WorldWideScience

Sample records for activator protein-1 activation

  1. Hydrogen peroxide activates activator protein-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases in pancreatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Satoh, Masahiro; Suzuki, Noriaki; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2006-10-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis, where oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) may act as a second messenger to mediate the actions of growth factors and cytokines. But the role of reactive oxygen species in the activation and regulation of cell functions in PSCs remains largely unknown. We here examined the effects of H(2)O(2) on the activation of signal transduction pathways and cell functions in PSCs. PSCs were isolated from the pancreas of male Wistar rats, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype unless otherwise stated. Activation of transcription factors was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase assay. Activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was assessed by Western blotting using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. The effects of H(2)O(2) on proliferation, alpha(1)(I)procollagen gene expression, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production were evaluated. The effect of H(2)O(2) on the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs in culture was also assessed. H(2)O(2) at non-cytotoxic concentrations (up to 100 microM) induced oxidative stress in PSCs. H(2)O(2) activated activator protein-1, but not nuclear factor kappaB. In addition, H(2)O(2) activated three classes of MAP kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAP kinase. H(2)O(2) induced alpha(1)(I)procollagen gene expression but did not induce proliferation or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. H(2)O(2) did not initiate the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs to myofibroblast-like phenotype. Specific activation of these signal transduction pathways and collagen gene expression by H(2)O(2) may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis.

  2. 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal activates activator protein-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases in rat pancreatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Kikuta; Atsushi Masamune; Masahiro Satoh; Noriaki Suzuki; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis,where oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. 4-hydroxy2,3-nonenal (HNE) is generated endogenously during the process of lipid peroxidation, and has been accepted as a mediator of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of HNE on the activation of signal transduction pathways and cellular functions in PSCs.METHODS: PSCs were isolated from the pancreas of male Wistar rats after perfusion with collagenase P, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype unless otherwise stated. PSCs were treated with physiologically relevant and non-cytotoxic concentrations (up to 5 μmol/L)of HNE. Activation of transcription factors was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase assay.Activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases was assessed by Western blotting using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Production of type Ⅰ collagen and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The effect of HNE on the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs in culture was also assessed.RESULTS: HNE activated activator protein-1, but not nuclear factor κB. In addition, HNE activated three classes of MAP kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAP kinase. HNE increased type Ⅰ collagen production through the activation of p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. HNE did not alter the proliferation,or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production. HNE did not initiate the transformation of freshly isolated PSCs to myofibroblast-like phenotype.CONCLUSION: Specific activation of these signal transduction pathways and altered cell functions such as collagen production by HNE may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic

  3. Curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro by reducing the activity of specificity protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qiaohua; Chen, Anping

    2009-12-01

    Elevated levels of cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are a risk factor for the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and its associated hepatic fibrosis. However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously reported that curcumin induced gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and stimulated its activity, leading to the inhibition of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the major effector cells during hepatic fibrogenesis. We recently showed that curcumin suppressed gene expression of LDL receptor in activated HSCs in vitro by repressing gene expression of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), leading to the reduction in the level of intracellular cholesterol in HSCs and to the attenuation of the stimulatory effects of LDL on HSCs activation. The current study aimed at exploring molecular mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in HSCs. Promoter deletion assays, mutagenesis assays, and EMSAs localize a specificity protein-1 (SP-1) binding GC-box in the srebp-2 promoter, which is responsible for enhancing the promoter activity and responding to curcumin in HSCs. Curcumin suppresses gene expression of SP-1 and reduces its trans-activation activity, which are mediated by the activation of PPARgamma. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on SP-1 binding to the GC-box is confirmed by chromatin immuno-precipitation. In summary, our results demonstrate that curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in cultured HSCs by activating PPARgamma and reducing the SP-1 activity, leading to the repression of ldlr expression. These results provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits LDL-induced HSC activation.

  4. The oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE) of photosystem II in green algae exhibits thioredoxin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Heinrich; Kalisz, Henryk M; Follmann, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    A thioredoxin-like chloroplast protein of the fructosebisphosphatase-stimulating f-type, but with an unusually high molecular mass of 28 kDa has previously been identified and purified to homogeneity in a fractionation scheme for resolution of the acid- and heat-stable, regular-size (12kDa) thioredoxins of the unicellular green algae, Scenedesmus obliquus. An apparently analogous protein of 26 kDa was described in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp., but no such large thioredoxin species f exists in the thioredoxin profiles of higher plants. The structure of the 28 kDa protein, which had been envisaged to represent a precursor, or fusion product of the two more specialized, common chloroplast thioredoxins f and m has now been determined by amino acid sequencing. Although it exhibits virtually all the properties and enzyme-modulating activities of a thioredoxin proper this algal protein, surprisingly, does not belong to the thioredoxin family of small redox proteins but is identical with OEE (oxygen evolving enhancer) protein 1, an auxiliary component of the photosystem II manganese cluster. Extracts of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also contain heat-stable protein fractions of 23-26 kDa capable of specifically stimulating chloroplast fructosebisphosphatase in vitro. In contrast, OEE protein 1 from spinach is not able to modulate FbPase or NADP malate dehydrogenase from spinach chloroplasts. A dual function of the OEE protein in algal photosynthesis is envisaged. PMID:15022827

  5. Stimulation of IGF-binding protein-1 secretion by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitt, M S

    2001-04-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is stimulated during intensive exercise and in catabolic conditions to very high concentrations, which are not completely explained by known regulators such as insulin and glucocorticoids. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important signaling system in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, in regulating IGFBP-1 was studied in H4-II-E rat hepatoma cells. Arsenic(III) oxide and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR) were used as activators. AICAR (150 microM) stimulated IGFBP-1 secretion twofold during a 5-h incubation (P = 0.002). Insulin (100 ng/ml) inhibited IGFBP-1 by 80% (P < 0.001), but this was completely abolished in the presence of 150 microM AICAR. The effect of dexamethasone in stimulating IGFBP-1 threefold was additive to the effect of AICAR (P < 0.001) and, in the presence of AICAR, was incompletely inhibited by insulin. In conclusion AMPK is identified as a novel regulatory pathway for IGFBP-1, stimulating secretion and blocking the inhibitory effect of insulin. PMID:11302732

  6. Identification and characterization a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limeng; Li, Chenghua; Chang, Yaqing; Gao, Yinxue; Wang, Yi; Wei, Jing; Song, Jian; Sun, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important gene expression regulator with typical Jun and region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domains and can respond to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimulus. In this study, we identified a novel AP-1 gene in Apostichopus japonicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjAP-1). The full-length of AjAP-1 was of 2944 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 201 bp, a 3' UTR of 1753 bp and a putative open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a polypeptide of 329 amino acid residues. Two representative domains of Jun and bZIP as well as two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were also detected in deduced amino acid of AjAP-1. Spatial distribution expression indicated that AjAP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the body wall, moderate in the tube feet, respiratory tree and colemocytes and slightly weak in the intestine and longitudinal muscle. Time-course expression analysis in intestine and coelomocytes revealed that AjAP-1 both reached its peak expression at 4 h after Vibrio splendidus challenge with a 2.6 and 8.2-fold increase compared to their control groups, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggested that AjAP-1 was a novel immune factor and might be involved in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber. PMID:26093208

  7. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications.

  8. Specific interaction with cardiolipin triggers functional activation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsasne Bustillo-Zabalbeitia

    Full Text Available Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, is required for mitochondrial fission in healthy and apoptotic cells. Drp1 activation is a complex process that involves translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and assembly into rings/spirals at the MOM, leading to membrane constriction/division. Similar to dynamins, Drp1 contains GTPase (G, bundle signaling element (BSE and stalk domains. However, instead of the lipid-interacting Pleckstrin Homology (PH domain present in the dynamins, Drp1 contains the so-called B insert or variable domain that has been suggested to play an important role in Drp1 regulation. Different proteins have been implicated in Drp1 recruitment to the MOM, although how MOM-localized Drp1 acquires its fully functional status remains poorly understood. We found that Drp1 can interact with pure lipid bilayers enriched in the mitochondrion-specific phospholipid cardiolipin (CL. Building on our previous study, we now explore the specificity and functional consequences of this interaction. We show that a four lysine module located within the B insert of Drp1 interacts preferentially with CL over other anionic lipids. This interaction dramatically enhances Drp1 oligomerization and assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. Our results add significantly to a growing body of evidence indicating that CL is an important regulator of many essential mitochondrial functions.

