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Sample records for activator spa influences

  1. Light-activated phytochrome A and B interact with members of the SPA family to promote photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis by reorganizing the COP1/SPA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, David J; Menon, Chiara; zur Oven-Krockhaus, Sven; Enderle, Beatrix; Zhu, Ling; Johnen, Philipp; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Huq, Enamul; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes function as red/far-red photoreceptors in plants and are essential for light-regulated growth and development. Photomorphogenesis, the developmental program in light, is the default program in seed plants. In dark-grown seedlings, photomorphogenic growth is suppressed by the action of the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1)/SUPPRESSOR OF phyA-105 (SPA) complex, which targets positive regulators of photomorphogenic growth for degradation by the proteasome. Phytochromes inhibit the COP1/SPA complex, leading to the accumulation of transcription factors promoting photomorphogenesis; yet, the mechanism by which they inactivate COP1/SPA is still unknown. Here, we show that light-activated phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) interact with SPA1 and other SPA proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy analyses show that SPAs and phytochromes colocalize and interact in nuclear bodies. Furthermore, light-activated phyA and phyB disrupt the interaction between COP1 and SPAs, resulting in reorganization of the COP1/SPA complex in planta. The light-induced stabilization of HFR1, a photomorphogenic factor targeted for degradation by COP1/SPA, correlates temporally with the accumulation of phyA in the nucleus and localization of phyA to nuclear bodies. Overall, these data provide a molecular mechanism for the inactivation of the COP1/SPA complex by phyA- and phyB-mediated light perception. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF TURKISH BATH CULTURE ON THE DESIGN OF SPA & WELLNESS VENUES

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    Banu APAYDIN BAŞA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, water has been one of the main determinants of the human lifestyle in every culture. Turkish baths, which are among the most important extant water structures, are the products of a building type that appeared with the merger of Turkish bathing culture with the Anatolian bathing culture. At present, Turkish baths are defined in a different way as the venues for socializing in addition to bathing. In continuous change, modern man desires to reach global health services in the globalizing world in order to both protect his wellness and obtain the most effective treatment. In addition to its physical implications, the concept of wellness also refers to emotional and socio-cultural well-being. This changing paradigm of wellness has created the concept of Spa & wellness. Spa & wellness center is the name given to water therapies that have been applied since the Romans. The main reason of this development and change is the prominence of sauna-vapor-water systems as supporting and complementary elements to medicine and the demands of the users in this regard. The man of the present time desires to reach the scientific and technological developments in modern science not only for health and treatment services, but also for beauty and to “stay young”. This desire has turned health tourism into an important tourism trend in the world. Therefore, spatial formations must be dwelled on for Spa & wellness centers to function properly. This study outlines the influences of traditional Turkish baths on the design of the present time Spa & wellness venues. In order to identify these influences, initially the Turkish bath culture and the interior characteristics of Turkish bath are examined. Then, Spa & wellness concept and design criteria are searched. Finally, in accordance with these examinations, the spatial interactions of the traditional Turkish baths with Spa & wellness centers are evaluated.

  3. Spa13 of Shigella flexneri has a dual role: chaperone escort and export gate-activator switch of the type III secretion system.

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    Cherradi, Youness; Hachani, Abderrahman; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is used by numerous Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic cells. The Shigella flexneri T3SA spans the bacterial envelope and its assembly requires the products of ~20 mxi and spa genes. Despite progress made in understanding how the T3SA is assembled, the role of several predicted soluble components, such as Spa13, remains elusive. Here, we show that the secretion defect of the spa13 mutant is associated with lack of T3SA assembly which is partly due to the instability of the needle component MxiH. In contrast to its Yersinia counterpart, Spa13 is not a secreted protein. We identified a network of interactions between Spa13 and the ATPase Spa47, the C-ring protein Spa33, and the inner-membrane protein Spa40. Moreover, we revealed a Spa13 interaction with the inner-membrane MxiA and showed that overexpression of the large cytoplasmic domain of MxiA in the WT background shuts off secretion. Lastly, we demonstrated that Spa13 interacts with the cleaved form of Spa40 and with the translocator chaperone IpgC, suggesting that Spa13 intervenes during the secretion hierarchy switch process. Collectively, our results support a dual role of Spa13 as a chaperone escort and as an export gate-activator switch.

  4. The activities of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA, a key repressor in light signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Ute

    2017-06-01

    Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA. Moreover, we summarize how COP1 activity is regulated by other interacting proteins, such as a SUMO E3 ligase and Phytochrome-Interacting Factors (PIFs), as well as by hormones. At last, several novel functions of COP1 that were recently revealed are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground Water SPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Groundwater SPA. This GIS layer consists of the geographic location of the Source Protection Areas for active and inactive Public Community and Non-Transient...

  6. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lene N; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob; Ifrah, Dan; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various classes of clinically relevant antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations on virulence gene expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. LacZ promoter fusions of genes related to staphylococcal virulence were used to monitor the effects of antibiotics on gene expression in a disc diffusion assay. The selected genes were hla and spa encoding α-hemolysin and Protein A, respectively and RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. The results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, we monitored the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm in a microtiter plate assay. The results show that sub-lethal antibiotic concentrations diversely modulate expression of RNAIII, hla and spa. Consistently, expression of all three genes were repressed by aminoglycosides and induced by fluoroquinolones and penicillins. In contrast, the β-lactam sub-group cephalosporins enhanced expression of RNAIII and hla but diversely affected expression of spa. The compounds cefalotin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime and cefixine were found to up-regulate spa, while down-regulation was observed for cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefepime. Interestingly, biofilm assays demonstrated that the spa-inducing cefalotin resulted in less biofilm formation compared to the spa-repressing cefotaxime. We find that independently of the cephalosporin generation, cephalosporins oppositely regulate spa expression and biofilm formation. Repression of spa expression correlates with the presence of a distinct methyloxime group while induction correlates with an acidic substituted oxime group. As cephalosporines target the cell wall penicillin binding proteins we speculate that subtle differences in this interaction fine-tunes spa expression independently of agr.

  7. MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SPA TOURISM IN SERBIA

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    Milijana ĐORĐEVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of tourism, which are represented to a large extent in the world, are spa and wellness tourism. In Serbia, spa and wellness tourism are not sufficiently used, although there are excellent conditions. During twenty century the state was paying more attention and money on the sea and river tourism. However, the separation of Serbia and Montenegro in two independent counties had left Serbia without an entrance to the Adriatic Sea, so development of other tourist products and destinations became an imperative for survival and existence in the tourist map of Europe and the world. The paper presents the basic aims and policies of development of spa tourism in Serbia and data obtained in the survey regarding quality of services provided in some spa towns in Serbia. Based on the results to which the research occurred, authors wished to point out main activities and tasks that the state uses in creating a development strategy of spa tourism, the programs that have already been taken, so as the influence of the economic crisis to spa tourism.

  8. Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia

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    Đurđev Branislav S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent

  9. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob Krause

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various classes of clinically relevant antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations on virulence gene expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. FINDINGS: LacZ promoter fusions of genes related to staphylococ......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various classes of clinically relevant antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations on virulence gene expression and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. FINDINGS: LacZ promoter fusions of genes related...... to staphylococcal virulence were used to monitor the effects of antibiotics on gene expression in a disc diffusion assay. The selected genes were hla and spa encoding alpha-hemolysin and Protein A, respectively and RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. The results were confirmed...... by quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, we monitored the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the ability of S. aureus to form biofilm in a microtiter plate assay. The results show that sub-lethal antibiotic concentrations diversely modulate expression of RNAIII, hla and spa. Consistently...

  10. [The influence of ozone therapy on oxygen metabolism kinetics and the microcirculation system during spa and resort treatment of the post-infarction patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, E I; Khodasevich, L S; Solomina, O E; Zubareva, M I

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the influence of ozone therapy on oxygen metabolism kinetics and the circulation system during spa and resort treatment of 145 post-infarction patients who survived myocardial infarction. All of them were given routine spa-and-resort therapy; 56 patients received pharmacotherapy, in the remaining 89 it was supplemented with ozone-therapy. The clinical examination included electrocardiography, veloergometry, echocardiography; kinetics of oxygen metabolism was evaluated by transcutaneous polarography, laser Doppler flowmetry, and computed capillaroscopy. The results of the study indicate that ozonetherapy in combination with medicamental treatment reduces the period of post-infarction rehabilitation, decreases tissue hypoxia, improves characteristics of microcirculation and general health status of the patients.

  11. Development of a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) Based, High Throughput Screening Feasible Method for the Identification of PDE12 Activity Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Samuel; Bucher, Hannes; Nickolaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens. Therefore inhibitors of PDE12 are discussed as antiviral therapy. Here we describe the use of the yttrium silicate SPA bead technology to assess inhibitory activity of compounds against PDE12 in a homogeneous, robust HTS feasible assay using tritiated adenosine-P-adenylate ([3H]ApA) as substrate. We found that the used [3H]ApA educt, was not able to bind to SPA beads, whereas the product [3H]AMP, as known before, was able to bind to SPA beads. This enables the measurement of PDE12 activity on [3H]ApA as a substrate using a wallac microbeta counter. This method describes a robust and high throughput capable format in terms of specificity, commonly used compound solvents, ease of detection and assay matrices. The method could facilitate the search for PDE12 inhibitors as antiviral compounds.

  12. SPA Proteins Affect the Subcellular Localization of COP1 in the COP1/SPA Ubiquitin Ligase Complex during Photomorphogenesis.

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    Balcerowicz, Martin; Kerner, Konstantin; Schenkel, Christian; Hoecker, Ute

    2017-07-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase is a central repressor that suppresses light signaling in darkness by targeting positive regulators of the light response, mainly transcription factors, for degradation. Light inactivates COP1/SPA, in part by excluding COP1 from the nucleus. SPA proteins are essential cofactors of COP1, but their exact role in the COP1/SPA complex is thus far unknown. To unravel a potential role of SPA proteins in COP1 nucleocytoplasmic partitioning, we monitored the subcellular localization of COP1 in a spa1234 quadruple mutant (spaQn). We analyzed a YFP-COP1-expressing transgenic line and endogenous COP1 after subcellular fractionation. In dark-grown seedlings, both YFP-COP1 and endogenous COP1 accumulated in the nucleus in the absence and presence of SPA proteins, indicating that SPA proteins are not required for nuclear localization of COP1 in darkness. In contrast, in white light-grown seedlings, spaQn mutants failed to relocalize COP1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Hence, SPA proteins are necessary for the light-controlled change in COP1 subcellular localization. We conclude that SPA proteins have a dual role: (1) they are required for light-responsiveness of COP1 subcellular localization, and (2) they promote COP1 activity in darkness in a fashion that is independent of the nuclear import/nuclear retention of COP1. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Leptin promotes fetal lung maturity and upregulates SP-A expression in pulmonary alveoli type-II epithelial cells involving TTF-1 activation.

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    Hui Chen

    Full Text Available The placental hormone leptin has important functions in fetal and neonatal growth, and prevents depressed respiration in leptin-deficient mice. The effect of leptin on respiratory distress suffered by low birth weight and premature infants has been studied. However, it is unclear how leptin enhances lung maturity in the fetus and ameliorates neonatal respiratory distress. In the present study, we found that antenatal treatment with leptin for 2 d significantly enhanced the relative alveolus area and improved the maturity of fetal lungs in a rat model of fetal growth restriction (FGR. Mean birth weight and lung wet weight were higher in the leptin-treated group than in the PBS-treated group, indicating promotion of fetal growth. Leptin upregulated the intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of surfactant protein (SP A in type-II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs in vivo and in vitro. Dual positive effects of leptin were found on protein expression and transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, a nuclear transcription essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and expression of SP-A in type-II AECs. Knockdown of TTF-1 by RNA interference indicated that TTF-1 may play a vital role in leptin-induced SP-A expression. These results suggest that leptin may have great therapeutic potential for the treatment of FGR, and leptin-mediated SP-A induction and lung maturity of the fetus are TTF-1 dependent.

  14. Epithelial adhesion mediated by pilin SpaC is required for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-induced cellular responses.

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    Ardita, Courtney S; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Kwon, Young Man; Luo, Liping; Crawford, Madelyn E; Powell, Domonica N; Jones, Rheinallt M; Neish, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely used probiotic, and the strain's salutary effects on the intestine have been extensively documented. We previously reported that strain GG can modulate inflammatory signaling, as well as epithelial migration and proliferation, by activating NADPH oxidase 1-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, how strain GG induces these responses is unknown. Here, we report that strain GG's probiotic benefits are dependent on the bacterial-epithelial interaction mediated by the SpaC pilin subunit. By comparing strain GG to an isogenic mutant that lacks SpaC (strain GGΩspaC), we establish that SpaC is necessary for strain GG to adhere to gut mucosa, that SpaC contributes to strain GG-induced epithelial generation of ROS, and that SpaC plays a role in strain GG's capacity to stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling in enterocytes. In addition, we show that SpaC is required for strain GG-mediated stimulation of cell proliferation and protection against radiologically inflicted intestinal injury. The identification of a critical surface protein required for strain GG to mediate its probiotic influence advances our understanding of the molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between some commensal bacteria of the gut lumen and enterocytes. Further insights into this relationship are critical for the development of novel approaches to treat intestinal diseases.

  15. Health tourism in a Czech health spa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, Amy R

    2011-04-01

    This paper is about the changing shape of health tourism in a Czech spa town. The research focuses on balneotherapy as a traditional Czech healing technique, which involves complex drinking and bathing therapies, as it is increasingly being incorporated into the development of a Czech health tourism industry. Today, the health tourism industry in Mariánske Lázne is attempting to 'harmoniously' combine three elements--balneology, travel and business activities. One detects subtle shifts and consequent incongruities as doctors struggle for control over the medical portion of spa hotels. At the same time, marketing groups are creating new packages for a general clientele, and the implementation of these new packages de-medicalizes balneotherapy. Related to the issue of the doctor's authority in the spa, the changes occurring with the privatization of tourism entails the entrance of 'tourists' to Mariánske Lázne who are not necessarily seeking spa treatment but who are still staying at spa hotels. There is a general consensus among spa doctors and employees that balneotherapy has become commodified. Thus, while balneotherapy remains a traditional form of therapy, the commercial context in which it exists has created a new form of health tourism.

  16. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  17. Medical spa marketing.

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    Sadick, Neil S; Dinkes, Adam; Oskin, Larry

    2008-07-01

    Medical spas are different. We are not just selling medical and dermatology services; we are offering clients viable new solutions to their skin care, body care, and hair care challenges. Traditional medical marketing becomes blurred today, as the expansion and acceptance of medical spas helps you to effectively compete with traditional skin care clinics, salons, and spas, while offering more therapeutic treatments from professionally licensed doctors, nurses, aestheticians, massage therapists, spa professionals, and medical practitioners. We recommend that you make the choice to successfully and competitively become a market-driven medical spa with an annual strategic plan, rather than an operationally driven business.

  18. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  19. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  20. Higher percentage of CD3⁺CD154⁺ T lymphocytes predicts efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in active axial SpA patients.

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    Lin, Zhiming; Lin, Qu; Liao, Zetao; Li, Qiuxia; Zhang, Fucheng; Wei, Qiujing; Cao, Shuangyan; Gu, Jieruo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate which subtypes of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD28(+) and CD3(+)CD154(+)) could predict clinical efficacy after TNF-α inhibitor treatment in active axial SpA patients. Patients who fulfilled Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for axial SpA had a BASDAI of ≥40 mm. All patients received TNF-α inhibitor treatment for 12 weeks. ASAS20 was used to evaluate the effect of the treatment at week 12. We detected the percentage of CD3(+)CD28(+) and CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes on lymphocyte cells in the peripheral blood in patients and healthy controls. We evaluated whether the percentage of the above subtypes of T lymphocytes could predict clinical efficacy by ROC curve analysis. Fifty-eight healthy controls and 74 active axial SpA patients were included. Mean age was 26.28 ± 9.08 and 26.95 ± 8.13 years for healthy controls and patients, respectively (p = 0.767). The percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes was significantly higher in axial SpA patients than in healthy controls (1.62 ± 1.89 % vs 0.79 ± 0.52 %, p SpA patients with TNF-α inhibitor treatment (AUC = 0.733, p = 0.014). High percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) is over-expressed on lymphocytes in peripheral blood of active SpA patients and can be down-regulated by TNF-α inhibitor therapy. High-percentage of CD3(+)CD154(+) T lymphocytes may predict clinical efficacy of TNF-α inhibitor treatment in active axial SpA patients.

  1. Effect of spa therapy with saline balneotherapy on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a single-blind randomized controlled trial

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    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Karagülle, Oğuz; Dişçi, Rian; Avcı, Aslıhan; Durak, İlker; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have provided evidence for antioxidant properties of spa therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether spa therapy with saline balneotherapy has any influence on the oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with RA and to assess clinical effects of spa therapy. In this investigator-blind randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned 50 patients in a 1:1 ratio to spa therapy plus standard drug treatment (spa group) or standard drug treatment alone (control group). Spa group followed a 2-week course of spa therapy regimen consisting of a total of 12 balneotherapy sessions in a thermal mineral water pool at 36-37 °C for 20 min every day except Sunday. All clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after spa therapy (2 weeks). The clinical parameters were pain intensity, patient global assessment, physician global assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Disease Activity Score for 28-joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]). Oxidative status parameters were malondialdehyde (MDA), nonenzymatic superoxide radical scavenger activity (NSSA), antioxidant potential (AOP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The NSSA levels were increased significantly in the spa group ( p = 0.003) but not in the control group ( p = 0.509); and there was a trend in favor of spa therapy for improvements in NSSA levels compared to control ( p = 0.091). Significant clinical improvement was found in the spa group compared to the control in terms of patient global assessment ( p = 0.011), physician global assessment ( p = 0.043), function (HAQ-DI) ( p = 0.037), disease activity (DAS28-4[ESR]) (0.044) and swollen joint count (0.009), and a trend toward improvement in pain scores (0.057). Spa therapy with saline balneotherapy exerts antioxidant effect in patients with RA as reflected by the

  2. Effect of spa therapy with saline balneotherapy on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Karagülle, Oğuz; Dişçi, Rian; Avcı, Aslıhan; Durak, İlker; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have provided evidence for antioxidant properties of spa therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether spa therapy with saline balneotherapy has any influence on the oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with RA and to assess clinical effects of spa therapy. In this investigator-blind randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned 50 patients in a 1:1 ratio to spa therapy plus standard drug treatment (spa group) or standard drug treatment alone (control group). Spa group followed a 2-week course of spa therapy regimen consisting of a total of 12 balneotherapy sessions in a thermal mineral water pool at 36-37 °C for 20 min every day except Sunday. All clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after spa therapy (2 weeks). The clinical parameters were pain intensity, patient global assessment, physician global assessment, Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Disease Activity Score for 28-joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]). Oxidative status parameters were malondialdehyde (MDA), nonenzymatic superoxide radical scavenger activity (NSSA), antioxidant potential (AOP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The NSSA levels were increased significantly in the spa group (p = 0.003) but not in the control group (p = 0.509); and there was a trend in favor of spa therapy for improvements in NSSA levels compared to control (p = 0.091). Significant clinical improvement was found in the spa group compared to the control in terms of patient global assessment (p = 0.011), physician global assessment (p = 0.043), function (HAQ-DI) (p = 0.037), disease activity (DAS28-4[ESR]) (0.044) and swollen joint count (0.009), and a trend toward improvement in pain scores (0.057). Spa therapy with saline balneotherapy exerts antioxidant effect in patients with RA as reflected by the

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Subtilin from Bacillus Subtilis JDB-1 and Cloning spaS Gene%泡桐内生枯草芽孢杆菌JDB-1草菌素的抑菌活性及其spaS基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑞方; 龚凤娟; 杨镒蔓; 恩特马克·布拉提白

    2011-01-01

    用硫酸铵沉淀法从泡桐内生枯草芽孢杆菌JDB-1发酵液中粗提枯草菌素,采用纸片扩散法和琼脂糖扩散法分别检测枯草菌素对细菌和真菌的抑菌活性,采用PCR从菌株JDB-1基因组DNA中扩增出枯草菌素基因spaS,并克隆到pMD18-T载体,测定spaS基因的核苷酸序列.结果表明硫酸铵粗提的枯草菌素对大肠杆菌K12、恶臭假单胞杆菌AS1.1003、赤霉菌JSD-2、赤霉菌JSD-7和白色念珠菌ATCC10123等细菌和和真菌具有较强的抑制活性.DNA测序结果显示spaS基因大小为171bp,与已报道不同菌株spaS基因核苷酸序列的同源性为95%.%The bacterial subtilin was purified from the fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis JDB-1 by using the ammonium sulfate precipitation,and its antimicrobial activity against five tested microorganisms was investigated by using the agar diffusion test or the paper disc test.The spaS gene encoding subtilin was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus subtilis JDB-1 by PCR,and the PCR products cloned into the pMD18-T vector and subsequently introduced the competent cells of E.coli DH5α.The recombinant plasmid pMD18-spaS was identified by PCR and then sequenced.The results showed that the purified subtilin displayed antimicrobial activities against E.coli K12,Pseudomonas putida AS1.1003,Gibberella moniliformis JSD-8 and Candida albicans ATCC10123,respectively.The sequence analysis showed that the coding region spaS gene of Bacillus subtilis JDB-1 was 171bp in length,and the nucleotide sequence similarity of the spaS genes between the JDB-1 strain and the previously reported other bacterial strains was 95%.

  4. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments of spa waters in some areas in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Selcen Uzun; Kucukomeroglu, Belgin; Damla, Nevzat; Taskin, Halim; Celik, Necati; Cevik, Uğur; Ersoy, Hakan

    2017-03-01

    The current study presents the results of the activity of radionuclides in spa waters, and evaluates their radiological influences on the population consuming these waters in the Central and Eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey. Since these waters are used for therapy and consumption purposes unconsciously, their radiological impact on the people was computed by taking into consideration the annual intake through ingestion of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs and (222)Rn. The mean activities were estimated to be 11.35 for gross alpha, 6.23 for gross beta, 2.96 for (226)Ra, 0.42 for (232)Th, 0.069 for (137)Cs, 0.19 for (40)K, and 267 Bq L(-1) for (222)Rn, respectively. The estimated effective doses from spa water were found to be 49.77 µSv a(-1) ((226)Ra), 5.95 µSv a(-1) ((232)Th), 0.07 µSv a(-1) ((137)Cs), 0.83 µSv a(-1) ((40)K) and 56.03 µSv a(-1) ((222)Rn). These values were evaluated and compared with related verified values from literature. Also, physico-chemical characterizations of spa water samples considered in the current study were investigated. This study would be useful for consumers and official authorities for the assessment of radiation exposure risk due to usage of the considered spa waters.

  5. Sensitivity Test of Parameters Influencing Flood Hydrograph Routing with a Diffusion-Wave Distributed using Distributed Hydrological Model, Wet Spa, in Ziarat Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    narges javidan; Abdolreza Bahremand

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Flood routing is a procedure to calculate flood stage and water depth along a river or to estimate flood hydrograph at river downstream or at reservoir outlets using the upstream hydrography . In river basins, excess rainfall is routed to the basin outlet using flow routing techniques to generate flow hydrograph. A GIS-based distributed hydrological model, Wet Spa, has been under development suitable for flood prediction and watershed management on a catchment scale. The mo...

  6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS ON SPA SERVICE AT BADUNG DAN GIANYAR REGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu i Laksmiadi Janapriat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years, spa as one of the products of wellness tourism is growing very fast in Bali, necessitating the development strategy in accordance with the conditions of Bali. The rapid development momentum for the business of spa is opened in Bali, although in the external side of the business will compete with the international trade environment to take advantage and create sustainable economic growth prospects. This will be an opportunity for Bali as a destination spa in the future. In an effort to maintain and continue to develop quality as the best spa destinations in the world, we need the right strategy to make the creation and supporting product innovation spa in Bali. This study aims to create an integrated assessment of the extent of the influence of the utilization of natural resources, human resources and local knowledge of the existence and essence of spa in Bali and methods for utilizing natural resources, human resources and local knowledge of Bali on development of spa in Bali. Research design and methods of approach to the problem that are done in this study using descriptive design, where the planning and execution of research conducted in the form of field data are collected in the form of surveys, questionnaires and statistical data processing. The target population in this study is divided into three, namely: the company or a place that offers spa services, spa services supporting manufacturers and both foreign and domestic tourists who use the services of spa services in Badung and Gianyar, by assuming the two districts can represent the tourist population to Bali. Based on several case studies found that the performance of spa services in terms of utilization of natural resources, human resources, and local wisdom of Bali, particularly in terms of (1 the atmosphere (ambience, (2 equipment and design, (3 the qualifications and skills of the therapist, (4 treatment menu, and (5 the quality of services as a whole has

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaC pilin subunit binds to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Ueno, Shintaro; Sugiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a well-established probiotic strain. The beneficial properties of this strain are partially dependent on its prolonged residence in the gastrointestinal tract, and are likely influenced by its adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. The pilin SpaC subunit, located within the Spa pili structure, is the most well studied LGG adhesion factor. However, the binding epitopes of SpaC remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the binding properties of SpaC to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates using a recombinant SpaC protein. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, SpaC binding was markedly reduced by addition of purified mucin and the mucin oligosaccharide fraction. Histochemical staining revealed that the binding of SpaC was drastically reduced by periodic acid treatment. Moreover, in the surface plasmon resonance-based Biacore assay, SpaC bound strongly to the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing terminus of glycolipids. We here provide the first demonstration that SpaC binds to the oligosaccharide chains of mucins, and that the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing termini of glycoconjugates play a crucial role in this binding. Our results demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates of SpaC for mucus interactions.

  8. Sensitivity Test of Parameters Influencing Flood Hydrograph Routing with a Diffusion-Wave Distributed using Distributed Hydrological Model, Wet Spa, in Ziarat Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges javidan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Flood routing is a procedure to calculate flood stage and water depth along a river or to estimate flood hydrograph at river downstream or at reservoir outlets using the upstream hydrography . In river basins, excess rainfall is routed to the basin outlet using flow routing techniques to generate flow hydrograph. A GIS-based distributed hydrological model, Wet Spa, has been under development suitable for flood prediction and watershed management on a catchment scale. The model predicts outflow hydrographs at the basin outlet or at any converging point in the watershed, and it does so in a user-specified time step. The model is physically based, spatially distributed and time-continuous, and simulates hydrological processes of precipitation, snowmelt, interception, depression, surface runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, percolation, interflow, groundwater flow, etc. continuously both in time and space, for which the water and energy balance are maintained on each raster cell. Surface runoff is produced using a modified coefficient method based on the cellular characteristics of slope, land use, and soil type, and allowed to vary with soil moisture, rainfall intensity and storm duration. Interflow is computed based on the Darcy’s law and the kinematic approximation as a function of the effective hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic gradient, while groundwater flow is estimated with a linear reservoir method on a small subcatchment scale as a function of groundwater storage and a recession coefficient. Special emphasis is given to the overland flow and channel flow routing using the method of linear diffusive wave approximation, which is capable to predict flow discharge at any converging point downstream by a unit response function. The model accounts for spatially distributed hydrological and geophysical characteristics of the catchment. Determination of the river flow hydrograph is a main target in hydrology

  9. Hubungan antara Demografi Konsumen dengan Kepuasan terhadap Layanan Paket Perawatan Spa di GY Spa Jakartal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Oktadiana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spa industry has been growing quite fast in many parts of the world, including Indonesia. The prospect of spa business is still very positive and wide open. There are many varieties of spas offered, such as day spas, hotel-based spas, resort spas and destination spas. Regardless of the type of spa, most spa operators provide massage and nutrition related services. GY Spa, one of the best spa operators in Jakarta offers several spa packages which include body massage, body treatment, body scrub, face massage and aromatheraphy. This research aims to find the correlation between the demographic segmentation and the consumer satisfaction towards the spa packages in GY Spa. Based on the research, it is found that education, occupation and nationality have no correlation toward the consumer satisfaction, while age and gender shown to have correlation. Female and the younger customers are more satisfied with the spa packages offered by GY Spa

  10. Positive and cost-effectiveness effect of spa therapy on the resumption of occupational and non-occupational activities in women in breast cancer remission: a French multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, Charline; Gerbaud, Laurent; Leger, Stéphanie; Auclair, Candy; Peyrol, Fleur; Blanquet, Marie; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Leger-Enreille, Anne; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2014-10-01

    The main aim was to assess the effects of a spa treatment on the resumption of occupational and non-occupational activities and the abilities of women in breast cancer remission. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was also performed. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was carried out between 2008 and 2010 in the University Hospital of Auvergne and two private hospitals in Clermont-Ferrand, France. Eligible patients were women in complete breast cancer remission without contraindication for physical activities or cognitive disorders and a body mass index between 18.5 and 40 kg/m(2). The intervention group underwent spa treatment combined with consultation with dietician whereas the control underwent consultations with the dietician only. Of the 181 patients randomised, 92 and 89 were included in the intervention and the control groups, respectively. The CEA involved 90 patients, 42 from the intervention group and 48 from the control group. The main results showed a higher rate of resumption of occupational activities in the intervention group (p = 0.0025) and a positive effect of the intervention on the women's ability to perform occupational activities 12 months after the beginning of the study (p = 0.0014), and on their ability to perform family activities (p = 0.033). The stay in a thermal centre was cost-effective at 12 months. Spa treatment is a cost-effective strategy to improve resumption of occupational and non-occupational activities and the abilities of women in breast cancer remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spa-goers’ Characteristics, Motivations, Preferences and Perceptions: Evidence from Elounda, Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Trihas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spa and wellness tourism is one of the fastest-growing market segments in the hospitality and tourism industry. The aim of this study is to investigate and identify spa-goers’ characteristics, motivations, preferences and perceptions, providing a better understanding of the main features of this type of tourists’ behavior and expectations from a spa and wellness centre. Primary quantitative research was conducted via a structured questionnaire in a sample of 123 spa customers at Elounda in Crete. The results of the study revealed a number of important factors that influence them when choosing a spa, namely the cleanliness and the maintenance of a spa, the staff knowledge and hygiene, the personnel behavior and courtesy, and the quality of services. In addition, the main reason for visiting the spa is for stress relief/relaxation, followed by physical health improvement and beauty treatments. Findings and discussion of this study are useful to industry practitioners (spa and wellness service providers who wish to develop appropriate marketing strategies and enhance customer satisfaction and academic researchers interested in spa and wellness tourism.

  12. The Health Spa Industry and the Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengros, Glenn V.

    During the past three decades, the health spa industry has grown to become a viable component of our society. Many people, however, still have reservations about the sincerity of health spa proprietors. This is a result of nonprofessional management in the first years of business. Today the health spa industry finds itself with changed…

  13. SWOT ANALYSIS OF SPA TOURISM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Davchev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our time is marked by the increasingly dynamic changing environment. The new conditions in which we operate are characterized by increasing complexity and labor activities that require more responsible behavior. The rising levels of stress and the increasing lack of free time for relaxation and recreation require a new look at the possibilities for the prevention of personal health. The plane of the consumer society in which we live is increasingly shifted by aspiration and vision of an environmentally friendly lifestyle. The focus here is the implementation of a multilevel wellness concept that changes qualitatively the status quo and seeks for ways to harmonize the body with the nature. One of the options is the practice of SPA tourism in whose genesis is the multilayered beneficial impact of a series of procedures and actions. This new alternative through its economic dimensions is an attractive business niche which over time becomes an industry. The current state of the SPA tourism in Bulgaria is controversial despite existing achievements and introduced best practices. Traditions in this direction and the presence of favorable basis for its approval, however, are not sufficient to achieve stability and an upward trend in development. There are existing a number of weaknesses and negative aspects that create frustration in users, which is a real threat to its future. The proposed SWOT-analysis as part of a comprehensive and multilateral study of the state of SPA tourism in Bulgaria reveals some of the existing problems. There have been some suggestions to minimize the impact of weaknesses and eliminate the errors found in leading business organizations managing processes. A detailed analysis and evaluation of the formulated conclusions is ahead, as well as concluding on ideas to improve the state of the sector – a subject of a further investigation by the author.

  14. The spa as a model of an optimal healing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    "Spa" is an acronym for salus per aqua, or health through water. There currently are approximately 10,000 spas of all types in the United States. Most now focus on eating and weight programs with subcategories of sports activities and nutrition most prominent. The main reasons stated by clients for their use are stress reduction, specific medical or other health issues, eating and weight loss, rest and relaxation, fitness and exercise, and pampering and beauty. A detailed description of the Canyon Ranch, a spa facility in Tucson, AZ, is presented as a case study in this paper. It appears that the three most critical factors in creating an optimal healing environment in a spa venue are (1) a dedicated caring staff at all levels, (2) a mission driven organization that will not compromise, and (3) a sound business model and leadership that will ensure permanency.

  15. Spa therapy adjunct to pharmacotherapy is beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis: a crossover randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether 2-week spa therapy, as an adjunct to usual pharmacological therapy, has any beneficial effect in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this single-blind crossover study, 50 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to receive usual pharmacological therapy plus 2-week spa therapy or usual pharmacological therapy alone (period 1.6 months); after a 9-month washout, patients were crossed over to the opposite assignment (period 2.6 months). Spa therapy program included a daily saline balneotherapy session at 36-37 °C for 20 min except Sundays. The clinical outcomes were evaluated at baseline, after spa therapy (2 weeks) and 3 and 6 months after the spa therapy in both period and were pain (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Spa therapy was superior to control therapy in improving all the assessed clinical outcomes at the end of the spa therapy. This superiority persisted significantly in physician global assessment (p = 0.010) and with a trend in favor of spa group in patient global assessment (p = 0.058), function (p = 0.092), and disease activity (p = 0.098) at 3 months. Statistically significant improvements were found in spa therapy compared to control in disease activity (p = 0.006) and patient (p = 0.020) and physician global (p = 0.011) assessments, and a trend toward improvements in pain (p = 0.069) and swollen joints (p = 0.070) at 6 months. A 2-week spa therapy adjunct to usual pharmacological therapy provided beneficial clinical effects compared to usual pharmacological therapy alone, in RA patients treated with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. These beneficial effects may last for 6 months.

  16. SPA-1 controls the invasion and metastasis of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Hamazaki, Yoko; Hattori, Masakazu; Doi, Keiko; Terada, Naoki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Toda, Yoshinobu; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Inoue, Takahiro; Kajita, Yoichiro; Maeno, Atsushi; Kamba, Tomomi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Tomomi; Kanno, Toru; Yoshikawa, Kiyotsugu; Ogawa, Osamu; Minato, Nagahiro; Nakamura, Eijiro

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that SIPA1 encoding a Rap GTPase-activating protein SPA-1 is a candidate metastasis efficiency-modifying gene in human breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of SPA-1 in human prostate cancer (CaP). Immunohistochemical studies of tumor specimens from CaP patients revealed a positive correlation of SPA-1 expression with disease progression and metastasis. The correlation was recapitulated in human CaP cell lines; LNCaP that rarely showed metastasis in SCID mice expressed an undetectable level of SPA-1, whereas highly metastatic PC3 showed abundant SPA-1 expression. Moreover, SIPA1 transduction in LNCaP caused prominent abdominal lymph node metastasis without affecting primary tumor size, whereas shRNA-mediated SIPA1 knockdown or expression of a dominant-active Rap1 mutant (Rap1V12) in PC3 suppressed metastasis. LNCaP transduced with SPA-1 (LNCaP/SPA-1) showed attenuated adhesion to the precoated extracellular matrices (ECM) including collagens and fibronectin, due to defective ECM-medicated Rap1 activation. In addition, LNCaP/SPA-1 showed a diminished level of nuclear Brd4, which is known to bind SPA-1, resulting in reduced expression of a series of ECM-related genes. These results suggest that SPA-1 plays an important role in controlling metastasis efficiency of human CaP by regulating the expression of and interaction with ECM in the primary sites. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of a short-course, personalized self-management and intensive spa therapy intervention as active prevention of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (Muska): a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Gay, Chloé; Hérisson, Christian; Levyckyj, Christine; Dupeyron, Arnaud; Coudeyre, Emmanuel

    2016-12-09

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) constitute a major occupational health problem in the working population, substantially impacting the quality of life of employees. They also cause considerable economic cost to the healthcare system, with, notably, the reimbursement of treatments and compensation for lost income. MSDs manifest as localized pain or functional difficulty in one or more anatomical areas, such as the cervical spine, shoulder, elbow, hand, and wrist. Although prevalence varies depending on the region considered and the method of assessment, a prevalence of 30% is found in different epidemiological studies. The disease needs to be prevented, not only for medical and economic reasons, but also for legal reasons, owing to the requirement of assessing occupational risks. The strategy envisaged may thus revolve around active, multimodal prevention that has employees fully involved at the heart of their care. Although physical exercise is widely recommended, few studies with a good level of evidence have enabled us to base a complete, well-constructed intervention on exercise that can be offered as secondary prevention in these disorders. A prospective, multicenter, comparative (intervention arm vs. control arm), randomized (immediate vs. later treatment) study using Zelen's design. This study falls under active prevention of MSDs of the upper extremities (UE-MSDs). Participants are workers aged between 18 and 65 years with latent or symptomatic MSDS, with any type of job or workstation, with or without an history of sick leave. The primary aim is to show the superiority at 3 months of a combination of spa therapy, exercise, and self-management workshops for 6 days over usual care in the management of MSDs in terms of employee functional capacity in personal and professional daily life. Secondary aims are to assess the benefit of the intervention in terms of pain, quality of life, and accumulated duration of sick leave. This randomized controlled trial is

  18. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  19. From sulphur to perfume: spa and SPA at Monchique, Algarve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Cristiana

    2011-04-01

    In the thermal village of Monchique, Algarve, different streams of water-related knowledge and practices coexisted for centuries. Those waters were traditionally known as aguas santas (holy waters) and believed to have redemptive healing powers. In the seventeenth century, the Catholic church took control of the place, refashioned the bathing rituals, developed infrastructures and provided assistance to the patients, granting free treatment to the poor. In the nineteenth century, the state replaced the church and imposed that treatments should be provided by professionals trained in the scientific principles of medical hydrology. Secular and scientific as they were, clinical logbooks still allowed for the account of patients that embodied miracle-like redemptive cures 'at the third bath'. People went to Monchique both for its magic and its medicine, bringing in the body ailments achieved in their lives of hard labour. They also went there for a socialising break while healing. From mendicants to rich landowners, coming mostly from the Algarve and neighbouring Alentejo, they crowded the place in summertime. In the twentieth century, as in other places in continental Europe, the spa evolved into a highly medicalised place that qualified for medical expenses reimbursements, which implied the eclipsing--at least from representation--of its leisure component. In the twenty-first century, a new trend of consumer-centred, market-based, post-water balneology with an emphasis on wellness and leisure reinvented the spa as place for lush and diversified consumption. This article argues that the seemingly contradictory systems (markets and medicine) coexist much in the same way that magic, religion and medicine coexisted in the old water sites. The new SPAs, rather than putting an end to the old spas, have enabled them to survive by reinventing thermal sites as places of attraction and leisure.

  20. Lessons to be learned from serum biomarkers in psoriasis and IBD - the potential role in SpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Maureen C; Landewé, Robert; Baeten, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Early diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, prediction of treatment response, and structural outcome remain major challenges in spondyloarthritis (SpA). Biomarkers could play a role in addressing these challenges, but in SpA there is a lack of suitable biomarkers. Areas covered: As SpA is clinically and pathophysiologically closely related to psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we reviewed in literature, the value of serum biomarkers in these conditions with the aim to find potential candidates for assessing SpA. Expert commentary: Candidates of interest were antimicrobial peptides, including serum human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2) and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2), and class-1 MHC molecule beta2-microglobulin. Since these biomarkers are relevant in psoriasis and/or IBD from a pathophysiological point of view, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of SpA, we recommend further exploration of their value as biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of SpA.

  1. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  2. RADON AND PROGENY SOURCED DOSE ASSESSMENT OF SPA EMPLOYEES IN BALNEOLOGICAL SITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard(®) with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m(-3) and 10 kBq m(-3) Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionary forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny.

  3. Detrended Topographic Data of the South-pole Aitken Basin (SPA): Comparisons with Apollo 16 and Schiller-Schickard as Indications of the Formation and Evolution of the Spa Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Hollibaugh-Baker, D.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    Data from recent lunar orbital missions have provided critical insight into the surface composition, morphology, and geologic history of the Moon. A key region that has benefited from this new data is the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), a key area for future sample return]. A key area of investigation of SPA has been the characterization of its surface, detailing the interior composition, geologic evolution, and possible exposure of deep-seated materials. Recently we have applied a number of datasets to ascertain the origin of surfaces in central SPA and identify units that represent the ancient SPA-derived impact melt and those that represent volcanic activity. Here we apply a technique that utilizes high-resolution topographic data to remove local slopes to highlight subtle topographic variations. Such detrended data allows us to characterize units that are either ancient (SPA impact melt) or that represent subsequent volcanic activity.

  4. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ((226)Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m(3) respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential.

  5. [Kanjiza Spa: ninety years of healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    "Kanjiza" spa was founded in 1903. It was an artesian bath at the beginning, but gradually it has grown into a modern rehabilitation center. Much of its existence the spa owes to Herman Gruenfeld, a local businessman who was the first one to invest in development of natural resources in medical purposes. In this work the author reviews some earlier analyses of the chemical composition of water in Kanjiza spa. Procedures are illustrated as well as laboratory findings in Budapest and Belgrade. The author brings to attention the current condition of certain parts of the Spa, which are supposed to be under governmental care and protection. Many of the older building are in bad condition. Trees are damaged in the park, and little has been renewed lately. This paper emphasizes the diversity and efficiency of medical procedures performed by 150 members of the team lead by 10 doctors, and many problems and hardships they successfully face in the health system of Serbia. Due to unpredicted circumstances the centennial anniversary of Kanjiza spa was not marked depriving the public of rare opportunity to recognize efforts and accomplishments of this many aspects unique institution belonging to the very top medical centers specialized in rehabilitation in our country.

  6. Kanjiza spa: Ninety years of healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "Kanjiza" spa was founded in 1903. It was an artesian bath at the beginning, but gradually it has grown into a modern rehabilitation center. Much of its existence the spa owes to Herman Gruenfeld, a local businessman who was the first one to invest in development of natural resources in medical purposes. In this work the author reviews some earlier analyses of the chemical composition of water in Kanjiza spa. Procedures are illustrated as well as laboratory findings in Budapest and Belgrade. The author brings to attention the current condition of certain parts of the Spa, which are supposed to be under governmental care and protection. Many of the older building are in bad condition. Trees are damaged in the park, and little has been renewed lately. This paper emphasizes the diversity and efficiency of medical procedures performed by 150 members of the team lead by 10 doctors, and many problems and hardships they successfully face in the health system of Serbia. Due to unpredicted circumstances the centennial anniversary of Kanjiza spa was not marked depriving the public of rare opportunity to recognize efforts and accomplishments of this many aspects unique institution belonging to the very top medical centers specialized in rehabilitation in our country.

