y.; Gonen, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous air monitoring system called 'ASIA' (Aerosols Sampler In Air) was developed at the NRCN for monitoring and measuring the concentration of airborne alpha emitting radionuclides such as Radon or natural Uranium. The 'ASIA' is a stationary multi-channel analyzer based system. The air passes through a 2.5 cm diameter filter and the radioactivity accumulated on it is monitored by a Silicon solid state detector. The sampling unit can be separated from the display and control unit to enable environment sampling close to the workers. The ASIA uses modern hardware and software in order to improve noise and background reduction and to allow friendly and flexible use. Remote communication is also available. The spectrum and additional data are displayed on line. The system was checked according to ANSI N42.17B -1989. The linearity and efficiency were evaluated by using various alpha sources. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Decision Limit (Lc) were calculated according to ANSI N13.30. Long time stability measurements were performed using a natural Uranium source. (authors)

  3. Free radicals of an aromatic nature in air samples from iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, L M

    1982-01-01

    Free radicals of relatively long life were identified as spin adducts of phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone. Pyrolysis studies showed the radicals were oxy-radicals. The hyperfine splitting constants of spin adducts of radicals from the pyrolysis in air of benzo(a)pyrene, coal tar pitch, and moulding sand containing hard coal dust were the same as those of the radicals found in foundry air. Since these radicals can bind to DNA, they must be considered when estimating the hazardous effects of polluted air.

  4. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  5. A study on thoron decay products in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, A A; Abul-Hussein, A; Mahmoud, M [Physics Dept. Faculty of Science, El-minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique was used as sampling device to determine the concentration ansd activity size distribution of {sup 212}Pb in the open air. The collected activity in each stage of the impactor was measured by a {gamma} spectrometer with 5 x 5 Nal(tl)detector. The activity size distribution of {sup 212}Pb was described by one long-normal distribution. The mean AMAD was 345 nm with {alpha}{sub 9}=2.7 o. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The Chemical Characterization of Nigerian Propolis samples and Their Activity Against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ruwida; Igoli, John O; Zhang, Tong; Gray, Alexander I; Ebiloma, Godwin U; Clements, Carol J; Fearnley, James; Edrada Ebel, RuAngeli; Paget, Tim; de Koning, Harry P; Watson, David G

    2017-04-19

    Profiling of extracts from twelve propolis samples collected from eight regions in Nigeria was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD), ultraviolet detection (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the processed LC-MS data demonstrated the varying chemical composition of the samples. Most of the samples were active against Trypanosoma b. brucei with the highest activity being in the samples from Southern Nigeria. The more active samples were fractionated in order to isolate the component(s) responsible for their activity using medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Three xanthones, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-4,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone a previously undescribed xanthone and three triterpenes: ambonic acid, mangiferonic acid and a mixture of α-amyrin with mangiferonic acid (1:3) were isolated and characterised by NMR and LC-MS. These compounds all displayed strong inhibitory activity against T.b. brucei but none of them had higher activity than the crude extracts. Partial least squares (PLS) modelling of the anti-trypanosomal activity of the sample extracts using the LC-MS data indicated that high activity in the extracts, as judged from LCMS 2 data, could be correlated to denticulatain isomers in the extracts.

  7. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  8. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and physical activity: a cohort study of university students living in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongjun; Yu, Miao; Gordon, Shelby Paige; Zhang, Ruiling

    2017-10-05

    Air pollution has become a substantial environmental issue affecting human health and health-related behavior in China. Physical activity is widely accepted as a method to promote health and well-being and is potentially influenced by air pollution. Previous population-based studies have focused on the impact of air pollution on physical activity in the U.S. using a cross-sectional survey method; however, few have examined the impact on middle income countries such as China using follow-up data. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution on physical activity among freshmen students living in Beijing by use of follow-up data. We conducted 4 follow-up health surveys on 3445 freshmen students from Tsinghua University from 2012 to 2013 and 2480 freshmen completed all 4 surveys. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed based on repeated-measure physical activity-related health behaviors and ambient PM 2.5 concentrations among the follow-up participants. An increase in ambient PM 2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (44.72 μg/m 3 ) was associated with a reduction in 22.32 weekly minutes of vigorous physical activity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.88-19.77), a reduction in 10.63 weekly minutes of moderate physical activity (95% CI = 14.61-6.64), a reduction in 32.45 weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (95% CI = 37.63-27.28), and a reduction in 226.14 weekly physical activity MET-minute scores (95% CI = 256.06-196.21). The impact of ambient PM 2.5 concentration on weekly total minutes of moderate physical activity tended to be greater among males than among females. Ambient PM 2.5 air pollution significantly discouraged physical activity among Chinese freshmen students living in Beijing. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently needed to reduce air

  9. Occurrence of benzothiazole, benzotriazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in outdoor air particulate matter samples and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-02-01

    Benzothiazole (BTHs), benzotriazole (BTRs) and benzenesulfonamide (BSAs) derivates are high production volume chemicals and they are used in several industrial and household applications, therefore it is expected their occurrence in various environments, especially water and air. In this study we developed a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) to simultaneously determine four BTR, five BTH and six BSA derivates in the particulate matter (PM 10 ) of outdoor air samples collected in quartz fibre filters (QFFs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these compounds have been determined in open ambient environments. Under optimised conditions, method recoveries at the lower and upper concentration levels (0.8 and 4.2 ng m -3 ) ranged from 70 to 120%, except for 1-H-benzothiazole and 2-chlorobenzothiazole, which were about 50%. The repeatability of the method was usually below 20% (n = 3, %RSD) for both concentration levels. This method enables the contaminants to be detected at pg m -3 concentration levels. Several samples from two different sites influenced by local industries showed that BTRs, followed by BTHs, were the most detected compounds, whereas BSAs were hardly found. The most frequently determined compounds were 1-H-benzothiazole, 2-chlorobenzothiazole, 1-H-benzotriazole, 2-hydroxibenzothiazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1-H-benzotriazole and the isomers 4- and 5-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole. With the concentrations found, the human exposure assessment and health risk characterization via ambient inhalation were also evaluated taking into account different subpopulation groups classified by age for the two sampling points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovative application of air ejector as a pump for continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Ajoy, K.C.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace monitoring,