  9. Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for statistical analyses. We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01). Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer

  10. Insight into temperature dependence of GTPase activity in human guanylate binding protein-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Rani

    Full Text Available Interferon-γ induced human guanylate binding protein-1(hGBP1 belongs to a family of dynamin related large GTPases. Unlike all other GTPases, hGBP1 hydrolyzes GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP with GMP being the major product at 37°C but GDP became significant when the hydrolysis reaction was carried out at 15°C. The hydrolysis reaction in hGBP1 is believed to involve with a number of catalytic steps. To investigate the effect of temperature in the product formation and on the different catalytic complexes of hGBP1, we carried out temperature dependent GTPase assays, mutational analysis, chemical and thermal denaturation studies. The Arrhenius plot for both GDP and GMP interestingly showed nonlinear behaviour, suggesting that the product formation from the GTP-bound enzyme complex is associated with at least more than one step. The negative activation energy for GDP formation and GTPase assay with external GDP together indicate that GDP formation occurs through the reversible dissociation of GDP-bound enzyme dimer to monomer, which further reversibly dissociates to give the product. Denaturation studies of different catalytic complexes show that unlike other complexes the free energy of GDP-bound hGBP1 decreases significantly at lower temperature. GDP formation is found to be dependent on the free energy of the GDP-bound enzyme complex. The decrease in the free energy of this complex at low temperature compared to at high is the reason for higher GDP formation at low temperature. Thermal denaturation studies also suggest that the difference in the free energy of the GTP-bound enzyme dimer compared to its monomer plays a crucial role in the product formation; higher stability favours GMP but lower favours GDP. Thus, this study provides the first thermodynamic insight into the effect of temperature in the product formation of hGBP1.

  11. Purification and sequencing of the active site tryptic peptide from penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the sequence of the active site peptide of penicillin-binding protein 1b from Escherichia coli. Purified penicillin-binding protein 1b was labeled with [14C]penicillin G, digested with trypsin, and partially purified by gel filtration. Upon further purification by high-pressure liquid chromatography, two radioactive peaks were observed, and the major peak, representing over 75% of the applied radioactivity, was submitted to amino acid analysis and sequencing. The sequence Ser-Ile-Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Lys was obtained. The active site nucleophile was identified by digesting the purified peptide with aminopeptidase M and separating the radioactive products on high-pressure liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis confirmed that the serine residue in the middle of the sequence was covalently bonded to the [14C]penicilloyl moiety. A comparison of this sequence to active site sequences of other penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases is presented

  12. Folate concentration dependent transport activity of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (ABCC1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijberg, J.H.; Jansen, G.; Assaraf, Y.G.; Kathmann, I.; Pieters, R.; Laan, AC; Veerman, A.J.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Peters, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance Protein MRP1 (ABCC1) can confer resistance to a variety of therapeutic drugs. In addition, MRP1/ABCC1 mediates cellular export of natural folates, such as folic acid and l-leucovorin. In this study we determined whether cellular folate status affected the functional activity

  13. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Alharazy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1 levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated.

  14. The Metastasis-associated Proteins 1 and 2 Form Distinct Protein Complexes with Histone Deacetylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-LiYao; Wcn-MingYang

    2005-01-01

    The metastasis-associated protein MTA1 has been shown to express differentially to high levels in metastatic cells. MTA2, which is homologous to MTA1, is a component of the NURD ATP-dependcnt chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylase complex. Here we report evidence that although both human MTA1 and MTA2 repress transcription specifically, are located in the nucleus, and contain associated histone deacetylase activity, they exist in two biochemically distinct protein complexes and may perform different functions pertaining to tumor metastasis. Specifically, both MTA1 and MTA2 complexes exert histone deacetylase activity. However, the MTA1 complex contained HDAC1/2, RbAp46/48, and MBD3, but not Sin3 or Mi2, two important components of the MTA2 complex. Moreover, the MTA2 complex is similar to the HDAC1 complex, suggesting a housekeeping role of the MTA2 complex. The MTA1 complex could be further separated, resulting in acore MTA1-HDAC complex, showing that the histone deacetylase activity and transcriptional repression activity were integral properties of the MTA1 complex. Finally, MTA1, unlike MTA2, did not interact with the pleotropic transcription factor YY1 or the immunophilin FKBP25. We suggest that MTA1 associates with adifferent set of transcription factors from MTA2 and that this property may contribute to the metastatic potential of cells overexpressing MTA1. We also report the finding of human MTA3, which is highly homologous toboth MTA1 and MTA2. However, MTA3 does not repress transcription to a significant level and appears to have a diffused pattern of subcellular localization, suggesting a biological role distinct from that of the other two MTA proteins.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Oxygen Evolving Enhancer Protein 1 Purified from Capsosiphon fulvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Youn Hee; Lee, Jung Im; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of a protein purified from Capsosiphon fulvescens. The purification steps included sodium acetate (pH 6) extraction and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, reversed phase Shodex C4P-50 column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified protein was 33 kDa. The N-terminus and partial peptide amino acid sequence of this protein was identical to the sequence of oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE) 1 protein. The antioxidant activity of the OEE 1 was determined in vitro using a scavenging test with 4 types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). OEE 1 had higher H2 O2 scavenging activity, which proved to be the result of enzymatic antioxidants rather than nonenzymatic antioxidants. In addition, OEE 1 showed less H2 O2 -mediated ROS formation in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that OEE 1 purified from C. fulvescens is an excellent antioxidant. PMID:25944160

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Sobolewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE. In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa. We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1. Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer.

  17. Epstein - Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 suppresses reporter activity through modulation of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemington Erik K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 has been shown to increase the expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML and the immunofluorescent intensity of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs. PML NBs have been implicated in the modulation of transcription and the association of reporter plasmids with PML NBs has been implicated in repression of reporter activity. Additionally, repression of various reporters in the presence of LMP1 has been noted. This study demonstrates that LMP1 suppresses expression of reporter activity in a dose responsive manner and corresponds with the LMP1 induced increase in PML NB intensity. Disruption of PML NBs with arsenic trioxide or a PML siRNA restores reporter activity. These data offer an explanation for previously conflicting data on LMP1 signaling and calls attention to the possibility of false-positives and false-negatives when using reporter assays as a research tool in cells expressing LMP1.

  18. The interaction between different types of activated RAW 264.7 cells and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major ways of macrophage (MΦ) activation can occur in radiation-induced pulmonary injury (RPI): classical and alternative MΦ activation, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of RPI. MΦ can produce chemokine MΦ inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), while MIP-1α can recruit MΦ. The difference in the chemotactic ability of MIP-1α toward distinct activated MΦ is unclear. We speculated that there has been important interaction of MIP-1α with different activated MΦ, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of RPI. Classically and alternatively activated MΦ were produced by stimulating murine MΦ cell line RAW 264.7 cells with three different stimuli (LPS, IL-4 and IL-13); Then we used recombinant MIP-1α to attract two types of activated MΦ. In addition, we measured the ability of two types of activated MΦ to produce MIP-1α at the protein or mRNA level. Chemotactic ability of recombinant MIP-1α toward IL-13-treated MΦ was the strongest, was moderate for IL-4-treated MΦ, and was weakest for LPS-stimulated MΦ (p < 0.01). The ability of LPS-stimulated MΦ to secrete MIP-1α was significantly stronger than that of IL-4-treated or IL-13-treated MΦ (p < 0.01). The ability of LPS-stimulated MΦ to express MIP-1α mRNA also was stronger than that of IL-4- or IL-13-stimulated MΦ (p < 0.01). The chemotactic ability of MIP-1α toward alternatively activated MΦ (M2) was significantly greater than that for classically activated MΦ (M1). Meanwhile, both at the mRNA and protein level, the capacity of M1 to produce MIP-1α is better than that of M2. Thus, chemokine MIP-1α may play an important role in modulating the transition from radiation pneumonitis to pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, through the different chemotactic affinity for M1 and M2

  19. Physical interaction of the activator protein-1 factors c-Fos and c-Jun with Cbfa1 for collagenase-3 promoter activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Karsenty, Gerard; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we determined that the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site and the runt domain (RD)-binding site and their binding proteins, c-Fos.c-Jun and Cbfa, regulate the collagenase-3 promoter in parathyroid hormone-treated and differentiating osteoblasts. Here we show that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun appear to cooperatively bind the RD- and AP-1-binding sites and form ternary structures in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies further demonstrate interaction between Cbfa1 with c-Fos and c-Jun in the absence of phosphorylation and without binding to DNA. Additionally, only the runt domain of Cbfa1 was required for interaction with c-Jun and c-Fos. In mammalian cells, overexpression of Cbfa1 enhanced c-Jun activation of AP-1-binding site promoter activity, demonstrating functional interaction. Finally, insertion of base pairs that disrupted the helical phasing between the AP-1- and RD-binding sites also inhibited collagenase-3 promoter activation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun physically interact and cooperatively bind the AP-1- and RD-binding sites in the collagenase-3 promoter. Moreover, the AP-1- and RD-binding sites appear to be organized in a specific required helical arrangement that facilitates transcription factor interaction and enables promoter activation.