  7. [Safety profile of NO-SPA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar, Attila; Singer, Júlia

    2002-03-17

    The aim of the safety analysis performed by Chinoin Drug Safety Unit was to summarise the safety profile of NO-SPA (drotaverine hydrochloride), the Hungarian spasmolytic well known in Hungary and abroad. Authors collected the safety data from clinical studies between 1964-1998 for the determination of the adverse event frequency. Based on the data of 12111 patients treated with NO-SPA in 37 clinical trials 0.9% frequency of adverse events was found. The value indicates uncommon (0.1-1%) adverse event frequency according to the criteria for frequency categories. The benefit-risk ratio of NO-SPA is favourable, since the therapeutic effect does not include frequent adverse reaction occurrence.

  8. Supersonic Wing Optimization Using SpaRibs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, David; Mulani, Sameer B.; Liu, Qiang; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the advantages of using curvilinear spars and ribs, termed SpaRibs, to design a supersonic aircraft wing-box in comparison to the use of classic design concepts that employ straight spars and ribs. The objective is to achieve a more efficient load-bearing mechanism and to passively control the deformation of the structure under the flight loads. Moreover, the use of SpaRibs broadens the design space and allows for natural frequencies and natural mode shape tailoring. The SpaRibs concept is implemented in a new optimization MATLAB-based framework referred to as EBF3SSWingOpt. This optimization scheme performs both the sizing and the shaping of the internal structural elements, connecting the optimizer with the analysis software. The shape of the SpaRibs is parametrically defined using the so called Linked Shape method. Each set of SpaRibs is placed in a one by one square domain of the natural space. The set of curves is subsequently transformed in the physical space for creating the wing structure geometry layout. The shape of each curve of each set is unique; however, mathematical relations link the curvature in an effort to reduce the number of design variables. The internal structure of a High Speed Commercial Transport aircraft concept developed by Boeing is optimized subjected to stress, subsonic flutter and supersonic flutter constraints. The results show that the use of the SpaRibs allows for the reduction of the aircraft's primary structure weight without violating the constraints. A weight reduction of about 15 percent is observed.

  9. Spa therapy adjunct to pharmacotherapy is beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-09-07

    This study aims to investigate whether 2-week spa therapy, as an adjunct to usual pharmacological therapy, has any beneficial effect in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this single-blind crossover study, 50 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to receive usual pharmacological therapy plus 2-week spa therapy or usual pharmacological therapy alone (period 1.6 months); after a 9-month washout, patients were crossed over to the opposite assignment (period 2.6 months). Spa therapy program included a daily saline balneotherapy session at 36-37 °C for 20 min except Sundays. The clinical outcomes were evaluated at baseline, after spa therapy (2 weeks) and 3 and 6 months after the spa therapy in both period and were pain (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Spa therapy was superior to control therapy in improving all the assessed clinical outcomes at the end of the spa therapy. This superiority persisted significantly in physician global assessment (p = 0.010) and with a trend in favor of spa group in patient global assessment (p = 0.058), function (p = 0.092), and disease activity (p = 0.098) at 3 months. Statistically significant improvements were found in spa therapy compared to control in disease activity (p = 0.006) and patient (p = 0.020) and physician global (p = 0.011) assessments, and a trend toward improvements in pain (p = 0.069) and swollen joints (p = 0.070) at 6 months. A 2-week spa therapy adjunct to usual pharmacological therapy provided beneficial clinical effects compared to usual pharmacological therapy alone, in RA patients treated with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. These beneficial effects may last for 6 months.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  11. The SPA Tourism Perception in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism or geriatric-medical and wellness tourism are market segments that lately have registered significant increases. The need to define, organize, and promote these sectors. This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges market growth wellness and medical tourism. For the industry spa these developments may represent an opportunity to take full advantage of wellness and medical tourism.

  12. SPA: a probabilistic algorithm for spliced alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nimwegen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale cDNA sequencing efforts show that elaborate patterns of splice variation are responsible for much of the proteome diversity in higher eukaryotes. To obtain an accurate account of the repertoire of splice variants, and to gain insight into the mechanisms of alternative splicing, it is essential that cDNAs are very accurately mapped to their respective genomes. Currently available algorithms for cDNA-to-genome alignment do not reach the necessary level of accuracy because they use ad hoc scoring models that cannot correctly trade off the likelihoods of various sequencing errors against the probabilities of different gene structures. Here we develop a Bayesian probabilistic approach to cDNA-to-genome alignment. Gene structures are assigned prior probabilities based on the lengths of their introns and exons, and based on the sequences at their splice boundaries. A likelihood model for sequencing errors takes into account the rates at which misincorporation, as well as insertions and deletions of different lengths, occurs during sequencing. The parameters of both the prior and likelihood model can be automatically estimated from a set of cDNAs, thus enabling our method to adapt itself to different organisms and experimental procedures. We implemented our method in a fast cDNA-to-genome alignment program, SPA, and applied it to the FANTOM3 dataset of over 100,000 full-length mouse cDNAs and a dataset of over 20,000 full-length human cDNAs. Comparison with the results of four other mapping programs shows that SPA produces alignments of significantly higher quality. In particular, the quality of the SPA alignments near splice boundaries and SPA's mapping of the 5' and 3' ends of the cDNAs are highly improved, allowing for more accurate identification of transcript starts and ends, and accurate identification of subtle splice variations. Finally, our splice boundary analysis on the human dataset suggests the existence of a novel non

  13. [Ars medica Anhaltina (II): Carl Ferdinand Graefe (1787-1840) and the Alexisbad spa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1986-04-15

    In 1985 the spa Alexisbad in the Harz Mountains celebrated the 175th anniversary of its creation. Its establishment is to be seen in close connection with the activities of the subsequent Berlin professor in ordinary Carl Ferdinand Graefe (1787-1840) in Anhalt-Bernburg. The early development of the spa which for a certain time was fused with the Beringerbrunnen in Suderode is characterized by the activities of several engaged sanatory physicians whose spectre of task allows insights in the balneological organisation of the 19th century.

  14. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...

  15. 78 FR 54596 - Airworthiness Directives; AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Agusta S.p.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ....A. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Agusta S.p.A) (Agusta) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... directive (AD): Agustawestland S.p.A. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Augsta S.p.A) (Agusta): Docket...

  16. 78 FR 69595 - Airworthiness Directives; AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Agusta S.p.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ....A. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Agusta S.p.A.) (Agusta) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Westland S.p.A. (Type Certificate formerly held by Agusta S.p.A) (Agusta) Helicopters: Docket No....

  17. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention and Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I.; et al.

    2005-05-05

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim atreconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breakingmechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed whenhigher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme,Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set ofconventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs isprovided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate theLagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e-linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths andproduction cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition,programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, thedensity of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the crosssections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme stillrequires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental sidebefore data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desiredprecision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme byapplying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry referencepoint.

  18. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  19. Distribution characteristics of Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa spa district, Tottori Pref., JAPAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Inagaki, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Mifune, M. [Kinki Univ., Fuse, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst

    2000-05-01

    We have carried out convenient and highly sensitive radon measurement using absorption to means of a detecting active charcoal and a liquid scintillation spectrometer, Packard Pico-rad System. The {alpha} and {beta} radioactivities of its decay products originated from radon gas absorbed detector exposed to air were measured. Its detection limit is 1.7Bq/m{sup 3} in air with an accuracy of about 10% on 200 minutes of counting time, and correction coefficient, the ratio of measured radon concentration to standard radon concentration (about 300Bq/m{sup 3}) is 0.75 on the standard radon gas chamber of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Misasa district, Tottori pref. is famous for the radioactive spa in Japan. We have measured the Rn-222 concentrations in air with a set of indoor and outdoor. The distribution range of Rn-222 concentrations in air on Misasa spa district from 1995 to 1998 are 8 - 194Bq/m{sup 3} indoors, 2 - 150Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors, the former generally are higher than those outdoor and these ratios fluctuate on the range 1.1 - 2.3. Rn-222 concentrations in air on Asahi, Takeda and Misasa districts geologically formed from granite strata were higher than those on Mitoku and Osika districts formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt), and its ratio of indoor to outdoor were similar trend too. The strata is also a influence on Rn-222 concentration in air. The Rn-222 concentrations on Higashi-osaka as control area are 4.9 - 17Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 0.33 - 10Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors. (author)

  20. Insulin utilizes the PI 3-kinase pathway to inhibit SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeanne M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high insulin levels may cause delayed lung development in the fetuses of diabetic mothers. A key event in lung development is the production of adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. Insulin inhibits the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A, the major surfactant-associated protein, in lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression. Methods H441 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, or human fetal lung explants were incubated with or without insulin. Transcription run-on assays were used to determine SP-A gene transcription rates. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the effect of various signal transduction inhibitors on SP-A gene expression. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate the levels and phosphorylation states of signal transduction protein kinases. Results Insulin decreased SP-A gene transcription in human lung epithelial cells within 1 hour. Insulin did not affect p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation and the insulin inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels was not affected by PD98059, an inhibitor of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. In contrast, insulin increased p70 S6 kinase Thr389 phosphorylation within 15 minutes. Wortmannin or LY294002, both inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector in the PI 3-kinase pathway, abolished or attenuated the insulin-induced inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels. Conclusion Insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells probably occurs via the rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  1. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) interactions with model lung surfactant lipids and an SP-B fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Muzaddid; Jackman, Donna; Booth, Valerie

    2011-06-07

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A's interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B's own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A-Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding.

  2. Getting Down to Business: Health Spa, Module 16. [Student Module]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, Jean

    This module on owning and operating a health spa is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are divided into…

  3. Present state and perspectives of spa tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from very contaminated spatial areas, there are places with attractive and non-polluted environment, that are suitable for tourism and recreation. Such places are spa resorts, characterized by numerous and various natural elements having significant health and recreative functions (thermo-mineral springs, rare gases, favorable climatic conditions, rich vegetation, etc., which attract attention of ample tourist demand. Serbia is welknown as a 'country of spa resorts', because of a great number of thermo-mineral springs, long tradition and their significance for tourism economy. Official statistical service keeps records of tourist flows only at 30 spa resorts (approximately, having participation at 95% of the total tourist trade in Serbia's spas. The topic of this paper is devoted to estimation of the present state and perspectives of spa tourism in Serbia. Special attention is focused on: analysis of resources for spa tourism, discussion of key factors for tourist valorization of Serbia's spas, investigation of structural features of spa tourism, comparison of Serbia's experiences in domain of spa tourism with contemporary trends in certain spa resorts in other European countries, and, finally, defining the most important tasks for spa tourism improvement.

  4. 为员工做好心灵"SPA"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩倩

    2008-01-01

    @@ 近年来,一种名为"SPA"的健康疗法风靡全国. "SPA"一词源于拉丁文"Solus Por Aqua"的字首(Solus=健康,POr=经由,Aqua=水),意指用水来获取健康.据考, "SPA"的名字起源于罗马帝国时期比利时的一个叫"SPA"的小镇,那里有一个温泉,不但可以美容甚至能治疗疾病.

  5. Misi Baby Spa - Un Mundo para Bebes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Misi Baby Spa es un lugar privilegiado concebido y diseñado especialmente para mamás, papás y bebés. Busca fortalecer el vínculo afectivo entre el núcleo familiar con herramientas como la lúdica, la música y el agua. Aliado con grandes marcas representativas del sector y encadenado a la marca Misi brindará un gran respaldo y garantía de servicio a sus clientes. Hombres y mujeres de clase media alta y alta interesados en el cuidado de y desarrollo de sus hijos, obtendrán en ...

  6. Theoretical Implications for Inform and Influence Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    CEMA Cyber Electromagnetic Activities CA Civil Affairs DOD Department of Defense DSB Defense Science Board IIA Inform and Influence Activities IO...23 Figure 3. CEMA Lines of Effort .................................................................................................... 23 Figure 4...capabilities into IIA and cyber electromagnetic activities ( CEMA ) 3. A name change from PSYOP to military information support activities (MISO) 4

  7. Functional analysis of COP1 and SPA orthologs from Physcomitrella and rice during photomorphogenesis of transgenic Arabidopsis reveals distinct evolutionary conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Aashish; Dickopf, Stephen; Ullrich, Kristian K; Rensing, Stefan A; Hoecker, Ute

    2014-07-01

    Plants have evolved light sensing mechanisms to optimally adapt their growth and development to the ambient light environment. The COP1/SPA complex is a key negative regulator of light signaling in the well-studied dicot Arabidopsis thaliana. COP1 and members of the four SPA proteins are part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in darkness to ubiquitinate several transcription factors involved in light responses, thereby targeting them for degradation by the proteasome. While COP1 is also found in humans, SPA proteins appear specific to plants. Here, we have functionally addressed evolutionary conservation of COP1 and SPA orthologs from the moss Physcomitrella, the monocot rice and the dicot Arabidopsis. To this end, we analyzed the activities of COP1- and SPA-like proteins from Physcomitrella patens and rice when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of rice COP1 and Physcomitrella COP1 protein sequences predominantly complemented all phenotypic aspects of the viable, hypomorphic cop1-4 mutant and the null, seedling-lethal cop1-5 mutant of Arabidopsis: rice COP1 fully rescued the constitutive-photomorphogenesis phenotype in darkness and the leaf expansion defect of cop1 mutants, while it partially restored normal photoperiodic flowering in cop1. Physcomitrella COP1 partially restored normal seedling growth and flowering time, while it fully restored normal leaf expansion in the cop1 mutants. In contrast, expression of a SPA ortholog from Physcomitrella (PpSPAb) in Arabidopsis spa mutants did not rescue any facet of the spa mutant phenotype, suggesting that the PpSPAb protein is not functionally conserved or that the Arabidopsis function evolved after the split of mosses and seed plants. The SPA1 ortholog from rice (OsSPA1) rescued the spa mutant phenotype in dark-grown seedlings, but did not complement any spa mutant phenotype in light-grown seedlings or in adult plants. Our results show that COP1 protein sequences from Physcomitrella, rice and Arabidopsis have

  8. spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, Marie; Friedrich, Alexander W; Struelens, Marc J; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2009-01-01

    The spa typing method is based on sequencing of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa), present in all strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The X region is constituted of a variable number of 24-bp repeats flanked by well-conserved regions. This single-locus sequence-based typing method c

  9. spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, Marie; Friedrich, Alexander W; Struelens, Marc J; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2009-01-01

    The spa typing method is based on sequencing of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa), present in all strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The X region is constituted of a variable number of 24-bp repeats flanked by well-conserved regions. This single-locus sequence-based typing method

  10. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean and/or prevent deposits on surfaces found in bathrooms and spas including, but not necessarily limited to, bath...

  11. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg

    2008-01-01

    : A total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system......BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS...... between 1 week and 5 months. Infants aged >5 months had abundant SP-A expression corresponding to older children and adults. There was no difference in the age distribution between cases of SIDS and explained deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent drop in SP-A expression takes place in the first months after...

  12. Spa Goers' Repeated Visits for Health and Wellness and the Influential Factors: An Exploratory Study of the UK Spa Goers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myungsuk; Poade, Donna; Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of spa services across the globe and its market saturation drive demand for differentiated communication methods. This study aims to explore the influential factors on spa goers' repeated visits and their practical applications in the health and wellness spa industry. The identified factors were used as the measurement variables to examine the relation with spa goers' repeated visits. The proposed concept was tested by a mixed method combining a self-administered questionnaire and semistructured interview with 54 survey participants and 6 interviewees. It was meaningful to use a sample of the UK spa goers from the southwest region since global spa trends stem from the EU spas, and the United Kingdom is one of the market leaders. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, multiple logistic regression analysis, and coding process. The survey findings demonstrated that the most significant influential factor on the repeated spa visits is a memorable experience of which showed 13.7 times higher probability than the reference up-to-date facility. The details of memorable experiences were discovered throughout the interviews that include the rediscovery of self, feeling of connectedness, recharge for positive emotions, self-reward through escapism, and experience of noncommercialized local products and attractions. Therefore, using experiential marketing methods can be effective spa service marketing.

  13. A new silver based composite material for SPA water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartanson, M A; Soussan, L; Rivallin, M; Chis, C; Penaranda, D; Lapergue, R; Calmels, P; Faur, C

    2014-10-15

    A new composite material based on alumina (Al2O3) modified by two surface nanocoatings - titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) - was studied for spa water disinfection. Regarding the most common microorganisms in bathing waters, two non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram positive) were selected as surrogates for bacterial contamination. The bactericidal properties of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material were demonstrated under various operating conditions encountered in spa water (temperature: 22-37 °C, presence of salt: CaCO3 or CaCl2, high oxygen content, etc.). Total removal of 10(8) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria was obtained in less than 10 min with 16 g L(-1) of material. Best results were observed for both conditions: a temperature of 37 °C and under aerobic condition; this latest favouring Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. The CaCO3 salt had no impact on the bactericidal activity of the composite material and CaCl2 considerably stabilized the silver desorption from the material surface thanks to the formation of AgCl precipitate. Preliminary tests of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag bactericidal behaviour in a continuous water flow confirmed that 2 g L(-1) of material eliminated more than 90% of a 2.0 × 10(8) CFU mL(-1) bacterial mixture after one water treatment recycle and reached the disinfection standard recommended by EPA (coliform removal = 6 log) within 22 h.

  14. The Successive Projection Algorithm (SPA), an Algorithm with a Spatial Constraint for the Automatic Search of Endmembers in Hyperspectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Rivard, Benoit; Rogge, D M

    2008-02-22

    Spectral mixing is a problem inherent to remote sensing data and results in fewimage pixel spectra representing "pure" targets. Linear spectral mixture analysis isdesigned to address this problem and it assumes that the pixel-to-pixel variability in ascene results from varying proportions of spectral endmembers. In this paper we present adifferent endmember-search algorithm called the Successive Projection Algorithm (SPA).SPA builds on convex geometry and orthogonal projection common to other endmembersearch algorithms by including a constraint on the spatial adjacency of endmembercandidate pixels. Consequently it can reduce the susceptibility to outlier pixels andgenerates realistic endmembers.This is demonstrated using two case studies (AVIRISCuprite cube and Probe-1 imagery for Baffin Island) where image endmembers can bevalidated with ground truth data. The SPA algorithm extracts endmembers fromhyperspectral data without having to reduce the data dimensionality. It uses the spectralangle (alike IEA) and the spatial adjacency of pixels in the image to constrain the selectionof candidate pixels representing an endmember. We designed SPA based on theobservation that many targets have spatial continuity (e.g. bedrock lithologies) in imageryand thus a spatial constraint would be beneficial in the endmember search. An additionalproduct of the SPA is data describing the change of the simplex volume ratio between successive iterations during the endmember extraction. It illustrates the influence of a newendmember on the data structure, and provides information on the convergence of thealgorithm. It can provide a general guideline to constrain the total number of endmembersin a search.

  15. The Successive Projection Algorithm (SPA, an Algorithm with a Spatial Constraint for the Automatic Search of Endmembers in Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Rogge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral mixing is a problem inherent to remote sensing data and results in fewimage pixel spectra representing "pure" targets. Linear spectral mixture analysis isdesigned to address this problem and it assumes that the pixel-to-pixel variability in ascene results from varying proportions of spectral endmembers. In this paper we present adifferent endmember-search algorithm called the Successive Projection Algorithm (SPA.SPA builds on convex geometry and orthogonal projection common to other endmembersearch algorithms by including a constraint on the spatial adjacency of endmembercandidate pixels. Consequently it can reduce the susceptibility to outlier pixels andgenerates realistic endmembers.This is demonstrated using two case studies (AVIRISCuprite cube and Probe-1 imagery for Baffin Island where image endmembers can bevalidated with ground truth data. The SPA algorithm extracts endmembers fromhyperspectral data without having to reduce the data dimensionality. It uses the spectralangle (alike IEA and the spatial adjacency of pixels in the image to constrain the selectionof candidate pixels representing an endmember. We designed SPA based on theobservation that many targets have spatial continuity (e.g. bedrock lithologies in imageryand thus a spatial constraint would be beneficial in the endmember search. An additionalproduct of the SPA is data describing the change of the simplex volume ratio between successive iterations during the endmember extraction. It illustrates the influence of a newendmember on the data structure, and provides information on the convergence of thealgorithm. It can provide a general guideline to constrain the total number of endmembersin a search.

  16. Oxidative stress, hemoglobin content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity influenced by sulphur baths and mud packs in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is weel-known that sulphur baths and mud paks demonstrate beneficial effects on patients suffering from degenerative knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA through the increased activity of protective antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess lipid peroxidation level, i.e. malondialdehyde concetration, in individuals with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA, as well as to determine the influence of sulphur baths and mud packs application on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in order to minimize or eliminate excessive free radical species production (oxidative stress. Methods. Thirty one patiens with knee and/or hip OA of both sexes were included in the study. All OA patients received mud pack and sulphur bath for 20 minutes a day, for 6 consecutive days a week, over 3 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation, ie malondialdehyde concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically, before, on day 5 during the treatment and at the end of spa cure. Healthy volunteers (n = 31 were the controls. Results. The sulphur baths and mud packs treatment of OA patients caused a significant decrease in plasma malondialdehyde concentration compared to the controls ( p < 0.001. The mean SOD activity before the terapy was 1 836.24 U/gHb, on day 5 it rose to 1 942.15 U/gHb and after the spa cure dropped to 1 745.98 U/gHb. Catalase activity before the therapy was 20.56 kU/gHb and at the end of the terapy decreased to 16.16 kU/gHb. The difference in catalase activity before and after the therapy was significant (p < 0.001, and also significant as compared to control (p < 0.001. At the end of the treatment significant increase of hemoglobin level and significant decrease of pain intensity were noticed. Conclusion. A combined 3-week treatment by sulphur bath and mud packs led to a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation in plasma, as well as pain intensity in the patients with OA

  17. Spa adjuvant therapy improves diabetic lower extremity arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongbin; Zhu, Yi; Jia, Wei; Chen, Songhua; Meng, Qingzhou

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of spa adjuvant therapy on diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). 128 patients with type II diabetes were separated into three groups according to the degree of lower extremity vascular stenosis. Patients within each group were then randomly divided to receive no treatment (control) or spa adjuvant therapy (treatment). Clinical symptoms, blood pressure and hemodynamic analyses were compared between control and treatment groups by Chi square or t-test. After adjuvant therapy with spa, patients' pain, numbness, and cold sensation were significantly improved compared with control groups (PSpa adjuvant therapy also significantly increased the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio of patients with mild lower extremity vascular stenosis compared with control groups (P0.05). Both in the spa and control groups, there were no significant differences before and after medication for fasting, 2-h postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analyses (P>0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy can significantly alleviate lower extremity pain, numbness, and cold sensory symptoms in diabetic LEAD patients with stenosis. Moreover, in LEAD patients with mild stenosis, spa adjuvant therapy also improves the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio, suggesting a potential role for spa therapy as an early intervention strategy to treat the initial stages of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Value of Serum Prolidase Activity in Progression of Microalbuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Tevfik; Boduroglu, Omer; Eren, Mehmet Ali; Torun, Ayse Nur; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-09-01

    Prolidase is a cytosolic exopeptidase that plays a pivotal role in collagen turnover. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is associated with structural changes in glomerular basement membrane accompanied with increased amounts of collagen. Prolidase is known to be abundant in kidney and collagen accumulation is increased in DN, so we aimed to determine the value of serum prolidase activity (SPA) in predicting the progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty type 2 DM patients having microalbuminuria (microalbuminuric group), 30 type 2 DM patients without albuminuria (normoalbuminuric group), and 28 healthy controls (control group) were enrolled. Study groups had similar age, sex distribution, and body mass index (BMI). Metabolic parameters, SPA and urinary microalbumin were determined. SPA was significantly higher in microalbuminuric group when compared with normoalbuminuric and control groups (P = 0.05 and P lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in microalbuminuric group compared to control group (Both P < 0.05). SPA showed a negative correlation with HDL-C level and a positive correlation with urinary albumin excretion (r = -0.219, P < 0.05 and r = 0.39, P < 0.001 respectively). In regression analysis, albumin excretion was the sole parameter influencing SPA. SPA appears to be higher in type 2 DM patients having microalbuminuria compared to patients without microalbuminuria and healthy controls. The pathophysiological role and the significance of SPA in predicting DN need to be further evaluated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Noncanonical role of Arabidopsis COP1/SPA complex in repressing BIN2-mediated PIF3 phosphorylation and degradation in darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun-Jie; Li, Jian; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2017-03-28

    The E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) has been known to mediate key signaling factors for degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway in both plants and animals. Here, we report a noncanonical function of Arabidopsis COP1, the central repressor of photomorphogenesis, in the form of a COP1/ SUPPRESSOR of phyA-105 (SPA) complex. We show that the COP1/SPA complex associates with and stabilizes PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3) to repress photomorphogenesis in the dark. We identify the GSK3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) as a kinase of PIF3, which induces PIF3 degradation via 26S proteasome during skotomorphogenesis. Mutations on two typical BIN2 phosphorylation motifs of PIF3 lead to a strong stabilization of the protein in the dark. We further show that the COP1/SPA complex promotes PIF3 stability by repressing BIN2 activity. Intriguingly, without affecting BIN2 expression, the COP1/SPA complex modulates BIN2 activity through interfering with BIN2-PIF3 interaction, thereby inhibiting BIN2-mediated PIF3 phosphorylation and degradation. Taken together, our results suggest another paradigm for COP1/SPA complex action in the precise control of skotomorphogenesis.

  20. Correlation of the sperm penetration assay (SPA and miscarriage after assisted reproduction: The potential use of spa as a new criterion for preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradistanac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 93 couples undergoing male screening with the Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, to determine the accuracy of SPA for subsequent embryonic development, incidence of pregnancy and miscarriage rates (SAB. ICSI patients with the lowest SPA scores had significantly higher incidences of Sthan did patients in the other SPA groups. Sperm quality is higher with better SPA scores. Poor sperm quality has increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and is associated with early fetal loss. Couples with negative SPA are candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, to reduce the incidence of SAB.

  1. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  2. Attitude to treatment of patients with psoriasis attending spa center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, P; Farina, S; Giordano, M V; Zanoni, M; Girolomoni, G

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate beliefs and preferences towards treatment of patients with psoriasis attending Comano SPA (Trentino, Italy) in comparison to patients referring to the University Hospital of Verona. Patient with psoriasis referring to Comano SPA and to the University Hospital of Verona were visited, their clinical data were collected and they were administered a questionnaire investigating their knowledge about psoriasis, as well as their attitude and preferences towards conventional therapies and SPA treatments. [Corrected] A total of 288 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were recruited, 169 from Comano SPA and 119 from Verona Hospital. There were no differences regarding demographic data, severity of psoriasis, impact on quality of life and prevalence of cardio-metabolic comorbidities between the two groups. SPA patients more rarely believed that pharmacological treatments are safe and effective (6.5% vs. 21.8% P=0.001), had less trust in physician (32.5% vs. 67.2%; P=0.001) and preferred alternative therapies like balneotherapy compared to hospital patients (55.6% vs. 30.3%; P=0.0001), because they assumed they were more safe and effective than systemic drugs (37.3% vs. 1.7%; P=0.001). SPA patients preferred living with psoriasis rather than taking drugs to treat it more commonly than hospital patients (26.6% vs. 5%; P=0.001). Patients attending a SPA centre tend to trust conventional drug treatments less often than those attending a hospital clinic, and prefer balneotherapy as a dedicated alternative therapy. Fear of adverse events is a major concern among patients with psoriasis, especially those attending a SPA center.

  3. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A-derived peptide attenuate chemotaxis of mast cells induced by human β-defensin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Motoko; Murata, Masaki; Saito, Atsushi; Takamiya, Rina; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuronuma, Koji; Chiba, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Jiro; Sawada, Norimasa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kuroki, Yoshio; Ariki, Shigeru

    2017-02-08

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is known to be involved in mast cell activation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hBD3-induced mast cell activation have been poorly understood. We previously reported that SP-A and SP-A-derived peptide 01 (SAP01) regulate the function of hBD3. In this study, we focused on the effects of SP-A and SAP01 on the activation of mast cells induced by hBD3. SAP01 directly bound to hBD3. Mast cell-mediated vascular permeability and edema in hBD3 administered rat ears were decreased when injected with SP-A or SAP01. Compatible with the results in rat ear model, both SP-A and SAP01 inhibited hBD3-induced chemotaxis of mast cells in vitro. Direct interaction between SP-A or SAP01 and hBD3 seemed to be responsible for the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis. Furthermore, SAP01 attenuated hBD3-induced accumulation of mast cells and eosinophils in tracheas of the OVA-sensitized inflammatory model. SP-A might contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses mediated by mast cells during infection.

  4. 78 FR 77565 - Airworthiness Directives; AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Agusta S.p.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...-110-AD; Amendment 39-17705; AD 2013-25-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Agusta S.p.A.) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Agusta) Model AB139 and AW139 helicopters. This AD requires inspecting...

  5. Influence of physical treatment on disease activity and health status of patients with chronic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustur Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This is an open uncontrolled study about effects of physical treatment on disease activity parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Objective The aim of the study was to establish if there was any improvement of disease activity parameters after four weeks of physical and spa treatment. METHOD We compared morning stiffness, tender and swollen joint count, body pain level and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28 in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and assessed the effect of physical and spa treatment on those parameters. The research encompassed 109 patients: 69 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA group and 40 with psoriatic arthritis (PA group. They were from Norway, staying for four weeks in June-September 2003. The groups served as their own controls - "one group pre-test post test" study. Disease activity measurement was made twice: at the beginning and at the end of treatment. The therapeutic set consisted of mud applications, kinesitherapy, mineral water pool and electrotherapy. Results At the beginning there was no significant difference in observed disease activity parameters between patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis (p>0.05. After four weeks of physical and spa treatment disease activity was significantly reduced in all observed parameters in both groups: morning stiffness (p<0.001 RA+PA, tender joint count (p<0.01 RA+PA, swollen joint count (p<0.01 RA; p<0.05 PA, body pain (p<0.01 RA+PA and DAS-28 score (p<0.01 RA+PA. Conclusion Physical and spa treatment, together with climatic factors in Igalo, lead to a significant reduction of disease activity parameters of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. .

  6. The design of the spa - tourist recreational complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies in the central part of Bela Krajina in south-eastern Slovenia, between the town of Črnomelj and the border crossing at Vinica. It is situated in the vicinity of the Lahinja Landscape Park, where natural and cultural heritage sites interact in the interesting settings of preserved towns and villages. The urban planning concept developed at the workshop was based on the idea that the best space is one where the qualities of "empty spaces" and a fusion with the landscape are recognised. The concept was based on the design of a complex with several connecting structures. A green clearing was defined as the centre of activities, i.e. the core of the activity and pivot of life being the common point of all structures: it is empty, intended to allow for random connections, network organisation or spatial networking, where the key points in the built and natural structures are connected, hence representing the main communication hub between the individual structures. The concept complements the system with accommodation capacities, which are also located outside the spa complex, providing attractive accommodation in a natural setting.

  7. SPA proteins: SPAnning the gap between visible light and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Chiara; Sheerin, David J; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In this review we focus on the role of SPA proteins in light signalling and discuss different aspects, including molecular mechanisms, specificity, and evolution. The ability of plants to perceive and respond to their environment is key to their survival under ever-changing conditions. The abiotic factor light is of particular importance for plants. Light provides plants energy for carbon fixation through photosynthesis, but also is a source of information for the adaptation of growth and development to the environment. Cryptochromes and phytochromes are major photoreceptors involved in control of developmental decisions in response to light cues, including seed germination, seedling de-etiolation, and induction of flowering. The SPA protein family acts in complex with the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 to target positive regulators of light responses for degradation by the 26S proteasome to suppress photomorphogenic development in darkness. Light-activated cryptochromes and phytochromes both repress the function of COP1, allowing accumulation of positive photomorphogenic factors in light. In this review, we highlight the role of the SPA proteins in this process and discuss recent advances in understanding how SPAs link light-activation of photoreceptors and downstream signaling.

  8. SPA AND CLIMATIC RESORTS (CENTERS AS RESOURCES OF PROGRAM OF SPORT RECREATION IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Nikolić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of the civilized man is the improvement of work which aim is to achieve as big as possible effect of productivity and as small as possible participation of labour. The result of this process, which cannot be avoided, is some kind of fatigue that has hypocinaesiological characteristics in regard to demands of modern work process. The most effective way to fight against fatigue is to have an active holiday that is meaningfully programmed, led and carried out through movement of tourists, with the addition of natural factors, among which climate and healing waters are particularly important. These very resources characterize the tourist potential of Serbia and Montenegro with lots of available facilities at 1000 m height above the sea level and spa centers with springs and a complete offer physio-prophylactic procedures and following facilities for sport recreation. The implementation of programmed active holidays in to the corpus of tourist offer of Serbia and Montenegro represents prospective of development of tourism and tourist economy with effects of multiple importance as for participants, so for the level of tourist consumption. That will definitely influence the lengthening of tourist season as the primary goal of every catering establishment. Surveys show that the affection and viewpoints of potential tourists are especially directed towards engaging sport games and activities on and in the water, as part of the elementary tourist offer in spas and climatic resorts and their available facilities. Recommendationsand postulates of program of sport recreation, which are presented through four charts, are the basis of marketing strategy of appearance on tourist market with permanent education of management personnel and further research of potential market expanding. The publication and distribution of advertising materials are especially important, both at the market in our country and at the foreign market, where the abundance

  9. Spa as Arena of Career Woman Resistance to Patriarch Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhernadetta Pravita Wahyuningtyas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the career women who use the habit of treating the body through the routine of coming to spas, which aims to overcome the dominance of patriarchy. This study uses several concepts. First, muted group theory, which states that woman, is the one that silenced; so to overcome this condition, women should perform self-transformation. The transformation is aligned with the second concept, feminist existentialist, which defines the transformation as the change of a woman concept from Other to Self. The transformation can be achieved not only by working outside the domestic sphere, but also supported by a good appearance through a complete body treatment. Grooming habits acquired through socialization that derived in woman since their childhood. The socialization is about how women as a person who is considered weak by the world of patriarchal domination using the power of their beauty to master, subdue, and break the domination in her life. Then, with their good appearance, woman can express their existence in everything that they do from object become subject. Spa and the whole result of the activities contained in it then consciously become a way of resistance that being used by the career woman against the domination of patriarchy which overshadowing their lives. 

  10. Health Promotion Development in the Spa Treatment. Perspectives for the European Countries Learned from Poland's Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Romaniuk, Piotr; Holecki, Tomasz; Frączkiewicz-Wronka, Aldona; Jaruga, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to outline the perspective for future developments of the spa treatment in light of demographic transitions characterized by the increasing number of seniors, as well as changing expectations and health needs of younger population. We made a systematic review of literature referring to the experience of Poland, and similar experiences of other countries in Central Europe. Based on the existing knowledge we conclude that spa treatment should become one of the preferred directions of development of health systems in European countries. Moreover, we state that a desirable direction to modify the therapeutic paradigm used in spa treatment is to put a far-reaching greater emphasis on the provision of innovative health promotion, which is justified by both its effectiveness, and strongly good foundation for its provision in spas. For this purpose it is necessary to extend the specialized health sector personnel with qualified health educators, which will enable an effective implementation of health promotion actions and their proper alignment to the specific target groups. Developing this category of specialists will also enable other professionals to concentrate on therapeutic activity fitting their competence.

  11. Cashless system for La Spa Osaka; La Spa OSAKA muke cashless system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    It is a bother and inconvenience for a user of a hot spring, pool, athletic club, etc., to carry a purse with him. Accordingly, in drinking, eating, buying, and renting for example in the premises, the user finds it more convenient if cash payment is unnecessary. Fuji Electric Co.,Ltd. developed a cashless system for the users of such facilities and delivered to La Spa Osaka. The main features are as following: (1) With a non-contact ID tag applied to a wristband, no wearing or staining is caused in the equipment when it reads the ID data.(2) Without giving and receiving of cash, the management of cash is highly secured.(3) The data of accounts receivable and proceeds are unitarily controlled by the server, enabling efficiency of business operation. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing......) provides a rapid and reliable method for epidemiological studies. Rarely, non-spa-typeable S. aureus strains are encountered. The reason for this is not known. In this study, we characterized eight non-spa-typeable bacteremia isolates. Sequencing of the entire spa locus was successful for five strains...

  13. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  14. Crystallization and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of the Adhesive SpaC Pilin Subunit in the SpaCBA Pilus of Gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Abhiruchi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a gut-adapted commensalic (and probiotic) strain, is known to express sortase-assembled pili on its cell surface. These SpaCBA-called pili consist of three different types of building blocks; the SpaA backbone-pilin subunit and the SpaB and SpaC ancillary pilins. SpaC is a relatively large (~90kDa) multi-domain fimbrial adhesin, and while it is located primarily at the SpaCBA pilus tip, occasionally, it can also be detected throughout the length of pilus backbone. Functionally, SpaC mainly accounts for SpaCBA pilus-mediated interactions with intestinal mucus, collagen, and human gut epithelial cells. Moreover, SpaC adhesiveness is also perceived to have a causal relationship with SpaCBA pilus-induced host-cell immune responses. In order to improve the mechanistic understanding of SpaC and its adhesive properties by structural investigation, we purified and successfully crystallized a recombinant construct of the near full-length SpaC protein (residues 36-856) in the presence of magnesium ions. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. The SpaC crystal belongs to the space group P21212 with unit cell parameters a = 116.5, b = 128.3, c = 136.5 Å and contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Presence of conserved metal ion-dependent adhesion site containing von Willebrand factor type A domain suggests its likely role in the function of SpaC.

  15. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Joost Brouwer

    Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.

  16. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  17. 78 FR 44042 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ....A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By AgustaWestland S.P.A) (AgustaWestland) AGENCY... Certificate Currently Held By Agustawestland S.p.A) (AgustaWestland): Docket No. FAA-2013-0643;...

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D and Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Yu; Li, Fang; Li, Feng-Sheng; Zheng, Cheng-Zhong; Lei, Yan-Zhe; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined selected polymorphisms in 3 pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins (SP) for their influence on serum SP levels and risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. Material/Methods Premature infants from a Han population were enrolled, including 100 premature infants with RDS (case group) and 120 premature infants without RDS (control group). SNP genotyping for SP-A (+186A/G and +655C/T), SP-B (−18A/C and 1580C/T), and SP-D (Met11ThrT/C and Ala160ThrG/A) used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotypes were calculated with Shesis software and serum SP-A/B/D levels were quantified by ELISA. Results Case and control groups exhibited significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of SP-B −18A/C, SP-D Met11ThrT/C, and SP-D Ala160ThrG/A. Importantly, serum SP-A and SP-B levels were reduced in RDS patients carrying SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms. AA genotype of +186A/G, SP-A level, and CC genotype of 1580C/T were independently correlated with increased RDS risk. Conclusions SP-A (+186A/G) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms are strongly associated with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. Notably, reduced serum SP-A levels were correlated with a high risk of RDS and may serve as novel biomarkers for RDS detection and monitoring. PMID:28011976

  19. Pürovel Spa & Sport / Ülli Plink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plink, Ülli, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Swissôtel Tallinna 11. korrusel asuvast Pürovel Spa & Sport poolt pakutavatest treeningutest ning lõõgastusprotseduuridest, samuti 8. korrusel asuvast a la carte menüü ja päevabuffega restoranist Café Swiss

  20. Kalev SPA veekeskus sulges teadmata ajaks uksed / Kaire Uusen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusen, Kaire

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. juuli. Kalev SPA veekeskuse juht Evelin Männik räägib kloorimürgistusega lõppenud õnnetuse põhjustest. Vt. samas: Kloorimürgistuse tagajärjed võinuks olla palju hullemad

  1. Pürovel Spa & Sport / Ülli Plink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plink, Ülli, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Swissôtel Tallinna 11. korrusel asuvast Pürovel Spa & Sport poolt pakutavatest treeningutest ning lõõgastusprotseduuridest, samuti 8. korrusel asuvast a la carte menüü ja päevabuffega restoranist Café Swiss

  2. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing...

  3. 76 FR 27890 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Severn River, Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Severn River, Spa Creek... Annapolis'' triathlon, a marine event to be held on the waters of Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor on May 14... Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor during the event. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. until 9 a.m...

  4. 76 FR 9273 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Severn River, Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... River, Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor, Annapolis, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... swim segment of the ``TriRock Annapolis'' triathlon, a marine event to be held on the waters of Spa... segment of the event will occur from 7 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. and will be located in Spa Creek and Annapolis...

  5. A qualitative study of how to create supportive environments for the implementation of in-class-activities in middle school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Anne-Didde; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Smedegaard, Søren

    Purpose School physical activity (SPA) holds the potential to benefit children’s psychosocial well-being. PA can positively influence mental health through social connectedness, physical self-perception, and improvements in emotions. For such reasons, in-class-activities (ICA) (e.g. energizers...

  6. PERSEPSI MASYARAKAT SURABAYA TERHADAP SPA SEBAGAI SARANA PERAWATAN KESEHATAN, KEBUGARAN DAN KECANTIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Remy Yosy Pasla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa (Sanus Per Aquam or Solus Per Aqua as a health and beauty care method coherence with various elements include in the Ten Elements of Spa Experience, through the spirit, body, and mind approach, creates a balance between spirit, body, and mind (reflect, a relax atmosphere that could revitalize, and revives the joy (rejoice, and now supported with various facilities and resources, Spa could be an option of healing and therapy. Beautician and beauty clinics who offer Spa as their menu and facilities, but misconceive the meaning and concept of Spa probably make people unwilling to try and have a negative impression about Spa. It will cause a distortion in forming a perception, and also could affect the perception of people about business image of Spa. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Spa (Sanus Per Aquam atau Solus Per Aqua sebagai salah satu metode perawatan kebugaran dan kecantikan yang dipadukan dengan berbagai elemen yang tercakup dalam the Ten Elements of Spa Experience, melalui pendekatan jiwa (spirit, raga (body dan pikiran (mind, menciptakan keseimbangan antara jiwa, raga, dan pikiran (reflect, dan nuansa rileks (relax yang dapat menumbuhkan kembali vitalitas (revitalize serta mengembalikan keceriaan (rejoice, dan dengan didukung berbagai fasilitas dan sumber daya saat ini, Spa juga dapat menjadi pilihan terapi dan penyembuhan. Adanya salon dan klinik kecantikan yang menawarkan fasilitas dan menu Spa tetapi kurang memahami arti dan konsep Spa mungkin saja mjembuat masyarakat menjadi enggan untuk mencoba dan memiliki kesan negatif akan Spa. Hal tersebut dapat menjadi faktor distorsi pada pembentukan persepsi, dan mungkin saja mempengaruhi persepsi masyarakat Surabaya terhadap image/citra bisnis Spa. Kata kunci: Spa, Persepsi.

  7. Mechanisms of action of spa therapies in rheumatic diseases: what scientific evidence is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviates suffering in rheumatic diseases are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, with mechanical, thermal and chemical effects among the most prominent ones. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature all play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; hot stimuli may influence muscle tone and pain intensity, helping to reduce muscle spasm and to increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma β-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-pack therapy induces a reduction in the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), important mediators of inflammation and pain. Spa therapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). There is also evidence of the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths on the oxidant/antioxidant system, with a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some rheumatic diseases, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.

  8. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: descriptive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50% were between 35-45 years, 73% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  9. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  10. Rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in stationary spa treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatic diseases are nonsurgical diseases of the locomotor system and connective tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue of unknown cause, with progressive chronic or subacute course. The aim of the research is to determine whether stationary spa treatment leads to improvement of the functional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: We included 35 patients with diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, referred for treatment at the spa " Ilidža " Gradačac from February to April 2014. Patients not adhering to treatment protocols were excluded. We used Visual analogue pain scale (VAS, HAQ questionnaire and assessment of the clinical condition before and after the treatment based on the scores 1-5.Results: There were 32 female and 3 male patients. The average age was 62.28±8.31 years. Based on the HAQ, 12 patients had no difficulties, 9 of them perform activities with little difficulties, 10 with many difficulties, and 4 patients cannot perform certain activities. Before treatment VAS was 6.63±2.36, and after treatment the 2.51±2.27. Ratings of clinical condition before treatment was 2.38±0.74, and after the treatment 3.64±0.98. The most frequently used therapies were kinesitherapy, magnetotherapy and interferential electricity. Conclusions: Stationary treatment at the spa „Ilidža“ Gradačac leads to an improvement of the functional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. The spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi, Yasser; Fooladi, Saba; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Emaneini, Mohammad; Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Davood

    2017-09-06

    Molecular typing is an important tool for control and prevention of infection. A suitable molecular typing method for epidemiological investigation must be easy to perform, highly reproducible, inexpensive, rapid and easy to interpret. In this study, two molecular typing methods including the conventional PCR-sequencing method and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis were used for staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing of 30 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered from clinical samples. Based on PCR-sequencing method results, 16 different spa types were identified among the 30 MRSA isolates. Among the 16 different spa types, 14 spa types separated by HRM method. Two spa types including t4718 and t2894 were not separated from each other. According to our results, spa typing based on HRM analysis method is very rapid, easy to perform and cost-effective, but this method must be standardized for different regions, spa types, and real-time machinery.

  12. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-06

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology.

  13. Impact to Tourism Industry of Massage Spa Therapy in Batangas City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmy Lei T. Atienza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the benefits of massage spa therapy in tourism industry of Batangas City and their adherence to the standards to DOT on Spa operation and maintenance. The study aimed to identify the profile of massage spa in terms of type of ownership, length of years in the business, type of spa and different spa services offered; to assess the benefits of massage spa to the tourism industry; and to determine the extent of adherence of the massage spa to DOT standards about spa operation and maintenance; and propose a plan of action based on the results of the study. Descriptive method was used in the study. Results showed that the Sole Proprietorship got the highest rank in terms of type of ownership. With the length of years in service, it shows that most of spa business already exists for 4-6 years. Type of spa shows that majority of the spa business were Spa Town. With regards to different spa services, majority offers peat pulp bath and the least is sauna and steam bath. The over-all assessment of the respondents’ on the benefits of spa was agree by the result. It was also observed that all items were assessed as agree and it enhances the awareness of the tourists about the beauty of Batangas City. It was followed by provide taxes for the government, became a tourist attraction and improves socio-economic of local residents and improvement on the lifestyle both of the local residents and tourists

  14. Characterization of the SpaCBA pilus fibers in the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunanen, Justus; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17193-17198, 2009). These pili were found to be encoded by the spaCBA gene cluster, and the pilus-associated SpaC pilin was shown to confer on the cells a mucus-binding ability. In addition to the spaCBA cluster, another putative pilus cluster, spaFED, was predicted from the L. rhamnosus GG genome sequence. Herein, we show that only SpaCBA pili are produced by L. rhamnosus, and we describe a detailed analysis of cell wall-associated and affinity-purified SpaCBA pili by Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy. Our results indicate that SpaCBA pili are heterotrimeric protrusions with a SpaA subunit as the shaft-forming major pilin. Only a few SpaB subunits could be observed in pilus fibers. Instead, SpaB pilins were found at pilus bases, as assessed by immunogold double labeling of thin sections of cells, suggesting that SpaB is involved in the termination of pilus assembly. The SpaC adhesin was present along the whole pilus length at numbers nearly equaling those of SpaA. The relative amount and uniform distribution of SpaC within pili not only makes it possible to exert both long-distance and intimate contact with host tissue but also provides mucus-binding strength, which explains the prolonged intestinal residency times observed for L. rhamnosus GG compared to that of nonpiliated lactobacilli.

  15. A mechanism for extremely weak SpaP-expression in Streptococcus mutans strain Z1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans surface-protein antigen (SpaP, PAc, or antigen I/II has been well known to play an important role in initial attachment to tooth surfaces. However, strains with weak SpaP-expression were recently reported to be found in natural populations of S. mutans. The S. mutans gbpC-negative strain Z1, which we previously isolated from saliva and plaque samples, apparently expresses relatively low levels of SpaP protein compared to S. mutans strains MT8148 or UA159. Objective: To elucidate the mechanism for weak SpaP-expression in this strain, the spaP gene region in strain Z1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and analyzed. Methods: Allelic exchange mutants between strains Z1 and UA159 involving the spaP gene region were constructed. The SpaP protein expressed in the mutants was detected with Coomasie Brilliant Blue (CBB-staining and Western blot analysis following SDS-PAGE. Results: The 4689 bp spaP gene coding sequence for Z1 appeared to be intact. In contrast, a 20 bp nucleotide sequence appeared to be deleted from the region immediately upstream from the Z1 spaP gene when compared to the same region in UA159. The 216 bp and 237 bp intergenic fragments upstream from the spaP gene, respectively, from Z1 and UA159 were isolated, modified, and transformed into the other strain by allelic replacement. The resultant UA159-promoter region-mutant exhibited extremely weak SpaP-expression similar to that of strain Z1 and the Z1 complemented mutant expressed Spa protein levels like that of strain UA159. Conclusion: These results suggest that weak SpaP-expression in strain Z1 resulted from a 20 bp-deletion in the spaP gene promoter region.

  16. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA genes are essential for plant elongation but not for acceleration of flowering time in response to a low red light to far-red light ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-12-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR.

  17. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA Genes Are Essential for Plant Elongation But Not for Acceleration of Flowering Time in Response to a Low Red Light to Far-Red Light Ratio1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR. PMID:23093358

  18. SpaK/SpaR two-component system characterized by a structure-driven domain-fusion method and in vitro phosphorylation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Chakicherla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a quantitative structure-driven computational domain-fusion method, which we used to predict the structures of proteins believed to be involved in regulation of the subtilin pathway in Bacillus subtilis, and used to predict a protein-protein complex formed by interaction between the proteins. Homology modeling of SpaK and SpaR yielded preliminary structural models based on a best template for SpaK comprising a dimer of a histidine kinase, and for SpaR a response regulator protein. Our LGA code was used to identify multi-domain proteins with structure homology to both modeled structures, yielding a set of domain-fusion templates then used to model a hypothetical SpaK/SpaR complex. The models were used to identify putative functional residues and residues at the protein-protein interface, and bioinformatics was used to compare functionally and structurally relevant residues in corresponding positions among proteins with structural homology to the templates. Models of the complex were evaluated in light of known properties of the functional residues within two-component systems involving His-Asp phosphorelays. Based on this analysis, a phosphotransferase complexed with a beryllofluoride was selected as the optimal template for modeling a SpaK/SpaR complex conformation. In vitro phosphorylation studies performed using wild type and site-directed SpaK mutant proteins validated the predictions derived from application of the structure-driven domain-fusion method: SpaK was phosphorylated in the presence of (32P-ATP and the phosphate moiety was subsequently transferred to SpaR, supporting the hypothesis that SpaK and SpaR function as sensor and response regulator, respectively, in a two-component signal transduction system, and furthermore suggesting that the structure-driven domain-fusion approach correctly predicted a physical interaction between SpaK and SpaR. Our domain-fusion algorithm leverages quantitative structure information

  19. Spa Garden in Daruvar – Methods of Renewal and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćitaroci Mladen Obad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spa garden in Daruvar ‘Julius’s Park’ is the oldest spa garden in continental Croatia. The counts Jankovich and their successors created the garden during the 18th and 20th century. The garden resumed its nowadays form and surface in the time of count Julius Jankovich in the mid-19th century and it was named after him. The garden is protected as a cultural heritage. The garden’s renovation is seen as an urban, architectural and landscape unity and it attempts to affirm the missing and neglected parts of the garden, to provide technological and municipal space modernization and to make a pleasant urban garden ambiance with new facilities and high space arrangement qualities, contributing to the economic development of the local community.

  20. 巴厘岛首间树屋Spa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>作为拥抱绿色、放松心情的好去处,近年来,世界各地的树屋餐厅、酒吧都越来越常见,然而近期在巴厘岛开业的这间树屋却是绝无仅有的Spa House。原来,法国天然护肤品牌L’Occitane最近在这一旅游胜地开设首间水疗中心Mango Tree Spa,地点位于距离著名景点乌布(Ubud)十分钟车程的Kupu Kupu

  1. Hydrogeothermal characteristics of groundwater from Ribarska Banja spa, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić Veselin S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribarska Banja spa is one of the most popular balneotherapy and recreation centers in Serbia. It features several thermal groundwater sources whose temperatures range from 26 to 54°C. The mineral content of these waters is low and their composition is of the SO4-Na or HCO3-Na type. Thermal water exploration has been conducted in the general area for many years, to assess the hydrogeothermal potential in order to extract larger amounts of thermal water for multiple uses. The hydrogeothermal system of Ribarska Banja spa was defined based on a synthesis of the results of comprehensive structural geology, geophysical, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geothermal research. The primary groundwater reservoir of the hydrogeothermal system is comprised of tectonic zones (systems of faults and fractures within Cretaceous-Paleogene metamorphosed and non-metamorphosed rocks. The overlying hydrogeological and temperature barrier is made up of a series of low metamorphosed rocks (chlorite, chlorite-sericite schists, gabbros, etc., highly metamorphosed rocks (gneisses and Neogene clay and sand sediments. The system is recharged by infiltration of atmospheric precipitation and surface water at the highest elevations of Mt. Jastrebac. Investigations have also shown that the system’s heat source is younger granitoide intrusion spreading northwest of Ribarska Banja spa. Based on the quartz geothermometers, expected reservoir temperatures are in the range of 85-97°C that can be expected at a depth of 1.87 km. Total energy usage at Ribarska Banja spa is 31 TJ/y with thermal capacity of 1.65 MWt and utilization factor of 0.58. Geothermal gradient is 0,051°C/m, while heat flow density is 163.5 mW/m2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  2. 一场身与心的完美SPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>中国泡汤的习俗,古已有之。钟情SPA,却还是这几年的事情。SPA起源于现今比利时(lgium)境内东部列日市(Liege)东南方阿德雷丝森林(Ardennes forest)中,一个人口约10140人,叫做"SPA"的温泉小镇。在15世纪时,当地的矿泉以"治疗之水"闻名于中欧,因此SPA的地名经数百年的使用后,也被引用作温泉疗养地的代名词。直到近代,科学家才揭开此处温泉的秘密,水中的精油成分来源于当地山上成千上万种花卉草木在上游水源的浸积。所以现在人们就模拟建造类似的环境及水质,使其对人体具有健康及健美作用,即为现代的"SPA"。18世纪后开始在欧洲贵族中风行,成为贵族们休闲度假、强身健体的首选。

  3. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention andProject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Ali, A.; Allanach, B.C.; Arnowitt, R.; Baer, H.A.; Bagger, J.A.; Balazs, C.; Barger, V.; Barnett, M.; Bartl, A.; Battaglia, M.; Bechtle, P.; Belanger, G.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E.L.; Blair, G.; Boos, E.; Carena, M.; Choi, S.Y.; Deppisch, F.; De Roeck, A.; /Lisbon, IST /DESY /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Texas A-M /Florida State

    2005-12-02

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desired precision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme by applying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry reference point.

  4. Spa therapy and knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Romain; Erol Forestier, Fatma Begüm; Francon, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a public health problem that will probably increase in the future with the aging of the population. Crenobalneotherapy is commonly used to treat OA, but evidence from previous reviews was not sufficient. This systematic review aimed to identify the best evidence for the clinical effect of crenobalneotherapy for knee OA. We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed, PEDRO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published up to September 2015. Articles were included if trials were comparative, if one or more of the subgroups had knee OA with separate data, and if spa therapy or any hydrotherapy techniques involving mineral water or mineral mud was compared to any other intervention or no treatment. Statistical validity, external validity and quality of side effects assessment were evaluated by personal checklists. Risk of bias was assessed by the CLEAR NTP. Treatments (hot mineral water baths, mud therapy, hot showers, and sometimes massage and supervised water exercises) delivered in spa centers across Europe and the Middle East seem to improve symptoms in knee OA. They may be effective for pain and function. There are conflicting results about the effect on quality of life and drug consumption. Improvements with spa therapy for knee OA appear to be clinically relevant until 3 to 6 months and sometimes 9 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Using color histograms and SPA-LDA to classify bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Valber Elias; da Costa, Gean Bezerra; de Sousa Fernandes, David Douglas; Gonçalves Dias Diniz, Paulo Henrique; Brandão, Deysiane; de Medeiros, Ana Claudia Dantas; Véras, Germano

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a new approach is proposed to verify the differentiating characteristics of five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, and Staphylococcus aureus) by using digital images obtained with a simple webcam and variable selection by the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA). In this sense, color histograms in the red-green-blue (RGB), hue-saturation-value (HSV), and grayscale channels and their combinations were used as input data, and statistically evaluated by using different multivariate classifiers (Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA), Principal Component Analysis-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Successive Projections Algorithm-Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA)). The bacteria strains were cultivated in a nutritive blood agar base layer for 24 h by following the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, maintaining the status of cell growth and the nature of nutrient solutions under the same conditions. The best result in classification was obtained by using RGB and SPA-LDA, which reached 94 and 100 % of classification accuracy in the training and test sets, respectively. This result is extremely positive from the viewpoint of routine clinical analyses, because it avoids bacterial identification based on phenotypic identification of the causative organism using Gram staining, culture, and biochemical proofs. Therefore, the proposed method presents inherent advantages, promoting a simpler, faster, and low-cost alternative for bacterial identification.

  6. 78 FR 33768 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Directives; Agusta S.p.A. (Type Certificate Currently Held by AgustaWestland S.p.A.) Helicopters (Agusta...'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket... Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD...

  7. Assessing the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy checklist (SPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayasaka, Shinya; Okuizum, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yasuaki; Okada, Shinpei; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy and balneotherapy checklist (SPAC), and to show the relationship between SPAC score and the characteristics of publication. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to September 30, 2013: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, Global Health Library, the Western Pacific Region Index Medicus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We used the SPAC to assess the quality of reports on spa therapy and balneotherapy trials (SPAC) that was developed using the Delphi consensus method. Fifty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. Forty studies (78%) were about "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective)". The total SPAC score (full-mark; 19 pts) was 10.8 ± 2.3 pts (mean ± SD). The items for which a description was lacking (very poor; spa facility where the data were collected"; "pH"; "scale of bathtub"; "presence of other facility and exposure than bathing (sauna, steam bath, etc.)"; "qualification and experience of care provider"; "Instructions about daily life" and "adherence". We clarified that there was no relationship between the publish period, languages, and the impact factor (IF) for the SPAC score. In order to prevent flawed description, SPAC could provide indispensable information for researchers who are going to design a research protocol according to each disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new Vitreoscilla filiformis extract grown on spa water-enriched medium activates endogenous cutaneous antioxidant and antimicrobial defenses through a potential Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahe YF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Yann F Mahe,1 Marie-Jesus Perez,1 Charlotte Tacheau,1 Chantal Fanchon,2 Richard Martin,3 Françoise Rousset,1 Sophie Seite4 1L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Clichy, 2L’Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly Larue, 3L’Oréal Research and Innovation Tours, 4La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, France Abstract: Vitreoscilla filiformis (VF biomass (VFB has been widely used in cosmetic preparations and shown to modulate the major inducible free-radical scavenger mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in skin cells. By adding La Roche-Posay (LRP thermal spring water to the VF culture medium, we obtained a biomass (LRP-VFB with a similar mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation capacity to VF. Also, the new biomass more powerfully stimulated mRNA expression and antimicrobial peptides in reconstructed epidermis. Interestingly, a predictive computer model that analyzed transducing events within skin epidermal cells suggested that this protective activity may involve the Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway. Protein kinase C, zeta inhibition was effectively shown to abolish VFB-induced gene stimulation and confirmed this hypothesis. This thus opens new avenues for investigation into the improvement of skin homeostatic defense in relation to the control of its physiological microbiota and innate immunity. Keywords: innate skin defenses, TLR2, PKCz, La Roche-Posay, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, SOD2

  9. Functional interconnection of MYC2 and SPA1 in the photomorphogenic seedling development of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2010-11-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression of SPA1 in a COP1-dependent manner. Analyses of atmyc2 spa1 double mutants suggest that whereas MYC2 and SPA1 act redundantly to suppress photomorphogenic growth in the dark, they function synergistically for the suppression of photomorphogenic growth in the light. Our studies have also revealed that MYC2-mediated ABA and JA responses are further modulated by SPA1. Taken together, this study demonstrates the molecular and physiological interrelations of MYC2 and SPA1 in light, ABA, and JA signaling pathways.

  10. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  11. SpA, ClfA, and FnbA Genetic Variations Lead to Staphaurex Test-Negative Phenotypes in Bovine Mastitis Staphylococcus aureus Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Katrin; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes many proteins that act as virulence factors, leading to a variety of diseases, including mastitis in cows. Among these virulence factors, SpA, ClfA, ClfB, FnbA, and FnbB are important for the ability of S. aureus to adhere to and invade host cells as well as to evade host immune responses. The interaction between these S. aureus surface proteins and human immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen that are coupled to latex particles is utilized to induce latex agglutination reactions, which are used widely in diagnostic kits for confirmation of presumptive S. aureus isolates. In this study, the Staphaurex latex agglutination test was performed on a collection of confirmed bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. Notably, 54% (43/79 isolates) of these isolates exhibited latex agglutination-negative phenotypes (Staphaurex-negative result). To gain insights into the reasons for the high frequency of Staphaurex-negative bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates, the spa, clfA, clfB, fnbA, and fnbB genes were examined. Specific genetic changes in spa, clfA, and fnbA, as well as a loss of fnbB, which may impair SpA, ClfA, FnbA, and FnbB functions in latex agglutination reactions, were detected in Staphaurex-negative S. aureus isolates. The genetic changes included a premature stop codon in the spa gene, leading to a truncated SpA protein that is unable to participate in S. aureus cell-mediated agglutination of latex particles. In addition, clfA and fnbA genetic polymorphisms were detected that were linked to ClfA and FnbA amino acid changes that may significantly reduce fibrinogen-binding activity. The genetic variations in these S. aureus isolates might also have implications for their bovine mastitis virulence capacity. PMID:21147952

  12. Variations in spa types found in consecutive MRSA isolates from the same patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Westh, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Very little is known about how the spa gene mutates over time in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the same patient. Copenhagen is an area with low prevalence of MRSA but with high variability in spa types. We collected 1536 MRSA isolates from 319 patients during a 5-year...... period and found spa type alterations in 30 MRSA isolates (2%) from 13 patients (4%). The alteration most often seen was the deletion of repeats followed by repeat duplication and point mutation....

  13. Improved protocol for rapid identification of certain spa types using high resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Benjamin; Stöger, Anna; Pietzka, Ariane T; Fernandez, Haizpea Lasa; Prewein, Bernhard; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Kunert, Renate; Allerberger, Franz; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens associated with health care. For efficient surveillance, control and outbreak investigation, S. aureus typing is essential. A high resolution melting curve analysis was developed and evaluated for rapid identification of the most frequent spa types found in an Austrian hospital consortium covering 2,435 beds. Among 557 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates 38 different spa types were identified by sequence analysis of the hypervariable region X of the protein A gene (spa). Identification of spa types through their characteristic high resolution melting curve profiles was considerably improved by double spiking with genomic DNA from spa type t030 and spa type t003 and allowed unambiguous and fast identification of the ten most frequent spa types t001 (58%), t003 (12%), t190 (9%), t041 (5%), t022 (2%), t032 (2%), t008 (2%), t002 (1%), t5712 (1%) and t2203 (1%), representing 93% of all isolates within this hospital consortium. The performance of the assay was evaluated by testing samples with unknown spa types from the daily routine and by testing three different high resolution melting curve analysis real-time PCR instruments. The ten most frequent spa types were identified from all samples and on all instruments with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Compared to classical spa typing by sequence analysis, this gene scanning assay is faster, cheaper and can be performed in a single closed tube assay format. Therefore it is an optimal screening tool to detect the most frequent endemic spa types and to exclude non-endemic spa types within a hospital.

  14. Variations in spa types found in consecutive MRSA isolates from the same patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Westh, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Very little is known about how the spa gene mutates over time in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the same patient. Copenhagen is an area with low prevalence of MRSA but with high variability in spa types. We collected 1536 MRSA isolates from 319 patients during a 5-year...... period and found spa type alterations in 30 MRSA isolates (2%) from 13 patients (4%). The alteration most often seen was the deletion of repeats followed by repeat duplication and point mutation....

  15. 富春山居SPA荣获The World Luxury SPA Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    在近日举行的The World Luxury Spa Awards(世界奢华SPA奖]评选中,富春山居SPA荣获了TheWorld Luxury SPA Awards大奖。 The World Luxury SpaAwards为业界权威奖项,并以其评选的全面性、创新性和高标准成为全球行业标杆。

  16. Obesity and the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis: the role of spontaneous locomotor activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castañeda, Tamara R; Jürgens, Hella; Wiedmer, Petra; Pfluger, Paul; Diano, Sabrina; Horvath, Tamas L; Tang-Christensen, Mads; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2005-01-01

    .... Moreover, low levels of spontaneous physical activity (SPA) are a major predictor of fat mass accumulation during overfeeding in humans, pointing to a substantial role for SPA in the control of energy balance...

  17. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D as antimicrobial and immunotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shanjana

    2010-06-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D belong to the "Soluble C-type Lectin" family of proteins and are collectively known as "Collectins". Based on their ability to recognize pathogens and to regulate the host defense, SP-A and SP-D have been recently categorized as "Secretory Pathogen Recognition Receptors". SP-A and SP-D were first identified in the lung; the expression of SP-A and SP-D has also been observed at other mucosal surfaces, such as lacrimal glands, gastrointestinal mucosa, genitourinary epithelium and periodontal surfaces. Since the role of these proteins is not fully elucidated at other mucosal surfaces, the focus of this article is on lung-SP-A and SP-D. It has become clear from research studies performed over a number of years that SP-A and SP-D are critical for the maintenance of lung homeostasis and the regulation of host defense and inflammation. However, none of the surfactant preparations available for clinical use have SP-A or SP-D. A review is presented here on SP-A- and SP-D-deficiencies in lung diseases, the importance of the administration of SP-A and SP-D, and recent patents and research directions that may lead to the design of novel SP-A- or SP-D-based therapeutics and surfactants.

  18. CoSpa: A Co-training Approach for Spam Review Identification with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spam reviews are increasingly appearing on the Internet to promote sales or defame competitors by misleading consumers with deceptive opinions. This paper proposes a co-training approach called CoSpa (Co-training for Spam review identification to identify spam reviews by two views: one is the lexical terms derived from the textual content of the reviews and the other is the PCFG (Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars rules derived from a deep syntax analysis of the reviews. Using SVM (Support Vector Machine as the base classifier, we develop two strategies, CoSpa-C and CoSpa-U, embedded within the CoSpa approach. The CoSpa-C strategy selects unlabeled reviews classified with the largest confidence to augment the training dataset to retrain the classifier. The CoSpa-U strategy randomly selects unlabeled reviews with a uniform distribution of confidence. Experiments on the spam dataset and the deception dataset demonstrate that both the proposed CoSpa algorithms outperform the traditional SVM with lexical terms and PCFG rules in spam review identification. Moreover, the CoSpa-U strategy outperforms the CoSpa-C strategy when we use the absolute value of decision function of SVM as the confidence.

  19. A online credit evaluation method based on AHP and SPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingtao; Zhang, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Online credit evaluation is the foundation for the establishment of trust and for the management of risk between buyers and sellers in e-commerce. In this paper, a new credit evaluation method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the set pair analysis (SPA) is presented to determine the credibility of the electronic commerce participants. It solves some of the drawbacks found in classical credit evaluation methods and broadens the scope of current approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are considered in the proposed method, then a overall credit score is achieved from the optimal perspective. In the end, a case analysis of China Garment Network is provided for illustrative purposes.

  20. Talousohjauksen kehittämishanke Kapri My Spa -ketjussa

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Maiju

    2010-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Opinnäytetyö on osa SOK:n Matkailu- ja ravitsemiskaupan ketjuohjauksen omistaman Kapri My Spa -konseptin kehityshanketta, joka liittyy yksiköiden tulosohjauksen yhtenäistämiseen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli kartoittaa sisäisen tuloslaskelman eroavaisuuksia yksiköiden sisällä ja antaa ehdotuksia erojen vähentämiseksi ja vertailun parantamiseksi. Lisäksi opinnäyteyössä suunniteltiin ketjulle yhteinen mittari, jolla sekä yksiköiden päälliköt että ketjuohjaus pystyisivät seuraamaa...

  1. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  2. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rintahaka

    Full Text Available A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we

  3. The development of selected cardiovascular parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during a spa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, E; Kittnar, O

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not just a simple metabolic disorder, however, it is considered to be a cardiovascular disease of a metabolic origin. This is apparent especially when speaking about type 2 diabetes (DM II). The objective of our study was to determine whether a comprehensive spa treatment (procedures and drinking cure) may affect the level of the sympathetic tone of patients suffering from DM II. As an indicator of the sympathetic tone, selected electrocardiographic parameters derived from the heart rate variability and microwave alternans were chosen. There were 96 patients enrolled in our study: 38 patients with poorly controlled DM II and two control groups: 9 patients with compensated DM II and 49 patients, average age without diabetes or other disorders of the glucose metabolism. All received an identical spa treatment and continued their medical therapy. The electrophysiological examination of patients was performed before and after a three-week spa treatment using the KARDiVAR system. Parameters derived from the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), microvolt T-wave alternans, and microvolt R-wave alternans were analyzed in order to evaluate the tones of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The control group showed a slight increase of parameter the index of activity of regulatory systems (IRSA) (4.4+/-1.3 vs. 3.8+/-1.4; p=0.006) after the spa treatment, while increased heart rate (80.9+/-11.0 vs. 74.6+/-9.6; p=0.028), reduced index of centralization (IC) (1.3+/-0.6 vs. 2.9+/-1.4; p=0.027) and reduced index of myocardium (IM) (9.9+/-7.4 vs. 18.0+/-6.3; p=0.041) were found in patients with a compensated DM II. Patients with a poorly compensated DM II showed a decreased IM (10.9+/-8.6 vs. 16.9+/-5.2; p=0.001) and also a reduced IRSA (4.1+/-3.5 vs. 6.3+/-1.9; p=0.001). The results proved favorable changes in ANS cardiovascular control of patients with DM II after a spa treatment, especially in terms of reducing the sympathoadrenal system activity

  4. College Student Environmental Activism: How Experiences and Identities Influence Environmental Activism Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura A. H.

    2016-01-01

    College student environmental activism is one way students civically engage in addressing social issues. This study explores the environmental activism of twelve college students and how their experiences outside of college and in college influenced their activism. In addition, how students' identities influenced their approach to activism was…

  5. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... interpretation of the term ``unblockable drain,'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... document does not alter the current requirement that public pools and spas be in compliance with the VGBA...

  6. 76 FR 27872 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P- 180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Final... known U.S. owners and operators of PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A (Piaggio) Model PIAGGIO P-180 airplanes... fuselage on a number of Piaggio Model P.180 aeroplanes, which resulted in jamming of the flight...

  7. 77 FR 63712 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Industries S.p.A. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Aero Industries S.p.A Model P-180 airplanes. That AD was prompted by mandatory continuing airworthiness... replaced for damage in the P.180 fleet since that occurrence. Based on the available information, this...

  8. 75 FR 5690 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model P- 180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains the NPRM...: 2010-03-04 PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A.: Amendment 39-16187; Docket No. FAA-2009-1081;...

  9. [The development of the medical information system for the improvement of the quality of work of the Crimean spa and health resorts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, V V; Grigor'ev, P E; Mizin, V I; Andriyashek, Yu I; Gol'dberg, D L; Olenchuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Crimea has the enormous potential for the health promotion activities. However, neither the profile of these activities nor the demand for the socio-medical services is clearly defined for the majority of the local spa and health resort facilities. The possibilities of modern information technology are not used in the full measure either. The objective of the present work was to elaborate the new medical information system and demonstrate its effectiveness. In addition, the article describes the main advantages of the system for the optimization of healthcare in the Crimean spa and health resort facilities. We reviewed and analyzed various literature publications, legal framework, standards, regulations, guidelines, and questionnaire survey data obtain at 50 spa and health resort facilities of the Crimea. The results of the assessment indicate the necessity of the systematic approach to the analysis of the quality of medical care and the process of its further development. Statistical and mathematical methods were used to elaborate the medical information system for the optimization of the activities of the Crimean spa and health resorts. The distinctive features of the proposed information system are modularity and the possibility of flexible adjustment to the conditions of individual settings, one-step data loading with the subsequent multiple application for the formulation of documents, automated filling of records in compliance with the medical standards, and taking into consideration the possible changes in or amendments to the form of the documents. The data obtained in the course of project implementation were used for the first time in the Republic of Crimea to design, substantiate, and recommend for the practical application the algorithm for the comprehensive estimation of the results of treatment of the patients based at the spa and health resort facilities with due regard for the specific regional conditions.

  10. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  11. Spa-1 (Sipa1) and Rap signaling in leukemia and cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Nagahiro; Hattori, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    Although Rap GTPases of the Ras family remained enigmatic for years, extensive studies in this decade have revealed diverse functions of Rap in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, adhesion, and movement. With the use of genetic engineering strategies, we have uncovered essential roles of Rap signaling in normal lymphohematopoietic cell development as well as its crucial involvement in the development of a wide spectrum of leukemia in manners highly dependent on the contexts of cell lineages. Incidentally, recent results also indicate an important role of Spa-1, a Rap GTPase-activating protein, in invasion and metastasis in human cancers. While it is unlikely that Rap can function as a classic oncogene by itself, like Ras, emerging findings unveil crucial involvements of Rap GTPases in the distinct aspects of malignancy, including leukemia genesis and cancer metastasis.

  12. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  13. Microfibril-associated Protein 4 Binds to Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and Colocalizes with SP-A in the Extracellular Matrix of the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlosser, Anders; Thomsen, Theresa H.; Shipley, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis...... for phagocytes. Here we describe the molecular interaction between the extracellular matrix protein microfibril-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and SP-A. MFAP4 is a collagen-binding molecule containing a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain and a N-terminal located integrin-binding motif. We produced recombinant MFAP4...... with a molecular mass of 36 and 66 kDa in the reduced and unreduced states respectively. Gel filtration chromatography and chemical crosslinking showed that MFAP4 forms oligomers of four dimers. We demonstrated calcium-dependent binding between MFAP4 and human SP-A1 and SP-A2. No binding was seen to recombinant SP-A...

  14. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013......, and an in-house analysis pipeline determines the spa types. Due to national surveillance, all MRSA isolates are sent to Statens Serum Institut, where the spa type is determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the spa types obtained by 150-bp paired......-end Illumina WGS. MRSA isolates from new MRSA patients in 2013 (n = 699) in the capital region of Denmark were included. We found a 97% agreement between spa types obtained by the two methods. All isolates achieved a spa type by both methods. Nineteen isolates differed in spa types by the two methods, in most...

  15. Postmaterialism Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other than economic factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how postmaterialism may explain these differences. A distinction is made between nascent entrepreneurship, n

  16. Postmaterialism influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other than economic factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how postmaterialism may explain these differences. A distinction is made between nascent entrepreneurship, new business

  17. The state and perspectives of the development of spa tourism in the area of Jadar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an outline of the most important natural and anthropogenic tourist values on which the development of tourism of Jadar is based. It is pointed out to the most important deposits of thermomineral sources as the preconditions of the origin and development of spa centres. The largest economic effects are realized through development of health tourism in Banja Koviljaca which is the only one among spa centres that acquired the market affirmation as individual tourist motive. Banja Badanja has favorable conditions for development, still insufficiently affirmed and in shadow of far more famous Banja Koviljaca. The priorities of development of spa tourism are defined in the paper, and it is pointed to the significance of selective offer that depends on the conditions of successful organization of health spa, wellness-spa programmes and offered recreational contents.

  18. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-10-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) mutants in the community and hospitals in Oxfordshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votintseva, Antonina A; Fung, Rowena; Miller, Ruth R; Knox, Kyle; Godwin, Heather; Wyllie, David H; Bowden, Rory; Crook, Derrick W; Walker, A Sarah

    2014-03-12

    Staphylococcal protein A (spa) is an important virulence factor which enables Staphylococcus aureus to evade host immune responses. Genotypes known as "spa-types", based on highly variable Xr region sequences of the spa-gene, are frequently used to classify strains. A weakness of current spa-typing primers is that rearrangements in the IgG-binding region of the gene cause 1-2% of strains to be designated as "non-typeable". We developed an improved primer which enabled sequencing of all strains, containing any type of genetic rearrangement, in a large study among community carriers and hospital inpatients in Oxfordshire, UK (6110 isolates). We identified eight novel spa-gene variants, plus one previously described. Three of these rearrangements would be designated "non-typeable" using current spa-typing methods; they occurred in 1.8% (72/3905) asymptomatically carried and 0.6% (14/2205) inpatient S. aureus strains. Some individuals were simultaneously colonized by both formerly non-typeable and typeable strains; previously such patients would have been identified as carrying only currently typeable strains, underestimating mixed carriage prevalence and diversity. Formerly non-typeable strains were found in more spa-types associated with multilocus sequence type ST398 (35%), common among livestock, compared to other groups with any non-typeable strains (1-4%), suggesting particular spa-types may have been under-represented in previous human studies. This improved method allows us to spa-type previously non-typeable strains with rearrangements in the spa-gene and to resolve cases of mixed colonization with deletions in one or more strains, thus accounting for hidden diversity of S. aureus in both community and hospital environments.

  20. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  1. 遗传演化SPA流失预测算法及并行化%Genetic Evolution Based Parallelized SPA Churn Prediction Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小龙; 王柏; 吴斌; 赵海舟

    2011-01-01

    随着电信行业竞争日益激烈,基于数据挖掘的客户流失预测对于电信运营商提升客户服务质量具有重要意义.为提升客户流失预测效率和提高预测模型的泛化能力,引入人工智能的遗传演化思想改进了基于心理学扩散模型SPA(spreading activation)的流失预测算法,提出了基于遗传演化的流失预测算法GASPA(genetic algorithm based SPA).GASPA在演化中能自主学习和优化模型参数,通过在真实电话呼叫数据和短消息数据上实验,发现GASPA在精确度上性能优于固定步长方法,在Lift曲线值上性能优于SPA,显著提高了SPA的Lift曲线值,增强了SPA的流失预测效果.为处理海量电信数据,实现了在云计算平台上的并行化方案M-GASPA(MapReduce-GASPA),在提高GASPA可处理数据规模的同时降低了运行时间.%Data mining based customer churn prediction is significant for telecom operator to promote customer service quality in keen competition among operators. A new churn prediction algorithm based on genetic evolution with less running time and better Lift value is proposed to promote predicting accuracy and adaptive ability of prediction model. The new algorithm GASPA (genetic algorithm based SPA) uses genetic evolution from artificial intelligence to optimize parameters of psychology model SPA (spreading activation). GASPA algorithm is proved to reach better accuracy value than fixed-step method and better churn prediction Lift value than SPA on real mobile dataset. Aiming to handle very large scale dataset, the paralleled GASPA on MapReduce (M-GASPA) is proposed to enlarge data scale which can be processed. According to experiment results of iteration time, M-GASPA is a much faster algorithm than SPA while Lift value is promoted.

  2. Aerosolization of respirable droplets from a domestic spa pool and the use of MS-2 coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as markers for Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ginny; Hewitt, Matthew; Stevenson, David; Walker, Jimmy T; Bennett, Allan M

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease can result when droplets or aerosols containing legionella bacteria are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. A number of outbreaks have been associated with the use of a spa pool where aeration, a high water temperature, and a large and variable organic load make disinfectant levels difficult to maintain. Spa pool ownership is increasing, and the aim of this study, using two surrogate organisms (MS-2 coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [a natural contaminant]), was to assess the potential risk to domestic users when disinfection fails. A representative "entry level" domestic spa pool was installed in an outdoor courtyard. The manufacturer's instructions for spa pool maintenance were not followed. A cyclone sampler was used to sample the aerosols released from the spa pool with and without activation of the air injection system. Samples were taken at increasing heights and distances from the pool. An aerodynamic particle sizer was used to measure the water droplet size distribution at each sample point. When the air injection system was inactivated, neither surrogate organism was recovered from the air. On activation of the air injection system, the mean mass of droplets within the respirable range (10 cm above the water line) was 36.8 μg cm(-3). This corresponded to a mean air concentration of P. aeruginosa of 350 CFU m(-3). From extrapolation from animal data, the estimated risk of infection from aerosols contaminated with similar concentrations of Legionella pneumophila was 0.76 (males) and 0.65 (females). At 1 m above and/or beyond the pool, the mean aerosol mass decreased to 0.04 μg cm(-3) and corresponded to a 100-fold reduction in mean microbial air concentration. The estimated risk of infection at this distance was negligible.

  3. Aerosolization of Respirable Droplets from a Domestic Spa Pool and the Use of MS-2 Coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Markers for Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew; Stevenson, David; Walker, Jimmy T.; Bennett, Allan M.

    2014-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease can result when droplets or aerosols containing legionella bacteria are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. A number of outbreaks have been associated with the use of a spa pool where aeration, a high water temperature, and a large and variable organic load make disinfectant levels difficult to maintain. Spa pool ownership is increasing, and the aim of this study, using two surrogate organisms (MS-2 coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [a natural contaminant]), was to assess the potential risk to domestic users when disinfection fails. A representative “entry level” domestic spa pool was installed in an outdoor courtyard. The manufacturer's instructions for spa pool maintenance were not followed. A cyclone sampler was used to sample the aerosols released from the spa pool with and without activation of the air injection system. Samples were taken at increasing heights and distances from the pool. An aerodynamic particle sizer was used to measure the water droplet size distribution at each sample point. When the air injection system was inactivated, neither surrogate organism was recovered from the air. On activation of the air injection system, the mean mass of droplets within the respirable range (10 cm above the water line) was 36.8 μg cm−3. This corresponded to a mean air concentration of P. aeruginosa of 350 CFU m−3. From extrapolation from animal data, the estimated risk of infection from aerosols contaminated with similar concentrations of Legionella pneumophila was 0.76 (males) and 0.65 (females). At 1 m above and/or beyond the pool, the mean aerosol mass decreased to 0.04 μg cm−3 and corresponded to a 100-fold reduction in mean microbial air concentration. The estimated risk of infection at this distance was negligible. PMID:25381233

  4. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  5. Primary cortical brain cells influence osteoblast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissian, Lucas; Kirby, Michael; Stark, André

    2009-12-18

    The presence of neuropeptides and neuroreceptors in the bone have been reported in several studies. Bone turn-over seems to be controlled by the nervous system. The actual pathway or the control mechanism is still under investigation. In this study we investigate the changes in osteoblast cells if they are in co-culture with primary cortical brain cells. After seven days in co-culture with the primary fetal brain cells the osteoblast cells exhibited hypertrophic morphological changes and showed stronger ALP activity.

  6. 76 FR 44591 - Notice of Hearing: Reconsideration of Disapproval of Indiana State Plan Amendments (SPA) 11-011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Disapproval of Indiana State Plan Amendments (SPA) 11-011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., Chicago, IL 60601, to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Indiana SPA 11-011. DATES: Closing Date... announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Indiana SPA 11-011, which...

  7. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... inspections per year under the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. Investigators typically...

  8. 78 FR 16506 - Notice of Hearing: Reconsideration of Disapproval of Florida State Plan Amendments (SPA) 12-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Disapproval of Florida State Plan Amendments (SPA) 12-015 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services... Florida SPA 12- 015. DATES: Closing Date: Requests to participate in the hearing as a party must be... reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Florida SPA 12-015 which was submitted on September 14, 2012, and...

  9. 78 FR 26371 - Notice of Hearing: Reconsideration of Disapproval of Kentucky State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Disapproval of Kentucky State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-007 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., South West, Atlanta, Georgia 30303-8909, to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Kentucky SPA 10-007...: This notice announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS's decision to disapprove Kentucky SPA...

  10. 76 FR 34711 - Notice of Hearing; Reconsideration of Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., Suite 700, Denver, Colorado 80202-4367 to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA 10-034...: This notice announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA...

  11. 75 FR 904 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Directive (AD) 2009-21-08, which applies to PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. (Piaggio) Model PIAGGIO P-180...: Service information title Page(s) Revision Date PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. 1 through 9........ Rev....