  20. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1, an Interferon-Induced GTPase, Exerts an Antiviral Activity against Classical Swine Fever Virus Depending on Its GTPase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Jiahui; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Su; Zhang, Lingkai; Xia, Shui-Li; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) pathway upon infection, resulting in the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which define the antiviral state of the host. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease endangering the pig industry in many countries. However, anti-CSFV ISGs are poorly documented. Here we screened 20 ISGs that are commonly induced by type I IFNs against CSFV in lentivirus-delivered cell lines, resulting in the identification of guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) as a potent anti-CSFV ISG. We observed that overexpression of GBP1, an IFN-induced GTPase, remarkably suppressed CSFV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous GBP1 expression by small interfering RNAs significantly promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GBP1 acted mainly on the early phase of CSFV replication and inhibited the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV. In addition, we found that GBP1 was upregulated at the transcriptional level in CSFV-infected PK-15 cells and in various organs of CSFV-infected pigs. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays revealed that GBP1 interacted with the NS5A protein of CSFV, and this interaction was mapped in the N-terminal globular GTPase domain of GBP1. Interestingly, the K51 of GBP1, which is crucial for its GTPase activity, was essential for the inhibition of CSFV replication. We showed further that the NS5A-GBP1 interaction inhibited GTPase activity, which was critical for its antiviral effect. Taking our findings together, GBP1 is an anti-CSFV ISG whose action depends on its GTPase activity. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only a few host restriction factors against CSFV

  1. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  2. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  3. Hind Limb Unloading Model Alters Nuclear Factor kappa B and Activator Protein-1 Signaling in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Vani, Vani; Renard, Renard; Vera, Vera; Wilosn, Wilosn; Ramesh, Govindarajan

    Microgravity induces inflammatory response and also modulates immune functions, which may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to the microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects. However, there is little research exploring the etiology of neurological effects of exposure to this environment. To explore this area we evaluated changes in Nuclear Factor kappa B, Activator Protein 1, MAPP kinase and N terminal c-Jun kinase in mouse brain exposed to a simulated microgravity environment using the hindlimb unloading model. BALB/c male mice were randomly assigned to hindlimb unloading group (n=12) and control group (n=12) to simulate a microgravity environment, for 7 days. Changes observed in NF-κB, AP- 1 DNA binding, MAPKK and N terminal c-Jun kinase were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis and compared to unexposed brain regions. Hindlimb unloading exposed mice showed significant increases in generated NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKK and Kinase in all regions of the brain exposed to hindlimb unloading as compared to the control brain regions. Results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors and protein kinases. This work was supported by funding from NASA NCC 9-165. 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e78

  4. Influenza B virus non-structural protein 1 counteracts ISG15 antiviral activity by sequestering ISGylated viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Sridharan, Haripriya; Chen, Ran; Baker, Darren P; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells. ISGylated NP that is not sequestered by mutant NS1B acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of oligomerization of the more abundant unconjugated NP. Consequently formation of viral ribonucleoproteins that catalyse viral RNA synthesis is inhibited, causing decreased viral protein synthesis and virus replication. We verify that ISGylated NP is largely responsible for inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by generating recombinant viruses that lack known ISGylation sites in NP. PMID:27587337

  5. The role of proteasome beta subunits in gastrin-mediated transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 and regenerating protein1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian O'Hara

    Full Text Available The hormone gastrin physiologically regulates gastric acid secretion and also contributes to maintaining gastric epithelial architecture by regulating expression of genes such as plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2 and regenerating protein 1 (Reg1. Here we examine the role of proteasome subunit PSMB1 in the transcriptional regulation of PAI-2 and Reg1 by gastrin, and its subcellular distribution during gastrin stimulation. We used the gastric cancer cell line AGS, permanently transfected with the CCK2 receptor (AGS-GR to study gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 reporter constructs when PSMB1 was knocked down by siRNA. Binding of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Subcellular distribution of PSMB1 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Gastrin robustly increased expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 in AGS-GR cells, but when PSMB1 was knocked down the responses were dramatically reduced. In ChIP assays, following immunoprecipitation of chromatin with a PSMB1 antibody there was a substantial enrichment of DNA from the gastrin responsive regions of the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters compared with chromatin precipitated with control IgG. In AGS-GR cells stimulated with gastrin there was a significant increase in the ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic PSMB1 over the same timescale as recruitment of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters seen in ChIP assays. We conclude that PSMB1 is part of the transcriptional machinery required for gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1, and that its change in subcellular distribution in response to gastrin is consistent with this role.

  6. IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is involved in shear stress-induced progenitor-derived endothelial cell alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Rami

    Full Text Available Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs. To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1 is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs, transfected (or not with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m(2 and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and β-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with β-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to β-catenin. This "switch" was concomitant with the loss of β-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress.

  7. IQ Domain GTPase-Activating Protein 1 is Involved in Shear Stress-Induced Progenitor-Derived Endothelial Cell Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Lila; Auguste, Patrick; Thebaud, Noélie B.; Bareille, Reine; Daculsi, Richard; Ripoche, Jean; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs). To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ) remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs), transfected (or not) with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m2) and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin) and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and β-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with β-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to β-catenin. This “switch” was concomitant with the loss of β-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress. PMID:24278215

  8. Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 is a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Chao Chang

    Full Text Available Lymphoma-specific biomarkers contribute to therapeutic strategies and the study of tumorigenesis. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of malignant lymphoma. However, only 50% of patients experience long-term survival after current treatment; therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies is warranted. Comparative proteomic analysis of two DLBCL lines with a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL showed differential expression of Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1 between them, which was confirmed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining showed that the majority of DLBCLs (92%, 46/50 were RanGAP1(+, while reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 12 was RanGAP1(+ predominantly in germinal centers. RanGAP1 was also highly expressed in other B-cell lymphomas (BCL, n = 180 with brisk mitotic activity (B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia: 93%, and Burkitt lymphoma: 95% or cell-cycle dysregulation (mantle cell lymphoma: 83%, and Hodgkin's lymphoma 91%. Interestingly, serum RanGAP1 level was higher in patients with high-grade BCL (1.71 ± 2.28 ng/mL, n = 62 than in low-grade BCL (0.75 ± 2.12 ng/mL, n = 52 and healthy controls (0.55 ± 1.58 ng/mL, n = 75 (high-grade BCL vs. low-grade BCL, p = 0.002; high-grade BCL vs. control, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test. In vitro, RNA interference of RanGAP1 showed no effect on LCL but enhanced DLBCL cell death (41% vs. 60%; p = 0.035 and cell-cycle arrest (G0/G1: 39% vs. 49%, G2/M: 19.0% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.030 along with decreased expression of TPX2 and Aurora kinases, the central regulators of mitotic cell division. Furthermore, ON 01910.Na (Estybon, a multikinase inhibitor induced cell death, mitotic cell arrest, and hyperphosphorylation of RanGAP1 in DLBCL cell lines but no effects in normal B and T cells. Therefore, RanGAP1 is a promising marker and therapeutic target for aggressive B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL.

  9. Effect of gene modified mesenchymal stem cells overexpression human receptor activity modified protein 1 on inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵然尊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) overexpressing human receptor activity modified protein 1(hRAMP1) by adenovirus vector on infarction related inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction(MI)

  10. Advanced oxidation protein products induce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Kan-fu; WU Xiong-fei; ZHAO Hong-wen; SUN Yan

    2006-01-01

    Background Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are new uremic toxins reported by Witko-Sarsat in 1996, which are associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which AOPPs enhance atherosclerosis have not been fully understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine which stimulates migration of monocytes and plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of AOPPs on MCP-1 expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).Methods VSMCs were cultured and then co-incubated with AOPP (200 μ mol/L, 400 μ mol/L) for different times with or without pretreatment with specific p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. RT-PCR and Western blott were used to detect MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression at different time points after AOPP stimulation in rat smooth muscle cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK.Results Treatment of VSMC with AOPPs resulted in a significant increase of the expression of MCP- 1 mRNA and protein in time- and dose-dependent manner, and could activated p38 MAPK. Pretreatment of VSMCs with SB203580 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of AOPPs-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression.Conclusions AOPPs can stimulate MCP-1 expression via p38 MAPK in VSMCs. This suggests that AOPPs might contribute to the formation of atherosclerosis through this proinflammatory effect.

  11. High-Mobility Group Chromatin Proteins 1 and 2 Functionally Interact with Steroid Hormone Receptors To Enhance Their DNA Binding In Vitro and Transcriptional Activity in Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj; Melvin, Vida; Prendergast, Paul; Altmann, Magda; Ronfani, Lorenza; Marco E. Bianchi; Taraseviciene, Laima; Nordeen, Steven K.; Allegretto, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Dean P.