  12. [The spa-health resort and touristic-recreational facilities of the region: the methodological aspects of their development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Kolesnikova, N V; Kolesnikov, N G

    2016-01-01

    The correction and optimization of the motor activity of the patients are currently the main priorities of all rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities. The forms of such activities include walking tours and excursion trips. In other words, the excursion potential is one of the very important attributes of the recreational recourses. Under the current conditions characterized by the rapid socio-economic changes, the studies concerning the structural and functional transformation of spa and health resorts, recreational and tourist facilities acquire special importance, both from the humanitarian and economic points of view. The results of these studies may greatly contribute to the organization and the further development of rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities, recreational and tourist centers taking into consideration their evolution. The objective of the present article is to analyze the structure and functions of the recreation and tourist centres as well as the modes of their cooperation with the spa and health resort facilities. In other words, these structures and their functions are both the object and the subject of the present study. The methodology of the study is based on the logical analysis of the development of the recreational and tourist systems in the framework of the evolutionary approach. (1) the notions of «tourist destination» and «recreation» have been substantiated; (2) the results of the studies carried out at the Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Petrozavodsk State University have been used to elaborate the affiliate international Master Degree program «Project management in the tourism industry». The main emphasis in this program is placed on the necessity and methods of the improvement of recreational activities and more efficacious utilization of the climatic factors and the health resort infrastructure as

  13. Influence of Magnetite Nanoparticles on Human Leukocyte Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džarová, Anežka; Dubničková, Martina; Závišová, Vlasta; Koneracká, Martina; Kopčanský, Peter; Gojzewski, Hubert; Timko, Milan

    2010-12-01

    Chemically synthesized magnetite particles coated by sodium oleate and PEG (MNP), and magnetosomes (MS) influence the process of phagocytosis and the metabolic activity (lysozyme and peroxidase activity) in leukocytes. Lysozyme activity is oxygen-independent liquidation mechanisms of engulfed microorganism, peroxidase activity is an oxygen-dependent mechanism. Both tested types of nanoparticles lysed leukocyte cells during incubation. MNP at concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/mL lysed almost all leukocytes and their cell viability was in the 14±0.05% range. On the other hand MS begin to influence leukocytes activity at the concentration of 1 μg/ml and this influence grows with increasing concentration up to 20 μg/ml. MS are more suitable for biological applications than MNP which are more aggressive material than MS. MS should not be used above 10 μg/mL.

  14. Prevalence of Simkania negevensis in chlorinated water from spa swimming pools and domestic supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, M; Cremonini, E; Di Francesco, A; Dallolio, L; Biondi, R; Muthusamy, R; Leoni, E

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Simkania negevensis in the chlorinated water of spa swimming pools and domestic network systems. A total of 10 and 36 samples were collected from two domestic water supplies and four spa facilities, respectively. Simkania negevensis was isolated in Acanthamoeba castellanii monolayers and detected by Gimenez staining and immunofluorescence test. Simkania negevensis DNA, extracted from the positive samples, was confirmed by a nested PCR assay followed by sequencing. Simkania negevensis was detected in 41·3% of samples (domestic water: 50%; untreated spa supply water: 25%; chlorinated spa pool water: 42·9%) from all the examined water systems in successive samplings performed in 1 year. The presence of S. negevensis was not correlated with the counts of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike Legionella spp., which were never isolated from the swimming-pool water samples, S. negevensis was also detected in chlorinated spa water. This investigation shows that Simkania is widespread in natural and man-made aquatic environments, which may represent possible sources of infection: in the swimming pools, in particular, the aerosol generated by the water movement could increase the risk of inhalation of infected particles. This study represents the first evidence of the presence of S. negevensis in spa pool water. Sero-epidemiological surveys on spa users could help to clarify its transmission in this environment. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids. • Application study of the SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids (ε=0.707) in lowering the infrared emissivity.

  16. The use of exer-learning games for rehabilitation in spa clinics at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Martina; Krausser, Kati; Joerg, Daniel; Schwandt, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines benefits of the exer-learning concept HOPSCOTCH for rehabilitation in spa clinics and at home. It describes a specific application to motivate obese patients in spa clinics for exercise. Furthermore results of an empirical study are reported where HOPSCOTCH was implemented in two spa clinics for a period of four weeks. The results of the study have shown that the concept is very convincing, but mainly depends on the content of the application; however the idea of HOPSCOTCH appeared to have a high potential to be used as a therapeutic agent in terms of motivation for exercise.

  17. Influence of friends on children's physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-07-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends' PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs.

  18. [Do Intellectual Activities Influence Onset of Neurocognitive Disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the author has discussed whether and how intellectual activities influence the onset of neurocognitive disorder based on findings from previous studies. The activities discussed include those involving education and learning during childhood, hobbies and leisure activities with cognitive stimulation, and those through cognitive intervention. There are various opinions on the effect of intellectual activities on the onset of neurocognitive disorder. However, because the relationship between intellectual activities and the onset of neurocognitive disorder has never been fully examined, it seems necessary to discuss this aspect carefully.

  19. 78 FR 33197 - Airworthiness Directives; Iniziative Industriali Italiane S.p.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... information identified in this AD, contact Magnaghi Aeronautica S.p.A., Via G. Ferraris, 76, 80142 Napoli.... Ferraris, 76, 80142 Napoli, Italy; telephone: + 39 081 5977 225; fax: + 39 081 5977 226; email: dtedesco...

  20. Kaks kuud Kalev SPA-s / kommenteerinud Julia Kurbat, Natalia Nazarenko-Kiivikas, Margit Lipstuhl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Kahe spordiharrastaja Kaur Sau ja Kadri Sõggeli seatud eesmärkidest 2012. aastal ja kehalisest arengust treenides kaks kuud mõnes Tallinna spordiklubis. Treeningutest Kalev Spa Hotel & Water Park'i nimekandvas spordi- ja vabaajakeskuses

  1. 78 FR 49662 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model P-180 airplanes, all serial numbers, certificated in any category. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 54; Nacelles/Pylons...

  2. Encyclopaedia Entries for: (1) Spa Tourism, (2) Backpacker Tourism and (3) Country Profile: Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    These entries detail definitional terms for spa tourism, backpacker tourism and an overview of tourism in the Irish Republic. Key trends, main products, visitor numbers and attractions are outlined in each concise entry for this extensive encyclopaedia.

  3. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, Abdul S.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Methodology: Nasal swabs were taken...... from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing....... Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. Results: S. aureus was isolated from 22 % of humans, 4 % of pigs and 11 % of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared...

  4. COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase complexes repress anthocyanin accumulation under low light and high light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Hoecker, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and many other plant species, anthocyanin pigments accumulate only after light exposure and not in darkness. Excess light of very high fluence rates leads to a further, very strong increase in anthocyanin levels. How excess light is sensed is not well understood. Here, we show that mutations in the key repressor of light signaling, the COP1/SPA complex, cause a strong hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins not only under normal light but also under excess, high light conditions. Hence, normal light signaling via COP1/SPA is required to prevent hyperaccumulation of anthocyanins under these high light conditions. However, since cop1 and spa mutants show a similar high-light responsiveness of anthocyanin accumulation as the wild type it remains to be resolved whether COP1/SPA is directly involved in the high-light response itself.

  5. Kaks kuud Kalev SPA-s / kommenteerinud Julia Kurbat, Natalia Nazarenko-Kiivikas, Margit Lipstuhl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Kahe spordiharrastaja Kaur Sau ja Kadri Sõggeli seatud eesmärkidest 2012. aastal ja kehalisest arengust treenides kaks kuud mõnes Tallinna spordiklubis. Treeningutest Kalev Spa Hotel & Water Park'i nimekandvas spordi- ja vabaajakeskuses

  6. spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Moodley, A.; Guardabassi, L.;

    2010-01-01

    distribution of S. aureus isolated from these three animal reservoirs. To study this, we have analyzed a random sample of S. aureus consisting of 296 epidemiologically unrelated isolates from infections and colonisation of pigs, cattle and poultry. These were examined and compared by spa and multi-locus...... sequence typing (MIST) and the result was compared to the most common spa types found among human blood isolates. Little overlap in spa types was seen between isolates from the three animal reservoirs or between animals and humans. Most of the porcine isolates had the spa types t034 (CC398), t1333 (COO...... to be commonly found among human blood isolates and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis identified indistinguishable PFGE patterns among a poultry isolate and selected human isolates. In conclusion, strains of MSSA CC398 were commonly present in pigs but not present at all in the other...

  7. 基于ptSPA的概率时间信息流安全属性分析%Analysis for Probabilistic and Timed Information Flow Security Properties viaptSPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 殷丽华; 郭云

    2011-01-01

    Information flow analysis is one of the primary approaches for analyzing computer security problems, such as covert channel and data leak. Security process algebra (SPA) is a classic method used in researching information security properties in nondeterministic system. To analyze the information security properties and capture the information leakage in probabilistic and real time system, SPA is extended in probabilistic and time setting. Probabilistic and time security process algebra(ptSPA), an extension of SPA, is proposed by first introducing the probabilistic and time calculus to specify activities constricted by probability and time, and extending the formal syntax and semantic to enhance the SPA. Then, the related notion of probabilistic and time bisimulation equivalence is presented, to describe two observable behavior traces are equivalent when considering probability and time. Based on ptSPA, several information flow security properties in probabilistic and real time system, such as TBSPNI, PTBNDC and SPTBNDC are defined, which can capture probabilistic and time covert channel while the original SPA cannot. The relations among the information flow security properties are analyzed. Finally, a case study is given to show that the expressiveness of calculus in ptSPA is possible to model and analyze probabilistic and time systems.%基于进程代数的无干扰性分析是分析信息流安全性质的主要方法.为考虑概率时间配置下的信息泄漏,对安全进程代数进行概率时间域上的扩展,提出概率时间安全进程代数ptSPA,给出其形式化语法及语义,引入概率时间弱互拟等价的概念,在此基础上,讨论概率时间信息流安全属性,提出TBSPNI,PTBNDC,SPTBNDC属性,分析属性的包含性,证明提出的属性在表达能力上强于原有属性,最后给出一个实例,对IMP机制在概率时间配置下进行了建模分析,分析结果表明ptSPA对捕获概率时间隐蔽通道的有效性.

  8. Potentials for development of spa tourism in region of Cer Mountain: Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their particularities, thermal and mineral springs at the foothill of Cer Mountain deserve special analysis. This is the reason we wrote this article, aiming to take reader's attention to the touristic potentials of the spa zone of Cer Mountain and possibilities for its perspective development. From the medical and excursion-recreational tourism point of view, there is a possibility for combining the spa tourism with the complementary values of Cer Mountain.

  9. Spa therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a large randomised multicentre trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, R; Desfour, H; Tessier, J-M; Françon, A; Foote, A M; Genty, C; Rolland, C; Roques, C-F; Bosson, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether spa therapy, plus home exercises and usual medical treatment provides any benefit over exercises and usual treatment, in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Methods Large multicentre randomised prospective clinical trial of patients with knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, attending French spa resorts as outpatients between June 2006 and April 2007. Zelen randomisation was used so patients were ignorant of the other group and spa personnel were not told which patients were participating. The main endpoint criteria were patient self-assessed. All patients continued usual treatments and performed daily standardised home exercises. The spa therapy group also received 18 days of spa therapy (massages, showers, mud and pool sessions). Main Endpoint The number of patients achieving minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) at 6 months, defined as ≥19.9 mm on the visual analogue pain scale and/or ≥9.1 points in a normalised Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index function score and no knee surgery. Results The intention to treat analysis included 187 controls and 195 spa therapy patients. At 6 months, 99/195 (50.8%) spa group patients had MCII and 68/187 (36.4%) controls (χ2=8.05; df=1; p=0.005). However, no improvement in quality of life (Short Form 36) or patient acceptable symptom state was observed at 6 months. Conclusion For patients with knee osteoarthritis a 3-week course of spa therapy together with home exercises and usual pharmacological treatments offers benefit after 6 months compared with exercises and usual treatment alone, and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT00348777. PMID:19734131

  10. Spa-Wellness Center as Part of the Hotel Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Rančić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades “wellness spa” industry has experienced a boom around the world. The word “Wellness” has been formed by merging two words: “Well Being” + “fitness”, and appeared in the thirties of the last century in the United States. The primary objective of this movement is an ancient philosophy, according to which there ́s no fulfilled life without the assent of the physical and mental, also physical and spiritual. Hotel guests, today more than ever, want higher quality offer for their money. This means that wellness is today a very important criterion by which customers select hotels. For this reason it is necessary to pay great attention to the planning, design and construction of this part of the hotel facility. The subject of this paper is wellness and spa centers as part of the hotel facility. The task is to investigate and analyze elements of this space, to determine spatial areas of wellness center, as well as their relationships and spatial organization, in order to reach the goal - getting useful guidelines for planning quality wellness center. To all of this could be achieved, we must first go back to distant history where dating back the beginnings of wellness.

  11. SPA Meteor Section Results: April-June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2007-06-01

    Results presented to the SPA Meteor Section from the second quarter of 2004 are analyzed and discussed, along with some relevant items that generated correspondence from Society members and others. A very approximate radio confirmation was possible of a Lyrid peak in the early hours UT of April 22, before the anticipated ideal maximum time, along with an eta Aquarid peak around May 5. Some notes are given on a brilliant fireball over the Franco-Belgian border at 21h57m +- 1m UT on May 20, together with an unusual fireball-like, though actually non-meteoric, event or events over or near Spain and Portugal in the late evening hours UT of June 1/2, plus a meteorite fall in Auckland, New Zealand, on June 11, reported as hot to the touch on arrival. Maxima from the June daytime streams were recorded by radio on June 6, 8 and 10-12, much as found in the Forward Scatter Meteor Year analyses previously. The June Booetid visual outburst on June 23 was not detected in the radio results, although moderate maxima probably due to the beta Taurids were, on June 22, 25 and 28, again largely as recorded before.

  12. Influences on seizure activity in pregnant women with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether referral to a specialized epilepsy clinic prior to pregnancy influences seizure activity during pregnancy. In addition, folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy as a marker of intent to conceive was used to evaluate whether the use of folic acid at the time...

  13. Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Influences on Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Donna; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Jones, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…

  14. Short- and long-term effects of spa therapy in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Bellisai, Barbara; Cantarini, Luca; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    To assess both the short- and long-term effectiveness of spa therapy in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial. Eighty outpatients were enrolled in this study; 40 patients were treated with a combination of daily local mud packs and bicarbonate-sulfate mineral bath water from the spa center of Rapolano Terme (Siena, Italy) for 2 wks, and 40 patients continued regular, routine ambulatory care. Patients were assessed at baseline time; after 2 wks; after 3, 6, and 9 mos after the beginning of the study and were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale for spontaneous pain, Lequesne index, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index for gonarthrosis, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale-1, and symptomatic drug consumption. We observed a significant improvement of all evaluated parameters at the end of the cycle of spa therapy, which persisted throughout the whole of the follow-up period, whereas in the control group no significant differences were noted. This symptomatic effect was confirmed by the significant reduction of symptomatic drug consumption. Tolerability of spa therapy seemed to be good, with light and transitory side effects. The results from our study confirm that the beneficial effects of spa therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis lasts over time, with positive effects on the painful symptomatology and a significant improvement on functional capacities. Spa therapy can represent a useful backup to pharmacologic treatment of knee osteoarthritis or a valid alternative for patients who do not tolerate pharmacologic treatments.

  15. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.

  16. Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  17. Preliminary biological study of SPA residue after therapy and its agricultural us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kłapeć

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spa residue is an undehydrated therapeutic peat, which belongs to the group of peloids, a natural organic material widely used in spa therapy. Once used for therapy, it cannot be reused due to the loss of adsorptive properties. The aim of the study was the biological and parasitological assessment of spa residue to view the chances for fertilization of soils. Material and methods: In this study 80 samples of spa residues, from 7 spa resorts in Poland were investigated for Salmonella bacteria, bacteria of the general and faecal coliform group, anaerobic sulphites-reducing bacteria of Clostridium perfringens type and the eggs of intestinal nematodes (Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara. Microbiological and parasitological analyses of the residue were conducted based on the Polish Standards: PN-Z-19000-1/2001, PN-Z-19000- 4/2001, and Microbiological and Parasitological Guidelines for Sanitary Evaluation of Soils, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin 1995. Results: In the investigated samples of the residue neither Salmonella bacteria nor the eggs of intestinal nematodes Ascaris, Trichuris or Toxocara were found. The titres of coliform group bacteria, fecal coli bacteria, and Clostridium perfringens bacteria were within the range 1–1012, and did not exceed the limit values set for fertilizers and soils. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested to reuse spa residue after therapy for agricultural purposes (e.g. soil fertilization.

  18. SP-A and SP-D in host defense against fungal infections and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madhukaran, Shanmuga P; Nayak, Annapurna; Madan, Taruna

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity mediated by pattern recognition proteins is relevant in the host defense against fungi. SP-A and SP-D are two such proteins belonging to the class of collagen domain containing C-type lectins, or collectins. They bind to the sugar moieties present on the cell walls of various fungi in a dose dependent manner via their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). SP-A and SP-D directly interact with alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes. We review these roles of SP-A and SP-D against various clinically relevant fungal pathogens and fungal allergens. SP-A and SP-D gene deficient mice showed increased susceptibility/ resistance to various fungal infections. Patients of fungal infections and allergies are reported with alterations in the serum or lung lavage levels of SP-A and SP-D. There are studies associating the gene polymorphisms in SP-A and SP-D with alterations in their levels or functions or susceptibility of the host to fungal diseases. In view of the protective role of SP-D in murine models of Aspergillus fumigatus infections and allergies, therapeutic use of SP-D could be explored further.

  19. Determination of uranium and polonium in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna P, M.; Renteria, M.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Diaz, I., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, San Fernando No. 4, 41004 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was optimizing conditions for the specific activities determination of some uranium-series radionuclides present in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry. Determinations of specific activities were conducted varying the type of digestion: acid attack on hot plate, controlled microwave digestion and acid attack after calcination of the sample. The latter procedure was applied only to the case of uranium isotopes determination. The variation in the isotope extraction method consisted of applying the techniques of liquid-liquid extracting using Tributyl phosphate or chromatographic UTEVA resin. Results depending on the type of treatment given to the samples were compared based on obtained chemical yields. The results reveal a higher bioaccumulation of polonium in the liver sample, with activities of 0.809, 2.495 and 2.439 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt compared with the fillet. The best chemical yields of polonium were close to 60% for samples that were digested by microwave. In the case of uranium the best chemical yields, close to 80% for fillet, were obtained with a previous calcination of the sample and using the UTEVA resin. (Author)

  20. Cortical activity influences geniculocortical spike efficacy in the macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farran Briggs

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical communication is a dynamic process influenced by both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we recorded single-unit responses from cortical neurons that received direct input from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN to address the question of whether prior patterns of cortical activity affect the ability of LGN inputs to drive cortical responses. By examining the ongoing activity that preceded the arrival of electrically evoked spikes from the LGN, we identified a number of activity patterns that were predictive of suprathreshold communication. Namely, cortical neurons were more likely to respond to LGN stimulation when their activity levels increased to 30-40Hz and/or their activity displayed rhythmic patterns (30 ms intervals with increased power in the gamma frequency band. Cortical neurons were also more likely to respond to LGN stimulation when their activity increased 30-40 ms prior to stimulation, suggesting that the phase of gamma activity also contributes to geniculocortical communication. Based on these results, we conclude that ongoing activity in the cortex is not random, but rather organized in a manner that can influence the dynamics of thalamocortical communication.

  1. The influence of attitudes toward physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attitude is one of the most important predictor variables in relation to behavioral intentions regarding physical activity. Thus, this study aims to determine the influence of attitudes towards physical activity. The study comprised a sample of 1129 individuals (507 men and 622 women age between 12 and 58 years ( = 18 sd = 4.03. To collect the data, the Scale of Attitudes Towards Physical Activity and Sports (Dosil, 2002 was based on the Portuguese version (Cid, Alves, & Dosil, 2008. The results show that attitudes towards physical activity and sports are more positive in younger male individuals, who do not attend higher education, who regularly engage in physical activity and whose parents engage in physical/sports activity themselves.

  2. The role of open-air inhalatoria in the air quality improvement in spa towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Burkowska-But

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating microbiological contamination of air in Ciechocinek and Ino­wro­cław – Polish lowland spa towns. Additionally, the impact of open-air inhalatoria on the quality of air was evaluated. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected seasonally in the urban areas, in the recreation areas and in the vicinity of inhalatoria in both towns using impaction. The numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, hemolytic bacteria and actinomycetes were determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/02. The number of moulds was determined on media according to the Polish Standard PN-86/Z-04111/03. Results: While the highest numbers of microorganisms were noted at the sites located in the urban areas, the lowest numbers were noted in the vicinity of the open-air inhalatoria. In all the investigated air samples the values of bioaerosol concentrations were below the recommended TLVs (≤ 5000 CFU×m–3 for both bacteria and fungi in outdoor environments. Location of the sampling site was invariably a decisive factor in determining the number of microorganisms in the air. Conclusions: The aerosol which is formed in the open-air inhalatoria has a positive influence on microbiological air quality. Owing to a unique microclimate and low air contamination, Ciechocinek and Inowrocław comply with all necessary requirements set for health resorts specializing in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

  3. Co-brand strategy of evaluation of visual images in furniture design: Jimmy S.P.A. and STRAUSS as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Li; Pan, Fang-Ming; Tsai, Jen-Hui

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of the image associated by the design Co-Brand (Jimmy S.P.A. and STRAUSS) and the impression perceived by subject of viewers. Visual images were used to examine the merit of the evaluation. The best result is provided using an object as an appropriate evaluation method. There are a lot of factors which influence to evaluation of a design. This study is limited to distinguish the appearance from Jimmy's picture books transform furniture and so on. Co-Brand of Jimmy S.P.A. and STRAUSS is not easy because there are not from the same cultural, and industry background and applying different marketing strategy, it is a way to combine the two brands by designing, used questionnaire of SD (Semantic differential evaluation) evaluation method to test out the perception of viewers, the objective of this study is to investigate and appraised the Co-Brands use by of the image in furniture from patrons. SD evaluation result showed, if design cannot understand the perception image of Jimmy S.P.A and STRAUSS with viewers mind, furniture design also can't transmit feeling with design.

  4. Influence of added molybdenum on the activity of DESONOX catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcewicz-Kuba, A.; Nazimek, D.

    2002-07-01

    The catalytic removal of SO{sub 2} from combustion gases has been studied on the grain plane of a hard coal, being competitive with classical desulphurization processes. The method proposed for the removal of SO{sub 2} from combustion gases described in this paper is quite different from wet classical desulphurization methods. Studies of the influence of molybdenum concentration on the catalytic activity of a number of DESONOX catalysts are reported. The influence of the total surface area and other physicochemical properties of the catalyst on its behaviour have been studied.

  5. Influences and Barriers on Physical Activity in Pediatric Oncology Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrilyn Yelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the influence of family, peers, school, and physicians on exercise in pediatric oncology patients and evaluate the barriers to physical activity levels in this population. Methods: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar resulted in 12 related articles. The articles were assessed for the influence of school systems, family, peers, self-efficacy, and physicians on exercise. Additionally barriers and interventions to physical activity were also assessed. Limitations and research methodologies of each article were also evaluated. Results: Many school systems were unsure of expectations in regards to physical activity for their returning students with cancer. Most schools acknowledged willingness to increase exercise for these students; however, there is a communication gap between the medical field and the school system on what expectations should be. Family is associated with increased physical activity levels and healthier diets in this population with children preferring mothers as exercise partners more than fathers. While physician interventions have been shown to positively impact physical activity, it has been reported that physicians are not engaging in exercise counseling with their patients. Conclusion: Several issues and barriers related to physical activity in pediatric oncology population were identified. Studies have demonstrated it is feasible to increase physical activity and self-efficacy in this population. Further research is needed to better understand and quantify these issues as well as further test the interventions that have been suggested in this review and have been successful in other pediatric populations.

  6. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t267, clonal ancestor of bovine subclinical mastitis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S D; Velu, D; Bhuvana, M; Krithiga, N; Banerjee, A; Shome, R; Rahman, H; Ghosh, S K; Shome, B R

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Spa Services In Hotel Facilities In The Lublin Province The Importance Of Hotel Facilities In The Provision Of Spa Services In The Lublin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świeca Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Apart from basic services, the modern hotel industry provides a number of additional services, including those having to do with wellness. This article attempts to provide a general description of spa services in selected hotel facilities in the Lublin Province in Poland.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the SpaA backbone-pilin subunit from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a widely used Gram-positive probiotic strain, is clinically well known for its perceived health-promoting effects. It has recently been shown to display proteinaceous pilus fibres (called SpaCBA) on its cell surface. Structurally, SpaCBA pili possess a characteristic three-pilin polymerized architecture, with repeating SpaA major pilins that form the backbone and two types of minor subunits (SpaB and SpaC). In this study, recombinant SpaA protein was purified, characterized and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=227.9, b=63.2, c=104.3 Å, β=95.1°.

  10. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario Legionella outbreak at a spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serrano Ibarbia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balneario y entorno y muestreos de los sistemas sanitarios de agua y de los elementos de hidroterapia.De las 287 personas encuestadas de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, el 12.5% cumplían con la definición de caso; 9 casos presentaron neumonía y 26 fiebre de Pontiac. La curva epidémica se inició el 7 de mayo, alcanzando un pico los días 14 y 15 de mayo y finalizando el día 20. El riesgo de enfermar ajustado por edad, sexo y consumo de tabaco se asoció con la duración de la estancia en el balneario (OR=118.5, 95% I.C: 18.7-750.2 y con el uso de una piscina (OR=10.5, 95% I.C: 1.3-82.6. Se detecto L. pneumophila serogrupo1 en recuentos superiores a 103 ufc/l en diversos puntos de la red de hidroterapia y en la ducha de la habitación de uno de los enfermos. El análisis por electroforesis en campos pulsados de una muestra biológica y muestras ambientales permitió la confirmación genotípica. El establecimiento se abrió al público tras realizar un tratamiento de choque y comprobar que transcurridos 15 días no se detectó L. pneumophila en las muestras ambientales.The start of seasonal activity at a spa in Guipuzcoa coincided with the detection of an associated legionnaire outbreak in 1998. This led to the closure of the premises and to the carrying out of opportune environmental and epidemiological studies. The latter included case-control study. A case was defined as a person who, either during his stay or in a period of 10 days thereafter

  11. In vivo rescue of alveolar macrophages from SP-A knockout mice with exogenous SP-A nearly restores a wild type intracellular proteome; actin involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floros Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking surfactant protein-A (SP-A-/-; knockout; KO exhibit increased vulnerability to infection and injury. Although many bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL protein differences between KO and wild-type (WT are rapidly reversed in KO after infection, their clinical course is still compromised. We studied the impact of SP-A on the alveolar macrophage (AM proteome under basal conditions. Male SP-A KO mice were SP-A-treated (5 micrograms/mouse and sacrificed in 6 or 18 hr. The AM proteomes of KO, SP-A-treated KO, and WT mice were studied by 2D-DIGE coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF and AM actin distribution was examined by phalloidon staining. Results We observed: a significant differences from KO in WT or exogenous SP-A-treated in 45 of 76 identified proteins (both increases and decreases. These included actin-related/cytoskeletal proteins (involved in motility, phagocytosis, endocytosis, proteins of intracellular signaling, cell differentiation/regulation, regulation of inflammation, protease/chaperone function, and proteins related to Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway; b SP-A-induced changes causing the AM proteome of the KO to resemble that of WT; and c that SP-A treatment altered cell size and F-actin distribution. Conclusions These differences are likely to enhance AM function. The observations show for the first time that acute in vivo SP-A treatment of KO mice, under basal or unstimulated conditions, affects the expression of multiple AM proteins, alters F-actin distribution, and can restore much of the WT phenotype. We postulate that the SP-A-mediated expression profile of the AM places it in a state of "readiness" to successfully conduct its innate immune functions and ensure lung health.

  12. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  13. Treatment with mPEG-SPA improves the survival of corneal grafts in rats by immune camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyong; Li, Liangliang; Liu, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Zhang, Min; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Zheqian; Gao, Xinbo; Wang, Zhichong

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the immune camouflage effects of methoxy polyethylene glycol succinimidyl propionate (mPEG-SPA) on corneal antigens and explored a novel approach for reducing corneal antigenicity, thereby decreasing corneal graft rejection. Importantly, this approach did not alter normal local immunity. Corneal grafts were treated with mPEG-SPA 5KD or 20KD (3% W/V), which could shield major histocompatibility antigen class I molecules (RT1-A) of corneal grafts. Skin grafts of Wistar rats were transplanted to SD rats. Then the splenic lymphocytes were isolated from SD rats. Subsequently, the lymphocytes were co-cultured with autologous corneal grafts or untreated corneal grafts and PEGylated grafts treated with mPEG-SPA 5KD or 20KD obtained from the counterpart skin donors, which were used as autologous control, allogeneic control, mPEG-SPA 5KD group and mPEG-SPA 20KD group, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation was lower in mPEG-SPA 5KD group and mPEG-SPA 20KD group than in the allogeneic control. SD rats with corneal neovascularisation were used as recipients for high-risk corneal transplantation and were randomly divided into four groups: autologous control, allogeneic control, mPEG-SPA 5KD group and mPEG-SPA 20KD group. The recipients received corneal grafts from Wistar rats. Corneal graft survival was prolonged and graft rejection was reduced in the mPEG-SPA 5KD group and the mPEG-SPA 20KD group compared to the allogeneic control. Thus, we think that mPEG-SPA could immunologically camouflage corneal antigens to prolong corneal grafts survival in high-risk transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences on seizure activity in pregnant women with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether referral to a specialized epilepsy clinic prior to pregnancy influences seizure activity during pregnancy. In addition, folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy as a marker of intent to conceive was used to evaluate whether the use of folic acid at the time......). Seizure deterioration was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2: 9% versus 32% (Pfolic acid supplements was significantly higher in group 1 (P

  15. Test for planetary influences on solar activity. [tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, L. A.; Van Hoven, G.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A method due to Schuster is used to test the hypothesis that solar activity is influenced by tides raised in the sun's atmosphere by planets. We calculate the distribution in longitude of over 1000 flares occurring in a 6 1/2 yr segment of solar cycle 19, referring the longitude system in turn to the orbital positions of Jupiter and Venus. The resulting distributions show no evidence for a tidal effect.

  16. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis is superior to spa typing and sufficient to characterize MRSA for surveillance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; Pluister, Gerlinde N; van Luit, Martijn; Landman, Fabian; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; Schot, Corrie; Witteveen, Sandra; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Heck, Max E O C; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    Assess the best approach to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) or both. Discriminatory power of spa typing and MLVA was determined using 20,771 MRSA isolates. There were twice as many MLVA types (MTs) as spa types present in the collection. Among the top 70% of the isolates, 37 spa types and 139 MTs were found. MLVA diversity among the top-10 spa types was high (diversity index 0.96), while spa diversity among the top-10 MTs was much lower (diversity index 0.83). The probability that two MRSA isolates with the same spa type also had the same MT was low (Wallace's coefficient 0.27). By contrast, most MRSA isolates yielding the same MT also had the same spa type (Wallace's coefficient 0.90). MLVA is superior to spa typing and will suffice to characterize MRSA isolates for surveillance.

  17. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

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    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  18. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Mauas, Pablo; Buccino, Andrea P.; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other river...

  19. Beneficial effects of spa treatment on functional status and quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Mustur Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic constantly deteriorating disease of unpredictable clinical course, with exacerbations, remissions and damaged joints. It leads to the loss of self-sufficiency, independence in performing many daily activities, decrease of working ability and invalidity. Beside physical factors, which are regarded as most responsible for the poorer quality of life of RA patients, psychological changes are also significant, such as the feeling of helplessness, hopelessness and depression. The goal of the treatment of patients with RA is to decrease illness symptoms, slow down the development of illness progression, improvement of physical functioning and provision of expert help to the RA patients to adapt to life. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess the influence of spa therapy on the functional condition and life quality of RA patients. METHODS The study involved 69 patients with RA (51 female and 18 male, on average aged 55.2±11.4 years, with illness duration 12.5±7.5 years, and were a part of a cohort from Norway, suffering of inflammatory rheumatism. All the patients came for four-week rehabilitation at the Institute for Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Rheumatology "Dr. Simo Milošević" in Igalo, Montenegro. The RA patients underwent treatment with mud compresses, mud, mineral and pearl baths, as well as with underwater shower massage (balneotherapy kinesitherapy and certain forms of electrotherapy with analgesic effects. The evaluation was done on admission and after completed physical therapy when we assessed RA patients' functional condition and quality of life. The functional condition was determined using the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ, and the quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36, which encompassed eight life domains. RESULTS After completion of 28-dayspa therapy, RA patients showed a significant improvement in

  20. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  1. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a “mixed methods” design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale—Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study—Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  2. The presence of sboA and spaS genes and antimicrobial peptides subtilosin A and subtilin among Bacillus strains of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Renata Voltolini; Basso, Ana Paula; Segalin, Jeferson; Costa-Medina, Luis Fernando; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of PCR for the genes spaS and sboA as a means of identifying Bacillus strains with a potential to produce subtilin and subtilosin A. One collection strain and five Bacillus spp. isolated from aquatic environments in the Amazon basin were screened by PCR using primers for sboA and spaS designed specifically for this study. The sequences of the PCR products showed elevated homology with previously described spaS and sboA genes. Antimicrobial peptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. For all samples, the mass spectra revealed clusters with peaks at m/z 3300–3500 Da, corresponding to subtilosin A, subtilin and isoforms of these peptides. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of these strains may be associated with the production of subtilosin A and/or subtilin. The PCR used here was efficient in identifying novel Bacillus strains with the essential genes for producing subtilosin A and subtilin. PMID:23569414

  3. The presence of sboA and spaS genes and antimicrobial peptides subtilosin A and subtilin among Bacillus strains of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Renata Voltolini; Basso, Ana Paula; Segalin, Jeferson; Costa-Medina, Luis Fernando; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-03-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of PCR for the genes spaS and sboA as a means of identifying Bacillus strains with a potential to produce subtilin and subtilosin A. One collection strain and five Bacillus spp. isolated from aquatic environments in the Amazon basin were screened by PCR using primers for sboA and spaS designed specifically for this study. The sequences of the PCR products showed elevated homology with previously described spaS and sboA genes. Antimicrobial peptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. For all samples, the mass spectra revealed clusters with peaks at m/z 3300-3500 Da, corresponding to subtilosin A, subtilin and isoforms of these peptides. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of these strains may be associated with the production of subtilosin A and/or subtilin. The PCR used here was efficient in identifying novel Bacillus strains with the essential genes for producing subtilosin A and subtilin.

  4. An insight into the immune roles of surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D

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    Annapurna eNayak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, are hydrophilic collagen-containing calcium-dependent lectins, which appear to have a range of innate immune functions at pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary sites. These proteins bind to target ligands on pathogens, allergens and apoptotic cells via C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains while the collagen region brings about the effector functions. SP-A and SP-D deals with various pathogens triggering a range of innate immune mechanisms such as agglutination/aggregation, enhancement of phagocytosis and killing reactions, and growth inhibition. SP-A and SP-D have also been involved in the control of pulmonary inflammation including allergy and asthma, and hence, they are likely to central issues in a range of pathological situations. There is also emerging evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are capable of linking innate immunity with adaptive immunity that includes modulation of dendritic cell function and helper T cell polarisation. It is clear now that SP-A and SP-D are potent innate immune molecules in the lungs. This review is a summary of their immunological properties in general and their importance in human health and disease.

  5. Possible helio-geomagnetic activity influence on cardiological cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavrias, Christos

    Eruptive solar events as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur during solar activ-ity periods. Energetic particles, fast solar wind plasma and electromagnetic radiation pass through interplanetary space, arrive on Earth's ionosphere-magnetosphere and produce various disturbances. It is well known the negative influence of geomagnetic substorms on the human technological applications on geospace. During the last 25 years, many studies concerning the possible influence on the human health are published. Increase of the Acute Coronary Syn-dromes and disorders of the Cardiac Rhythm, increase of accidents as well as neurological and psychological disorders (e.g. increase of suicides) during or near to the geomagnetic storms time interval are reported. In this study, we research the problem in Greece, focusing on patients with Acute Myocardial Infraction, hospitalized in the 2nd Cardiological Department of the General Hospital of Nikaea (Piraeus City), for the time interval 1997-2007 (23rd solar cycle) and also to the arrival of emergency cardiological cases to Emergency Department of two greek hospitals, the General Hospital of Lamia City and the General Hospital of Veria City during the selected months, with or without helio-geomagnetic activity, of the 23rd solar cycle. Increase of cases is recorded during the periods with increase helio-geomagnetic activity. The necessity of continuing the research for a longer period and with a bigger sample is high; so as to exact more secure conclusions.

  6. Parents' perception of their influence on their child's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerworp, Gwendolyn Kay; Ryan, Sarah-Jane

    2016-03-01

    Childhood physical activity (PA) has declined in the western world recently. To combat child inactivity, government programs have been organized to promote PA within families. It is important for physiotherapists to understand the influence parents perceive to have on their child's PA habits in order to better encourage a positive parental influence. The purpose of this study is to explore how parents perceive their influence on their child/children's PA through an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five participants. The interviews were analyzed using elements of IPA. Master themes developed with their corresponding subthemes: creating an environment of opportunity--logistics, opportunities through encouragement and PA within the family, barriers to PA--barriers created by parents and barriers created by external factors, and parent and child interactions--children communicating interest and disinterest in PA and parent's attitudes toward children's disinterest. The findings suggest that parents perceive themselves to have a greater positive influence on their children rather than negative. The barriers that parents create are not perceived to prevent their child's PA but rather restrict it. Many participants reported enjoying doing PA with their children and used PA as an opportunity for family time, indicating a dual purpose for PA.

  7. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  8. Active element influence on the motor’s torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgih Antonina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical and experimental studies of the influence of the torque motor active element on the motor’s torque. The tape active element is a novel type of a motor’s stator organization, where the conventional winding is replaced by a tape winding. The force (torque dependence over the rotor pole position using COMSOL is given; the tape winding resistance and the turns number are defined. The relative motor’s characteristics are investigated and the maximum torque over the certain poles pair number is obtained. The application of the proposed active element in brushless DC motor is considered. The results show the possibility of the further synthesis of the torque motor.

  9. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF EU DIRECTIVES FOR CERTIFICATION OF THE STAFF IN THE SPA BUSINESS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Kutincheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Implemented was a psychometric experiment for survey the opinion of the leading experts from the 4 and 5 stars hotels and the first SPA certified MSc - SPA managers. The summarized results from the study highlight that the priorities are related to improve the quality of the services in the SPA business. We establish the acute need for increasing professional qualification of the personnel and harmonize the Bulgarian legislation with the EU directives. In this regard it is important to implement the national classificatory with new professions and unified for this purpose the theoretical categories: “Results of advanced training", "knowledge", "practical skills" and "competencies" in educational and qualification degree: “Bachelor", "MasterSc" and "PhD ".

  11. Romanian spa tourism: a communist paradigm in a post communist era

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    George Erdeli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spa tourism is one of the oldest forms of tourism which continuously evolved in time as the leisure industry paradigm and the consumers’ behavior changed. Similar to other countries in Central and Eastern Europe, spa tourism is an old phenomenon in Romania which expanded to the dimensions of a well defined tourism industry during the mass tourism period which also corresponded to the communism epoch. Although severely affected by the major political and socio-economic changes which occurred after the Revolution in 1989, this industry coexists with new emergent forms of tourism orienting, itself towards new dimensions embraced by the contemporary leisure consumerism (e.g. medical tourism, cosmetic treatments. Lying on considerable balneal and climate resources and displaying an important communist heritage both in physical terms (large and massive tourism structures and in virtual and psychological terms (social supportive ticket granting system, Romanian spa tourism faces various challenges in the attempt to adapt in a new tourism era.

  12. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

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    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  13. Social ideological influences on food consumption, physical activity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A; Cunningham, E G

    2009-12-01

    We investigated relationships between ideological beliefs (i.e., diaphanous body image and environmental concerns), food attitudes, evening meal patterns, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. A survey was conducted among shoppers aged 40-70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested among female baby boomers (n=547) for younger (n=245) and older (n=302) age groups using structural equation modeling. Findings showed that diaphanous body image had a direct and positive influence on negative food attitudes, which is likely to lead to higher BMI for both age groups. Body image beliefs were positively related to physical activity only for women aged 56-70 years. In contrast, among women aged 40-55 years, strong pro-environmental concerns suggested less consumption of both healthy (e.g., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., sugar and fats) foods. Moreover, strong pro-animal concerns resulted in higher BMI for the younger women. As expected, increased physical activity negatively influenced BMI. Importantly, the associations between ideological beliefs, attitudes, evening meal patterns, and BMI differed between younger and older female baby boomers.

  14. Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) continues to be one of the leading causes of `years lived with disability' worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is highly prevalent among people aged 50 years and over and is destined to become an ever more important healthcare problem. Current management of knee OA includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA in many European countries, as well as in Japan and Israel. Despite its long history and popularity, spa treatment is still the subject of debate and its role in modern medicine continues to be unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in knee OA. Various randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA that lasts over time, until 6-9 months after the treatment. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviate suffering in OA are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. In conclusion, spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of knee OA. Additional RCTs and further studies of mechanisms of action with high methodological quality are necessary to prove the effects of spa therapy.

  15. Has time come for a re-assessment of spa therapy? The NAIADE survey in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccheri, S.; Gasbarrini, G.; Valenti, M.; Nappi, G.; di Orio, F.

    2008-01-01

    Goal of this study was to investigate whether appropriately applied spa therapy in several indications could be associated with a subsequent fall in the need for costly health services and missed working days due to sick-leave. The Naiade project was a multicenter observational, longitudinal, questionnaire-based study comparing an “entry” inquiry addressed to patients before an entry thermal cycle, and a “return” inquiry after 1 year. Routine statistical methods were used for comparisons. The study was carried out in 297 of the 340 certified Italian spa centers. Inquiries were managed by the spa doctor(s), with the collaboration of family doctors, and when necessary, hospitals, other health services, labour offices and employers. After exclusion of regular customers and of patients with acute disease phases or severe health conditions, 39,943 patients divided into eight diseases subgroups (rheumatic, respiratory, dermatologic, gynaecologic, otorhynologic, urinary, vascular and gastroenteric) underwent entry inquiry and appropriate spa treatment. Patients who returned for treatment after 1 year (“index year”) were 23,680 (59.2%) and received return inquiry. Outcomes considered were: frequency and duration of hospitalisation periods; missed working days; regular use of disease-specific drugs; and resort to “non-spa” rehabilitation therapies. The data collected at return inquiry were compared with those of entry inquiry. All the considered outcomes appeared to be significantly reduced in the index year in seven of the eight disease subgroups in comparison with the previous year. In conclusion, disease-appropriate spa treatments were followed by a reduction in the need of subsequent health interventions in most disease subgroups. The health promoting value of spa treatments should therefore undergo more rigorous assessment with randomised controlled studies.

  16. Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) continues to be one of the leading causes of 'years lived with disability' worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is highly prevalent among people aged 50 years and over and is destined to become an ever more important healthcare problem. Current management of knee OA includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA in many European countries, as well as in Japan and Israel. Despite its long history and popularity, spa treatment is still the subject of debate and its role in modern medicine continues to be unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in knee OA. Various randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA that lasts over time, until 6-9 months after the treatment. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviate suffering in OA are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. In conclusion, spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of knee OA. Additional RCTs and further studies of mechanisms of action with high methodological quality are necessary to prove the effects of spa therapy.

  17. SpaRibs Geometry Parameterization for Wings with Multiple Sections using Single Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Shuvodeep; Jrad, Mohamed; Locatelli, Davide; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Baker, Myles; Pak, Chan-Gi

    2017-01-01

    The SpaRibs topology of an aircraft wing has a significant effect on its structural behavior and stability as well as the flutter performance. The development of additive manufacturing techniques like Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF3) has made it feasible to manufacture aircraft wings with curvilinear spars, ribs (SpaRibs) and stiffeners. In this article a new global-local optimization framework for wing with multiple sections using curvilinear SpaRibs is described. A single design space is used to parameterize the SpaRibs geometry. This method has been implemented using MSC-PATRAN to create a broad range of SpaRibs topologies using limited number of parameters. It ensures C0 and C1 continuities in SpaRibs geometry at the junction of two wing sections with airfoil thickness gradient discontinuity as well as mesh continuity between all structural components. This method is advantageous in complex multi-disciplinary optimization due to its potential to reduce the number of design variables. For the global-local optimization the local panels are generated by an algorithm which is totally based on a set algebra on the connectivity matrix data. The great advantage of this method is that it is completely independent of the coordinates of the nodes of the finite element model. It is also independent of the order in which the elements are distributed in the FEM. The code is verified by optimizing of the CRM Baseline model at trim condition at Mach number equal to 0.85 for five different angle of attack (-2deg, 0deg,2deg,4deg and 6deg). The final weight of the wing is 19,090.61 lb. This value is comparable to that obtained by Qiang et al. 6 (19,269 lb).

  18. Plan de marketing estratégico. Caso: balneario/spa “El Antiguo Parador”

    OpenAIRE

    García Migueláñez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Se elabora y diseña un plan de marketing estratégico para la creación de un balneario/spa situado en el municipio de La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia). El balneario/spa, llamado “El Antiguo Parador”, es una empresa pequeña y ficticia que quiere abrirse un hueco en el mercado perteneciente al sector turístico. En esta etapa de crisis económica, para que el proyecto sea viable, hay que realizar dicho plan de marketing, analizando todos los factores que influyen en la empresa de manera ext...

  19. Revitalizarea spațiului public prin iluminat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DRANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban development strategies in Romania seem to systematically ignore the significant po- tential of public lighting in the field of public space design. The general impression is that the municipalities are primarily considering public lighting as a measure for crime prevention and traffic fluidization, an approach that very often has a negative effect upon the ambiance and identity of the public space. This is the context in which the present paper is proposing a new role for the public lighting system, a role in which the light is actively contributing to the revitalization and the attractiveness of the public space. The evolution of public lighting technologies has made it a lot easier for the urban designers to emphasize the identity of the urban landscape in the night, to create and influence behaviors and attitudes within the users and in the same time to provide the traditional functional role in a much more efficient and environmentally friendly manner. It is the reason for which public lighting should be integrated into all the local strategies that involve intervention within the spatial and psychological profile of the public space. 

  20. Association of CD163+ macrophages and local production of soluble CD163 with decreased lymphocyte activation in spondylarthropathy synovitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeten, Dominique; Møller, Holger Jon; Delanghe, Joris

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since CD163+ macrophages are selectively increased in spondylarthropathy (SpA) synovitis, we investigated the role of CD163+ macrophages in synovial inflammation. METHODS: Synovial biopsy samples from 26 SpA and 23 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed for macrophage...... and lymphocyte subsets. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for soluble CD163 (sCD163) and by flow cytometry for lymphocyte activation. We also analyzed sCD163 in sera from 100 SpA patients, 23 RA patients, 20 healthy controls, and 20 SpA patients...... treated with infliximab. Polymorphism of haptoglobin (Hp), the CD163 ligand, was determined in 130 SpA and 23 RA patients. RESULTS: CD163+ macrophages, but not CD68+ macrophages, were significantly increased in SpA versus RA synovium and in HLA-B27+ versus HLA-B27- SpA. Despite similar lymphocyte numbers...

  1. Evaluation of spa-typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using high-resolution melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Mazi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: HRM-based spa-typing is reproducible, simple, rapid, and cost-effective. t037 is prevalent in Brazil and Sudan, while diverse spa-types are found in Scotland and Saudi Arabia. Standardization is required for cross-referencing between laboratories globally.

  2. Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI macrorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strommenger, B; Kettlitz, C; Weniger, T; Harmsen, D; Friedrich, A W; Witte, W

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the new clustering algorithm Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) into the Ridom StaphType software tool enables clustering based on spa typing data for Staphylococcus aureus. We compared clustering results obtained by spa typing/BURP to those obtained by currently well-established

  3. Contributions to the knowledge and capitalization of spa potential for tourism: Băile Buziaș resort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA CÎRCIUMARU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania is a country that has rich spa resources that consist of natural healing factors, scattered over the entire country: mineral and thermal waters, mud and therapeutic gases, lakes and therapeutic salt. Spa tourism resources generated since antiquity the oldest and most characteristic form of tourism in Romania - health tourism. Spa sector is one of the six elements (called health and wellness within the national touristic brand. Băile Buziaş is one of the oldest spa in Romania, known in Roman times as the Centum Putei [4]. Due to favorable natural conditions, with rich mineral springs and a mild climate, Buziaş may be the "spa pearl" of Banat, framing the resort in a strategy to exploit the spa potential, which is a necessity that needs to be solved rapidly. Strategy construction is realized using strategic questions: What are our resources? How can we improve the spa resort? How can we develop a spa product? What are the promotion techniques of this product on the Romania’ resort market and abroad?

  4. Evaluation of spa-typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, Waleed; Sangal, Vartul; Sandstrom, Gunnar; Saeed, Amir; Yu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    spa-typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been used widely in clinical diagnostics and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate high-resolution melting (HRM) as a rapid and cost-effective method, to replace DNA-sequencing, for spa-typing in a global collection of 50 MRSA isolates. The polymorphic X region of the spa gene was amplified by colony PCR using the SensiMix HRM kit, and the melting temperature (Tm) and melting curves of the amplicons were analyzed in close tubes using a Rotor-Gene 6000 instrument. Fifteen out of 19 spa-types each had a distinct Tm, which was sufficient to unambiguously type each of these spa-types. The remaining four spa-types could not be separated by Tm alone: t008 and t2770 shared a Tm (80.3°C) and t021 and t311 shared a Tm (80.0°C). However, they could be separated based on the shapes of their melting curves. There are discrepancies between the findings of the present study and those of previous studies, suggesting that standardization remains a challenge for cross-referencing. HRM-based spa-typing is reproducible, simple, rapid, and cost-effective. t037 is prevalent in Brazil and Sudan, while diverse spa-types are found in Scotland and Saudi Arabia. Standardization is required for cross-referencing between laboratories globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 76 FR 10224 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... this AD, contact Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A., Via Cibrario, 4-16154 Genoa, Italy; phone: +39 010... that the towing bar P/N 01-1227-0000 or similar ferromagnetic masses are prohibited to be carried...

  6. 76 FR 7694 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The..., etc. for PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 airplanes. As published, the...

  7. 75 FR 68172 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... identified in this AD, contact Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.a., Via Cibrario, 4-16154 Genoa, Italy; phone: +39... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains the...

  8. 75 FR 67639 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Industries S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airplane Flight Manual, stating that the towing bar P/N 01-1227-0000 or similar ferromagnetic masses are... maintenance requirements and/or airworthiness limitations developed by Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A....

  9. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  10. May spa therapy be a valid opportunity to treat hand osteoarthritis? A review of clinical trials and mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Nicola Angelo; Fioravanti, Antonella; Seri, Gina; Cinelli, Simone; Tenti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and its current treatment includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in OA of the hand. We conducted a search of the literature to extract articles describing randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in hand OA published in the period 1952-2015. We identified three assessable articles reporting RCTs on spa therapy in hand OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in hand OA. Spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of hand OA. However, additional RCTs are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action and the effects of the application of thermal treatments.

  11. May spa therapy be a valid opportunity to treat hand osteoarthritis? A review of clinical trials and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Nicola Angelo; Fioravanti, Antonella; Seri, Gina; Cinelli, Simone; Tenti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and its current treatment includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in OA of the hand. We conducted a search of the literature to extract articles describing randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in hand OA published in the period 1952-2015. We identified three assessable articles reporting RCTs on spa therapy in hand OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in hand OA. Spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of hand OA. However, additional RCTs are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action and the effects of the application of thermal treatments.

  12. Environmental influences on activity patterns in altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weer, A-S; Da Ros, M; Berré, J; Mélot, C; Goldman, S; Peigneux, P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in disorders of consciousness (DOC) circadian variations in motor patterns and their possible synchronization with physiologically regulated light variations and/or a social environmental factor, i.e. presence and actions of other persons. Actimetric and ambient light levels recordings were obtained during 4-9 days in two patients with traumatic brain injury (TB1 and TB2) in a minimally conscious state (MCS), one MCS (AI1) and one comatose (AI2) anoxic-ischaemic patients. Environmental changes were automatically recorded using a video system. Minute light variations correlated with motor activity in all patients. However, motor activity was significantly higher during day than nighttime and correlated with social environmental changes, in patients TB1 and TB2 only. Night-day circadian variations in motor activity patterns and influence of social stimulations were observed in traumatic MCS patients only. Nonetheless, rapid light variations may temporarily promote increased arousal, and consequently motor activity, in all DOCs. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  13. Pilot study exploring lung allograft surfactant protein A (SP-A) expression in association with lung transplant outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, F; Kaneda, H; Chaparro, C; Mura, M; Lederer, D; Di Angelo, S; Takahashi, H; Gutierrez, C; Hutcheon, M; Singer, L G; Waddell, T K; Floros, J; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2013-10-01

    Primary graft failure and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) limit lung transplant long-term outcomes. Various lung diseases have been correlated with surfactant protein (SP) expression and polymorphisms. We sought to investigate the role of SP expression in lung allografts prior to implantation, in relation to posttransplant outcomes. The expression of SP-(A, B, C, D) mRNA was assayed in 42 allografts. Posttransplant assessments include pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and biopsies to determine allograft rejection. BALF was assayed for SP-A, SP-D in addition to cytokines IL-8, IL-12 and IL-2. The diagnosis of CLAD was evaluated 6 months after transplantation. Lung allografts with low SP-A mRNA expression prior to implantation reduced survival (Log-rank p < 0.0001). No association was noted for the other SPs. Allografts with low SP-A mRNA had greater IL-2 (p = 0.03) and IL-12 (p < 0.0001) in the BALF and a greater incidence of rejection episodes (p = 0.003). Levels of SP-A mRNA expression were associated with the SP-A2 polymorphisms (p = 0.015). Specifically, genotype 1A1A(0) was associated with lower SP-A mRNA expression (p < 0.05). Lung allografts with low levels of SP-A mRNA expression are associated with reduced survival. Lung allograft SP-A mRNA expression appears to be associated with SP-A gene polymorphisms.

  14. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on

  15. SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Mihaela-Raluca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the theoretical framework of the social capital concept, based on different approaches identified in the literature and highlight the direct influence social capital has on the entrepreneurial personality characteristics of individuals and organizations. The objectives of the paper focus first on conceptualizing the notion of social capital, by acknowledging the social capital structure and components in the acceptation of the most popular scholars in the research field, the sources of social capital and its role in building social economy; further on, the article explores the influence of social capital in the creation of innovation and economic growth, its dimensions in the entrepreneurial process and the definition of the instruments of measurement, including indicators of trust-generalized and institutional, number of social networks, associational activities-passive and active membership and civic norms. The paper gathers some of the outcomes of different researches conducted in the literature with respect to the positive relationship between social capital dimensions and entrepreneurship, through attracting the right potential of human capital and the required level of financial capital, reducing the transaction costs, identifying new market opportunities and leveraging the social networks, transfer and knowledge overflow and information channels, enabling the launch and the survival of business venture and help gain competitive advantage that would ensure sustainability and success. The case studies referenced in this article use various approaches of highlighting the social capital as a key enabler and not necessarily a generator of entrepreneurial activity, by analyzing the likelihood to launch new ventures based on the interactions with key partners and exchange of information, the sustainability and success of a start up or push/pull factors that determine an entrepreneur to enter the new

  16. 78 FR 41005 - Airworthiness Directives; Vulcanair S.p.A. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... inspections for the wing and stabilator structures, in accordance with the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM... airworthiness directive (AD) for Vulcanair S.p.A. (type certificate previously held by Partenavia) Models P 68.../or corrosion of the wing spar, which could result in structural failure of the wing. We are...

  17. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards : Sandro Ferraris and Guiseppi Ginola from Simic SpA

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Simic SpA (Italy) received its award for manufacturing the vacuum vessels for the superconducting dipoles. The 937 blue cylinders manufactured by Simic will provide the thermal insulation for the magnets. Measuring 15 metres in length and 1 metre in diameter, they are designed to withstand a vacuum of 10-4 Pa.

  18. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... health departments, one from the Tennessee Hospitality Association, one from an ] individual, one from a... benefit of members of the Armed Forces and their dependents or employees of any department or agency and... the context of pool and spa safety. The number of units in an establishment bears no relationship to...

  19. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15 f

  20. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... 19, 2008. The VGB Act's purpose is to prevent suction entrapment by swimming pool and spa drains and...; Suction-limiting vent system; Gravity drainage system; Automatic pump shut-off system; Drain disablement.... A ] drain is ``unblockable'' if the suction outlet, including the sump, has a perforated (open)...

  1. [Measurement of soil organic matter and available K based on SPA-LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xue-Mei; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Visible and short wave infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) was investigated in the present study for measurement of soil organic matter (OM) and available potassium (K). Four types of pretreatments including smoothing, SNV, MSC and SG smoothing+first derivative were adopted to eliminate the system noises and external disturbances. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models were implemented for calibration models. The LS-SVM model was built by using characteristic wavelength based on successive projections algorithm (SPA). Simultaneously, the performance of LSSVM models was compared with PLSR models. The results indicated that LS-SVM models using characteristic wavelength as inputs based on SPA outperformed PLSR models. The optimal SPA-LS-SVM models were achieved, and the correlation coefficient (r), and RMSEP were 0. 860 2 and 2. 98 for OM and 0. 730 5 and 15. 78 for K, respectively. The results indicated that visible and short wave near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) (325 approximately 1 075 nm) combined with LS-SVM based on SPA could be utilized as a precision method for the determination of soil properties.

  2. Getting Down to Business: Health Spa, Module 16. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, Jean

    This is the sixteenth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training Modules and accompanies CE 031 060. Its purpose is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate a health spa. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module use contain suggestions on introducing the…

  3. Functional relatedness in the Inv/Mxi-Spa type III secretion system family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jessica A; Dave, Biren M; Raphenya, Amogelang R; McArthur, Andrew G; Knodler, Leigh A

    2017-03-01

    Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic 'tip complex' translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, possesses two T3SSs, one belonging to the Inv/Mxi-Spa family. We used invasion-deficient S. Typhimurium mutants as surrogates for expression of translocator orthologs identified from an extensive phylogenetic analysis, and type III effector translocation and host cell invasion as a readout for complementation efficiency, and identified several Inv/Mxi-Spa orthologs that can functionally substitute for the S. Typhimurium chaperone and translocator proteins. Functional complementation correlates with amino acid sequence identity between orthologs, but varies considerably between the four proteins. This is the first in-depth survey of the functional interchangeability of Inv/Mxi-Spa T3SS proteins acting directly at the host-pathogen interface. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Spa treatment for fibromyalgia: general health improvement is not for free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, T.R.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Hans J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an adjuvant treatment course of spa treatment compared with usual care only in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). - Methods: 134 patients with FM, selected from a rheumatology outpatient department and from members of the Dutch FM patient

  5. SPA enhanced FPIA-based detection of pesticide residue with ppb/ppt level detection limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Swathi; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Vijayalakshmi, Uthirapathy

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residue in fruits & vegetables is one of the key issues affecting the export of rural products in India. Pesticide exposure or intake causes major nervous system problems in children. The solutions to quantitate them in field are rare and the pesticide residue detection in the parts per billion (ppb) ranges is challenging. Except ELISA, none of the existing methods can detect pesticide residues in ppb range in the field. We employed a new approach of concentrating field samples and used sodium polyacrylate (SPA) as water absorbing material. The SPA beads concentrate the field samples and obtained a sub ppb range detection using an existing FPIA system and could improve overall sensitivity by 10-100 fold. The developed assay can be done in few seconds. We have used three pesticides 2,4-D, atrazine and methyl parathion with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 ppb detection limit respectively. We developed a simple field ready FPIA device and used sodium poly acrylate (SPA) in this biochemical FPIA to enhance sensitivity. Our tests with spiked field samples offers a possibility of using SPA concentration assisted FPIA in field. This study will have far reaching applications of both qualitative & quantitative analysis chemical analytes in field samples.

  6. Rickett’s Dry Cleaning Site, Village of Ballston Spa, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rickett’s Dry Cleaning Site is located in a mixed commercial and residential area in the village of Ballston Spa on County Route 50. The site was the location of a family owned dry cleaner/ laundromat that went out of business in 2014. The site has

  7. Thompson’s Spa: The Most Famous Lunch Counter in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thompson’s Spa in Boston was one of the most celebrated restaurant companies in America at the turn of the twentieth century. Founder Charles Eaton was a pioneer in production and service methods, who developed a variety of innovative mechanical systems. This article describes the founding, growth, and eventual decline of the company during the period 1882 to 1968.

  8. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  9. Opposite nucleotide usage biases in different parts of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae spaC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich; Kolodkina, Valentina Leonidovna; Khrustaleva, Tatyana Aleksandrovna

    2015-01-01

    In this work we described a bacterial open reading frame with two different directions of nucleotide usage biases in its two parts. The level of GC-content in third codon positions (3GC) is equal to 40.17 ± 0.22% during the most of the length of Corynebacterium diphtheriae spaC gene. However, in the 3'-end of the same gene (from codon #1600 to codon #1873) 3GC level is equal to 64.61 ± 0.91%. Using original methodology ('VVTAK Sliding window' and 'VVTAK VarInvar') we approved that there is an ongoing mutational AT-pressure during the most of the length of spaC gene (up to codon #1599), and there is an ongoing mutational G-pressure in the 3′-end of spaC. Intragenic promoters predicted by three different methods may be the cause of the differences in preferable types of nucleotide mutations in spaC parts because of their autonomous transcription.

  10. Multi-objective calibration of a distributed hydrological model (WetSpa) using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafii, M.; de Smedt, F.

    2009-11-01

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm, NSGA-II, is applied to calibrate a distributed hydrological model (WetSpa) for prediction of river discharges. The goals of this study include (i) analysis of the applicability of multi-objective approach for WetSpa calibration instead of the traditional approach, i.e. the Parameter ESTimator software (PEST), and (ii) identifiability assessment of model parameters. The objective functions considered are model efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion) known to be biased for high flows, and model efficiency for logarithmic transformed discharges to emphasize low-flow values. For the multi-objective approach, Pareto-optimal parameter sets are derived, whereas for the single-objective formulation, PEST is applied to give optimal parameter sets. The two approaches are evaluated by applying the WetSpa model to predict daily discharges in the Hornad River (Slovakia) for a 10 year period (1991-2000). The results reveal that NSGA-II performs favourably well to locate Pareto optimal solutions in the parameters search space. Furthermore, identifiability analysis of the WetSpa model parameters shows that most parameters are well-identifiable. However, in order to perform an appropriate model evaluation, more efforts should be focused on improving calibration concepts and to define robust methods to quantify different sources of uncertainties involved in the calibration procedure.

  11. Influence of metabolism on endocrine activities of bisphenol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skledar, Darja Gramec; Schmidt, Jan; Fic, Anja; Klopčič, Ivana; Trontelj, Jurij; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS; bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]sulfone) is commonly used as a replacement for bisphenol A in numerous consumer products. The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of different metabolic reactions that BPS undergoes on the endocrine activity. We demonstrate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of BPS, catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, is its major in-vitro phase I biotransformation. Nevertheless, coupled oxidative-conjugative reactions analyses revealed that glucuronidation and formation of BPS glucuronide is the predominant BPS metabolic pathway. BPS reactive metabolites that can be tracked as glutathione conjugates were not detected in the present study. Two in-vitro systems were used to evaluate the endocrine activity of BPS and its two main metabolites, BPS glucuronide and hydroxylated BPS 4-(4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (BPSM1). In addition, we have tested two structural analogs of BPS, bis[4-(2-hydroxyetoxy)phenyl]sulfone (BHEPS) and 4,4-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS). The test systems were yeast cells, for evaluating estrogenic and androgenic activities, and the GH3.TRE-Luc reporter cell line for measuring thyroid hormone activity. BPS and BPSM1 were weak agonists of the estrogen receptor, EC50 values of 8.4 × 10(-5) M and 6.7 × 10(-4) M, respectively. Additionally, BPSM1 exhibited weak antagonistic activity toward the thyroid hormone receptor, with an IC50 of 4.3 × 10(-5) M. In contrast to BPSM1, BPS glucuronide was inactive in these assays, inhibiting neither the estrogen nor the thyroid hormone receptors. Hence, glucuronidation appears to be the most important pathway for both BPS metabolism and detoxification.

  12. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  13. Long-term solar activity influences on South American rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, Pablo; Flamenco, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    River streamflows are excellent climatic indicators since they integrate precipitation over large areas. Here we follow up on our previous study of the influence of solar activity on the flow of the Parana River, in South America. We find that the unusual minimum of solar activity in recent years have a correlation on very low levels in the Parana's flow, and we report historical evidence of low water levels during the Little Ice Age. We also study data for the streamflow of three other rivers (Colorado, San Juan and Atuel), and snow levels in the Andes. We obtained that, after eliminating the secular trends and smoothing out the solar cycle, there is a strong positive correlation between the residuals of both the Sunspot Number and the streamflows, as we obtained for the Parana. Both results put together imply that higher solar activity corresponds to larger precipitation, both in summer and in wintertime, not only in the large basin of the Parana, but also in the Andean region north of the limit with Patago...

  14. Modification of Monoaminergic Activity by MAO Inhibitors Influences Methamphetamine Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kitanaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH abuse is a serious health and social problem worldwide. At present, however, there are no effective medications for the treatment of METH abuse. Of the intracellular METH target proteins, monoamine oxidase (MAO is involved in the regulation of monoaminergic tone in the brain, resulting in the modulation of METHinduced behavioral abnormalities in mammals. The METH-induced expression of increased motor activity, stereotypy, and sensitization is closely associated with monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Modifi cation of MAO activity by MAO inhibitors can influence METH action. Of the MAO inhibitors, the propargylamine derivative clorgyline, an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, effectively blocks METH-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization in rodents. Analysis of the associated monoaminergic activity indicates an involvement of altered striatal serotonergic transmission as well as an increased dopaminergic tone. Some effects of MAO inhibitors on METH action appear to be independent of MAO, suggesting complex mechanisms of action of MAO inhibitors in METH abuse. This review describes current research to find effective treatment for METH abuse, using MAO inhibitors.

  15. Influence of gold nanoparticles on platelets functional activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Akchurin, George G.; Ivanov, Alexey N.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Terentyuk, George S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolay G.

    2008-02-01

    Now in the leading biomedical centers of the world approved new technology of laser photothermal destruction of cancer cells using plasmon gold nanoparticles. Investigations of influence of gold nanoparticles on white rat platelets aggregative activity in vitro have been made. Platelet aggregation was investigated in platelet rich plasma (PRP) with help of laser analyzer 230 LA >, Russia). Aggregation inductor was ADP solution in terminal concentration 2.5 micromole (>, Russia). Gold nanoshells soluted in salt solution were used for experiments. Samples of PRP were incubated with 50 or 100 μl gold nanoshells solution in 5 minute, after that we made definition ADP induced platelet aggregation. We found out increase platelet function activity after incubation with nanoparticles solution which shown in maximum ADP-induced aggregation degree increase. Increase platelet function activity during intravenous nanoshells injection can be cause of thrombosis on patients. That's why before clinical application of cancer cell destruction based on laser photothermal used with plasmon gold nanoparticles careful investigations of thrombosis process and detail analyze of physiological blood parameters are very necessary.

  16. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P; Slayter, H S

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the anti-hinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  17. INFLUENCE OF XENOBIOTICS ON THE BIOLOGICAL SOIL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S JAVOREKOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The both basic and potential biological soil activity along with a biological degradation capacity of soil microorganisms through their respiratory activity were investigated after the application of polymers with the different degree of degradation in the soil. The CO2 production was measured by the absorption method at standard moisture and temperature under laboratory conditions. Numerous representing changes of major soil microbial groups were determined after the application of the polyethylene. Polyethylene (PE, polyvinylalcohol (PVA, polyvinylalcohol modified by hydrolysed collagen (PVAHC were applied as synthetic polymers into luvisol. The addition of all tested polymers significantly influenced the CO2 production. During 43 days of incubation period, the total amount of produced CO2 was 1271.6 mg.kg-1. The total amount of mineralised carbon in the soil reached 4.55 %. When compared with the soil, the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms increased 3-times, 1.2-times and 1.3-times after addition of starch, PVA and PVAHC, respectively. The addition of granular PE reduced the soil pores size, which resulted in a significant decrease of CO2 production and non-significant rearrangement of the major microbial groups in the soil after three month of incubation.

  18. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonova, Natalya, E-mail: n.a.sazonova@mail.ru; Badenikov, Artem, E-mail: rector@agta.ru; Ivanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: lisik-iva@mail.ru [Angarsk State Technical University, 60, Tchaykovsky St., 665835, Angarsk (Russian Federation); Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4–6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C{sub 3}S and β-C{sub 2}S.

  19. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  20. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools.

  1. Influence of hexavanadates on Na+/K+- ATPase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great interest in use of polioximetalates in clinical medicine, primary as antibacterial, antiviral and antitumoral agents. Considering the key role of Na+/ K+- ATPase in normal functioning of most animal cells, as well as pivotal roles in cancer cell migration, the aim of this paper was to examine the influence of new synthesized hexavandates [V6-CH3][Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 on Na+/K+- ATPase activity. Material and methods: The enzymatic activity of porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+- ATPase was followed in both the absence and presence of increasing concentration of [V6-CH3] [Na]2, [V6-NO2][TBA]2, [V6-C3][H]2, [V6-C5d][TBA]2 (within the range 10-8 - 10-3 mol/L. The released Pi, liberated from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP, was determined by spectrophotometric method, using Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results: Investigated compounds inhibit the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase in dose-dependent manner within the investigated range. Obtained results indicate that all investigated compounds inhibit the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, but with different inhibiting power. [V6-NO2] [TBA]2 (IC50 = 1,87 × 10-5 mol/L was the most potent inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, while [V6-C5d][TBA]2 showed the least potent inhibiting power (IC50 = 1,31 × 10-4 mol/L . The results are consistent with previously published concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of polyoxometalates (including polioxovandates on ATPase activity from different model syistems. Conclusion: Based on the results, we can conclude that the examined compounds inhibit Na+/K+- ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibiting power of tested hexavanadates are different, and weaker than inhibiting power of decavanadates (tested earlier on Na+/K+- ATPase activity, which is probably due to differences in charge, size and shape of these polioxometalates. Considering the role of this enzymes in the functioning of healthy cells and the

  2. New insights into the origin of the B genome of hexaploid wheat: Evolutionary relationships at the SPA genomic region with the S genome of the diploid relative Aegilops speltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmet Gilles

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggested that the diploid ancestor of the B genome of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species belongs to the Sitopsis section, having Aegilops speltoides (SS, 2n = 14 as the closest identified relative. However molecular relationships based on genomic sequence comparison, including both coding and non-coding DNA, have never been investigated. In an attempt to clarify these relationships, we compared, in this study, sequences of the Storage Protein Activator (SPA locus region of the S genome of Ae. speltoides (2n = 14 to that of the A, B and D genomes co-resident in the hexaploid wheat species (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results Four BAC clones, spanning the SPA locus of respectively the A, B, D and S genomes, were isolated and sequenced. Orthologous genomic regions were identified as delimited by shared non-transposable elements and non-coding sequences surrounding the SPA gene and correspond to 35 268, 22 739, 43 397 and 53 919 bp for the A, B, D and S genomes, respectively. Sequence length discrepancies within and outside the SPA orthologous regions are the result of non-shared transposable elements (TE insertions, all of which inserted after the progenitors of the four genomes divergence. Conclusion On the basis of conserved sequence length as well as identity of the shared non-TE regions and the SPA coding sequence, Ae speltoides appears to be more evolutionary related to the B genome of T. aestivum than the A and D genomes. However, the differential insertions of TEs, none of which are conserved between the two genomes led to the conclusion that the S genome of Ae. speltoides has diverged very early from the progenitor of the B genome which remains to be identified.

  3. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Social influences on self-reported physical activity in overweight Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Reynolds, Erica B; Ip, Edward H; Fenlason, Lindy C; Pont, Stephen J; Poe, Eli K; Barkin, Shari L

    2008-10-01

    Psychosocial variables influence physical activity for different age groups, sex, and ethnic groups. However, little is known about their influence on physical activity in preadolescent Latino children. The authors examined how a) confidence in one's ability to be physically active (self-efficacy); b) ideas about the consequences of being physically active (beliefs), and c) the influences of family and friends on physical activity (social influences) effect physical activity levels in overweight (body mass index >or=85%) Latino preadolescent children. One hundred and fourteen preadolescents participated in a larger intervention designed to improve healthy lifestyles for Latino families. The authors report baseline data collected at a community-based primary care clinic. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only social influences significantly predicted (P < .01) the metabolic equivalent adjusted self-reported baseline physical activity. Prevention and intervention strategies that augment social influences on physical activity are likely to result in more physical activity and improved health in these children.

  5. 基于SPA/FCE/GCF的维修器材供应商选择模型%SPA/FCE/GCF-Based Choice Model for Maintenance Supply Supplier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李望伟; 刘建国

    2009-01-01

    针对供应商选择模型的现状,按照"决策定量化、多方法融合、多人决策"的原则,构建了基于SPA/FCE/GCF的维修器材供应商选择模型,并通过实例验证了模型的可行性,对维修器材供应商选择具有一定的指导意义.

  6. Physical activity and quality of life: assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Paschane, Amy A E; Olson, Karen C

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of exercise frequency, intensity, and volume along with exercise motives on quality of life (QOL) reports. The authors assessed exercise habits with the Godin Leisure Time Activity Scale and measured exercise motives with the Reasons for Exercise Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory assessed satisfaction in 16 domains including health, work, and recreation. High-frequency exercisers reported significantly higher health, helping, and community-related QOL than those who exercised less frequently. The authors noted significantly higher health-related QOL in the heavy volume group compared with the other volume groups. Multiple regression tests revealed that activity intensity and exercise motives significantly predicted QOL reports. The strongest bivariate correlations with QOL existed for mild activity and exercising for fitness and health reasons. Thus, high-frequency activity of mild intensity that produces high kcal utilization and is performed to improve health and fitness has the strongest influence on QOL reports.

  7. Influence of coal preoxidation on the porosity of the activated carbons with steam activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuwen; Gao, Jihui; Sun, Fei; Li, Yang; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Activated carbons have been prepared from a low ash content anthracite preoxidized in air to different degrees. Steam has been used as activating agent to prepare different burn-off samples. The preoxidation effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting chars and activated carbons were comparatively studied. The surface area and porosity of sample was studied by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 0A0;K. The results show that introduced oxygen in coal structure had a great influence on the carbonization and subsequent activation process. The carbonization of oxidized coal exhibited a broader volatile evolution with respect to temperature, and the resulting chars had a larger microporosity. The porosity of the char is a primary foundation to develop more microporosity upon activation. Activation of char from oxidized coal facilitated development of small scale micropore, however, the micropore widening was also observed at high burn-offs. Compared with development of supermicropore, the evolution of mesoporosity is hindered strongly by preoxidation treatment. The quantity of basic surface sites in activated carbons increased with an increase in oxidation degree, while the quantity of acidic sites appeared equivalent. It seemed that the amount of surface groups and the microporosity mainly developed in a parallel way.

  8. Local and spa fee on the example of Kujawsko-pomorskie municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kwaśniewski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses facultative public levies in the Polish tax system – ie. local and spa tax. This publication presents legal structure of both taxes in accordance with the regulations of local taxes and fees contained in the Act of 12 January 1991. It also presents the results of empirical researches that have been carried out in Kujawsko-pomorskie municipalities, where local and spa taxes occured. The basic aim of study was to determine in which municipalities these fees were in force in 2010–2014 and what income had the individual municipal governments. Completed research would answer the question, whether the analysed charges are effective from local government`s point of view. The article is based on the analysis of legal acts, available literature and using case law of administrative courts. Furthermore, the authors presented the results of empirical research taken from Ms. Iwona Majewska thesis.

  9. Clinical researches on the efficacy of spa therapy in fibromyalgia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fraioli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, tenderness at muscle and tendon insertions point when digital pressure is applied, sleep disorders, chronic fatigue, depressive episodes, anxiety, and other functional somatic syndromes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether balneotherapy with mineral waters and mineral-water containing mud is effective in the management of fibromyalgia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature regarding spa therapy in the treatment of the fibromyalgia. We searched many databases for articles published between 2000 and 2012 and we selected 7 studies among 65 articles retrieved. A total of 142 patients received balneotherapy and 129 were controls. CONCLUSIONS: Study data confirms that spa therapy could improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia including pain, depression and minor symptoms.

  10. Analysis of the acoustic climate of a spa park using the fuzzy set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Sztubecki, Jacek

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the differences between the actual results of the measurement of equivalent sound level and the feelings of people visiting "a Spa Park". Noise, as one of the environmental pollutants, cause detrimental effects on the recipient. Measurements of noise are usually performed in urban areas, especially in the road environments, providing a basis for measures to limit their impact on the environment. Often in the measurement there are ignored areas for recreation. Usually, they do not determine the relationship between the results of measurements of noise equivalent sound level and the individual feelings of the people living in these areas. The analysis was performed with the use of fuzzy set theory. The evaluation of the acoustic climate on the "Spa Park" should be determined on the basis of sound level measurements and questionnaires.

  11. 76 FR 36980 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the.... BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  12. Exposure to Legionellaceae at a hot spring spa: a prospective clinical and serological study

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, N.; Marmet, D; Surgot, M; Nowicki, M.; Arslan, A; Esteve, J.; Fleurette, J

    1989-01-01

    Following the occurrence of five cases of Legionnaires' disease among patients and therapists at a French hot spring spa, a series of cleansing procedures and an epidemiological study were undertaken. During a 3-month period, the spring water was repeatedly sampled. Serum samples were taken from 689 randomly selected patients, 230 therapists, 134 administrative staff and a control group of 904 blood donors. Legionellaceae were present in the spring water at concentrations of 10(3)-10(5) colon...

  13. Distribution of toxin genes among different spa types and phage types of animal Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Katarzyna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Mroczkowska, Aneta

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed distribution of toxin genes (sea-seo, eta, etb, tst, lukS/lukF-PV) among spa types and phage types of 39 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from healthy and diseased animals. All isolates turned out to be mecA negative (MSSA). Nine spa types were identified: t144 and t723 (dogs), t084 (dogs and pigs), t5447 (cat), t1491 and t008 (pigs), t002, t127 and t3478 (poultry). Seven phage types were detected, enclosed within four phage groups: I (cat), II (dogs), III (pigs) and mixed group (dogs and pigs). Three poultry spa types proved to be non-typeable by phages. Toxin genes were detected in 33 out of the 39 animal isolates. Our analysis revealed that the incidence of some toxin genes in S. aureus is host specific. Canine isolates t144 of phage group II harbored exfoliative toxin gene (eta), and porcine isolates type t1491 representing phage group III showed enterotoxin A gene (sea). The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc1) and enterotoxin gene seh were found in non-typeable isolates from chicken and in one feline isolate type t5447.

  14. Determination of protective properties of Bardejovske Kuple spa curative waters by rotational viscometry and ABTS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOPOLSKA Dominika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters from Bardejovske Kupele spa are natural, strongly mineralized, with healing effects. They are classified as hydrocarbonic - containing chloride and sodium - carbonic, cold, hypotonic, with a relatively high boric acid content. Potential anti-oxidative effects of curative waters from Bardejovske Kupele were investigated against the hyaluronan (HA degradation. High-molar-mass HA was exposed to the action of ascorbate and cupric ions, which initiate free-radical chain degradation. Time-dependent changes of dynamic viscosity (h of the HA solutions were monitored by rotational viscometry. The radical scavenging capacity of curative waters was determined by the ABTS assay. Despite a significantly high content of transition metal ions, especially iron, remarkable protective effects of the two curative spa waters were found, namely Alzbeta and Klara. Even though “Alzbeta´s“ iron content was 3.5-fold higher than “Klara´s“, “Alzbeta“ was shown to have better protective properties against the HA degradation compared to “Klara“. Bolus addition of ferric ions to the reaction system instead of the natural iron-containing curative water caused a significant HA degradation. The ABTS decolorization assay revealed that the curative spa waters were proven as poorly effective scavengers of the ABTS·+ cation radical.

  15. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The choice of environmental conditions when conducting antiperspirant studies greatly affects the quantity of sweat output. Our initial goal in this work was to develop an in-house procedure to test the efficacy of antiperspirant products using replica techniques in combination with image analysis. To ameliorate the skin replica method, we conducted rheological studies using dynamic mechanical analysis of the replica formulation. In terms of sweat output quantification, our preliminary results revealed a considerable amount of variation using the replica technique, leading us to conduct more fundamental studies of the factors that influence sweating behavior and how to best design the experimental strategy. In accordance with the FDA's protocol for antiperspirant testing, we carried out gravimetric analyses of axillae sweating under a variety of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity control. Subjects were first acclimatized in an environmentally controlled room for 30 min, and then placed in a sauna for an additional 30 or 45 min, depending on which test we administered. In Test 1 (30 min total in the sauna), the first 10 min in the sauna was another equilibration period, followed by a 20 min sweat production stage. We monitored axillae sweating during the last 20 min in the sauna by gravimetric analysis. At time (t) = 30 min in the sauna, skin replicas were taken and later analyzed using imaging and image analysis techniques. Test 1 was carried out on over 25 subjects, both male and female, from various racial backgrounds. In Test 2, subjects spent 45 min in the sauna after the initial 30-min period in the environmental room. During the 45 min, we obtained gravimetric readings of absorbent pads placed in the axillae. We conducted studies at various temperature and relative humidity settings. We also studied the influence of several external parameters on sudoriferous activity. Test 2 was a range-finding experiment on two subjects to determine

  16. Warm SPA-induced hyperthermia confers protection to rats against airway inflammation evoked by capsaicin and substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yaw-Syan; Wang, Peng-Han; Liu, Shang-Pin; Huang, Wen-Hung; Huang, Hung-Tu

    2010-06-24

    Solus par aqua (SPA) is a traditional health care therapy. Warm SPA may enhance immunity and cellular defense to protect body against diseases. The present study investigated whether the warm SPA could confer protection to neurogenic inflammation in rats. The rats were immersed in water where the body core temperatures were maintained at hyperthermia (41.5 degrees C) or normothermia (37 degrees C) for a period of 15min. After SPA for 1 or 6 days, neurogenic inflammation was induced by intravenous injection of capsaicin (90microg/kg) or substance P (SP; 3microg/kg). The plasma leakage and arterial pressures in rats after neurogenic inflammation were monitored. The extent of capsaicin- or SP-induced plasma leakage and hypotension was significantly attenuated in rats on day 1 after SPA hyperthermia. However, such resistance to neurogenic inflammation was not found on day 6 after hyperthermia. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) in the trachea on days 1 and 2 after hyperthermia was 9.61-fold and 6.66-fold, respectively, of that in normothermia. Afterwards, the hyperthermia-induced HSP 72 upregulation gradually declined in a time-dependent manner. Thus, SPA hyperthermia may protect rats against neurogenic inflammation through modulation of HSP expression.

  17. The effects of combined spa therapy and rehabilitation on patients with ankylosing spondylitis being treated with TNF inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian, Luca; Lo Nigro, Alessandro; Rizzo, Michela; Gava, Alessandra; Ramonda, Roberta; Punzi, Leonardo; Cozzi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in pharmacological therapy, physical treatment continues to be important in the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects and tolerability of combined spa therapy and rehabilitation in a group of AS patients being treated with TNF inhibitors. Thirty AS patients attending the Rheumatology Unit of the University of Padova being treated with TNF inhibitors for at least 3 months were randomized and assessed by an investigator independent from the spa staff: 15 were prescribed 10 sessions of spa therapy (mud packs and thermal baths) and rehabilitation (exercises in a thermal pool) and the other 15 were considered controls. The patients in both groups had been receiving anti-TNF agents for at least three months. The outcome measures utilized were BASFI, BASDAI, BASMI, VAS for back pain and HAQ. The evaluations were performed in all patients at the entry to the study, at the end of the spa treatment, and after 3 and 6 months. Most of the evaluation indices were significantly improved at the end of the spa treatment, as well as at the 3 and 6 months follow-up assessments. No significant alterations in the evaluation indices were found in the control group. Combined spa therapy and rehabilitation caused a clear, long-term clinical improvement in AS patients being treated with TNF inhibitors. Thermal treatment was found to be well tolerated and none of the patients had disease relapse.

  18. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact Melt Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral impact mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local impact craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not impact melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed impact melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of impact melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant impact melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected impact-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the impact history of a site. A detailed impact history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand impact-melt fragments will yield the impact history of the SPA basin.