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that the chromatin high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) enhances the sequence-specific DNA binding activity of progesterone receptor (PR) in vitro, thus providing the first evidence that HMG-1 may have a coregulatory role in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription. Here we show that HMG-1 and the highly related HMG-2 stimulate DNA binding by other steroid receptors, including estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors, but have no effect on DNA binding by se...

  12. Activator protein-1 involved in growth inhibition by RASSF1A gene in the human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hao Deng; Ji-Fang Wen; Jing-He Li; De-Sheng Xiao; Jian-Hua Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of Ras association domain family protein 1 isoform A (RASSFIA) in gastric tumorigenesis.METHODS:Through over-expression of RASSFIA gene in the SGC7901 cell line which was induced by a lipofectamine-mediated gene transfer approach.Activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).RESULTS:Compared with the control clones,cells over expressing RASSF1A exhibited significant inhibition of cell growth with G1 cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo.The over-expression of RASSF1A significantly inhibited AP-1activity in SGC7901 cells (0.981 + 0.011 vs 0.354 ± 0.053,P<0.001).In addition,both Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that RASSF1A down-regulated the expression of c-Fos (0.975±0.02 vs0.095+0.024,P<0.001) but not c-Jun.CONCLUSION:Over-expression of RASSF1A inhibits the growth of SGC7901 cells by negatively regulating the AP-1 activity,the latter in turn negatively signals cell proliferation.

  13. Differential Expression of the Activator Protein 1 Transcription Factor Regulates Interleukin-1ß Induction of Interleukin 6 in the Developing Enterocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    Full Text Available The innate immune response is characterized by activation of transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1 and their downstream targets, the pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β and interleukin 6. Normal development of this response in the intestine is critical to survival of the human neonate and delays can cause the onset of devastating inflammatory diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Previous studies have addressed the role of nuclear factor kappa B in the development of the innate immune response in the enterocyte, however despite its central role in the control of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, little is known on the role of Activator Protein 1 in this response in the enterocyte. Here we show that the canonical Activator Protein 1 members, cJun and cFos and their upstream kinases JNK and p38 play an essential role in the regulation of interleukin 6 in the immature enterocyte. Our data supports a model whereby the cFos/cJun heterodimer and the more potent cJun homodimer downstream of JNK are replaced by less efficient JunD containing dimers, contributing to the decreased responsiveness to interleukin 1β and decreased interleukin 6 secretion observed in the mature enterocyte. The tissue specific expression of JunB in colonocytes and colon derived tissues together with its ability to repress Interleukin-1β induction of an Interleukin-6 gene reporter in the NCM-460 colonocyte suggests that induction of JunB containing dimers may offer an attractive therapeutic strategy for the control of IL-6 secretion during inflammatory episodes in this area of the intestine.

  14. Structure and function of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and its association with tumor progression (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, YAN; CHEN, YONG-CHANG

    2014-01-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating proteins (IQGAPs) are evolutionary conserved multidomain proteins that are found in numerous organisms, from yeast to mammals. To date, three IQGAP proteins have been identified in humans, of which IQGAP1 is the best characterized. As a scaffold protein, IQGAP1 contains multiple protein-interacting domains, which modulate binding to target proteins. Recent mounting studies demonstrated a role for IQGAP1 in tumor progression, supported by the altered expression and subcellular distribution of IQGAP1 in tumors. The contribution of IQGAP1 to tumor progression appears to involve a complex interplay of cell functions by integrating diverse signal transduction pathways and coordinating activities, such as cell adhesion, migration, invasion, proliferation and angiogenesis. PMID:24649059

  15. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1-Induced Antibodies Cross-React with Human Plasminogen and Enhance Its Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chun; Lin, Jessica; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Shuying; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease, and it can cause life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Abnormal activation of the coagulation and fibrinolysis system is one of the hallmarks of DHF/DSS. However, the mechanism underlying hemorrhage in DHF/DSS remains elusive. In previous studies, plasminogen (Plg) cross-reactive Abs, which can recognize DENV nonstructural protein (NS) 1, have been found in dengue patients. However, it is unclear whether these Abs are indeed induced by DENV NS1. Thus, we immunized mice with recombinant NS1 from both bacteria and drosophila to determine whether NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs. The results from the NS1-immunized mouse sera indicated that NS1 immunization induced Abs that could cross-react with Plg. To study the effects of these NS1-induced Plg cross-reactive Abs on fibrinolysis, we isolated several Plg cross-reactive anti-NS1 mAbs from these mice and found that some of them could enhance Plg activation. In addition, epitope mapping with a phage-displayed random peptide library revealed that one of these mAbs (2A5) could recognize NS1 C-terminal residues 305-311, which share sequence homology with Plg residues 590-597. A synthetic peptide of NS1 residues 305-311 could inhibit the binding of both 2A5 and its Fab to Plg and its enhanced activation. Thus, our results suggest that DENV NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs through molecular mimicry, which can enhance Plg activation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS. PMID:26712948

  16. Akt kinase-interacting protein1, a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer with EGFR-activating and gatekeeper mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tadaaki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fujita, Naoya; Nakamura, Akito; Wang, Wei; Li, Qi; Oda, Makoto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Junji; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Noguchi, Masayuki; Uehara, Hisanori; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite initial dramatic response, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancer patients always acquire resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent genetic alteration underlying acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR mutant lung cancer cells are reported to be addictive to EGFR/Akt signaling even after acquired T790M mutation. Here, we focused on Akt kinase-interacting protein1 (Aki1), a scaffold protein of PI3...

  17. Distal Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Response Element of Human Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) Binds Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) Transcription Factors and Regulates Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Adam C.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2012-01-01

    The collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the destruction of cartilage in arthritic joints. MMP-13 expression is strongly up-regulated in arthritis, largely because of stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Treatment of chondrocytes with IL-1β induces transcription of MMP-13 in vitro. IL-1β signaling converges upon the activator protein-1 transcription factors, which have been shown to be required for IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we detected activator protein-1 binding within an evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence ∼20 kb 5′ relative to the MMP-13 transcription start site (TSS). Also using ChIP, we detected histone modifications and binding of RNA polymerase II within this conserved region, all of which are consistent with transcriptional activation. Chromosome conformation capture indicates that chromosome looping brings this region in close proximity with the MMP-13 TSS. Finally, a luciferase reporter construct driven by a component of the conserved region demonstrated an expression pattern similar to that of endogenous MMP-13. These data suggest that a conserved region at 20 kb upstream from the MMP-13 TSS includes a distal transcriptional response element of MMP-13, which contributes to MMP-13 gene expression. PMID:22102411

  18. Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  19. The Human Asparaginase-Like Protein 1 hASRGL1is an Ntn Hydrolase with β-aspartyl Peptidase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, Jason R.; Stone, Everett M.; Chantranupong, Lynne; Georgiou, George

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report the bacterial expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the human asparaginase-like protein 1 (hASRGL1). We present evidence that hASRGL1 exhibits β-aspartyl peptidase activity consistent with enzymes designated as plant-type asparaginases, which had thus far only been found in plants and bacteria. Similar to non-mammalian plant-type asparaginases, hASRGL1 is shown to be an Ntn hydrolase for which Thr168 serves as the essential N-terminal nucleophile for int...

  20. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Olivia; Lambert, Stacie L; Krams, Sheri M; Martinez, Olivia M

    2012-01-01

    The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR)-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  1. Akt kinase-interacting protein1, a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer with EGFR-activating and gatekeeper mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Takeuchi, S; Fujita, N; Nakamura, A; Wang, W; Li, Q; Oda, M; Mitsudomi, T; Yatabe, Y; Sekido, Y; Yoshida, J; Higashiyama, M; Noguchi, M; Uehara, H; Nishioka, Y; Sone, S; Yano, S

    2013-09-12

    Despite initial dramatic response, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancer patients always acquire resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent genetic alteration underlying acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR mutant lung cancer cells are reported to be addictive to EGFR/Akt signaling even after acquired T790M mutation. Here, we focused on Akt kinase-interacting protein1 (Aki1), a scaffold protein of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase)/Akt that determines receptor signal selectivity for non-mutated EGFR, and assessed its role in EGFR mutant lung cancer with or without gatekeeper T790M mutation. Cell line-based assays showed that Aki1 constitutively associates with mutant EGFR in lung cancer cells with (H1975) or without (PC-9 and HCC827) T790M gatekeeper mutation. Silencing of Aki1 induced apoptosis of EGFR mutant lung cancer cells. Treatment with Aki1 siRNA dramatically inhibited growth of H1975 cells in a xenograft model. Moreover, silencing of Aki1 further potentiated growth inhibitory effect of new generation EGFR-TKIs against H1975 cells in vitro. Aki1 was frequently expressed in tumor cells of EGFR mutant lung cancer patients (53/56 cases), including those with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment (7/7 cases). Our data suggest that Aki1 may be a critical mediator of survival signaling from mutant EGFR to Akt, and may therefore be an ideal target for EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, especially those with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance due to EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation. PMID:23045273