  19. Evaluation of rep-PCR/DiversiLab versus PFGE and spa typing in genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadero, V; González Velasco, C; Vindel, A; Gonzalez Velasco, M; Moreno, J J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the 'gold standard' for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, the DiversiLab (DL) system, based on rep-PCR, is faster, simpler and could be better adapted to daily routine hospital work. We genotyped 100 MRSA isolates using PFGE, DL, and spa typing, and evaluated the discriminatory power of each technique and the correlation between them by Simpson's index(SI) and adjusted Rand coefficient (ARI), respectively. The isolates were from clinical samples from eight hospitals in Extremadura (Spain) during 2010. DL separated the 100 MRSA into 18 patterns, with 69% of the isolates grouped into four predominant patterns. spa typing reported 17 spa types, classifying 69% of MRSA into two major types (t067 and t002). PFGE revealed the existence of 27 patterns, gathering 54% of MRSA into three pulse types (E8a, E7a and E7b). SI values were 0.819, 0.726, 0.887 and 0.460 for DL, spa typing, PFGE and CC-BURP, respectively. ARI values of DL over PFGE, spa typing and CC-BURP were 0.151, 0.321 and 0.071, respectively. DL has less discriminatory power than PFGE but more than spa typing. The concordance of DL with PFGE is low, primarily because DL does not discriminate between the three predominant MRSA pulse types in our environment.

  20. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  1. [Measurement of Soil Total Nitrogen Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with RCA and SPA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-rong; Zhang, Hai-liang; Huang, Ling-xia; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Visible near spectra tecnnology was adopted to detect soil total nitrogen content. 394 soil samples were collected from Wencheng, Zhejiang province to be used for calibration model (n=263) and independent prediction set (n=131). Raw spectra and wavelength-reduced spectra with five different pretreatment methods (SG smoothing, SNV, MSC, 1st-D and 2nd-D) were compared to determine the optimal wavelength range and pretreatment method for analysis. The results with 5 different pretreatment methods were not improved compared to that both of full spectra PLS model and wavelength reduction spectra model. Spectral variable selection is an important strategy in spectrum modeling analysis, because it tends to parsimonious data representation and can lead to multivariate models with better performance. In order to simply calibration models, the wavelength variables selected by two different variable selection methods (i. e. regression coefficient analysis (RCA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were proposed to be the inputs of calibration methods of PLS, MLR and LS-SVM models separately. These calibration models were also compared to select the best model to predict soil TN. In total, 9 different models were built ahd the best results indicated that PLS, MLR and LS-SVM obtained the highest precision with determination coefficient of prediction R2(pre) =0. 81, RMSEP=0. 0031 and RPD=2. 26 based on wavelength variables selected by RCA (0. 0002) and SPA as inputs of models. SPA-MLR model and other three models based on 7 sensitive variables selected by RC using 0. 0002 regression coefficient threshold value obtained the best result with R2(pre), RMSEP and RPD as 0. 81, 0. 0031 and 2. 26. This prediction accuracy is classied to be very good. For all the models, it could be concluded that RCA and SPA could be very useful ways to selected sensitive wavelengths, and the selected wavelengths were effective to estimate soil TN. It is recommended to adopt SPA variable

  2. Adjusting tourist destination marketing strategy according to the changes in the environment: Case study Bukovicka sSpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznić Dejan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are compelled to create new business opportunities constantly in order to respond to the challenges that arise under the influence of a number of changes in the environment. Few of them are supporting the requirements for analyzing and creating a sustainable business and marketing strategies. The paper starts with the analysis of relevant theory and practice in decisionmaking and choosing the marketing strategy of the tourist destination, pointing to the importance of continuous adjustment of marketing strategy in order to improve the business performance and competitive advantage. A new approach to the design and management of market relations, as well as the need for adjusting marketing strategies to the changes in the environment, is presented in the case of Bukovacka Spa. In deciding, great emphasis is placed on the role and importance of innovation in marketing approaches as well as on the need to develop socially responsible marketing in order to improve its business performance and response to changes in the environment and more successfully positioning.

  3. Influence of heavy metals on the activity of oxidoreductases in soil (model experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Legostayeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated action of industrial pollutants on biochemical activity of soils under condition of model experiment was determined. The influence of heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead, manganese on dehydrogenase activity was explored. The metals’ inhibition activity on the enzymatic activity was found. Zinc and copper are most toxic for dehydrogenase activity and manganese is the less toxic metal.

  4. The influence of the venture capitalist's governance activities on the entrepreneurial firm's control systems and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbenga, F.H.; Postma, T.J.B.M.; Strating, R.

    2007-01-01

    Venture capitalists (VCs) contribute to entrepreneurial firms by engaging in governance activities, such as providing services and monitoring the entrepreneurial firm's operations and performance. This study examines the role and influence of the VC's governance activities on 93 Dutch entrepreneuria

  5. Geobacillus sp.A27的分离筛选及其淀粉酶酶学性质研究%Isolation of Geobacillus sp.A27 and characterization of its α-amylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 高润池; 廖昌珑; 孟艳芬; 唐湘华; 李俊俊; 许波; 黄遵锡

    2011-01-01

    用淀粉平板透明圈法,从分离自腾冲热泉的高温菌中筛选到一株产胞外淀粉酶的菌株,经16sRNA序列比对,在Genbank中与Geobacillus sp.sbs4s有99%同源性,定名为Geobacillus sp.A27.该菌最适生长温度为60-65℃,在LB培养基上不生长,但能在以淀粉为唯一碳源的培养基上生长,并能将来自植物种子、根茎的淀粉质底物水解为以麦芽二糖为主的麦芽寡糖.Geobacillus sp.A27菌株产生的胞外α-淀粉酶最适pH5.6,最适温度70℃.金属离子Fe3+、Cu2+、EDTA对酶活有显著抑制作用,椎测AmyA27可能属于金属酶.粗酶液经饱和硫酸胺沉淀、无水乙醇沉淀、8%分离胶的SDS-PAGE电泳和蛋白质复性,确定该淀粉酶分子量为67kD.%A strain with extracellular amylase was isolated by transparent circle in starch medium from Tengchong hot springs by 16sRNA sequence alignment in Genbank. It has 99% homology with Geobacillus sp. sbs4s, and blongs to Geobacillus sp. lt can grow up in culture medium in which starch was only one carbon source but can not in completely medium LB without starch. The amylase activity on solute starch was optimal at pH5.6 and 70℃.The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed various types of starch from plant seeds,roots and stems to yield a series of maltooligosaccharides by endo-cleavage mode. The enzyme had different reactions to varity metal ions,it was inhibited significantly by Fe3+, EDTA and Cu2+, it may belong to metal enzymes. The precipitate of the enzymes by ammonium sulfate and ethanol,67kD for amylase molecular weight was determined by 8% separation glue SDSPAGE protein electrophoresis.

  6. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains; Etude de la valorisation des rejets thermiques des Bains de Lavey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 {sup o}C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 {sup o}C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is.

  7. Influence of host seed on metabolic activity by Enterobacter cloacae in the spermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known regarding the influences of nutrients released from plants on the metabolic activity of colonizing microbes. To gain a better understanding of these influences, we used bioluminescence- and oxygen consumption-based methods to compare bacterial metabolic activity expressed during col...

  8. The Influence of Homeschooling on Entrepreneurial Activities: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, Sarah Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a homeschool education influences entrepreneurial characteristics and activity. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study design was used to investigate how a homeschool education influences entrepreneurial characteristics and activity. Findings: From the participant interviews,…

  9. Loading and reflexes : the influence of body weight and active movements on reflex responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Catharina Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes six studies on the influence of active movements and body loading on reflex responses. To measure those influences healthy subjects were asked to walk with different loadings (e.g. a backpack) or with different active movements (e.g. arm swing) while different reflex responses

  10. Radioactive Merano SPA Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelli, Giacomo; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Magnato, Roberto; Platzgummer, Stefan; Salerni, Lorenzo; Lo Cunsolo, Salvatore; Joos, Alexandra; Bellussi, Luisa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common nasal disorder with a high impact on quality of life, high social costs in therapies, and a natural development towards asthma. Pharmacological therapy is based on several genres of medications, of which intranasal corticosteroids are currently the most widespread. Thermal water treatment has traditionally been used as adjunctive treatment for chronic rhinitis and sinusitis. The present study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of nasal inhalation of radioactive oligomineral water vapours from the Merano hot spring and to compare it with the clinical efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray. A comparative prospective study was performed in 90 allergic patients treated at Merano hot springs: a group of 54 subjects treated with radioactive thermal oligomineral water and a control group of 36 subjects treated with mometasone nasal spray. Patients of both groups were assessed before and after treatment by Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire, active anterior rhinomanometry with flow and resistance monitoring, measurement of mucociliary transport time, and cytological examination of nasal brushing/scraping. The study showed that inhalation treatment with radioactive hydrofluoric thermal water for two weeks produces an objective clinical and cytological improvement in allergic patients, similar to that obtained with mometasone furoate nasal spray.

  11. Radioactive Merano SPA Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Passali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a common nasal disorder with a high impact on quality of life, high social costs in therapies, and a natural development towards asthma. Pharmacological therapy is based on several genres of medications, of which intranasal corticosteroids are currently the most widespread. Thermal water treatment has traditionally been used as adjunctive treatment for chronic rhinitis and sinusitis. The present study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of nasal inhalation of radioactive oligomineral water vapours from the Merano hot spring and to compare it with the clinical efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray. A comparative prospective study was performed in 90 allergic patients treated at Merano hot springs: a group of 54 subjects treated with radioactive thermal oligomineral water and a control group of 36 subjects treated with mometasone nasal spray. Patients of both groups were assessed before and after treatment by Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire, active anterior rhinomanometry with flow and resistance monitoring, measurement of mucociliary transport time, and cytological examination of nasal brushing/scraping. The study showed that inhalation treatment with radioactive hydrofluoric thermal water for two weeks produces an objective clinical and cytological improvement in allergic patients, similar to that obtained with mometasone furoate nasal spray.

  12. The influence of promotional activities on the economic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Öztopcu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economics is one of the sub-disciplines discussed through the process of economic thought. It studies the economic decisions of the individuals under the influence of social, emotional and cognitive factors. According to the rational behavior theory in economics, it is discussed that, the individuals may show irrational behaviors in spite of the expectation of rational behaviors. Economics is a human focused social science. The studies held, illustrate that the human behaviors have to be evaluated with the psychological factors.  The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of sales efforts of the drug firms on the economic decision making. The data gathered by the questionnaire show that the marketing strategies influence the decision making behavior of individuals.

  13. [Impact of SPA therapy with sulphureous mineral water on quality of life and psychological distress in chronic plaque psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Filippelli, A

    2014-01-01

    The plaque psoriasis, one of the most common form of psoriasis, is a chronic inflammatory disease. This pathology can cause devastating effects on quality of life and social relations with significant physical and psychological distress. Currently among the therapeutic agents available for the treatment of psoriasis is including SPA therapy, whose mechanism of action is only partially known, as well as very few studies examined the impact of this therapy on the quality of life. On the basis of these considerations, the research analyzed the effectiveness of SPA bath therapy (BLT) and its impact on quality of life and psychological distress in patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis. The study was conducted on 35 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: 23% male and 77% female; mean age:56 ± 19 years; age range:17-85 years. The subjects were treated, for 2 weeks, with sulphureous SPA bath therapy from Terme of Telese SpA (Benevento-Italy). At the beginning and at the end of the SPA treatment considered was evaluated: the itching symptom (using NRS scale); the PASI Index; the impact on quality of life (using SF-36 and DLQI questionnaires) and on psychological distress (using ZUNG -tests). At the end of the SPA treatment, the mean values ± SD, compared to baseline, have showed a significant (p 1.0 ± 1.0) and PASI score (4 ± 4-->1.7 ± 2) with an improvement in quality of life and psichological distress as demonstrated by SF-36, DLQI and ZUNG tests. The data of this research show that the sulphureous SPA bath therapy can be considered very useful in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis for the improving of the quality of life and social relationship.

  14. Coccidioides posadasii infection alters the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP-A and SP-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee D Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is caused by Coccidioides in Southwest US and Central America. Primary pulmonary infection is initiated by inhalation of air-borne arthroconidia. Since, lung is the first organ that encounters arthroconidia, different components of the pulmonary innate immune system may be involved in the regulation of host defense. Pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP-A and SP-D have been recognized to play an important role in binding and phagocytosis of various microorganisms, but their roles in Coccidioides infection are not known. Methods In this study, we studied the changes in amounts of pulmonary SP-A, SP-D and phospholipid in murine model of Coccidioides posadasii infection, and binding of SP-A and SP-D to Coccidioidal antigens. Mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of C. posadasii (n = 30 arthroconidia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF samples were collected on day 10, post infection. In another group of animals, mice were immunized with protective formalin killed spherule (FKS vaccine prior to infection. The concentrations of BALF SP-A, SP-D, total phospholipid were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biochemical assays. Results We found that in lavage fluid samples of C. posadasii infected mice, the concentrations of total phospholipid, SP-A and SP-D were 17 % (SEM 3.5, p C. posadasii protected mice after immunization with FKS vaccine. Also, we found that both SP-A and SP-D bind to Coccidiodal antigens. Conclusion Our results suggest that the C. posadasii infection perturbs the pulmonary SP-A, SP-D, and phospholipids, potentially enabling the disease progression and promoting fungal dissemination.

  15. Comparison of the DiversiLab repetitive element PCR system with spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clonal characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee, B; Frei, R; Schultheiss, E; Widmer, A F; Goldenberger, D

    2011-04-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an increasing problem worldwide in recent decades. Molecular typing methods have been developed to identify clonality of strains and monitor spread of MRSA. We compared a new commercially available DiversiLab (DL) repetitive element PCR system with spa typing, spa clonal cluster analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in terms of discriminatory power and concordance. A collection of 106 well-defined MRSA strains from our hospital was analyzed, isolated between 1994 and 2006. In addition, we analyzed 6 USA300 strains collected in our institution. DL typing separated the 106 MRSA isolates in 10 distinct clusters and 8 singleton patterns. Clustering analysis into spa clonal complexes resulted in 3 clusters: spa-CC 067/548, spa-CC 008, and spa-CC 012. The discriminatory powers (Simpson's index of diversity) were 0.982, 0.950, 0.846, and 0.757 for PFGE, spa typing, DL typing, and spa clonal clustering, respectively. DL typing and spa clonal clustering showed the highest concordance, calculated by adjusted Rand's coefficients. The 6 USA300 isolates grouped homogeneously into distinct PFGE and DL clusters, and all belonged to spa type t008 and spa-CC 008. Among the three methods, DL proved to be rapid and easy to perform. DL typing qualifies for initial screening during outbreak investigation. However, compared to PFGE and spa typing, DL typing has limited discriminatory power and therefore should be complemented by more discriminative methods in isolates that share identical DL patterns.

  16. Comparison of the DiversiLab Repetitive Element PCR System with spa Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Clonal Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee, B.; Frei, R.; Schultheiss, E.; Widmer, A. F.; Goldenberger, D.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an increasing problem worldwide in recent decades. Molecular typing methods have been developed to identify clonality of strains and monitor spread of MRSA. We compared a new commercially available DiversiLab (DL) repetitive element PCR system with spa typing, spa clonal cluster analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in terms of discriminatory power and concordance. A collection of 106 well-defined MRSA strains from our hospital was analyzed, isolated between 1994 and 2006. In addition, we analyzed 6 USA300 strains collected in our institution. DL typing separated the 106 MRSA isolates in 10 distinct clusters and 8 singleton patterns. Clustering analysis into spa clonal complexes resulted in 3 clusters: spa-CC 067/548, spa-CC 008, and spa-CC 012. The discriminatory powers (Simpson's index of diversity) were 0.982, 0.950, 0.846, and 0.757 for PFGE, spa typing, DL typing, and spa clonal clustering, respectively. DL typing and spa clonal clustering showed the highest concordance, calculated by adjusted Rand's coefficients. The 6 USA300 isolates grouped homogeneously into distinct PFGE and DL clusters, and all belonged to spa type t008 and spa-CC 008. Among the three methods, DL proved to be rapid and easy to perform. DL typing qualifies for initial screening during outbreak investigation. However, compared to PFGE and spa typing, DL typing has limited discriminatory power and therefore should be complemented by more discriminative methods in isolates that share identical DL patterns. PMID:21307215

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of SpaD, a backbone-pilin subunit encoded by the fimbrial spaFED operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2015-01-01

    SpaD is the predicted backbone-pilin subunit of the SpaFED pilus, whose loci are encoded by the fimbrial spaFED operon in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a Gram-positive gut-adapted commensal strain with perceived probiotic benefits. In this study, soluble recombinant SpaD protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and then purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. After limited proteolysis with α-chymotrypsin, good-quality crystals of SpaD were obtained which diffracted beyond 2.0 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=50.11, b=83.27, c=149.65 Å. For phasing, sodium iodide-derivatized crystals were prepared using the halide quick-soaking method and diffraction data were collected in-house to a resolution of 2.2 Å. An interpretable electron-density map was successfully obtained using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD).

  18. Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyorki, D.E.; Asselin-Labat, M.L.; Rooijen, van N.; Lindeman, G.J.; Visvader, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells

  19. Family Influence on Teenage Participation in School Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Barbara G.; Dager, Edward Z.

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between social participation and family structure. A theory is developed in the framework of George Herbert Mead's analysis on the development of a consistent self in response to a generalized other. According to this theory, the influence of the family is implicated as one of the social-psychological…

  20. Noise level arrangement in determined zones of homogenous development of green areas on the example of the spa park in Inowrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Skiba, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Noise measurements are usually carried out in developed areas as well as in the surroundings of traffic routes providing basis for actions in order to limit its influence on the neighboring areas. Noise measurements in park areas are rare due to belief that these areas are silent zones. Such attitude cannot be justified. This article aims to the assessment of noise appearing in determined subzones of the spa park in Inowrocław. From the research carried out it can be noticed that traffic noise does not have any important meaning for the acoustic climate of the park. It is the people who stay there who generate more noise. Comparative analysis proves the appearance and penetration of noise from the zones with greater level of noise to the ones with lower amount.

  1. State-wide surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns and spa types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from blood cultures in North Rhine-Westphalia, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, C; Layer, F; Werner, G; Harmsen, D; Daniels-Haardt, I; Jurke, A; Mellmann, A; Witte, W; Köck, R

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of bacteraemia. We aimed to obtain a complete picture of severe MRSA infections by characterizing all MRSA isolates from bloodstream infections in the largest German federal state (North Rhine-Westphalia, 18 million inhabitants) using S. aureus protein A (spa) sequence-typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates (n = 1952) were collected prospectively (2011-2013) and spa-typed. Among 181 different spa types, t003 (n = 746 isolates; 38.2%) and t032 (n = 594; 30.4%) were predominant. Analysis of the geographical occurrence of spa clonal complexes (spa-CCs) and spa types revealed divergent distribution between federal state districts for spa-CCs 003 (p spa type t2807 (p spa-CC011), for MRSA bacteraemia in some parts of the federal state. Susceptibility testing revealed broad resistance to substances used for oral treatment, but demonstrated that those antibiotics that are mostly applied for treatment of MRSA bacteraemia and important combination partners were highly susceptible. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Spa types and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates obtained form patients of the University Clinical Center in Gdańsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Kasprzyk, Joanna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Bronk, Marek; Swieć, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections. For epidemiological investigations of this bacteria spa genotyping is used as the method which has a high discriminatory power and gives results that can be easily compared between laboratories. In contrast to methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), relatively little is known about spa types among methicillin-susceptible strains (MSSA). We used spa typing and antibiotic resistance patterns analysis for retrospective study of S.aureus bloodstream isolates population from the University Clinical Centre (UCC) in Gdańsk. The study was performed on 53 isolates from patients of 19 different units/ departments of the UCC. The isolates were tested for the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Spa typing was performed on the basis of the sequence analysis of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa) amplified form the isolates. Spa types were determined by Ridom Staph Type software and were clustered into spa-CCs (clonal complexes) using the algorithm BURP-based upon repeat pattern. MLST (Multilocus Sequence Typing) clonal complexes were predicted from BURP analysis by the Ridom SpaServer database. In MRSA the staphylococcal chromosomal casette (SCC) mec was determined, Spa-typing yielded 26 types. Six spa-CC and seven singletons were identified. The most frequent was spa-CC021involving 38% of isolates. The CC021 consisted of 7 spa types and the most common was t021 corresponding with MLST-CC30. The second frequent was singleton, related to MLST-CC1, with only one type t127. There were 3 MRSA isolates in the population. The MRSA strains were identified as different spa types: t003/ SCCmecII, t008/SCCmecIV and clonally related to MSSA t032/SCCmecIV. No one MRSA strains belonged to spa-CC021. The spa clonal cluster corresponding with widely distributed among invasive S.aureus strains in Europe MLST-CC30 was found as the most frequent among S.aureus bloodstream isolates from the UCC. Occurrence of

  3. Novel, Non-Radioactive, Simple and Multiplex PCR-cRFLP Methods for Genotyping Human SP-A and SP-D Marker Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan DiAngelo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously identified an allele of the human SP-A2 gene that occurs with greater frequency in an RDS population [12]. Because of the importance of SP-A in normal lung function and its newly emerging role in innate host defense and regu-lation of inflammatory processes, we wish to better characterize genotypes of both SP-A1 and SP-A2 genes. It has been determined that SP-D shares similar roles in immune response. Therefore, in this report we 1 describe a novel, non radioactive PCR based-cRFLP method for genotyping both SP-A and SP-D; 2 describe two previously unpublished biallelic polymorphisms within the SP-D gene; 3 present the partial sequence of one new SP-A1 allele (6A14 and describe other new SP-A1 and SP-A2 alleles; and 4 describe additional methodologies for SP-A genotype assessment. The ability to more accurately and efficiently genotype samples from individuals with various pulmonary diseases will facilitate population and family based association studies. Genetic poly-morphisms may be identified that partially explain individual disease susceptibility and/or treatment effectiveness.

  4. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzyme activities (actual and potential dehydrogenase, catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm layers of a brown luvic soil submitted to a complex fertilization experiment with different types of green manure. It was found that each activity decreased with increasing sampling depth. It should be emphasized that greenmanuring of maize led to a significant increase in each of the five enzymatic activities determined. The enzymatic indicators of soil quality calculated from the values of enzymatic activities showed the order: lupinus + rape + oat > lupinus > vetch + oat + ryegrass > lupinus + oat + vetch > unfertilized plot. This order means that by determination of enzymatic activities valuable information can be obtained regarding fertility status of soils. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with chemical properties.

  5. Employer Branding; influencing student perception by campus management activities

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The target of this thesis was to define the concept of employer branding and its relation to campus management, the activities companies do in order to attract students and promote themselves as quality employers. The theoretical research captures the marketing essence of branding and further develops it into the employer branding framework. Further research focussed on possible campus management activities. In the practical part the popularity and effectiveness of the activities were tested ...

  6. Effect of a steam foot spa on geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihisa Koike,1 Hideki Kondo,2 Satoshi Kondo,1 Masayuki Takagi,1 Yoshio Kano31Department of Occupational Therapy, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Mihara, Japan; 2Yoshiigawa Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 3Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University, Takahashi, JapanPurpose: To investigate whether a steam foot spa improves cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients.Methods: Geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment were given a steam foot spa treatment at 42°C for 20 minutes for 2 weeks (5 days/week. Physiological indicators such as blood pressure, percutaneous oxygen saturation, pulse, tympanic temperature, and sleep time and efficiency were assessed. Cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Dementia Mood Assessment Scale, and Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale.Results: Significant decreases in systolic (P < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 along with a significant increase in tympanic temperature (P < 0.01 were observed after the steam foot spas. A significant improvement was seen in the Mini-Mental State Examination score (P < 0.01 and the overall dementia severity items in Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (P < 0.05.Limitations: Japanese people are very fond of foot baths. However, it is difficult to understand why inpatients cannot receive steam foot baths. In this study, a control group was not used. Raters and enforcers were not blinded.Conclusion: The results of this pilot study suggest that steam foot spas mitigate cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients.Keywords: steam foot spa, geriatric inpatients, cognitive impairment, tympanic temperature

  7. Performance of scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to measure the level of VEGFR 1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, So-Young; LIM, Jae-Cheong; KIM, Jin-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Scintillation proximity assay is a one of radioimmunoassay and can be assayed without the washing or filtration procedures normally used to separate bound from free fractions. Due to its simplicity and high-throughput protocol, it is broadly applicable to immunology, receptor binding, monitoring receptor-ligand interactions and enzyme reactions. Briefly, an antibody or receptor is coated on SPA beads. When a radiolabeled antigen or ligand binds to the beads, the SPA beads stimulate to emit short range electrons. The {sup 3}H and {sup 125}I are commonly used for radiolabeling and the produced photons are detectable with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). A binding affinity of unlabeled ligands can be determined by competitive reaction of the radiolabeled ligands. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, and can stop or delay growth of tumors by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab was approved by FDA for metastatic cancer such as colorectal cancers, ovarian cancers, breast cancers and glioblastoma multiform of the brain. Recently, Dan G. duda et al. was reported that the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) in plasma may potentially be used as a negative selection biomarker. In this study, we describe a method using scintillation proximity assay to detect the amounts of VEGFR-1 protein. This method is successfully used to measure the concentration of VEGFR-1 protein in human cell extracts. In summary, a simple and sensitive assay is developed for measuring the amount of VEGFR 1 protein in cancer cell lysate using SPA beads. The antibody coating on the beads and antigen binding are achieved in one mixing step.

  8. Prevalence of Enterotoxin Genes and spa Genotypes of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a Tertiary Care Hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmeng; Zhao, Ruike; Zhang, Xianfeng; Han, Qingzhen; Qian, Xuefeng; Gu, Guohao; Shi, Jinfang; Xu, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a variety of infections. MRSA has evolved resistance to multiple antibiotics. Genetic background and virulence differs in different geographic regions. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxin genes and spa genotypes of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) isolated from a tertiary care hospital of Jiangsu province, China. HA-MRSA isolates from August 2013 to April 2014 at a tertiary care hospital of China were collected. We investigated antimicrobial pattern, spa types, SCCmec types and the presence of 14 virulence genes. Eighty HA-MRSA isolates were collected. Results from SCCmec typing revealed that 73.8% were type II; 13.8% were type III; 12.5% were type V. There were 19 different spa types. Spa type t2460 was the most common (35.0%), followed by t002 (11.3%). CC5 was the predominant MLST CCs type (50%). The most frequent toxin genes were sea, seb, sed, sel, sen and seo (100.0%). None of the investigated isolates carried the sec or tst. Genotypic and virulence evaluation of the isolated HA-MRSA revealed that the isolates with CC5 and SCCmec II were the predominant type and highly homological. The virulence profiles mainly existed in the genes of sea, seb, sed, sel, sen, seo and ser. The prevalence of t2460 was an outbreak and the predominant spa type.

  9. An overview of pool and spa regulations in Mediterranean countries with a focus on the tourist industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, Athena; Pappa, Olga; Papatzitze, Olga; Blougoura, Athena; Drossos, Panagiotis

    2014-09-01

    The Mediterranean area is densely populated and a very popular tourist destination. This study aimed at gathering up-to-date information on current national pool and spa regulations. We formulated and duly distributed to 20 Mediterranean countries a questionnaire divided into two sections: for pool and spa facilities, respectively. The questionnaire was formulated in such a way that a positive answer would imply that the specific topic was addressed effectively. While all 20 countries responded to the swimming-pool-related questionnaire, only 11 of these countries reported the existence of spa-related regulations. When combining the response overall of all countries for pool and spa facilities together, of a grand total of 606 answers, 183 (30.2%) were positive. The positive answers in the pool section of the questionnaire were 29% of the total of 420 answers while positive answers in the spa section of the questionnaire were fewer (27.8% of the total of 176 answers). The countries were grouped by geographical area of the Mediterranean basin where they are situated. Also, the questions were grouped into broad thematic categories. The paper presents conclusions drawn on the basis of the data received according to these geographical and thematic groupings.

  10. MICE INDUSTRY INFLUENCE ON ACTIVISATION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Smagina

    2014-01-01

    Global tourism market exposed the internationalization is forced to produce modern strategies, offering consumers innovative forms of tourism. Issues of the business communications, requirement of the continuous of business participants’ interaction, formed a new ways of thinking in the tourism industry evolution: business tourism development. The article reveals the concept of international business tourism. Influence on the factors determining the international business travel market trends...

  11. Radon Levels Measured at a Touristic Thermal Spa Resort in Montagu (South Africa) and Associated Effective Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R; Newman, R T; Maleka, P P

    2016-09-01

    Radon activity concentrations (in water and in air) were measured at 13 selected locations at the Avalon Springs thermal spa resort in Montagu (Western Cape, South Africa) to estimate the associated effective dose received by employees and visitors. A RAD-7 detector (DURRIDGE), based on alpha spectrometry, and electret detectors (E-PERM®Radelec) were used for these radon measurements. The primary source of radon was natural thermal waters from the hot spring, which were pumped to various locations on the resort, and consequently a range of radon in-water analyses were performed. Radon in-water activity concentration as a function of time (short term and long term measurements) and spatial distributions (different bathing pools, etc.) were studied. The mean radon in-water activity concentrations were found to be 205 ± 6 Bq L (source), 112 ± 5 Bq L (outdoor pool) and 79 ± 4 Bq L (indoor pool). Radon in-air activity concentrations were found to range between 33 ± 4 Bq m (at the outside bar) to 523 ± 26 Bq m (building enclosing the hot spring's source). The most significant potential radiation exposure identified is that due to inhalation of air rich in radon and its progeny by the resort employees. The annual occupational effective dose due to the inhalation of radon progeny ranges from 0.16 ± 0.01 mSv to 0.40 ± 0.02 mSv. For the water samples collected, the Ra in-water activity concentrations from samples collected were below the lower detection limit (~0.7 Bq L) of the γ-ray detector system used. No significant radiological health risk can be associated with radon and progeny from the hot spring at the Avalon Springs resort.

  12. Impact of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) genetic typing in cases of prosthetic shunt graft infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantiniuk, P; Grisold, A; Schramayer, G; Santler, S C; Koter, S; Cohnert, T

    In January 2014 an internal audit was performed at the department of surgery, division of vascular surgery of the Medical University Graz, Austria, to assess the short and long-term outcomes of prosthetic shunt graft implantations performed between December 1998 and December 2013. A 10.8 % explantation rate due to graft infection was detected. The majority of the cases were associated with Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this constitutes a nosocomial problem. Between December 1998 and December 2014 a total of 490 prosthetic shunt grafts were implanted. After exclusion of 54 cases, 436 shunts remained for statistical analysis. Genetic analysis (spa typing) was acquired from three new cases with involvement of S. aureus in 2014. The impact of several factors (e.g. sex, institute for dialysis, age, type of prosthesis, implantation surgeon and position of shunt) on the shunt graft infection rate was statistically analyzed. Of the prostheses 14.0 % (61 out of 436) had to be explanted of which 12.4 % (54/436) were due to infection. In 77.8 % (42/54) bacteria were found in blood and/or wound cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 76.2 % (32/42) of the cases with detected bacteria and in all cases was sensitive to methicillin. The infection rate was not significantly dependent on any of the investigated factors; however, the factor "institute for dialysis" had a remarkable p‑value of 0.060 with the infection rate ranging from 8.5 % to 18.2 % depending on the institution. Three different S. aureus protein A (spa) types were found: t015, t359, t6265. The detection of three different spa types means that these patients had different sources of S. aureus so that a nosocomial problem is very unlikely. Genetic typing of spa is a suitable technique for distinguishing between nosocomial and community acquired sources of prosthetic shunt graft infections.

  13. Plan Estratégico de Marketing aplicado a la Empresa Studio Morena Nail&Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Gomezcoello, Carlos Javier

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo la elaboración de Plan estratégico de marketing aplicado a la empresa Studio Morena Nail & Spa, en cuyo contenido se delinearan en forma pragmática, coherente y objetiva, conceptos de pensamiento estratégico, análisis del entorno, variables mercadológicas y herramientas administrativas que coadyuven a la diferenciación con otras empresas que presten servicios similares en el mercado. Magister en Administración de Empresas

  14. Exploring Strategies That Influence Children's Physical Activity Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity during the elementary school years has been associated with a number of health problems (Strong et al., 2006). During the school day, the recess period provides the greatest opportunity for children to engage in physical activity (Robert Wood Johnson, 2007). Nonetheless, most children spend the majority of their…

  15. Takeover Activity in Australia: endogenous and exogenous influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finn, F.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper analyses the population of takeover bids for listed Australian companies using quarterly data over a 25-year period to re-examine the predictability of takeover activity and to determine if there is a flow on impact on macroeconomic variables. We examine whether takeover activity:

  16. 猪丹毒杆菌SpaA基因的克隆与生物信息学分析%Cloning, sequecing, secondary structure and B-cell epitopes prediction of swine Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae SpaA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 江斌; 吴胜会; 张世忠

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study was to clone and sequence the SpaA gene of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and predict its secondary structure and B-cell epitopes,which provides a theoretical basis for the study of immune mechanism and subunit vaccine.The SpaA gene was amplified,cloned,sequenced and phylogenetic analyzed.By using bioinformatics methods,the secondary structure and B-cell preponderant epitope of SpaA were predicted.The results showed that the spaA gene is 1 881 bp,encoding 626 amino acids.The phylogenetic analysis of the SpaA gene indicated the distance between 2 separated strain of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and those of GenBank was far,and 2 separated strain became a new branch.Using the SOPMA method,prediction of the secondary structure of the SpaA showed thatα-helix,random coils and extended strand were the main structural type of the flexible region in secondary structure,and contain a small amount of β-turn.It was supposed the SpaA protein contain 14 potential antigen epitopes and 8 potential Nmyristoylation sites.These results provided a theoretical basis for the further study of immune mechanisms and epitope vaccine design for the pathogen.%旨在克隆猪丹毒杆菌表面保护性抗原A(surface protein A,SpaA)的编码基因,并预测该蛋白的二级结构和B细胞抗原表位,从而探讨猪丹毒杆菌SpaA蛋白在免疫保护中所起的作用.首先对猪丹毒杆菌SpaA基因进行PCR扩增、克隆和测序,并进行同源性比较.应用生物信息学方法,对猪丹毒杆菌SpaA蛋白的二级结构和B细胞抗原表位进行预测.结果显示,猪丹毒杆菌SpaA基因全长1 881 bp,编码626个氨基酸,发育进化树结果表明分离的2株猪丹毒杆菌菌株与GenBank中其他菌株在进化树中关系较远,自成一个分支.二级结构的预测结果显示该蛋白主要以无规则卷曲、α螺旋和延伸链为主,只有少数的β转角;推测该蛋白有14个B细胞优势抗原表位区域、8个N-肉豆蔻酰化

  17. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  18. Does diet influence salivary enzyme activities in elephant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlke, Carolin; Pötschke, Sandra; Behringer, Verena; Hannig, Christian; Zierau, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans. We aimed to determine whether salivary amylase (sAA), lysozyme (sLYS), and peroxidase (sPOD) activities have changed in a species-specific pattern during evolutionary separation of the elephant genera. Saliva samples of 14 Asian and eight African elephants were collected in three German zoos. Results show that sAA and sLYS are salivary components of both elephant species in an active conformation. In contrast, little to no sPOD activity was determined in any elephant sample. Furthermore, sAA activity was significantly higher in Asian compared with African elephants. sLYS and sPOD showed no species-specific differences. The time of food provision until sample collection affected only sAA activity. In summary, the results suggest several possible factors modulating the activity of the mammal-typical enzymes, such as sAA, sLYS, and sPOD, e.g., nutrition and sampling procedure, which have to be considered when analyzing differences in saliva composition of animal species.

  19. The influence of lipoprotein(a) on fibrinolytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahajuningsih D. Setiabudy; Marzuki Suryaatmadja; Fifi Henrika

    2004-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) is a plasma lipoprotein whose structure and composition are similar with low density lipoprotein (LDL) with an addition of apo(a) that is bound to apo B100. The structure of apo(a) is similar with plasminogen, a proenzym in fibrinolytic system. Due to this similarity, it is assumed that Lp(a) can inhibit plasminogen activity and decreases fibrinolytic activity. The purpose of this study is to prove that addition of Lp(a) to normal plasma can inhibit fibrinolytic activity. Four ...

  20. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beňo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swelling volume of chosen agents was tested and technological parameters of a bentonite mixture with a binder activated with the studied agents were determined.

  1. Stathmin activity influences sarcoma cell shape, motility, and metastatic potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belletti, B.; Nicoloso, M.S.; Schiappacassi, M.; Berton, S.; Lovat, F.; Wolf, K. van der; Canzonieri, V.; D'Andrea, S.; Zucchetto, A.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Colombatti, A.; Baldassarre, G.

    2008-01-01

    The balanced activity of microtubule-stabilizing and -destabilizing proteins determines the extent of microtubule dynamics, which is implicated in many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, and morphology. Among the destabilizing proteins, stathmin is overexpressed in different human ma

  2. Influence of osmotic and metal stresses on nitrogenase activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... algae, particularly nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, are im- portant photosynthetic ... that nitrogenase acti- vity was repressed by photosynthetically produced oxy- ..... Enhanced peroxidase activity in rice leaves in response to ...

  3. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  4. Factors influencing quality of life in patients with active tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Victoria C; Marra Fawziah; Marra Carlo A; Palepu Anita; FitzGerald J Mark

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB) management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL) experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB using focus groups and individual interviews. Methods English, Cantonese, and Punjabi-speaking subjects with active T...

  5. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, R; Norman, P.; Sheeran, P.

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 ...

  6. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper...... in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load on the painful structures Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4...

  7. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    . EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius...... the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load on the painful structures....

  8. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  9. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  10. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  11. The detailed analysis of natural radionuclides dissolved in spa waters of the Kłodzko Valley, Sudety Mountains, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walencik-Łata, A; Kozłowska, B; Dorda, J; Przylibski, T A

    2016-11-01

    A survey was conducted to measure natural radioactivity in spa waters from the Kłodzko Valley. The main goal of this study was to determine the activity concentration of uranium, radium and radon isotopes in the investigated groundwaters. Samples were collected several times from 35 water intakes from 5 spas and 2 mineral water bottling plants. The authors examined whether the increased gamma radiation background, as well as the elevated values of radium and uranium content in reservoir rocks, have a significant impact on the natural radioactivity of these waters. The second objective of this research was to provide information about geochemistry of U, Ra, Rn radionuclides and the radiological and chemical risks incurred by ingestion of isotopes with drinking water. On the basis of results obtained, it is feasible to assess the health hazard posed by ingestion of natural radioactivity with drinking waters. Moreover, the data yielded by this research may be helpful in the process of verification of the application of these waters in balneotherapy. In addition, annual effective radiation doses resulting from the isotopes consumption were calculated on the basis of the evaluated activity concentrations. In dose assessment for uranium and radium isotopes, the authors provided values for different human age groups. The obtained uranium content in the investigated waters was compared with the currently valid regulations concerning the quality of drinking water. Based on the activity concentrations data, the activity isotopic ratios (234)U/(238)U, (226)Ra/(238)U, (222)Rn/(238)U, (222)Rn/(226)Ra and the correlations between radionuclides content were then examined. In brief, it may be concluded on the basis of the obtained results that radon solubility is inversely proportional to radium and uranium dissolution in environmental water circulation. The presented study allows conclusions to be drawn on the radionuclide circulation among different environmental biota: from

  12. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  13. Effect of stone Spa bathing and hot-spring bathing on pulse wave velocity in healthy, late middle-aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Izumi, Yurina; Inoue, Miyabi; Okada, Kanako; Sakaguchi, Kaho; Miyai, Natsuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of stone spa bathing (Ganban-yoku) and hot-spring bathing on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy, late middle-aged females. The subjects were 13 females (mean age, 47.3 years). The skin and tympanic temperatures, blood pressure, and baPWV were measured before and after stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing. For the stone spa bathing, the subjects lay down three times for approximately 10 min each time over warm stone beds. Although body weight showed no change after the hot-spring bathing, it significantly increased after the stone spa bathing. The increase was significantly related to the amount of water intake. The skin and tympanic temperatures increased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing than after the hot-spring bathing. The diastolic blood pressure decreased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing. BaPWV showed no significant change after bathing both in the stone spa and in the hot-spring. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the factors significantly related to the change in baPWV after the stone spa bathing were the changes in skin and tympanic temperatures and habit of smoking, and that after the hot-spring bathing was the change in skin temperature. The results suggest that, compared with the hot-spring bathing, stone spa bathing causes less strain on the body. The stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing showed no marked effect on baPWV. However, there is a possibility that the stone spa bathing may be used as a load for investigating arterial stiffness.

  14. Age- and Gender-Associated Staphylococcus aureus spa Types Found among Nasal Carriers in a General Population: the Tromsø Staph and Skin Study▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvik, Maria; Olsen, Renate Slind; Olsen, Karina; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers risk autoinfection; however, knowledge about the factors that make specific strains successful colonizers is limited. This study was undertaken to identify the most successful S. aureus clones in nasal carriers and compare their distribution among host groups. The population structure of S. aureus isolates from healthy adults was investigated by spa typing 1,981 isolates from persistent and intermittent nasal carriers participating in a health survey. In the baseline screening (1,113 isolates), the most common spa types were t012 (8.4%), t084 (7.6%), and t065 (4.9%). Three large spa clonal complexes (spa CC012, spa CC065, and spa CC084) comprised 62.4% of the isolates. In multivariate models adjusted for age and smoking status, male sex was associated with higher risk for spa type t084 (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.77), and lower risk of spa type t012 (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.92) colonization. The prevalence of spa type t012 decreased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03), with a prevalence almost twice as high in the youngest group (age 30 to 44 years, prevalence = 11.1%) as in the oldest group (age, 60 to 87 years; prevalence = 5.6%). Among baseline isolates, spa type t084 had a twofold-higher prevalence among intermittent carriers than among persistent carriers (10.6% versus 5.5%; P = 0.04). In summary, the two most prevalent spa types found in this study were significantly associated with age and/or gender. This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus. PMID:21998436

  15. Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvik, Maria; Olsen, Renate Slind; Olsen, Karina; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers risk autoinfection; however, knowledge about the factors that make specific strains successful colonizers is limited. This study was undertaken to identify the most successful S. aureus clones in nasal carriers and compare their distribution among host groups. The population structure of S. aureus isolates from healthy adults was investigated by spa typing 1,981 isolates from persistent and intermittent nasal carriers participating in a health survey. In the baseline screening (1,113 isolates), the most common spa types were t012 (8.4%), t084 (7.6%), and t065 (4.9%). Three large spa clonal complexes (spa CC012, spa CC065, and spa CC084) comprised 62.4% of the isolates. In multivariate models adjusted for age and smoking status, male sex was associated with higher risk for spa type t084 (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.77), and lower risk of spa type t012 (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.92) colonization. The prevalence of spa type t012 decreased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03), with a prevalence almost twice as high in the youngest group (age 30 to 44 years, prevalence = 11.1%) as in the oldest group (age, 60 to 87 years; prevalence = 5.6%). Among baseline isolates, spa type t084 had a twofold-higher prevalence among intermittent carriers than among persistent carriers (10.6% versus 5.5%; P = 0.04). In summary, the two most prevalent spa types found in this study were significantly associated with age and/or gender. This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus.

  16. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact-Melt Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. A feasible near-term approach to this problem is to robotically collect a sample from near the center of the basin, where vertical and lateral mixing provided by post-basin impacts ensures that such a sample will be composed of small rock fragments from SPA itself, from local impact craters, and from faraway giant basins. The range of ages, intermediate spikes in the age distribution, and the oldest ages are all part of the definition of the absolute age and impact history recorded within the SPA basin.

  17. Influence of mechanical activation on synthesis of zinc metatitanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nebojša J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of a ZnO-TiO2 binary oxide mixture during mechanical treatment were mainly focused on obtaining orthotitanate Zn2TiO4 with a spinel structure. Due to the specific way of energy transfer during mechanical treatment using a high-energy ball mill, the system passes through low temperature ZnTiO3 metatitanate phase formation. Mechanical activation was performed on an equimolar ratio mixture of ZnO and TiO2. The anatase phase was previously submitted to heat treatment for achieving a starting mixture rich in a rutile phase. Milling conditions were preset for observing the formation of a low temperature ZnTiO3 phase with a perovskite structure. The powder microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. A nitrogen gas sorption analyzer with the BET method was used to determine the specific surface area and porosity, indicating changes of powder sample properties during mechanical activation. Also, X ray powder diffractometry was applied to obtain the phase composition. Powders were then pressed into pellets and their compressibility was observed through density changes. According to microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis, the system underwent a primary and secondary agglomeration process. Specific surface area measurements supported that conclusion. Compressibility investigations established the difference between compressibility of the non-activated mixture and activated powders. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that a perovskite structure forms simultaneously with a spinel phase during the process of mechanical activation.

  18. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  19. Teaching activity, curriculum and fields of influence in classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Vieira Pizzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse teaching activity, from the perspective of Activity Clinic of Yves Clot (2010, focusing on the curriculum developed in classroom, considering the conditions of its realization, requirements, contingencies and crossings in everyday life. To approach the complexity of the curriculum we use the Simple Self-confrontation technique, which uses the filming as a primary means of data collection. The teacher in this study worked in 2nd grade in a public Municipal Elementary School of Maceió/AL, located on the outskirts. The prescriptive character of curriculum policy was not determinant in curricular activity of this teacher, compared to other subjective factors and other content and subjects that readjusted the curriculum, printing new developments and implications.

  20. Principles of bioclimatic architecture applied at the project of spa center at Stara Planina mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioclimatic parameters in the design of tourist objects is an important factor for reducing energy consumption and preserving the environment. It represents the response to constant changing of climate conditions. Given the fact that development of tourism has negative consequences on the environment, it is necessary to examine the way design process can affect the reduction of energy and environmental pollution. This paper analyzes the principles of bioclimatic planning and design of the Spa Center at the Balkan Mountain that is one of the most valuable ecosystems in Serbia. Adaptation to the existing climate change was analyzed on two levels. The first level was urban factors that include analysis of local climate and environment that affect the positioning of the object and preliminary form. The second level was architecture factors with technical and technological solutions that can be achieved through the application of climate and energy responsible designing. Final analyses indicate that the bioclimatic approach is necessary in the initial stage of setting preliminary design for the building, because later it would take more effort to install technology that requires time and the whole process makes much more expensive. The work indicates that the energy needs of optimized Spa center like represented, from the very beginning of planning and designing, can be drastically reduced.

  1. Multi-objective calibration of a distributed hydrological model (WetSpa using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective genetic algorithm, NSGA-II, is applied to calibrate a distributed hydrological model (WetSpa for predicting river discharge. The evaluation criteria considered are the model bias (mass balance, the model efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and a logarithmic transformed model efficiency (to emphasize low-flow values. The concept of Pareto dominance is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem and derive Pareto-optimal parameter sets. In order to analyze the applicability of the approach, a comparison is made with another calibration routine using the parameter estimator PEST to minimize the model efficiency. The two approaches are evaluated by applying the WetSpa model to the Hornad River (Slovakia for which observations of daily precipitation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and discharge are available for a 10 year period (1991–2000. The first 5 years of the data series are used for model calibration, while the second 5 years for model validation. The results revealed that the quality of the solutions obtained with NSGA-II is comparable or even better to what can be obtained with PEST, considering the same assumptions. Hence, NSGA-II is capable of locating Pareto optimal solutions in the parameter search space and the results obtained prove the excellent performance of the multi-objective model calibration methodology.

  2. The Influence of Daily Structured Physical Activity on Academic Progress of Elementary Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Brett; Dimon, Chelsea; Stone, Danielle; Desmond, Deborah; Casilio, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests regular physical activity can positively influence academic performance. Although, little has been published on physical activity's impact on academic performance of students with intellectual disabilities, research shows the impact on brain and cognitive function of movement and physical activity. In this study, seven…

  3. The influence of lipoprotein(a on fibrinolytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahajuningsih D. Setiabudy

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a is a plasma lipoprotein whose structure and composition are similar with low density lipoprotein (LDL with an addition of apo(a that is bound to apo B100. The structure of apo(a is similar with plasminogen, a proenzym in fibrinolytic system. Due to this similarity, it is assumed that Lp(a can inhibit plasminogen activity and decreases fibrinolytic activity. The purpose of this study is to prove that addition of Lp(a to normal plasma can inhibit fibrinolytic activity. Four healthy people whose fibrinogen levels, plasminogen activities and euglobulin clot lysis time were within normal range were enrolled in this study. Fibrinolytic activity were assessed by euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT. In the first experiment, the addition of Lp(a was done before centrifugation to obtain euglobulin precipitates, while in the second experiment, Lp(a was added to the euglobulin precipitates. As a control, ECLT was performed in the plasma with the addition of NaCl 0.9% in the same volume with Lp(a. The results of the study showed that in the first experiment, there was no clot formation. It is assumed that Lp(a can bind fibrinogen and both of them floated in the supernatant, so there was no fibrinogen in the euglobulin precipitate that can be clotted by thrombin. In the second experiment, the clot did not dissolve until the fourth day. In conclusion, the addition of Lp(a to normal plasma can inhibit the activity of fibrinolytic system. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 135-9 Keywords: plasminogen, fibrinogen, apo(a, euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT

  4. Influence of activity on quality of life scores after RYGBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Steven W; Nof, Leah; Echternach, John; Hill, Cheryl

    2011-08-01

    Gastric bypass is one of the medically acceptable interventions for weight loss for the obese. Quality of life greatly improves after surgery. Most improvements in quality of life (QOL) after these surgeries are attributed to the weight loss. Few studies have demonstrated any contribution of other variables to positive outcomes in QOL. The purpose of this study was to suggest variables that improve QOL in this post-surgical population. The Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire, the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the SF-36 survey were sent to all of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure (RYGBP) patients who had surgery 1-5 years prior to the study and performed through the same bariatric surgery center (n = 805; respondents = 265; 33%). Analysis was performed through ANOVA testing to determine relationships between selected behaviors and the SF-36 of the respondents. Comparisons of differences in SF-36 scores were analyzed using the variables of hours of activity/day (HOAD) and energy in activity/day (EEAD). Patients with more EEAD and HOAD demonstrated significantly better SF-36 scores in both mental component and physical component scores (p = 0.05) when compared to those with less EEAD or HOAD. Outcomes measured by the SF-36 tool were improved after RYGBP, if the patient expended more energy/day or was active more hours/day. The post-bariatric surgery populations will have improved QOL if the patients expend more energy and are active more hours as demonstrated in activity/day after their surgery.

  5. Effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a review on latest evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2015-02-01

    In most European countries, balneotherapy and spa therapy are widely prescribed by physicians and preferred by European citizens for the treatment of musculoskeletal problems including chronic low back pain (LBP). We aimed to review and evaluate the recent evidence on the effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy for patients with LBP. We comprehensively searched data bases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between July 2005 and December 2013. We identified all trials testing balneotherapy or spa therapy for LBP that reported that the sequence of allocation was randomized. We finally included total of eight RCTs: two on balneotherapy and six on spa therapy. All reviewed trials reported that balneotherapy was superior in long term to tap water therapy in relieving pain and improving function and that spa therapy combining balneotherapy with mud pack therapy and/or exercise therapy, physiotherapy, and/or education was effective in the management of low back pain and superior or equally effective to the control treatments in short and long terms. We used Jadad scale to grade the methodological quality. Only three out of total eight had a score of above 3 indicating the good quality. The data from the RCTs indicates that overall evidence on effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy in LBP is encouraging and reflects the consistency of previous evidence. However, the overall quality of trials is generally low. Better quality RCTs (well designed, conducted, and reported) are needed testing short- and long-term effects for relieving chronic back pain and proving broader beneficial effects.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER\\'S BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory. This paper aims at presenting the consumer hypostasis resulted from lending activities, identifying its purposes and risks.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER'S BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA MIRELA STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory.This paper aims at presenting the consumer hypostasis resulted from lending activities, identifying its purposes and risks.

  8. Decrease of Markers Related to Bone Erosion in Serum of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders after Serial Low-Dose Radon Spa Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, Aljona; Shreder, Kateryna; Kraft, Daniela; Rühle, Paul Friedrich; Klein, Gerhart; Thiel, Gerhard; Frey, Benjamin; Gaipl, Udo S.; Fournier, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A) the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B) an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium) with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C) release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint. In addition to the classical medication, low-dose radiation therapy using photons or radon spa treatments has shown to reduce pain and improve the mobility of the patients. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects of radon are yet poorly understood. We analyzed blood and serum samples from 32 patients, suffering from MSDs, who had been treated in the radon spa in Bad Steben (Germany). Before and after therapy, we measured the levels of markers related to bone metabolism (collagen fragments type-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, receptor activator of NFκB ligand, and osteoprotegerin) in the serum of patients. In addition, adipokines related to inflammation (visfatin, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin) were analyzed. Some of these factors are known to correlate with disease activity. Since T cells play an important role in the progression of the disease, we further analyzed in blood samples the frequency of pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell subpopulations (CD4+IL17+ T cells and CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells). Overall, we found a decrease of collagen fragments (CTX-I), indicating decreased bone resorption, presumably by osteoclasts, in the serum of MSD patients. We also observed reduced levels of visfatin and a consistent trend toward an increase of regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood, both indicating attenuation of inflammation. However, key proteins of bone metabolism

  9. Decrease of Markers Related to Bone Erosion in Serum of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders after Serial Low-Dose Radon Spa Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Cucu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint. In addition to the classical medication, low-dose radiation therapy using photons or radon spa treatments has shown to reduce pain and improve the mobility of the patients. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects of radon are yet poorly understood. We analyzed blood and serum samples from 32 patients, suffering from MSDs, who had been treated in the radon spa in Bad Steben (Germany. Before and after therapy, we measured the levels of markers related to bone metabolism (collagen fragments type-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, receptor activator of NFκB ligand, and osteoprotegerin in the serum of patients. In addition, adipokines related to inflammation (visfatin, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were analyzed. Some of these factors are known to correlate with disease activity. Since T cells play an important role in the progression of the disease, we further analyzed in blood samples the frequency of pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell subpopulations (CD4+IL17+ T cells and CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Overall, we found a decrease of collagen fragments (CTX-I, indicating decreased bone resorption, presumably by osteoclasts, in the serum of MSD patients. We also observed reduced levels of visfatin and a consistent trend toward an increase of regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood, both indicating attenuation of inflammation. However, key proteins of bone

  10. Decrease of Markers Related to Bone Erosion in Serum of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders after Serial Low-Dose Radon Spa Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, Aljona; Shreder, Kateryna; Kraft, Daniela; Rühle, Paul Friedrich; Klein, Gerhart; Thiel, Gerhard; Frey, Benjamin; Gaipl, Udo S; Fournier, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A) the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B) an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium) with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C) release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint. In addition to the classical medication, low-dose radiation therapy using photons or radon spa treatments has shown to reduce pain and improve the mobility of the patients. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects of radon are yet poorly understood. We analyzed blood and serum samples from 32 patients, suffering from MSDs, who had been treated in the radon spa in Bad Steben (Germany). Before and after therapy, we measured the levels of markers related to bone metabolism (collagen fragments type-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, receptor activator of NFκB ligand, and osteoprotegerin) in the serum of patients. In addition, adipokines related to inflammation (visfatin, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin) were analyzed. Some of these factors are known to correlate with disease activity. Since T cells play an important role in the progression of the disease, we further analyzed in blood samples the frequency of pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell subpopulations (CD4(+)IL17(+) T cells and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells). Overall, we found a decrease of collagen fragments (CTX-I), indicating decreased bone resorption, presumably by osteoclasts, in the serum of MSD patients. We also observed reduced levels of visfatin and a consistent trend toward an increase of regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood, both indicating attenuation of inflammation. However, key proteins of bone

  11. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048, ... gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and .... Pepsin (2500–3500 units/mg protein), pancreatin ..... In addition, the .... Wang B, Li Z R, Chi CF, Zhang QH, Luo HY.

  12. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  13. Influence of antibiotic adsorption on biocidal activities of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2016-04-01

    Excessive use of antibiotics has posed two major challenges in public healthcare. One of them is associated with the development of multi-drug resistance while the other one is linked to side effects. In the present investigation, the authors report an innovative approach to tackle the challenges of multi-drug resistance and acute toxicity of antibiotics by using antibiotics adsorbed metal nanoparticles. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been synthesised by two-step process. In the first step, SNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with oleylamine and in the second step, oleylamine capped SNPs were phase-transferred into an aqueous medium by ligand exchange. Antibiotics - tetracycline and kanamycin were further adsorbed on the surface of SNPs. Antibacterial activities of SNPs and antibiotic adsorbed SNPs have been investigated on gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis), and gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacterial strains. Synergistic effect of SNPs on antibacterial activities of tetracycline and kanamycin has been observed. Biocidal activity of tetracycline is improved by 0-346% when adsorbed on SNPs; while for kanamycin, the improvement is 110-289%. This synergistic effect of SNPs on biocidal activities of antibiotics may be helpful in reducing their effective dosages.

  14. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children is increasing in many countries, including our country. It is believed that one of the two most important reasons for this increase is insufficient physical activity of children.The aim of this study was to examine the state of the level of nourishment of preschool children in relation to their level of physical activity. The survey was conducted in preschools in Pancevo. The sample consisted of 193 children (88 boys and 105 girls, aged 4 and 5 years. The assessment of the level of nourishment of the children and their parents was done after the standard anthropometric measurements of height, body weight, determining the body mass index and waist circumference and comparing the obtained values with the growth plates given by World Health Organization. Physical activity of the children was evaluated by a questionnaire which parents filled up. Inappropriate level of nourishment had 60 (31.1% children, of which 26 (13.5% with excessive body mass, obese 29 (15.0%, while 5 (2.5% were malnourished. Children are most attracted to sports such as ballet or folk dances, ball games and swimming, but only 22 (15.83% children are members of some sports club. The lack of finances and the lack of sports facilities and terrains are given as reasons by most parents. During the implementation of physical activities, 65.2% of children are never or sometimes exposed to excessive physical effort. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity among preschool children in Pancevo was high, particularly among children with excessive body weight and obese children. Socio-demographic and behavioral factors as well as behavior of parents significantly contributed to physical inactivity.

  15. Influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; Tuinstra, J.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15 years)

  16. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  17. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this paper was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...

  18. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE AVAILABILITY ON ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF CAROLLIA CASTANEA (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE) IN PANAMA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    2006-01-01

    ...) and abiotic (i.e., weather and lunar cycle) factors. We studied the influence of ambient light, rain, sex, and resource availability on the activity pattern of the neotropical chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea; Phyllostomidae...

  19. The Interplay of Networking Activities and Internal Knowledge Actions for Subsidiary Influence within MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavani, Zhaleh Najafi; Giroud, Axèle; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Building on resource dependency theory; this research investigates the joint impacts of subsidiary knowledge based actions (Reverse Knowledge Transfer (RKT) and knowledge development) and networking activities (internal and external embeddedness) on its strategic influence in the multinational...

  20. [Results of study concerning possible influence of rocket space activities on public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Rembovskiĭ, V R; Filippova, Iu V; Krinitsyn, N V

    2011-01-01

    Using special medical examination results and specified criteria of objective evaluation, the authors summarized results of studies concerning health state of population dwelling in area possibly influenced by rocket space activities factors.

  1. Factors Influencing the Introduction of Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Health Care: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Zouwe, N. van der; Crone, M.R.; Verheijden, M.W.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of efficacious physical activity (PA) interventions in routine primary health care (PHC) is a complex process. Understanding factors influencing the process can enhance the development of successful introduction strategies. Purpose: The aim of this qualitative study was

  2. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  3. Influence of glucosamine on oligochitosan solubility and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskikh, Inesa V; Kulikov, Sergey N; Vyshivannaya, Oxana V; Bezrodnykh, Evgeniya A; Yamskov, Igor A; Tikhonov, Vladimir E

    2013-11-15

    Light scattering studies indicate that oligochitosan (short-chain chitosan) solutions contain aggregates at pH values below the critical pH of phase separation, while at or above this point the gel phase coexists with the aggregate solution. This work demonstrates for the first time that the presence of D-glucosamine in an oligochitosan solution shifts the critical pH to a higher value and improves the oligochitosan antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis in neutral and slightly alkaline aqueous media. By comparing the results of light scattering studies and antimicrobial assays one can conclude that the antimicrobial activity of oligochitosan is dependent on its unimolecular form, not its supramolecular structures. The widening of the homogeneity region of an oligochitosan solution could lead to promising biomedical applications.

  4. Characterization of clonal relatedness among the natural population of Staphylococcus aureus strains by using spa sequence typing and the BURP (based upon repeat patterns) algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellmann, Alexander; Weniger, Thomas; Berssenbrügge, Christoph; Keckevoet, Ursula; Friedrich, Alexander W; Harmsen, Dag; Grundmann, Hajo

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the BURP (based upon repeat patterns) algorithm, which relies on sequencing of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa), for its ability to infer clonal relatedness within a population of 110 wild-type strains. BURP clustering of the resulting 66 spa types was highly concordant wi

  5. The Staphylococcus aureus lineage-specific markers collagen adhesin and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 distinguish multilocus sequence typing clonal complexes within spa clonal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Sebastian, Silvie; Welling, Maaike A; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-01-01

    Spa typing/based upon repeat pattern (BURP) sometimes cannot differentiate multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs) within spa-CCs. It has been observed previously that virulence factors, such as collagen adhesin (CNA) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), are associated with

  6. Correlation between Cobb angle, spinous process angle (SPA) and apical vertebrae rotation (AVR) on posteroanterior radiographs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Devlin G; Chan, Amanda; Hill, Doug; Parent, Eric C; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the accuracy and reliability of the Cobb angle, the spinous process angle (SPA), and apical vertebral rotation (AVR) for measuring adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), and to evaluate the correlations between these measurements. A retrospective study of two sets of standing posteroanterior radiographs of patients with AIS was performed. The first set was 59 consecutive patients with AIS with Cobb angles 45°. The Cobb angle, SPA and AVR of each curve was measured twice by three observers with varying measurement experience. The mean absolute difference, standard deviation, and intra- and inter-rater reliability coefficients for each measurement were examined. The Pearson correlation coefficients between any two parameters were reported. The association of the Cobb angle with the SPA and AVR was examined using a multiple regression model. The average intra- and inter-observer reliabilities (ICC [2, 1]) of the Cobb angle, SPA, and AVR were 0.99, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.98, 0.88, 0.83, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) between Cobb angle and SPA, Cobb angle and AVR, and SPA and AVR were 0.93, 0.68, and 0.60, respectively. Using multiple regression, the association between the Cobb angle and SPA combined with AVR was R (2) = 0.90. The resulting regression model was: [Formula: see text]. The SPA has high correlation with the Cobb angle. Including the AVR as an additional factor in multiple regression improves the prediction of the Cobb angle.

  7. NEUROFEEDBACK INFLUENCE ON CEREBRUM BIOELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN GYMNASTS-WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Strizhkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG of highly skilled gymnasts-women (main group – 49, control group – 39 showed the availability of cerebrum bioelectrical activity features of sportswomen connected with left hemisphere dominance, predominance of theta-rhythm power and lower reaction to eyes closing, also character of neurodynamic changes generated by neurofeedback course depended on ovarian-menstrual cycle phases.

  8. Stathmin activity influences sarcoma cell shape, motility, and metastatic potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Belletti, B; Nicoloso, M S; Schiappacassi, M; Berton, S; Lovat, F.; Wolf, K.; Canzonieri, V; D'Andrea, S.; Zucchetto, A; Friedl, P.H.A.; Colombatti, A; Baldassarre, G.

    2008-01-01

    The balanced activity of microtubule-stabilizing and -destabilizing proteins determines the extent of microtubule dynamics, which is implicated in many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, and morphology. Among the destabilizing proteins, stathmin is overexpressed in different human malignancies and has been recently linked to the regulation of cell motility. The observation that stathmin was overexpressed in human recurrent and metastatic sarcomas prompted us to investigate sta...

  9. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER'S BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Mirela STEFAN-DUICU; Adrian STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-01-01

    Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory. This pa...

  11. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P.; Slayter, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myos...

  12. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... of actions addressing factors from different layers in the socio-ecological model to increase recess physical activity....

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRASCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate the influence of students’ involvement in extracurricular activities on the development of skills and competencies by means of the factorial analysis. This research is untertaken by means of the questionnaire method, where 728 respondents from five Romanian universities where questionned. The data is analysed through the statistical programme SPSS. Due to the factorial analysis certain influences of the extracurricular activities on the organisational skills, social competencies, communication skills and integration ability are highlighted.

  14. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-03-30

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  15. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-03-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  16. Influence of soluble surface-active organic material on droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong

    1997-06-01

    The growth of droplets from inorganic salt aerosols, i.e., NaCl or (NH4)2SO4, by water vapor condensation can be predicted from Kohler theory, which accounts for the droplet curvature (Kelvin) effect and solute (Raoult) effect. Atmospheric aerosol particles, however, are also rich in organic materials, some of which are water soluble surfactants. Very limited research has been carried out to study the influence of soluble surfactants on droplet activation. This research has explored the effect of soluble surfactants on droplet activation both theoretically and experimentally. Particles containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been selected as surrogate of atmospheric surfactant aerosols. Both experimental and model simulation reach consistent results. It is concluded that SDS can lower critical supersaturation of particles that contain SDS through surface tension depression (lowering Kelvin effect). However, due to its high molecular weight (Mw = 288), SDS lowers the Raoult effect, leading to overall higher critical supersaturation than that of same dry size of pure NaCl particles. The osmotic coefficient of NaCl, Φ sal, and of SDS, Φ SDS, have also been calculated utilizing the measured S c and published σ data. It appears that the presence of SDS in an initially dry particle alters Φ SDS such that it increases in value and approaches ideal behavior as the proportion of SDS decreases. Since the critical droplet radius is larger for smaller SDS% in the mixture, the corresponding SDS bulk concentration is even more dilute, which is consistent with ideal solution behavior. Both theoretical and experimental approaches also show that despite the a depression, S c of a particle that contains SDS is always higher than that of a pure NaCl particle with the same dry size. The degree of this deviation increases with increasing SDS% in the mixtures, indicating an increase in hydrophobicity with increasing SDS% in the initially dry particles. The lowering of Raoult

  17. Influence of magnetic field on activity of given anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y B; Duan, X J; Yan, J N; Du, Y Y; Sun, S Y

    2009-11-01

    Two modes of magnetic fields were applied in the Cr(6+) removal sludge reactors containing two predominated strains--Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp., respectively. The magnetic field mode I* of 0-4.5 or 0-14 mT between pieces was obtained by setting the magnetic pieces with the surface magnetic density of 0-6 or 0-20 mT into the reactor, and the magnetic field mode II* of 6, 20, or 40 mT on the return line was obtained by controlling the working distance of the permanent magnet outside the sludge return line. The effects of different magnetic fields on the activity of the given anaerobic sludge were studied by comparing with the control (absent of magnetic field). The results showed that the magnetic field of 0-4 mT improved the activity of given sludge most effectively, U(max) CH(4) (the peak methane-producing rate) and the methane producing volume per gCOD(Cr) reached 64.3 mlCH(4)/gVSS.d and 124 mlCH(4)/gCOD(Cr), which increased by 20.6 and 70.7%, respectively, compared with the control. And the magnetic field of 20 mT took second place. It could be concluded that the input of some magnetic field could improve the activity of anaerobic sludge by increasing the transformation efficiency of COD(Cr) matters to methane, and the total organic wastage did not increase.

  18. 白木香内生真菌Aspergillus sp.A14的挥发性成分及其抗菌活性%Volatile Constituents and Their Antimicrobial Activities of Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. A14 from Aquilaria sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭可; 梅文莉; 吴娇; 戴好富

    2011-01-01

    通过溶剂萃取法提取白木香内生真菌A14(Aspergillus sp.)的挥发油,采用滤纸片琼脂扩散法分别测定了其对3种人体病原菌的体外抑菌活性.结果表明:A14挥发油对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(Methicillin-resistant S.aureus,MRSA)和白色念珠菌(Candida albicans)均表现出一定抑制作用.应用GC-MS技术,分析鉴定了内生真菌A14挥发油的14个化学成分,显示蜂蜜曲菌素是其中的主要成分,占挥发油峰面积的93.41%.%The volatile oils of endophytic fungus A14 (Aspergillus sp. ) from Aquilaria sinensis were extracted by solvent method and their antimicrobial activities against 3 pathogens were tested by agar disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the volatile oils of A14 exhibited weak antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as Candida albicans. Fourteen ingredients were identified from the volatile oil of A14 by GC-MS analysis,and mellein was the main component,which accounted for 93.41% of the peak area.

  19. Influence of phasic and tonic dopamine release on receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kristoffer Kisbye; Herrik, Kjartan F; Berg, Rune W

    2010-01-01

    Tonic and phasic dopamine release is implicated in learning, motivation, and motor functions. However, the relationship between spike patterns in dopaminergic neurons, the extracellular concentration of dopamine, and activation of dopamine receptors remains unresolved. In the present study, we...... develop a computational model of dopamine signaling that give insight into the relationship between the dynamics of release and occupancy of D(1) and D(2) receptors. The model is derived from first principles using experimental data. It has no free parameters and offers unbiased estimation...

  20. Soybean nitrate reductase activity influenced by manganese nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Damien P., Heenan; Lindsay C., Campbell; Department of Agronomy and Horticultural Science, University of Sydney

    1980-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation by soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cvv. Lee and Bragg] was investigated in plants grown in solution culture at manganese concentrations of 0, 1.8 and 275 μM and at day-night temperatures of 33-28℃ and 22-17℃. Manganese deficiency occurred in plants of both cultivars grown at 0 μM Mn; under these conditions, leaf nitrate concentration increased in both cultivars and nitrate reductase activity in vivo but not in vitro was reduced. High solution Mn (275 μM) produced sympt...

  1. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  2. Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne; Herbert-Read, James E; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2017-07-03

    Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

  3. Influence of computer work under time pressure on cardiac activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-03-01

    Computer users are often under stress when required to complete computer work within a required time. Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effects of time pressure workload during computer tasks on cardiac activity in 20 healthy subjects. Heart rate, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and Poincaré plot parameters were compared among five computer tasks and two rest periods. Faster heart rate and decreased standard deviation of R-R interval were noted in response to computer tasks under time pressure. The Poincaré plot parameters showed significant differences between different levels of time pressure workload during computer tasks, and between computer tasks and the rest periods. In contrast, no significant differences were identified for the frequency domain indices of HRV. The results suggest that the quantitative Poincaré plot analysis used in this study was able to reveal the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the autonomically regulated cardiac rhythm. Specifically, heightened vagal tone occurred during the relaxation computer tasks without time pressure. In contrast, the stressful computer tasks with added time pressure stimulated cardiac sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spa32 interaction with the inner-membrane Spa40 component of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri is required for the control of the needle length by a molecular tape measure mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botteaux, Anne; Sani, Musa; Kayath, Christian A.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaim; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2008-01-01

    The effectors of enterocyte invasion by Shigella are dependent on a type III secretion system that contains a needle whose length average does not exceed 50 nm. Previously, we reported that Spa32 is required for needle length control as well as to switch substrate specificity from MxiH to Ipa

  5. Factors influencing quality of life in patients with active tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Victoria C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB using focus groups and individual interviews. Methods English, Cantonese, and Punjabi-speaking subjects with active TB who were receiving treatment were eligible for recruitment into the study. Gender-based focus group sessions were conducted for the inner city participants but individual interviews were conducted for those who came to the main TB clinic or were hospitalized. Facilitators used open-ended questions and participants were asked to discuss their experiences of being diagnosed with tuberculosis, what impact it had on their lives, issues around adherence to anti-TB medications and information pertaining to their experience with side effects to these medications. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results 39 patients with active TB participated. The mean age was 46.2 years (SD 18.4 and 62% were male. Most were Canadian-born being either Caucasian or Aboriginal. Four themes emerged from the focus groups and interviews. The first describes issues related to the diagnosis of tuberculosis and sub-themes were identified as 'symptoms', 'health care provision', and 'emotional impact'. The second theme discusses TB medication factors and the sub-themes identified were 'adverse effects', 'ease of administration', and 'adherence'. The third theme describes social support and functioning issues for the individuals with TB. The fourth theme describes health behavior issues for the individuals with TB and the identified sub-themes were "behavior modification" and "TB knowledge." Conclusion Despite the ability to

  6. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria) decreased, while in the incubations with DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L the opposite trend was observed. References Huang S., and Jaffé P.R., 2015

  7. Comparison of automated repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction and spa typing versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Chow, Barbara L; Lloyd, Tracie; Gregson, Daniel B

    2011-01-01

    Automated repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (DiversiLab, bioMérieux, St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada) and single locus sequence typing of the Staphylococcus protein A (spa) gene with spa-type assignment by StaphType RIDOM software were compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as the "gold standard" method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) typing. Fifty-four MRSA isolates were typed by all methods: 10 of known PFGE CMRSA type and 44 clinical isolates. Correct assignment of CMRSA type or cluster occurred for 47 of 54 (87%) of the isolates when using a rep-PCR similarity index (SI) of ≥95%. Rep-PCR gave 7 discordant results [CMRSA1 (3), CMRSA2 (1), CMRSA4 (1), and CMRSA10 (2)], and some CMRSA clusters were not distinguished (CMRSA10/5/9, CMRSA 7/8, and CMRSA3/6). Several spa types occurred within a single PFGE or repetitive PCR types among the 19 different spa types found. spa type t037 was shared by CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 strains, and CMRSA9 and most CMRSA10 strains shared spa type t008. Time to results for PFGE, repetitive PCR, and spa typing was 3-4 days, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. The annual costs of using spa or repetitive PCR were 2.4× and 1.9× higher, respectively, than PFGE but routine use of spa typing would lower annual labor costs by 0.10 full-time equivalents compared to PFGE. Repetitive PCR is a good method for rapid outbreak screening, but MRSA isolates that share the same repetitive PCR or PFGE patterns can be distinguished by spa typing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Noise in brain activity engenders perception and influences discrimination sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; De Lucia, Marzia; Tzovara, Athina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Murray, Micah M; Spierer, Lucas

    2011-12-07

    Behavioral and brain responses to identical stimuli can vary with experimental and task parameters, including the context of stimulus presentation or attention. More surprisingly, computational models suggest that noise-related random fluctuations in brain responses to stimuli would alone be sufficient to engender perceptual differences between physically identical stimuli. In two experiments combining psychophysics and EEG in healthy humans, we investigated brain mechanisms whereby identical stimuli are (erroneously) perceived as different (higher vs lower in pitch or longer vs shorter in duration) in the absence of any change in the experimental context. Even though, as expected, participants' percepts to identical stimuli varied randomly, a classification algorithm based on a mixture of Gaussians model (GMM) showed that there was sufficient information in single-trial EEG to reliably predict participants' judgments of the stimulus dimension. By contrasting electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to the identical stimuli as a function of participants' percepts, we identified the precise timing and neural correlates (strength vs topographic modulations) as well as intracranial sources of these erroneous perceptions. In both experiments, AEP differences first occurred ~100 ms after stimulus onset and were the result of topographic modulations following from changes in the configuration of active brain networks. Source estimations localized the origin of variations in perceived pitch of identical stimuli within right temporal and left frontal areas and of variations in perceived duration within right temporoparietal areas. We discuss our results in terms of providing neurophysiologic evidence for the contribution of random fluctuations in brain activity to conscious perception.

  9. How an active-learning class influences physics self-efficacy in pre-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Usher, Ellen L.; Mamaril, Natasha A.

    2013-01-01

    Education majors in an inquiry-based physics content course were asked to reflect on the ways the course affected their self-efficacy for completing physics tasks, such as creating a circuit. Responses were coded according to the contributor of the influence and whether that influence was positive or negative. The group learning structure, hands-on activities in the class, and the constructed repertoire of science knowledge, processes, and activities, were all reported to be positive influences on self-efficacy, whereas the influence of the instructor was mixed. Overall, students' responses indicated both a desire for more guidance and lecture and an appreciation for their ability to construct their own understanding through the class activities.

  10. Social physique anxiety and physical activity in early adolescent girls: the influence of maturation and physical activity motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Fawkner, Samantha; Knowles, Ann-Marie; Henretty, Joan; Stephenson, Claire

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of maturation on social physique anxiety, the relationship between social physique anxiety and current and future physical activity levels, and the influence of motives for physical activity on this relationship in early adolescent girls (n=162; mean age = 11.8 +/- 0.3 years). Participants completed the Pubertal Development Scale, the modified Social Physique Anxiety Scale, and the Motives for Physical Activity Scale at baseline and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children at baseline and 6 months later. The girls became less active across the 6 months and girls in the early stages of maturation had significantly lower social physique anxiety than the girls in the middle and late stages of maturation. Social physique anxiety was not related to current or future physical activity in the sample as a whole. Cluster analysis identified four groups with different motive profiles and the High Appearance and Fitness group demonstrated a moderate negative relationship between social physique anxiety and physical activity at phase 1, whereas the other groups did not. These findings indicate that social physique anxiety may increase with maturation and the relationship between social physique anxiety and physical activity is dependent on reasons for being active. For girls who are motivated to be active primarily by body-related reasons, social physique anxiety is likely to lead to lower levels of physical activity.

  11. Serum Prolidase Activity and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy and End Stage Renal Disease: A Correlative Study with Glucose and Creatinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Chandra, Subhash; Singh, Rana Gopal; Singh, Tej Bali; Srivastava, Shalabh; Srivastava, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Association of oxidative stress and serum prolidase activity (SPA) has been reported in many chronic diseases. The study was aimed at evaluating the correlation of glucose and creatinine to SPA and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) concerned with T2DM. 50 healthy volunteers, 50 patients with T2DM, 86 patients with DN, and 43 patients with ESRD were considered as control-1, control-2, case-1, and case-2, respectively. Blood glucose, creatinine, SPA, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured by colorimetric tests. SPA, TOS, and OSI were significantly increased in case-1 and case-2 than control-1 and control-2, while TAS was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Blood glucose was linearly correlated to SPA, TOS, TAS, and OSI in control-2, case-1 and case-2 (P < 0.001). Serum creatinine was linearly correlated with SPA, TOS, TAS and OSI in control-2 and case-1 (P < 0.001). In case-2, serum creatinine was significantly correlated with SPA only (P < 0.001). Thus, the study concluded that SPA and oxidative stress significantly correlated with blood glucose and creatinine. SPA, TOS, TAS, and OSI can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of kidney damage. PMID:25276429

  12. Serum Prolidase Activity and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy and End Stage Renal Disease: A Correlative Study with Glucose and Creatinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of oxidative stress and serum prolidase activity (SPA has been reported in many chronic diseases. The study was aimed at evaluating the correlation of glucose and creatinine to SPA and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN and end stage renal disease (ESRD concerned with T2DM. 50 healthy volunteers, 50 patients with T2DM, 86 patients with DN, and 43 patients with ESRD were considered as control-1, control-2, case-1, and case-2, respectively. Blood glucose, creatinine, SPA, total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured by colorimetric tests. SPA, TOS, and OSI were significantly increased in case-1 and case-2 than control-1 and control-2, while TAS was significantly decreased (P<0.001. Blood glucose was linearly correlated to SPA, TOS, TAS, and OSI in control-2, case-1 and case-2 (P<0.001. Serum creatinine was linearly correlated with SPA, TOS, TAS and OSI in control-2 and case-1 (P<0.001. In case-2, serum creatinine was significantly correlated with SPA only (P<0.001. Thus, the study concluded that SPA and oxidative stress significantly correlated with blood glucose and creatinine. SPA, TOS, TAS, and OSI can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of kidney damage.

  13. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and imagination. Alexithymia is widely regarded to arise from an impairment of emotion regulation. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to critically evaluate this by investigating the neural correlates of emotion regulation as a function of alexithymia levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying the two alexithymia dimensions during emotion perception and emotion regulation. Using fMRI, we scanned 51 healthy subjects while viewing, reappraising or suppressing negative emotional pictures. The results support the idea that cognitive alexithymia, but not affective alexithymia, is associated with lower activation in emotional attention and recognition networks during emotion perception. However, in contrast with several theories, no alexithymia-related differences were found during emotion regulation (neither reappraisal nor suppression). These findings suggest that alexithymia may result from an early emotion processing deficit rather than compromised frontal circuits subserving higher-order emotion regulation processes.

  14. Influence of montmorillonite on antimicrobial activity of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guocheng; Pearce, Cody W.; Gleason, Andrea; Liao, Libing; MacWilliams, Maria P.; Li, Zhaohui

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics are used not only to fight infections and inhibit bacterial growth, but also as growth promotants in farm livestock. Farm runoff and other farm-linked waste have led to increased antibiotic levels present in the environment, the impact of which is not completely understood. Soil, more specifically clays, that the antibiotic contacts may alter its effectiveness against bacteria. In this study a swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was preloaded with antibiotics tetracycline and ciprofloxacin at varying concentrations and bioassays were conducted to examine whether the antibiotics still inhibited bacterial growth in the presence of montmorillonite. Escherichia coli was incubated with montmorillonite or antibiotic-adsorbed montmorillonite, and then the number of viable bacteria per mL was determined. The antimicrobial activity of tetracycline was affected in the presence of montmorillonite, as the growth of non-resistant bacteria was still found even when extremely high TC doses were used. Conversely, in the presence of montmorillonite, ciprofloxacin did inhibit E. coli bacterial growth at high concentrations. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in clayey soils depends on the amount of antibiotic substance present, and on the interactions between the antibiotic and the clays in the soil, as well.

  15. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards : Gianfranco Malvestiti and Ernesto Malvestiti de Ernesto Malvestiti SpA (Italie)

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Ernesto Malvestiti SpA (Italy) is the main manufacturer of the metal collars needed to ensure the rigidity of the superconducting dipoles. The firm was awarded its prize in recognition of the central role it played during the transition from aluminium to stainless-steel collars.

  16. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... On-Site Leased Workers of Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, TX; Amended Certification... Corporation, a subdivision of Zach System SPA, La Porte, Texas, including on-site leased workers from Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, Texas. The Department's notice of determination was published in...

  17. SP-A-enriched surfactant for treatment of rat lung transplants with SP-A deficiency after storage and reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Batenburg, JJ; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    2002-01-01

    Background. The function of pulmonary surfactant is affected by lung transplantation, contributing to impaired lung transplant function. A decreased amount of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) after reperfusion is believed to contribute to the impaired surfactant function. Surfactant treatment has been sh

  18. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Sourceto Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on the mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples f...

  19. 75 FR 22512 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of....regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-09-09 Piaggio Aero Industries...

  20. 75 FR 43095 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... failure of engine oil dipsticks, installed on Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PT6A66 and PT6A66B engines, were detected on P.180 aeroplanes; such failures, due to moisture penetration into the dipstick...

  1. 75 FR 7409 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD,...

  2. 76 FR 4056 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the... Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket...

  3. 75 FR 43101 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except....regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  4. 75 FR 63058 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of....regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-21-14 PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES...

  5. 75 FR 63062 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Assembly (P/N 80-337284- 001), which allows better clearances and removes the problem of potential interference. PAI issued SB 80-0175 Revision 1, limiting the applicability to aeroplanes with the old...

  6. 75 FR 47734 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Industries S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through... http://www.regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5...

  7. 76 FR 54403 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... sleeves (part number (P/N) 114146681), which were installed in some Main Landing Gear (MLG) actuators, had... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday,...

  8. Perceptions, expectations, and informal supports influence exercise activity in frail older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Broderick; Ruth McCullagh; Eleanor Bantry White; Eileen Savage; Suzanne Timmons

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore frail older adults’ perceptions of what influences their exercise behaviors. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 29 frail older adults. Thematic content analysis established the findings. Frail older adults perceive exercise as a by-product of other purposeful activities such as manual work or social activities. Progression int...