  2. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada); Babiuk, Lorne A. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E3 (Canada)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  3. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Schuetz, Erin G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Chen, Taosheng, E-mail: taosheng.chen@stjude.org [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  4. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Endocytic Clearance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Promotes Its Cytokine-Like Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  5. Effects of Simvastatin on NF-κB-DNA Binding Activity and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in a Rabbit Model of Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyun; WANG Lin; ZENG Hesong; DUBEY Laxman; ZHOU Ning; PU Jun

    2006-01-01

    To observe the effects of simvastatin on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-DNA binding activity and on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in atherosclerotic plaque in rabbits and to explore the anti-atherosclerotic properties beyond its lipid-lowering effects.Thirty-six New Zealand male rabbits were randomly divided into low-cholesterol group (LC), highcholesterol group (HC), high-cholesterol+ simvastatin group (HC+S) and then were fed for 12weeks. At the end of theexperiment, standard enzymatic assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), immunohistochemical staining, and morphometry were performed to observe serum lipids, NF-κB-DNA binding activity, MCP-1 protein expression, intima thickness and plaque area of aorta respectively in all three groups. Our results showed that the serum lipids, NF-κB-DNA binding activity, expression of MCP-1 protein, intima thickness, and plaque area of aorta in the LC and HC+S groups were significantly lower than those in the HC group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum lipids between the LC and HC+S groups (P>0.05), but the NF-κB-DNA binding activity, the expression of MCP-1 protein and the intima thickness and plaque area of aorta in the HC+S group were significantly decreased as compared to the LC group (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that simvastatin could decrease atherosclerosis by inhibiting the NFκB-DNA binding activity and by reducing the expression of MCP-1 protein.

  6. Cocaine differentially regulates activator protein-1 mRNA levels and DNA-binding complexes in the rat striatum and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceyro, P; Pollock, K M; Drews, K; Douglass, J

    1994-10-01

    Cocaine is a psychomotor stimulant that exerts many of its behavioral and physiological effects through alteration of catecholamine reuptake systems. One early cellular response to cocaine administration is a brain region-specific alteration in the transcriptional pattern of immediate early genes belonging to the Fos/Jun family of nucleotide sequence-specific [activator protein-1 (AP-1)] DNA-binding proteins. The work described here compares cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation of immediate early gene mRNA levels, as well as AP-1 DNA-binding activity, within the striatum and cerebellum. In the striatum, acute cocaine administration increases cellular levels of c-fos and jun-B mRNA, whereas transcriptional effects in the cerebellum are limited to c-fos mRNA. After chronic cocaine treatment a desensitization of c-fos mRNA induction is observed in the striatum, with sensitization of the same transcriptional effect occurring in the cerebellum. Pharmacological studies further reveal that the dopamine D1, dopamine D2, gamma-aminobutyric acid type B, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor systems mediate the effects of cocaine on cerebellar neurons, whereas striatal effects are modulated through D1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Gel retention analysis using antibodies to the various Fos and Jun proteins was used to characterize cocaine-dependent alterations in the composition of striatal and cerebellar AP-1 DNA-binding complexes. In striatum, cocaine increases the relative levels of c-Fos, Fos-B, Jun-B, and Jun-D proteins that bind the AP-1 DNA sequence element, whereas in the cerebellum only c-Fos and Jun-D binding activities are increased. These data suggest two possible neuroanatomical sites where tolerance and sensitization to cocaine can be examined at the genomic level. PMID:7969045

  7. A δ38 deletion variant of human transketolase as a model of transketolase-like protein 1 exhibits no enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    Full Text Available Besides transketolase (TKT, a thiamin-dependent enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, the human genome encodes for two closely related transketolase-like proteins, which share a high sequence identity with TKT. Transketolase-like protein 1 (TKTL1 has been implicated in cancerogenesis as its cellular expression levels were reported to directly correlate with invasion efficiency of cancer cells and patient mortality. It has been proposed that TKTL1 exerts its function by catalyzing an unusual enzymatic reaction, a hypothesis that has been the subject of recent controversy. The most striking difference between TKTL1 and TKT is a deletion of 38 consecutive amino acids in the N-terminal domain of the former, which constitute part of the active site in authentic TKT. Our structural and sequence analysis suggested that TKTL1 might not possess transketolase activity. In order to test this hypothesis in the absence of a recombinant expression system for TKTL1 and resilient data on its biochemical properties, we have engineered and biochemically characterized a "pseudo-TKTL1" Δ38 deletion variant of human TKT (TKTΔ38 as a viable model of TKTL1. Although the isolated protein is properly folded under in vitro conditions, both thermal stability as well as stability of the TKT-specific homodimeric assembly are markedly reduced. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopic analysis further indicates that TKTΔ38 is unable to bind the thiamin cofactor in a specific manner, even at superphysiological concentrations. No transketolase activity of TKTΔ38 can be detected for conversion of physiological sugar substrates thus arguing against an intrinsically encoded enzymatic function of TKTL1 in tumor cell metabolism.

  8. Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Li

    Full Text Available In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4 which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR-like ER kinase, (PERK]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE. Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1, has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1 - (XBP1] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE. These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

  9. Role of Activator Protein-1 in the Transcription of Interleukin-5 Gene Regulated by Protein Kinase C Signal in Asthmatic Human T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the role of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the transcription of interleukin-5 (IL-5) gene regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) signal in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from asthmatic patient, T lymphocytes were isolated and purified from peripheral blood of each asthmatic patient. The T lymphocytes were randomly divided int9 4 groups: group A (blank control), group B (treated with PKC agonist phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)), Group C (treated with PMA and AP-1 cis-element decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODNs)), and group D (treated with PMA and AP-1 mutant decoy ODNs). The ODNs were transfected into the T cells of group C and D by cation liposome respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to assess IL-5 mRNA expression, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) for the activation of AP-1. The results showed that the activation of AP-1 (88 003.58±1 626.57) and the expression of IL5 mRNA (0. 8300±0. 0294) in T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA were significantly higher than these in blank control (20 888.47±1103.56 and 0. 3050±0. 0208, respectively, P< 0.01), while the indexes (23 219.83±1 024.86 and 0. 3425±0. 0171 respectively) of T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA and AP-1 decoy ODNs were significantly inhibited, as compared with group B (P<0.01). The indexes (87 107. 41±1 342.92 and 0. 8225±0. 0222, respectively) in T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA and AP-1 mutant decoy ODNs did not exhibit significant changes, as compared with group B (P>0.05). The significant positive correlation was found between the activation of AP-1 and the expression of IL-5 mRNA (P< 0.01). It was concluded that AP-1 might participate in the signal transduction of PKC-triggered transcription of IL-5 gene in asthmatic T lymphocytes. This suggests the activation of PKC/AP-1 signal transduction cascade of T lymphocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma.

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induces proliferation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Dian-ying; WANG Tian-bing; ZHANG Pei-xun; JIANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neuropeptide, affects osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that stimulates the migration of monocytes and plays important roles in regulating bone remolding during fracture repair, In this study, we investigated the effects of CGRP on proliferation and MCP-1 expression in cultured rat osteoblasts.Methods Primary rat osteoblasts were isolated from fetal rats calvariae. Cells were exposed to gradient concentrations (10-9 to 10-7 mol/L) of CGRP. Protein and mRNA levels of MCP-1 were quantified by Western blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein level of MCP-1 was investigated and compared in cell culture media by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression was detected by Western blotting. Cell proliferative activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and BrdU assay. The effects of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-inhibitor U0126 on CGRP-induced MCP-1 expression in primary rat osteoblasts were examined.Results CGRP effectively enhanced primary rat osteoblast proliferation and led to significant increases in the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein in time- and dose-dependent manners. CGRP activated the ERK pathway.Pretreatment of cultured rat osteoblasts with MEK inhibitor U0126 resulted in dose-dependent inhibitions of CGRP-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels. Thus, CGRP promoted cell proliferation and stimulated MCP-1 expression in cultured rat osteoblasts.Conclusion These studies document novel links between CGRP and MCP-1 and illuminate the effects of CGRP in regulating bone remodeling.