  9. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…

  10. Construction of a fusion gene encoding h1a-spaO of Salmonella paratyphi A and analysis of immuno-protective effects of the recombinant protein%甲型副伤寒沙门菌 h1 a-spaO 融合基因构建及其表达产物免疫保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金蕾; 蒋锦琴; 方佳琪; 林旭瑷; 严杰; 孙爱华

    2014-01-01

    目的:构建甲型副伤寒沙门菌h1a-spaO融合基因及其原核表达系统,确定重组表达产物rH1a-SpaO免疫保护作用。方法采用柔性肽序列连接引物PCR构建并扩增h1a与spaO基因的融合基因h1a-spaO,T-A克隆后测序。采用常规基因工程方法构建h1a-spaO融合基因原核表达系统,SDS-PAGE检测其rH1a-SpaO表达情况。采用Western blot鉴定rH1a-SpaO抗原性和免疫反应性,微量肥达试验确定rH1a-SpaO抗血清凝集甲型副伤寒沙门菌的能力。采用小鼠感染模型了解rH1a-SpaO对甲型副伤寒沙门菌致死性感染的保护作用并与等量单一重组表达蛋白H1a( rH1a)及SpaO (rSpaO)比较。结果所构建的h1a-spaO融合基因与单一h1a或spaO基因核苷酸和氨基酸序列相似性均为100%。 h1a-spaO融合基因原核表达系统能高效表达rH1a-SpaO。 rH1a-SpaO能与rH1a或rSpaO抗血清结合, rH1a-SpaO抗血清也能识别rH1a和rSpaO并经H抗原凝集甲型副伤寒沙门菌。100μg rH1a-SpaO 对甲型副伤寒沙门菌感染小鼠的免疫保护率(93.3%)明显高于等量 rH1a (60.0%)及rSpaO(53.3%)(P<0.05)。结论重组融合蛋白抗原rH1a-SpaO免疫保护作用较等量单一rH1a或rSpaO更强,可作为甲型副伤寒两价基因工程疫苗或伤寒/副伤寒荚膜多糖-蛋白结合疫苗的有效抗原。%Objective To construct a fusion gene (h1a-spaO) encoding H1a-SpaO protein of Sal-monella paratyphi A ( S.paratyphi A) and to express it in prokaryotic expression system , then to further ana-lyze the immunoprotective effects of the expressed protein rH 1a-SpaO.Methods The h1a-spaO fusion gene formed from separate h1a and spaO genes was amplified by PCR using flexible peptide sequence-containing linking primers and then sequenced after T-A cloning.A prokaryotic expression system for expressing h1a-spaO fusion gene was constructed by using the genetic engineering technique .The expressed protein rH1a-Spa

  11. Characterization of Legionella pneumophila Isolated from Environmental Water and Ashiyu Foot Spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tachibana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs are the most common infectious source of Legionella pneumophila in Japan. However, little is known about the association between L. pneumophila and environmental waters other than hot springs. In this study, water samples from 22 environmental water sites were surveyed; of the 22 samples, five were L. pneumophila positive (23%. L. pneumophila was mainly isolated from ashiyu foot spas, a type of hot spring for the feet (3/8, 38%. These isolates had genetic loci or genes that encoded the virulence factors of L. pneumophila. Moreover, these isolates showed higher intracellular growth and stronger cytotoxicity compared with the reference strain. These results suggest that ashiyu foot spa can be the original source for L. pneumophila infection.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLAINTS HANDLING STANDARDS IN SPA COMPANIES: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the key features of an effective complaint management process as well as to explore whether these systems are formally constituted in terms of standards or other models for complaints management. We use four case studies of spa organizations from Spain. The case studies illustrate the organizations' approach to managing complaints and customer satisfaction effectively. The results of this exploratory study show that all four organizations have some mechanisms implemented to handle complaints although different levels of formalization have been achieved. The analysis unveils some common difficulties and key success factors of implementing a complaints handling system. The results of this paper suggest that managers should prioritize managing customer complaints effectively in order to enhance their chances of meeting customer expectations. This strategy can result into turning customer complaints to customer satisfaction, especially when the organization views complaints as an opportunity to improve.

  13. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  14. Identification research in recovery-oil based on SPA-PLSR model%基于SPA-PLSR的回收油鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明富; 张政委; 冯小平; 夏曦; 王念

    2013-01-01

    近年来回收油(地沟油)事件频繁出现,为寻找快速、无损、高效的鉴别方法,防止回收油再次流回餐桌.本文采集到10种回收油以及10种正常食用油样品,建立光谱技术结合SPA-PLSR组合模型,选取因变量苯环(270nm)、多环芳烃类(225nm),提取特征吸收波长个数为8,分别为:195,197,209,245,255,270,310和830nm.利用最低PRESS法确定潜变量个数:LV225=4,LV270=3,建立PLSR回归方程Y225,Y270,预测相关度分别为R225=0.994119,R270=0.9886,均方根残差分别为RMSEC225=0.033654,RMSEC270=0.0336.最后利用Fisher有监督模式分类器实现对8种正常食用油和8种回收油的投影,以及对2种回收油和2种正常食用油的有效辨别,准确率为100%.可作为鉴别回收油与正常食用油的一种办法.%Events of the recycled-oil (waste oil) often happen in recent years.In order to prevent the recycled-oil return to the table again,it is necessary to find a fast,efficient,non-destructive methods of identifying.This paper collected ten kinds of recycled-oil and ten kinds of cooking-oil samples.Set up the model combined spectroscopy and SPA-PLSR.There are benzene ring (270nm) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (225nm),which are dependent variables selected.The extracting characteristic absorption wavelength number is 8.There are 195,197,209,245,255,270,310 and 830nm,respectively.The minimum PRESS method was used to determine the latent variable number,there are LV225 =4,LV270 =3.And established PLSR regression equations:Y225 and Y270.The correlation of R225 =0.994 119 and R270 =0.9886 are expected,and the root mean square residuals are RMSEC225 =0.033654 and RMSEC270 =0.0336,respectively.Finally,Fisher supervision pattern classifier is used to achieve projection of eight kinds of the cooking-oil and recycled oil samples,And achieve effective discrimination of two kinds of recycled-oil and two kinds of cooking-oil samples at the same time.The accuracy is 100%.So it can be

  15. [The external application of "Plastunskaya" fluoride-containing mineral water in the course of the combined spa and health resort-based treatment of deforming osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'Nichuk, L P; Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    Mineral waters containing fluorine (fluorinated waters) at a concentration in excess of 1 mg per liter are extensively used in the newly developing spa and health resort areas of the Russian Federation. They have been found in Siberia, Trans-Baikal regions, and the Krasnodar Territory (together with the Greater Sochi). These waters are mainly used for drinking as a component of the balneo- therapeutic treatment. In this context, the study of the therapeutic effects of low-mineralized hydrocarbonate-sodium waters containing fluorine in high concentrations is of paramount importance for the substantiation and facilitation of their external application in the framework of the programs of combined spa and health resort-based treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the possibility of the external application of "Plastunskaya" mineral water characterized above all by the high content of fluorine for the external treatment of osteoarthritis in 187 patients at the age varying from 37 to 63 years in the combination with the sparing regimen of physical activity, therapeutic physical exercises, klimatotherapy of moderate intensity, and a balanced diet. The patients were prescribed to take general "Plastunskaya" mineral water baths with the fluoride concentration of 7.4 mg/l at a temperature of 36 C from 7 to 15 minutes in duration for 2 consecutive days with a break on every third day (the total course consisted of 14-16 baths). It was shown that the combined treatment with the use of fluorine-containing mineral water resulted in the significant improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters characterizing the health status of the patients suffering from deforming osteoarthrosis.

  16. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psetting, peer compliance (p= .009) and conformity (p= .019) were associated with active group membership. These findings reinforce considering both setting, as well as the channel/type combinations of social influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  17. Influence of mechanochemical activation of a charge on properties of mullite-tialite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsiferov V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mechanochemical activation (MCA of a kaolin-containing charge on the strength of mullite-tialite materials (obtained using methods of semidry molding and polymeric matrix duplication was studied. It is shown that spectral and X-ray indexes of crystallinity of kaolin activated under similar conditions could be used as criteria of MCA efficiency. Parameters of mullite-tialite charge (containing kaolin, alumina and anatase activation were optimized. .

  18. Dermatological aspects influencing the practice of physical activities by obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Titski,Ana Cláudia Kapp; Leite, Neiva

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective : The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the major skin diseases affecting obese individuals and their influence on physical activity. Methods : Relevant articles were identified by systematically searching PubMed from 2000 to 2014, using the descriptors "skin diseases" and "obesity", "skin disease" and "obesity", "skin diseases" and "physical activity", "skin disease" and "physical activity". The PEDro Scale (in Brazilian Portuguese) was used to rate...

  19. [Evaluating influence of Captopril therapy on occupational activity of engine operators with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, V V; Kolyagin, V Ya; Bogdanova, V E

    2016-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning influence of Captopril (25 mg) therapy on occupational activity of locomotive crew workers in real night travels model on training complex "EP1M locomotive operator cabin". Findings are that single use of Captopril (25 mg) in modelled railway activity enabled to increase reliability of occupational activity, that manifested in lower number of errors in locomotive operators' actions at night, and in psychophysiologic regulation of various psychic acts.

  20. Examination on sports consciousness and conditions influencing sports activity and physical fitness in adolescent male students

    OpenAIRE

    中,比呂志; 出村, 慎一

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of factors such as sports consciousness, sports conditions and physical fitness to sports activity, and to examine the influence of sports consciousness and sports conditions on the improvement of physical fitness in adolescent male students. The Diagnostic Inventory for Sport Counseling (DISC) and physical fitness tests designed by the Ministry of Education in Japan were administered to 687 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. Si...

  1. Short repeats in the spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus are prone to nonsense mutations: stop codons can be found in strains isolated from patients with generalized infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Shamsudin, Mariana-Nor; Amouzandeh-Nobaveh, Alireza; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich

    2013-11-01

    Fifteen sequences with stop codons have been obtained in the course of standard methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spa typing. In nine of those sequences, stop codons occurred due to nonsense G-T and A-T transversions. G-T transversions would appear to be frequent in the spa gene, mostly due to symmetric mutational AT-pressure in the whole S. aureus genome and due to replication-associated mutational pressure characteristic of lagging strands of the "chromosome". A-T transversions would appear to be frequent in the spa gene mostly due to transcription-associated mutational pressure. Relative to other S. aureus genes, short repeats in spa are enriched by nonsense sites for G-T and A-T transversions; the probability of being nonsense for A-T transversion is high in that part of spa coding region. 13 out of 15 (87%) of the sequences with stop codons were obtained from strains isolated from patients with generalized S. aureus infection. Truncation of spa at its C-terminus is predicted to result in a protein that possesses functional IgG binding domains unable to be linked to the cell wall. This is discussed in light of the known fact that extracellular spa is a strong virulence factor involved in immune evasion. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissemination Matters: Influences of Dissemination Activities on User Types in an Online Educational Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging online educational communities provide spaces for teachers to find resources, create instructional activities, and share these activities with others. Within these online communities, individual users’ activities may vary widely, and thus different user types can be identified. In addition, users’ patterns of activities in online communities are dynamic, and further can be affected by dissemination activities. Through analyzing usage analytics in an online teacher community called the Instructional Architect, this study explores the influences of dissemination activities on the usage patterns of different user types. Results show that dissemination activities can play an important role in encouraging users’ active participation, while the absence of dissemination activities can further increase participation inequality.

  3. Environmental influences on physical activity in rural Midwestern adults: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults.

  4. Physical activity, evaluation of menopause, life satisfaction and influence tactics in marriage of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Domination of the biomedical approach to menopause may imply creation of negative attitudes to the phenomenon, and at the same time negatively affect women’s life satisfaction and behaviour in the family. It is assumed that physical activity may be a defensive factor, as this type of activity may reduce the intensity of menopause symptoms. The aim of the research was to determine the relation between menopause evaluation, life satisfaction and tactics of influence employed in marriage by women who differ in involvement in physical exercise. Participants and procedure The research was conducted among 90 women, at the age of 45-55: 45 physically active women and 45 women who do not engage in any physical activity. The following research methods were used: the Menopause Evaluation Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS and the Questionnaire of Influence in Close Relations of Women and Men. Results Positive evaluation of menopause was related to involvement in physical exercise as well as to a stronger tendency to use positive strategies of exerting influence on one’s spouse. The research also showed a slight correlation between life satisfaction and involvement in physical exercise. Negative evaluation of menopause was related to avoiding physical activity. Conclusions Physical activity is more frequently related to a positive attitude towards menopause and the use of more positive tactics of exerting influence on one’s spouse, and slightly positively conducive to one’s life satisfaction level.

  5. Enhanced discrimination of highly clonal ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IV isolates achieved by combining spa, dru, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2010-05-01

    ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) is endemic in Irish hospitals and is designated antibiogram-resistogram type-pulsed-field group (AR-PFG) 06-01. Isolates of this highly clonal strain exhibit limited numbers of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and spa types. This study investigated whether combining PFGE and spa typing with DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing) would improve isolate discrimination. A total of 173 MRSA isolates recovered in one Irish hospital during periods in 2007 and 2008 were investigated using antibiogram-resistogram (AR), PFGE, spa, dru, and SCCmec typing. Isolates representative of each of the 17 pulsed-field group 01 (PFG-01) spa types identified underwent multilocus sequence typing, and all isolates were ST22. Ninety-seven percent of isolates (168 of 173) exhibited AR-PFG 06-01 or closely related AR patterns, and 163 of these isolates harbored SCCmec type IVh. The combination of PFGE, spa, and dru typing methods significantly improved discrimination of the 168 PFG-01 isolates, yielding 65 type combinations with a Simpson\\'s index of diversity (SID) of 96.53, compared to (i) pairwise combinations of spa and dru typing, spa and PFGE typing, and dru and PFGE typing, which yielded 37, 44, and 43 type combinations with SIDs of 90.84, 91.00, and 93.57, respectively, or (ii) individual spa, dru, and PFGE typing methods, which yielded 17, 17, and 21 types with SIDs of 66.9, 77.83, and 81.34, respectively. Analysis of epidemiological information for a subset of PFG-01 isolates validated the relationships inferred using combined PFGE, spa, and dru typing data. This approach significantly enhances discrimination of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates and could be applied to epidemiological investigations of other highly clonal MRSA strains.

  6. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  7. The influence of different sitting postures on head/neck posture and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneiro, Joao Paulo; O'Sullivan, Peter; Burnett, Angus; Barach, Avi; O'Neil, David; Tveit, Orjan; Olafsdottir, Karolina

    2010-02-01

    To date the influence that specific sitting posture has on the head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity has been insufficiently investigated. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether three different thoraco-lumbar sitting postures affect head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity. Twenty (10 men, 10 women) asymptomatic subjects were placed in 3 standardized thoraco-lumbar sitting postures (lumbo-pelvic, thoracic upright and slump) to investigate their influence on cervico-thoracic muscle activity and head/neck posture. There were significant differences in lumbar and thoracic curvatures in the 3 different sitting postures (Ppostures (P=0.015). Upper trapezius (UT) demonstrated no significant difference in muscle activation in the 3 sitting postures (Ppostures affect head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity. It highlights the potential importance of thoraco-lumbar spine postural adjustment when training head/neck posture.

  8. Exploring self-perceptions and social influences as correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2008-02-01

    This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good fit to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable fit to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.

  9. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  10. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  11. Features of influence of sports activities on the identity of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutula Vasilij

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of features of influence of sports activities on the identity of sportsmen. Material & Methods: the special surveys of students and teachers of KhSAPC, and also students, who train in sports club "Politekhnik", and the students who are engaged in sports sections NLA were conducted for the solution of purposes. Results: the most important qualities of the personality which sports activities influence are: formation of "confidence", "emotional stability", and "orientation to achievement" at sportsmen. According to most of the interviewed sportsmen and experts, the authority of the coach is not significant factor which influences the identity of sportsmen. Conclusions: it is established as a result of the conducted researches that sports activities most of all influence the formation of confidence, emotional stability and orientation to achievement at sportsmen. Results of the research demonstrate also that the identity of the sportsman is most influenced by the competitive relationship which develops in the course of competitive activity. Results of the research also indicate disturbing tendency which is shown that most of sportsmen connect the end of their sports career with injuries.

  12. Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chun-Zi; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C; Reiersen, Angela M; Mulligan, Richard C; Anokhin, Andrey P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity across adolescence, we collected maternal ratings of 339 twin pairs at ages 12, 14, and 16, and estimated the transmitted and new familial influences on attention and activity as measured by the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale. Familial influences were substantial for both traits across adolescence: genetic influences accounted for 54%-73% (attention) and 31%-73% (activity) of the total variance, and shared environmental influences accounted for 0%-22% of the attention variance and 13%-57% of the activity variance. The longitudinal stability of individual differences in attention and activity was largely accounted for by familial influences transmitted from previous ages. Innovations over adolescence were also partially attributable to familial influences. Studying the full range of variability in attention and activity may facilitate our understanding of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder's etiology and intervention.

  13. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models.

  14. Influence of Main Components in Exhaust Gas on Mercury Adsorption Capacity of Brominated Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hong Con

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brominated activated carbon (AC-Br, which was produced from coconut shell activated carbon (AC and brominated by wet way with elemental bromine, was determined as a material with super high adsorption capacity of mercury vapor. But in real exhaust gases, there are many components such as SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, HCl, H2O can influence on adsorption ability of the AC-Br. In this paper, these influences were studied and compared them between initial AC and AC-Br. Each component has different effect on AC and AC-Br and followed by its particular mechanism.

  15. Differential influence of instruments in nuclear core activity evaluation by data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriquet, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.bouriquet@cerfacs.f [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Argaud, Jean-Philippe [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Erhard, Patrick [Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Massart, Sebastien [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Poncot, Angelique [Electricite de France, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, F-92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Ricci, Sophie [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Thual, Olivier [Sciences de l' Univers au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No 1875, 42 avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-21

    The global neutronic activity fields of a nuclear core can be reconstructed using data assimilation. Indeed, data assimilation allows to combine both measurements from instruments and information from a model, to evaluate the best possible neutronic activity within the core. We present and apply a specific procedure which evaluates the influence of measures by adding or removing instruments in a given measurement network (possibly empty). The study of various network configurations for the instruments in the nuclear core establishes that the influence of the instruments depends both on the independent instrumentation location and on the chosen network.

  16. On the influence of the alternation of two different cooling systems on dairy cow daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes that influence cow welfare, heat stress induced by microclimatic conditions is one of the most relevant and many studies have investigated the efficacy of different cooling systems on animal health status. Nevertheless, the direct influence of the cooling systems on possible modifications of dairy cow behaviour has been addressed in a few studies and the related results were affected by the presence of a paddock, which gave a refuge from hot temperature. Since an alteration of the daily time budget spent by dairy cows in their usual activities can be associated with changes in their health status, this study investigated the effects of the alternation of two different cooling systems on lying, standing, and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy cows bred in a free-stall dairy house where animals had no access to a paddock. The barn was equipped with a fogging system associated with forced ventilation installed in the resting area and a sprinkler system associated with forced ventilation installed in the feeding area. The two systems were activated alternately. The results demonstrated that the management of the two cooling systems affected the analysed behaviours. Though the activation of the cooling system installed in the resting area encouraged the decubitus of animals in the stalls, the activation of that one of the feeding alley could not be able to influence the standing behaviour and had only a moderate positive influence on the feeding activity.

  17. Real-life effectiveness of spa therapy in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases: a retrospective study of 819 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-05-30

    The objective of this study is to determine the use and efficacy of spa therapy in patients with a wide spectrum of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases under real-life clinical practice circumstances. In this retrospective observational study at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, the records of all adult patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases who were prescribed a spa therapy in various health resorts in Turkey between 2002 and 2012 were analyzed. Patients sojourned to and stayed at a health resort and followed a usual 2-week course of spa therapy. The patients were examined within a week before and after the spa therapy at the department by the physicians and outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analog scale, VAS), patient's general evaluation (VAS), physician's general evaluation (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne's Functional Index (LFI), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC), Waddell Index (WI), Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). In total, 819 patients were included in the analysis. The diagnoses were 536 osteoarthritis; 115 fibromyalgia; 50 lumbar disc herniation; 34 cervical disc herniation; 23 nonspecific low back pain; 22 ankylosing spondylitis; 16 rheumatoid arthritis; 9 rotator cuff tendinitis; and 14 other conditions/diseases including scoliosis, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, congenital hip dislocation in adult, Behçet's disease, de Quervain tendinopathy, psoriatic arthritis, osteoporosis, fracture rehabilitation, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Statistically significant decrease in pain scores was found in all patients except hip osteoarthritis (p = 0.063) and rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.134) subgroups; and statistically significant improvement in function in all patients except hip osteoarthritis

  18. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  19. Factors influencing the activity and thermostability of immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéry, V; Haplová, J; Tihlárik, K; Schmidt, S

    1990-01-01

    Lipase from porcine pancreas was immobilized on cellulose beads having various degrees of hydrophobicity, by covalent linking and by hydrophobic adsorption. Lipolytic activity was measured in heterogeneous organic-aqueous systems of various hydrophobicities using olive oil as a substrate. The main factors influencing lipase activity were hydrophobicity of the reaction mixture and of the carrier. Carriers with increased hydrophobicity enhanced lipase activity more than less hydrophobic ones. Lipase immobilized covalently on cellulose beads was less active than that adsorbed onto tritylcellulose but was considerably more thermostable.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE COMPOSITION OF MILK POWDER ON WATER ACTIVITY APPLYING THE GAB MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Gil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of sorption isotherms at 25°C, for analyze the influence of water activity (aw of the different compositions of whole milk, skim and low in lactose powder, was study. Precisely the latter incorporating previous work can extend the differential behavior of the various components. The work can establish the relationship between the moisture content of the milk powders studied, with its water activity (aw. The experimental results are evaluated with reference model GAB, noting that the layout of the isotherms and the model parameters were successfully adjusted to the values obtained. The clear influence of the presence of monosaccharides (glucose and galactose in the reduced-lactose milk, which reduce the water activity aw from greater value of 0.4 due to the higher solubility of these, is observed. The fat content in whole milk, not being adsorbent is manifested in higher values for water activity.

  1. The influence of self-determination in physical education on leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Using a multitheory approach, this study was designed to investigate the influence of urban adolescents' perceived autonomy and competence in physical education on their physical activity intentions and behaviors during leisure time. A transcontextual model was hypothesized and tested. Urban adolescents (N=653, ages 11-15 years) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs and moderate to vigorous physical activity and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Based on our structural equation modeling analyses and fit indexes, the transcontextual model adequately fit the data. We concluded that the two theoretical frameworks--SDT and theory of planned behavior--can be integrated to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of physical education on leisure-time physical activity. The results revealed that perceived autonomy and competence in physical education are interrelated and function as a whole for enhancing leisure-time physically active intentions and behavior.

  2. Cloud droplet activation through oxidation of organic aerosol influenced by temperature and particle phase state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Arangio, Andrea; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Wang, Jian; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical aging of organic aerosol (OA) through multiphase oxidation reactions can alter their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopicity. However, the oxidation kinetics and OA reactivity depend strongly on the particle phase state, potentially influencing the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion rate of carbonaceous aerosol. Here, amorphous Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) aerosol particles, a surrogate humic-like substance (HULIS) that contributes substantially to global OA mass, are oxidized by OH radicals at different temperatures and phase states. When oxidized at low temperature in a glassy solid state, the hygroscopicity of SRFA particles increased by almost a factor of two, whereas oxidation of liquid-like SRFA particles at higher temperatures did not affect CCN activity. Low-temperature oxidation appears to promote the formation of highly-oxygenated particle-bound fragmentation products with lower molar mass and greater CCN activity, underscoring the importance of chemical aging in the free troposphere and its influence on the CCN activity of OA.

  3. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  4. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  5. Factors That Influence Exercise Among Adults With Arthritis in Three Activity Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Der Ananian, Cheryl; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth; Watkins, Ken; Evans, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Recent public health objectives emphasize the importance of exercise for reducing disability among people with arthritis. Despite the documented benefits of exercise, people with arthritis are less active than those without arthritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence exercise participation among insufficiently active individuals with arthritis and to compare these factors with those identified by nonexercisers and regular exercisers with arthrit...

  6. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation.

  7. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation. PMID:26247015

  8. Influence of pro-angiogenic cytokines on proliferative activity and survival of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solyanik G. I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Tumor angiogenesis in contrast to physiological one is characterized by high level of malignant cell production of proangiogenic cytokines, which have different influence on functional activity of endothelial cells. The goal of the study – to carry out a comparative analysis of the influence of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and an epidermal growth factor (EGF on proliferative activity and survival of endothelial cells upon their confluent and exponential growth. Methods. The proliferative activity of endothelial cells was determined by MTT-test and their viability was detected by the trypane blue exclusion test. Results. It was shown that EGF (irrespectively of the level of serum factors in concentrations higher than 10 ng/ml activated the proliferative activity of confluent endotheliocytes in a concentration-dependent manner by 18–36 % (ð < 0.05 as compared to the control, while this cytokine didn’t affect the endothelial cells in the exponential growth phase. VEGF in wide concentration range didn’t display the mitogenic effect on endotheliocytes in both confluent and exponential growth phases. Furthermore, VEGF in concentrations higher than 100 ng/ml inhibited proliferative activity of confluent endothelial cells by 12 % (ð < 0.05. In case of deficiency of nutrients, EGF and VEGF promoted the survival of endothelial cells, considerably decreasing their death. Conclusions. EGF, in contrast to VEGF, stimulates proliferation and survival of the endothelial cells, whereas VEGF has significant influence only on the survival of the cells

  9. Implementing an Active Learning Environment to Influence Students' Motivation in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuto, Camila Aparecida Tolentino; Torres, Bayardo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The Biochemistry: Biomolecules Structure and Metabolism course's goal is to promote meaningful learning through an active learning environment. Thus, study periods (SP) and discussion groups (DG) are used as a substitute for lecture classes. The goal of this study was to evaluate how this learning environment influences students' motivation (n =…

  10. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  11. Factors Influencing Middle and High Schools' Active Parental Consent Return Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peter Y.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing the return rates for attempting to collect active parental consent forms from 21,123 students in the 7th through 10th grades in 41 middle and high schools. Overall return rates from middle schools were higher than from high schools. Schools that offered high levels of staff support for collecting consent…

  12. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in beef cows. B.P. Louw* and C.R. .... maintenance of body mass for a 90-day period; Phase 3, rapid mass gain until ..... weight and reduction of its effect on weighing. Anim. Breed.

  13. Implementing an Active Learning Environment to Influence Students' Motivation in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuto, Camila Aparecida Tolentino; Torres, Bayardo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The Biochemistry: Biomolecules Structure and Metabolism course's goal is to promote meaningful learning through an active learning environment. Thus, study periods (SP) and discussion groups (DG) are used as a substitute for lecture classes. The goal of this study was to evaluate how this learning environment influences students' motivation (n =…

  14. The Influence of the Sport Education Model on Amotivated Students' In-Class Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…

  15. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Safar, Sandor; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps

  16. Influences of Technology-Related Playful Activity and Thought on Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Davis, Darrel

    2011-01-01

    Many early developmental theorists such as Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky suggested that play--which the authors of this article define as both playful activity and playful thought--had the power to influence the moral emotions, behaviors, and reasoning of children. More recent researchers have also found evidence of moral development in…

  17. Outsourcing Extra-Curricular Activities: A Management Strategy in a Time of Neoliberal Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing; Chan, Tsan Ming Kenneth; Yuen, Wai Kwan Gail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory study designed to illuminate the complexity of outsourcing extra-curricular activities (ECAs) in primary schools in a time of neoliberal influence and to examine the views of teaching professionals on the reasons, issues and considerations of outsourcing ECAs such as the dynamic…

  18. Combined influence of growth and drying conditions on the activity of dried Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, L.J.M.; Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Riet, K.V. van 't

    1998-01-01

    The production of active dried starter cultures can be influenced at several levels in the production process. In this paper the following process factors are discussed: osmotic stress during growth and cell density prior to drying. Contradicting results are reported in the literature on the influen

  19. Influence of layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of the layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of active coated nano-particles made of a silver core and gain impregnated silica shell illuminated by a near-by magnetic line source. For a fixed over-all size of the particle, designs with small and large cores...

  20. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Safar, Sandor; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps (D

  1. Metabolic profiling of asthma in mice and the interventional effects of SPA using liquid chromatography and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Shi, Lei; Liu, Jian; Huang, Lifei; Huang, Yi; Nie, Xiaomeng

    2017-05-30

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that leads to 250 000 deaths annually. There is a need to better understand asthma by identifying new pathogenic molecules. We conducted a liquid-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics study to test for asthma and investigate the interventional mechanisms of surfactant protein A (SPA) in OVA-induced asthma mice. The results revealed that asthma disturbed 32 metabolites in 9 metabolic pathways. After SPA treatment, the metabolomics profile found in asthma was significantly reversed, shifting much closer to that of the control group, indicating that SPA has therapeutic effects against asthma. Metabolomic pathway analysis by the ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that several pathways including fatty acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and purine metabolism were significantly altered in asthma. This study offers new methodologies for the understanding of asthma and the mechanisms of SPA in treating asthma.

  2. Increased sensitivity to physical activity among individuals with knee osteoarthritis: relation to pain outcomes, psychological factors, and responses to quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Timothy H; Finan, Patrick H; Edwards, Robert R; Quartana, Phillip J; Buenaver, Luis F; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain conditions have increased sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) and respond to activities of stable intensity with increasingly severe pain. This study aimed to determine the degree to which individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) show heightened SPA in response to a standardized walking task and whether SPA cross-sectionally predicts psychological factors, responses to quantitative sensory testing (QST), and different OA-related outcomes. One hundred seven adults with chronic knee OA completed self-report measures of pain, function, and psychological factors, underwent QST, and performed a 6-min walk test. Participants rated their discomfort levels throughout the walking task; an index of SPA was created by subtracting first ratings from peak ratings. Repeated-measure analysis of variance revealed that levels of discomfort significantly increased throughout the walking task. A series of hierarchical regression analyses determined that after controlling for significant covariates, psychological factors, and measures of mechanical pain sensitivity, individual variance in SPA predicted self-report pain and function and performance on the walking task. Analyses also revealed that both pain catastrophizing and the temporal summation of mechanical pain were significant predictors of SPA and that SPA mediated the relationship between catastrophizing and self-reported pain and physical function. The discussion addresses the potential processes contributing to SPA and the role it may play in predicting responses to different interventions for musculoskeletal pain conditions.

  3. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  4. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  5. Influence of sedentary versus physically active conditions on regulation of plasma renin activity and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sedentary animals compared to physically active controls exhibit enhanced sympathoexcitatory responses, including arterial baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. Hypotension-induced sympathoexcitation is also associated with the release of vasoactive hormones. We hypothesized that sedentary conditions may enhance release of the vasoactive hormones AVP and ANG II. To test this hypothesis, the humoral response to hypotension was examined in conscious rats after 9-12 wk of sedentary conditions or "normally active" conditions. Normally active conditions were produced by allowing rats access to running wheels in their home cages. Running distance peaked after 4 wk (4.5 +/- 0.7 km/day), and the total distance run after 9 wk was 174 +/- 23 km (n = 25). Similar levels of hypotension were induced in conscious sedentary or physically active animals with the arterial vasodilator, diazoxide (25 mg/kg iv). Control experiments used a saline injection of equivalent volume. Plasma samples were collected and assayed for plasma AVP concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA). Sedentary conditions significantly enhanced resting and hypotension-induced PRA relative to normal physical activity. In contrast, resting and hypotension-induced AVP levels were not statistically different between groups. These data suggest that baroreflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but not AVP secretion, is enhanced by sedentary conditions. We speculate that augmented activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be related to enhanced sympathetic outflow observed in sedentary animals and may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the sedentary population.

  6. [Marketing macroenvironment of a sanatorium and spa facility as a study object and a factor of strategic decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of marketing macroenvironment is an important stage in the formulation of the strategy for the development and operation of a therapeutic and preventive healthcare facility making possible rapid adjustment to sharply changing marketing conditions. The possibility of using expert evaluation for the analysis of the marketing macroenvironment of a sanatorium and spa facility and a concrete medical care service provided (peloidotherapy) is illustrated. The study covers five aspects of marketing macroenvironment, viz. socio-demographic, technological, economic, political and ecological.

  7. The Present and Future of Szigetvár Spa – An Economic Analysis of Geothermal Energy Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Pálné Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, geothermal energy has proved to be an economical source of energy for direct use. It highlights the pros and cons of including renewable energy in the power generation mix of Hungary, and the pros and cons of local application. This paper looks at the operation of Szigetvár Spa from both economic and social aspects. In this study, qualitative analysis is used for the basic economic and social introduction of the Spa, and then real options, based on quantitative methods, are described to identify the long-term financial consequences of the project. In 1966, thermal water was found in Szigetvár. In 1997, this thermal water was certified as medicinal water. The wellhead temperature of Szigetvár thermal water is 62°C in the 790 metres deep thermal well. It is used as so-called domestic hot water in the Szent István housing estate and in Szigetvár Spa. One of the problems with the project is that it is based on single stage thermal water utilization, another problem is that the waste water is too hot. This can be solved by exploiting the heat energy of thermal water more intensively. This way, maximum benefits can be gained from geothermal energy with minimum use of energy. Static and dynamic investment analyses were carried out to examine the spa from a financial aspect. The methods used include static payback period, average rate of return, levelized cost of electricity, net present value, profitability index, dynamic payback period, internal rate of return and real options. By pricing geothermal technology, it is possible to identify the strategic value of flexibility, to quantify what was previously left unquantified, and thus to show that geothermal investments are profitable not only from a social but also from a financial aspect as well.

  8. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Sotiriadis

    Full Text Available Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR and connexin 43 (CX43. In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one.

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF SPA TOURIST MARKET SEGMENTATION (A Closer Look at the Case Study on Shipkovo Village Experience, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Kuzdova BANABAKOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report explores the possibilities for spa tourist market segmentation. Based on analyses of the market and competition, the key criteria of said segmentation is established on the bases of market and competition analysis, as well as the target segments are determined, the latter being actual and potential consumers of the tourist product, offered in the region of Shipkovo village, Troyan Municipality.

  10. 75 FR 63060 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INDUSTRIES S.p.A. Model PIAGGIO P-180 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., installed on Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PT6A66 and PT6A66B engines, were detected on P.180 aeroplanes... & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PT6A66 and PT6A66B engines, were detected on P.180 aeroplanes; such failures, due...

  11. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  12. spa typing alone is not sufficient to demonstrate endemic establishment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum Moen, A E; Holberg-Petersen, M; Andresen, L L; Blomfeldt, A

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway is low but increasing. Over the last decade, numerous nursing homes have experienced MRSA outbreaks. One genetic lineage, spa type t304, has been identified at multiple nursing homes and has caused large outbreaks lasting for several years. To evaluate whether spa typing is sufficient for the detection of MRSA spread and endemic establishment in a low-prevalence area, using spa type t304 as the test organism. All spa type t304 isolates detected in 1991-2010 in the most densely populated area of Norway were included. Time and place of bacterial sampling were recorded. The isolates were analysed using multi-locus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, detection of lukS/F-PV and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 181 spa type t304 isolates were identified in three of 23 municipalities. Most (91%) of the isolates could be linked to 13 nursing homes, eight of which experienced outbreaks. PFGE analysis revealed three PFGE types, consisting of 19 PFGE patterns; 95% of the isolates were PFGE type 2. In total, PFGE types 2 and 3 accounted for 99% of all nursing home isolates, and included isolates from different nursing homes, different outbreaks and different time periods. Additional genetic analyses did not further differentiate between the spa type t304 isolates. MRSA spa type t304 appears to have established itself as an endemic genetic lineage in the study area. spa typing does not provide sufficient resolution when investigating the spread of an endemic-like genetic lineage in a low-prevalence area, and should be supplemented by additional typing techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [The impact of the spa therapy on reduction of the perception of pain intensity in patients with degenerative joints and disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative joints and disc disease is accompanied by chronic pain which is the main symptom of the disease. Medical spa therapy has the task of providing comprehensive treatment embracing diseases of limbs as well as other systems and the essential role of medical treatment, in particular spa therapy, is pain relief. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the spa treatment on the level of pain perception in patients with degenerative joints and disc disease. The observation embraced 120 people with degenerative joints and disc disease treated in the spa. The study included a comprehensive therapy conducted over a 21-day stays at the spa Przerzeczyn-Zdrój with the application of selected physical treatments, physiotherapy and the use of therapeutic natural resources: peloid mud and healing radon-sulphide water. Moreover, there was psychological counseling and health education conducted. The study also included observation of 21 persons from the control group. However, the patients in the control group did not benefit from balneotherapy, psychological care and education. There was a standard VAS scale for pain and non-standard questionnaire of pain assessment constructed for the study purposes. The assessment of pain using the VAS scale and questionnaire of pain assessment both in the study group and the control group were performed before and after the treatment. The results were analyzed statistically, there was Statistica program in Polish version used. In the analysis of the obtained results there were two tests scheduled: the sign test, the Wilcoxon test and descriptive statistics. As a result of the spa therapy and treatments administered on an outpatient basis there was reduction of pain intensity observed. 1. Spa therapy and outpatient treatment reduce the level of pain in patients with degenerative joints and disc disease. 2. The reduction of pain level was more effective in case of therapy conducted in the spa.

  14. 临潼矿泉对心理健康影响的研究%Effect of lintong spa on psychological health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白录军; 邹剑铭

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨临潼矿泉对人心理健康的影响.方法 选择新入伍健康战士40人进行20次一个疗程的矿泉水浸浴,在疗程前后分别进行症状自评量表(SCL-90)的测查,并与中国军人常模进行比较.结果 矿泉水浴后的SCL-90结果 均有下降,其中.躯体化、强迫、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖、偏执等因子分差异非常显著(P<0.01),精神病性差异显著(P<0.05).结论 一定条件的矿泉水浴对心理健康有积极影响.%Objective To explore the effect of Lintong spa on human psychological health. Methods A total of 40 newly recruited healthy soldiers were selected to perform a course of 20 spa soaking .Self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)was measured before and after a course of treatment and compared with the Chinese military norm. Results After mineral water spa, total score of SCL-90 was decreased. The factor scores of somatization, coercion, interpersonal relationsl, depression, anxiety , phobias and paranoia before spa soaking were significantly lower than those after spa soaking(P<0.01), the score of psychoticism before spa soaking was also significantly lower than that after spa soaking(P<0.05). Conclusion Mineral water spa has a positive impact on psychological health under given conditions .

  15. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  16. Ghrelin, peptide YY and their hypothalamic targets differentially regulate spontaneous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfluger, Paul T; Castañeda, Tamara R; Heppner, Kristy M; Strassburg, Sabine; Kruthaupt, Traci; Chaudhary, Nilika; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Datta, Rakesh; Burget, Lukas; Tschöp, M H; Nogueiras, Ruben; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2011-11-30

    Recent studies suggest that spontaneous physical activity (SPA) may be under the non-conscious control of neuroendocrine circuits that are known to control food intake. To further elucidate endocrine gut-brain communication as a component of such circuitry, we here analyzed long-term and acute effects of the gastrointestinal hormones ghrelin and PYY 3-36 as well as their hypothalamic neuropeptide targets NPY, AgRP and POMC (alpha-MSH), on locomotor activity and home cage behaviors in rats. For the analysis of SPA, we used an automated infrared beam break activity measuring system, combined with a novel automated video-based behavior analysis system (HomeCageScan (HCS)). Chronic (one-month) peripheral infusion of ghrelin potently increased body weight and fat mass in rats. Such positive energy balance was intriguingly not due to an overall increased caloric ingestion, but was predominantly associated with a decrease in SPA. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion (7 days) of ghrelin corroborated the decrease in SPA and suggested a centrally mediated mechanism. Central administration of AgRP and NPY increased food intake as expected. AgRP administration led to a delayed decrease in SPA, while NPY acutely (but transiently) increased SPA. Behavioral dissection using HCS corroborated the observed acute and transient increases of food intake and SPA by central NPY infusion. Acute central administration of alpha-MSH rapidly decreased food intake but did not change SPA. Central administration of the NPY receptor agonist PYY 3-36 transiently increased SPA. Our data suggest that the control of spontaneous physical activity by gut hormones or their neuropeptide targets may represent an important mechanistic component of energy balance regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived difficulties using everyday technology after acquired brain injury: influence on activity and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2010-12-01

    Using everyday technology (ET) is a prerequisite for activities and participation at home and in the community. It is well known that persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) can have limitations in activities of daily living but our knowledge of their difficulties using ET is not known. Thirty-six persons (27 men and 9 women, mean age 44 years, age range 26-60) with an ABI (2-10 years post injury) were interviewed, using the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ), about their perceived difficulties using ET and how these difficulties influenced their everyday activities and their possibilities to participate at home and in the community. A majority (78%) of the persons reported difficulties using ET. The most common difficulties were related to the use of telecommunication and computers. Despite these difficulties, a majority still used most objects and services independently. Twenty-six participants (72%) perceived that their difficulties using ET influenced their everyday activities and their possibility to participate at home and in the community. The results indicate that rehabilitation following an ABI should consider whether clients' use of ET influences their activity and participation and adopt interventions accordingly. The results also indicate that difficulties using ET need to be considered in the design of community services to prevent societal barriers.

  18. Reproductive success in the Lusitanian toadfish: Influence of calling activity, male quality and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Novais, Bruno; Gouveia, Maria D; Vicente, Joana R; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic signals are sexual ornaments with an established role on mate choice in several taxa, but not in fish. Recent studies have suggested that fish vocal activity may signal male quality and influence male's reproductive success but experimental evidence is lacking. Here we made two experiments to test the hypothesis that vocal activity is essential for male breeding success in a highly vocal fish, the Lusitanian toadfish. We first compared the reproduction success between muted and vocal males. In a second experiment we related male reproduction success with acoustic activity and male quality, including biometric, condition and physiological features. As a proxy for reproductive success we tallied both total number and number of sired eggs, which were correlated. Muting experiments showed that successful mating was dependent on vocalizing. In addition, the number of eggs was positively associated with the male's maximum calling rate. In the second experiment male's reproductive success was positively associated with male condition and negatively related with circulating androgen levels and relative gonad mass, but was not associated with vocal activity. Differences in results may be related with nest design which could have influenced mate choice costs and intra-sexual competition. In the muting experiment nests had a small opening that restrained the large nest-holder but allowed smaller fish, such as females, to pass while in the second experiment fish could move freely. These experiments suggest that a combination of factors, including vocal activity, influence reproductive success in this highly vocal species.

  19. Individual differences in behavioral activation and cardiac vagal control influence affective startle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Friedman, Bruce H

    2017-04-01

    The startle response (SR) has a close relationship with stress responses. Startle modification (SRM) has been widely used to study stress disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder). The framework of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) has been thought to correspond with withdrawal and approach motivational processes underlying affective SRM and can influence stress reactivity. Vagally-mediated cardiac activity as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with SRM and regulatory processes during stress. In the present study, the influence of individual differences in the BIS/BAS and resting HRV on affective SRM were examined. Eighty-six subjects viewed affective pictures while acoustic SR stimuli were delivered. Individual differences in motivation were measured by the BIS/BAS scales. The magnitude of SR was assessed as electromyographic activity of the SR eyeblink during pictures of different valences. Resting HRV was derived from electrocardiography. In contrast to previous studies, the present results showed that startle inhibition and potentiation were related to BAS and HRV, but not to BIS. There was also an interaction of BAS and HRV, indicating that the relationship between HRV and SRM strengthened as BAS scores decreased. The present findings suggest that BAS may relate to both withdrawal and approach, and trait stress reactivity is influenced by BAS and cardiac vagal activity. In addition, BAS moderates the relationship between cardiac vagal activity and SRM. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for the study of SRM, stress disorders, and health.

  20. Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin

    2013-12-02

    In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.