  11. Activation of the transcription factor FosB/activating protein-1 (AP-1) is a prominent downstream signal of the extracellular nucleotide receptor P2RX7 in monocytic and osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica L; Hill, Lindsay M; Lenertz, Lisa Y; Karta, Maya R; Bertics, Paul J

    2010-10-29

    Activation of the ionotropic P2RX7 nucleotide receptor by extracellular ATP has been implicated in modulating inflammatory disease progression. Continuous exposure of P2RX7 to ligand can result in apoptosis in many cell types, including monocytic cells, whereas transient activation of P2RX7 is linked to inflammatory mediator production and the promotion of cell growth. Given the rapid hydrolysis of ATP in the circulation and interstitial space, transient activation of P2RX7 appears critically important for its action, yet its effects on gene expression are unclear. The present study demonstrates that short-term stimulation of human and mouse monocytic cells as well as mouse osteoblasts with P2RX7 agonists substantially induces the expression of several activating protein-1 (AP-1) members, particularly FosB. The potent activation of FosB after P2RX7 stimulation is especially noteworthy considering that little is known concerning the role of FosB in immunological regulation. Interestingly, the magnitude of FosB activation induced by P2RX7 stimulation appears greater than that observed with other known inducers of FosB expression. In addition, we have identified a previously unrecognized role for FosB in osteoblasts with respect to nucleotide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis from arachidonic acid and is critical for osteoblastic differentiation and immune behavior. The present studies are the first to link P2RX7 action to FosB/AP-1 regulation in multiple cell types, including a role in nucleotide-induced COX-2 expression, and support a role for FosB in the control of immune and osteogenic function by P2RX7. PMID:20813842

  12. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1 and Dishevelled (Dvl is correlated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1 binds to Dishevelled (Dvl and functions as a modulator of Dvl nuclear localization in Xenopus embryos. However, the relationship between IQGAP1 and Dvl in tumor tissues is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to assess the expressions of IQGAP1 and Dvl in a cohort of 111 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Association of their localization expressions with clinicopathological factors was also analyzed. RESULTS: The positive rate of IQGAP1 in primary tumors was 48.6% (54/111 for its cytoplamic expression, 9.0% (10/111 for nuclear expression and 31.5% (35/111 for membranous expression; the positive rate of Dvl was 65.8% (73/111 for cytoplamic expression, 9.9% (11/111 for nuclear expression and 10.8% (12/111 for membranous expression. Coexpression rate of IQGAP1 and Dvl was 77.8% (42/54 in the cytoplasm, 80.0% (8/10 in the nucleus and 8.6% (3/35 in the membrane. Coexpression of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus were significantly correlated (P0.05. The positive expression rates of cyclin D1 and c-myc were significantly higher in the group of IQGAP1 and Dvl coexpression in the nucleus than that in the cytoplasm. Coexpression rate of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus was significantly higher in lymph nodal metastases (63.3%, 19/30 than in primary growths (38.3%, 31/81, correlating with poor prognosis. Five-year survival time after resection in the group with their coexpression in the cytoplasm and nucleus was significantly lower than that with no coexpression (44.705±3.355 vs 58.403±2.543 months, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coexpression of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus was correlated with the lymph nodal metastase and poor prognosis of NSCLC, and coexpression in nucleus might play a critical role in the activation of canonical Wnt pathway.

  13. Coexpression of IQ-Domain GTPase-Activating Protein 1 (IQGAP1) and Dishevelled (Dvl) Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanyu; Xie, Chengyao; Lin, Xuyong; Zhao, Yue; Han, Yang; Fan, Chuifeng; Zhang, Xiupeng; Du, Jiang; Han, Yong; Han, Qiang; Wu, Guangping; Wang, Enhua

    2014-01-01

    Background IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) binds to Dishevelled (Dvl) and functions as a modulator of Dvl nuclear localization in Xenopus embryos. However, the relationship between IQGAP1 and Dvl in tumor tissues is unclear. Materials and Methods We used immunohistochemistry to assess the expressions of IQGAP1 and Dvl in a cohort of 111 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Association of their localization expressions with clinicopathological factors was also analyzed. Results The positive rate of IQGAP1 in primary tumors was 48.6% (54/111) for its cytoplamic expression, 9.0% (10/111) for nuclear expression and 31.5% (35/111) for membranous expression; the positive rate of Dvl was 65.8% (73/111) for cytoplamic expression, 9.9% (11/111) for nuclear expression and 10.8% (12/111) for membranous expression. Coexpression rate of IQGAP1 and Dvl was 77.8% (42/54) in the cytoplasm, 80.0% (8/10) in the nucleus and 8.6% (3/35) in the membrane. Coexpression of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus were significantly correlated (P0.05). The positive expression rates of cyclin D1 and c-myc were significantly higher in the group of IQGAP1 and Dvl coexpression in the nucleus than that in the cytoplasm. Coexpression rate of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus was significantly higher in lymph nodal metastases (63.3%, 19/30) than in primary growths (38.3%, 31/81), correlating with poor prognosis. Five-year survival time after resection in the group with their coexpression in the cytoplasm and nucleus was significantly lower than that with no coexpression (44.705±3.355 vs 58.403±2.543 months, p<0.05). Conclusions Coexpression of IQGAP1 and Dvl in the cytoplasm and nucleus was correlated with the lymph nodal metastase and poor prognosis of NSCLC, and coexpression in nucleus might play a critical role in the activation of canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:25436461

  14. Identifying the activation motif in the N-terminal of rainbow trout and zebrafish melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang; Hollmann, Rebecca E; Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-08-01

    The activation of mammalian melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs is dependent on a four-amino acid activation motif (LDYL/I) located in the N-terminal of mammalian MRAP1 (melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein). Previous alanine substitution analysis had shown that the Y residue in this motif appears to be the most important for mediating the activation of mammalian MC2R orthologs. Similar, but not identical amino acid motifs were detected in rainbow trout MRAP1 (YDYL) and zebrafish MRAP1 (YDYV). To determine the importance of these residues in the putative activation motifs, rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 orthologs were individually co-expressed in CHO cells with rainbow trout MC2R, and the activation of this receptor with either the wild-type MRAP1 ortholog or alanine-substituted analogs of the two teleost MRAP1s was analyzed. Alanine substitutions at all four amino acid positions in rainbow trout MRAP1 blocked activation of the rainbow trout MC2R. Single alanine substitutions of the D and Y residues in rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 indicate that these two residues play a significant role in the activation of rainbow trout MC2R. These observations indicate that there are subtle differences in the way that teleost and mammalian MRAPs are involved in the activation of their corresponding MC2R orthologs. PMID:26752246

  15. Role of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in Mediating Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳波; 邓华聪; 郑丹; 李呼伦

    2004-01-01

    @@ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. p38MAPK pathway is one of the most widely studied signaling pathways involved in the transduction of intracellular signals including survival, growth,differentiation and death.

  16. E. coli histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (ecHinT is a catalytic regulator of D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA activity in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Bardaweel

    Full Text Available Histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins (Hints are highly conserved members of the histidine triad (HIT protein superfamily. Hints comprise the most ancient branch of this superfamily and can be found in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. Prokaryotic genomes, including a wide diversity of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, typically have one Hint gene encoded by hinT (ycfF in E. coli. Despite their ubiquity, the foundational reason for the wide-spread conservation of Hints across all kingdoms of life remains a mystery. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic screening and complementation analyses with wild-type and hinT knock-out Escherichia coli strains to show that catalytically active ecHinT is required in E. coli for growth on D-alanine as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the expression of catalytically active ecHinT is essential for the activity of the enzyme D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA (equivalent to D-amino acid oxidase in eukaryotes, a necessary component of the D-alanine catabolic pathway. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that catalytically active C-terminal mutants of ecHinT are unable to activate DadA activity. In addition, we have designed and synthesized the first cell-permeable inhibitor of ecHinT and demonstrated that the wild-type E. coli treated with the inhibitor exhibited the same phenotype observed for the hinT knock-out strain. These results reveal that the catalytic activity and structure of ecHinT is essential for DadA function and therefore alanine metabolism in E. coli. Moreover, they provide the first biochemical evidence linking the catalytic activity of this ubiquitous protein to the biological function of Hints in Escherichia coli.

  17. The Epstein-Barr virus oncogene product, latent membrane protein 1, induces the downregulation of E-cadherin gene expression via activation of DNA methyltransferases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-NeuTsai

    2005-01-01

    The latent membrane protein (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which isnotoriously metastatic. Although it Is established that LMP1 represses E-cadherin expression and enhances the invasive ability of carcinoma cells, the mechanism underlying this repression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that LMP1 induces the expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme activity assay. This results in hypermethylation of the E-cadherin promoter and down-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, as revealed by methylation-specific PCR, real-time reverse transcription-PeR and Western blotting data. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-Aza-2'dC, restores E-cadherin promoter activity and protein expression in LMPl-expressing cells, which in turn blocks cell migration ability, as demonstrated by the Transwell cell migration assay. Our findings suggest that LMP1 down-regulates E-cadherin gene expression and induces cell migration activity by using cellular DNA methylation machinery.

  18. Massive hepatic apoptosis associated with TGF-β1 activation after Fas ligand treatment of IGF binding protein-1–deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leu, Julia I.; Crissey, Mary Ann S.; Taub, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Acute liver failure caused by viral hepatitis or toxic damage involves both apoptotic and necrotic pathways. IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), a hepatocyte-derived secreted protein, is required for normal liver regeneration. To determine whether IGFBP-1 could prevent liver injury that entails direct stimulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, IGFBP-1–/– mice, IGFBP-1+/+ mice, and mice pretreated with Ab’s against IGFBP-1 were treated with a normally sublethal dose of Fas agonist. IGFBP-1 deficiency w...

  19. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH.

  20. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH. PMID:27000704

  1. Contraction-induced Interleukin-6 Gene Transcription in Skeletal Muscle Is Regulated by c-Jun Terminal Kinase/Activator Protein-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Martin; Chan, M. H. Stanley; Pal, Martin; Matthews, Vance B.; Prelovsek, Oja; Lunke, Sebastian; El-Osta, Assam; Broenneke, Hella; Alber, Jens; Brüning, Jens C.; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Lancaster, Graeme I.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise increases the expression of the prototypical myokine IL-6, but the precise mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be identified. To mimic exercise conditions, C2C12 myotubes were mechanically stimulated via electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). We compared the responses of EPS with the pharmacological Ca2+ carrier calcimycin (A23187) because contraction induces marked increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels or the classical IκB kinase/NFκB inflammatory response elicited by H2O2. We demonstrate that, unlike H2O2-stimulated increases in IL-6 mRNA, neither calcimycin- nor EPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression is under the transcriptional control of NFκB. Rather, we show that EPS increased the phosphorylation of JNK and the reporter activity of the downstream transcription factor AP-1. Furthermore, JNK inhibition abolished the EPS-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Finally, we observed an exercise-induced increase in both JNK phosphorylation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of mice after 30 min of treadmill running. Importantly, exercise did not increase IL-6 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle-specific JNK-deficient mice. These data identify a novel contraction-mediated transcriptional regulatory pathway for IL-6 in skeletal muscle. PMID:22351769

  2. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  3. The effects of a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1 on endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI in intensive care units. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a major pathogenetic factor in septic AKI. c-Fos/activator protein (AP-1 controls the expression of these cytokines by binding directly to AP-1 motifs in the cytokine promoter regions. T-5224 is a new drug developed by computer-aided drug design that selectively inhibits c-Fos/AP-1 binding to DNA. In this study, we tested whether T-5224 has a potential inhibitory effect against LPS-induced AKI, by suppressing the TNF-alpha inflammatory response and other downstream effectors. Methods To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice at 7 weeks old were divided into three groups (control, LPS and T-5224 groups. Mice in the control group received saline intraperitoneally and polyvinylpyrrolidone solution orally. Mice in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with a 6 mg/kg dose of LPS and were given polyvinylpyrrolidone solution immediately after LPS injection. In the T-5224 group, mice were administered T-5224 orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg immediately after LPS injection. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Moreover, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA in kidney was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated renal histological changes. Results LPS injection induced high serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the administration of T-5224 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in these cytokine levels. The serum levels of IL-10 in the LPS group and T-5224 group were markedly elevated compared with the control group. T-5224 also inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore histological studies supported an anti-inflammatory role of T-5224. Conclusions In endotoxin

  4. Calcium-myristoyl Tug is a new mechanism for intramolecular tuning of calcium sensitivity and target enzyme interaction for guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1: dynamic connection between N-fatty acyl group and EF-hand controls calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Lim, Sunghyuk; Ames, James B; Dizhoor, Alexander M

    2012-04-20

    Guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1), a myristoylated Ca(2+) sensor in vision, regulates retinal guanylyl cyclase (RetGC). We show that protein-myristoyl group interactions control Ca(2+) sensitivity, apparent affinity for RetGC, and maximal level of cyclase activation. Mutating residues near the myristoyl moiety affected the affinity of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand 4. Inserting Phe residues in the cavity around the myristoyl group increased both the affinity of GCAP1 for RetGC and maximal activation of the cyclase. NMR spectra show that the myristoyl group in the L80F/L176F/V180F mutant remained sequestered inside GCAP1 in both Ca(2+)-bound and Mg(2+)-bound states. This mutant displayed much higher affinity for the cyclase but reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity of the cyclase regulation. The L176F substitution improved affinity of myristoylated and non-acylated GCAP1 for the cyclase but simultaneously reduced the affinity of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand 4 and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the cyclase regulation by acylated GCAP1. The replacement of amino acids near both ends of the myristoyl moiety (Leu(80) and Val(180)) minimally affected regulatory properties of GCAP1. N-Lauryl- and N-myristoyl-GCAP1 activated RetGC in a similar fashion. Thus, protein interactions with the central region of the fatty acyl chain optimize GCAP1 binding to RetGC and maximize activation of the cyclase. We propose a dynamic connection (or "tug") between the fatty acyl group and EF-hand 4 via the C-terminal helix that attenuates the efficiency of RetGC activation in exchange for optimal Ca(2+) sensitivity. PMID:22383530

  5. Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 induces TRAF1 expression to promote anti-apoptosis activity via NF-κB signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承兴; 艾米丹; 任维; 肖绘; 李小燕; 唐发清; 顾焕华; 易薇; 翁新宪; 邓锡云; 曹亚

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) can induce tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) expression and promote its anti-apoptosis activity via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and assess that LMP1 suppresses apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A stable transfected cell line HNE2-LMP1 was established by introducing LMP1 cDNA into HNE2 cells. Transactivation of TRAF1 was determined by luciferase reporter assay, while expression of TRAF1 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and expression of TRAF1 protein and caspase 3 by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis activity was observed through fluorescence staining. Results LMP1 induced TRAF1 expression in NPC cells and caused a decrease in apoptosis. This induction could be blocked by antisense LMP1. Moreover, LMP1-mediated induction of a TRAF1 promoter-driven reporter gene was significantly impaired when the κB site κB1 or κB5 was disrupted, whereas mutation of κB3 had only a minor effect on LMP1 dependent up-regulation of the reporter gene. Conclusion LMP1 induces TRAF1 expression and promotes its anti-apoptosis activity via the NF-κB signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms that LMP1 uses to suppress apoptosis in NPC cells.

  6. Humic acid in drinking well water induces inflammation through reactive oxygen species generation and activation of nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 signaling pathways: A possible role in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseu, You-Cheng [Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX 77030 (United States); Senthil Kumar, K.J. [Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Sheng; Cho, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Shu-Wei; Shen, Pei-Chun [Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lu, Fung-Jou [Institute of Medicine, Chun Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsin-Ling, E-mail: hlyang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Humic acid (HA) has been implicated as one of the etiological factors in the peripheral vasculopathy of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of BFD are not well defined. In this study, we used an in vitro and in vivo model, in which HA (25–200 μg/mL) activated macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory molecules by activating their transcriptional factors. HA exposure induced NO and PGE{sub 2} production followed by induction of iNOS and COX-2 through NF-κB/AP-1 transactivation in macrophages. In addition, the production of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased by HA. Moreover, HA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression were down-regulated by the NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and Tanshinone, respectively. Furthermore, generations of ROS and nitrotyrosine, as well as activation of the AKT and MAPKs signaling cascades were observed after HA exposure. Specifically, HA-induced NF-κB activation was mediated by ROS and AKT, and that HA-induced AP-1 activation was mediated by JNK and ERK. Notably, HA-mediated AKT, JNK, and ERK activation was ROS-independent. The inflammatory potential of HA was correlated with increased expression of HO-1 and Nrf2. Furthermore, an in vivo study confirms that mice exposed to HA, the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. This report marks the first confirmation that environmental exposure of HA induces inflammation in macrophages, which may be one of the main causes of early atherogenesis in blackfoot disease. - Highlights: • Humic acid (HA) induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in macrophages. • HA-induced inflammation is mediated by ROS and NF-κB/AP-1 signaling pathways. • The inflammatory potential of HA correlated with activation of Nrf2/HO-1 genes. • HA exposure to mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokines production in vivo. • HA may be one of the main causes of early

  7. The light chain 1 subunit of the microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B is responsible for Tiam1 binding and Rac1 activation in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Henríquez

    Full Text Available Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B is a neuronal protein involved in the stabilization of microtubules both in the axon and somatodendritic compartments. Acute, genetic inactivation of MAP1B leads to delayed axonal outgrowth, most likely due to changes in the post-translational modification of tubulin subunits, which enhances microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, MAP1B deficiency is accompanied by abnormal actin microfilament polymerization and dramatic changes in the activity of small GTPases controlling the actin cytoskeleton. In this work, we showed that MAP1B interacts with a guanine exchange factor, termed Tiam1, which specifically activates Rac1. These proteins co-segregated in neurons, and interact in both heterologous expression systems and primary neurons. We dissected the molecular domains involved in the MAP1B-Tiam1 interaction, and demonstrated that pleckstrin homology (PH domains in Tiam1 are responsible for MAP1B binding. Interestingly, only the light chain 1 (LC1 of MAP1B was able to interact with Tiam1. Moreover, it was able to increase the activity of the small GTPase, Rac1. These results suggest that the interaction between Tiam1 and MAP1B, is produced by the binding of LC1 with PH domains in Tiam1. The formation of such a complex impacts on the activation levels of Rac1 confirming a novel function of MAP1B related with the control of small GTPases. These results also support the idea of cross-talk between cytoskeleton compartments inside neuronal cells.

  8. IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 mediates the process of injury and repair in bronchial epithelial cells%支架蛋白IQGAP1参与气道上皮细胞损伤修复过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪永平; 王芳; 王满香; 朱敏; 马燕; 吴人亮

    2008-01-01

    The process of injury and repair in airway epithelium involves cell spreading and migration followed by cell proliferation. IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) acts in a series of cell processes, but has not been clarified in lung epithelial cells. In this study, a widely used model of injury and repair in vitro by scratching bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) was utilized to investigate the function of IQGAP1. The results showed that IQGAP1 was abundant in BECs of mouse, rat, pig and human. IQGAP1 was colocalized with tubulin cytoskeleton, but was destroyed by nocodazole, a microtubule disassembly reagent. IQGAP1 mRNA and protein expressions increased at 6-9h after scratching. In addition, overexpression of IQGAP1 translocated β-catenin from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and activated the Tcf/Lef signal. Scratching altered the associations of IQGAP1 with β-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and cytoplasmic linker protein-170 (CLIP-170). Silencing IQGAP1 expression by small interference RNA (siRNA) blocked the wound closure. It is concluded that IQGAP1 signal is involved in the wound closure of BECs induced by scratching.%气道上皮损伤修复过程包括细胞延伸、迁移和增殖.IQGAP1 (IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1)是一个在许多细胞生命活动中非常有意义的蛋白,但其在肺上皮细胞中的作用尚未阐述清楚.本文采用目前广泛应用的刮伤气道上皮细胞的体外模型来研究IQGAP1的功能.结果显示,IQGAP1在小鼠、大鼠、猪和人气道上皮细胞中有丰富表达.它与微管骨架共定位,可被微管解聚剂nocodazole破坏.刮伤6~9h后,IQGAP1 mRNA及蛋白表达上调.过表达外源性IQGAP1导致β-catenin核转位,从而活化Tcf/Lef信号.此外,刮伤还影响IQGAP1与β-catenin、结肠腺瘤病(adenomatous polyposis coli, APC)蛋白及细胞质连接蛋白-170 (cytoplasmic linker protein-170, CLIP-170)之间的相互作用.通过小干扰RNA (small interference RNA

  9. cAMP response element binding protein1 is essential for activation of steroyl co-enzyme a desaturase 1 (Scd1 in mouse lung type II epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Antony

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 1 (Creb1 is a transcription factor that mediates cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling in many tissues. Creb1(-/- mice die at birth due to respiratory failure and previous genome-wide microarray analysis of E17.5 Creb1(-/- fetal mouse lung identified important Creb1-regulated gene targets during lung development. The lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1 and fatty acid synthase (Fasn showed highly reduced gene expression in Creb1(-/- lungs. We therefore hypothesized that Creb1 plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in pulmonary lipid biosynthetic pathways during lung development. In this study we confirmed that Scd1 and Fasn mRNA levels were down regulated in the E17.5 Creb1(-/- mouse lung while the lipogenic-associated transcription factors SrebpF1, C/ebpα and Pparγ were increased. In vivo studies using germline (Creb1(-/- and lung epithelial-specific (Creb1(EpiΔ/Δ Creb1 knockout mice showed strongly reduced Scd1, but not Fasn gene expression and protein levels in lung epithelial cells. In vitro studies using mouse MLE-15 epithelial cells showed that forskolin-mediated activation of Creb1 increased both Scd1 gene expression and protein synthesis. Additionally, MLE15 cells transfected with a dominant-negative ACreb vector blocked forskolin-mediated stimulation of Scd1 gene expression. Lipid profiling in MLE15 cells showed that dominant-negative ACreb suppressed forskolin-induced desaturation of ether linked lipids to produce plasmalogens, as well as levels of phosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and lysophosphatidylcholine. Taken together these results demonstrate that Creb1 is essential for the induction and maintenance of Scd1 in developing fetal mouse lung epithelial cells.

  10. Study of Transcription Activity of X-Box Binding Protein 1 Gene in Human Different Cell Lines%人类不同类型细胞中X-盒结合蛋白1转录活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风劲; 宋方洲; 张静; 李婧; 唐勇

    2007-01-01

    Human X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), an important transcription factor, participates in many signal transduction processes. To further investigate the biological function of XBP1, sequences of XBP1 promoter and its two deletion mutants were first determined using bioinformatic analysis. The report vectors containing XBP1 promoter and its deletion mutants were then constructed, namely, p1-XBP1p, p2-XBP1p, and p3-XBP1p. Each reporter vector was separately transfected into HepG2, L02, K562,SMMC-7721, HSF, and Lipocyte Ito Cell line using FuGENE 6 transfection reagents. The activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in each group of transfected cells was detected by ELISA assay, which in turn reflects the transcription activity of the XBP1 gene promoter. The activity involving p3-XBP1p was the highest in HepG2, which was 12.4-fold of that of pCAT3-Basic. The activities of p3-XBP1p in K562 and SMMC-7721 were the second and the third highest, which were 10.9-fold and 10.0-fold of that of the pCAT3-Basic, respectively. The CAT activity in L02 was lower than that in the above-mentioned abnormal cell, and no reporter activity was detected in HSF and Ito Cell. The XBP1 transcription and expression in K562, HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were found to be higher than that in L02, HSF and Ito cells, based on the results of real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. The XBP1 transcription and expression in L02, HSF was lower, whereas that in Ito cells was totally lacking. The result was similar to that of CAT-ELISA. Therefore, the XBP1 gene promoter can drive its downstream gene expression and its activity is cell line-dependent.The core sequence of XBP1 promoter was found between -227bp and 66bp sequence. This sequence was closely associated with the transcriptional activity of XBP1 promoter.%人类X-盒结合蛋白1(X-box binding protein1,XBP1)作为一种重要的转录因子,在细胞中涉及了广泛的信号调控过程.为进一步研究XBP1的生物学功能,首先利用

  11. Effects of different carriers on bone-inducing activity of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1%不同载体对重组人成骨蛋白-1骨诱导活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 韩金祥; 宋长征

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carriers of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1(rhOP-1) are limited to collagen. The effects of different carriers on its bone inducing activity still have not been proved. OBJECTIVE: To find an optimal carrier material for rhOP-1 through a comparative studies of the effects of different materials on the bone-inducing activity. DESIGN: A completely randomized, auto-control and mutual control study was used. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six male mice of Kunming species were recruited in this study and the experiment was completed at the Animal Laboratory of our center. INTERVENTION: The materials included inactive decalcified bone matrix ( DBM), hydroxyapatite ( HA ), polylactic acid ( PLA), polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol copolymers (PLA-PEG) and polylactic glycollc acid (PLGA), and they were compounded with rhOP-1 respectively, and were then implanted into the medial intermuscular septum of the thighs of mice for 3 weeks. Then, samples were taken to evaluate the effects of the five materials on bone-inducing activity of rhOP-1.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: New bone maturity and osteogenic rate were assessed by histological studies, determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and calcium content of the entopic new bone.RESULTS: Three weeks after implantation, groups of DBM/rhOP-1 (A), rhOP-1 (F) and Eukaryon expressed OP-1 (control VI) all showed new bone formation. Group A was found to have massive bone trabeculac, marrow cavity, and lamellar bones as well as rich blood vessels and bone marrow. Group F showed appearance of woven bones. In Group VI, there appeared compact bone tissues of maturity. In the rest of the groups, there was proliferation of mesenchymal cells, and part of the materials were absorbed, and no bone was found. ALP level and calcium content were significantly higher in every compound group than in control group, and they were higher in Group A than in other experimental groups( F =6. 250, P <0.05). No significant

  12. Ketamine inhibits transcription factors activator protein 1 and nuclear factor-kappaB, interleukin-8 production, as well as CD11b and CD16 expression: studies in human leukocytes and leukocytic cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, I.D.; Hafer, G.; Menzebach, A.; Muhling, J.; Neuhauser, C.; Browning, P.; Goumon, Y.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate that ketamine exerts antiinflammatory actions. However, little is known about the signaling mechanisms involved in ketamine-induced immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ketamine on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of transcription fac

  13. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan;

    1996-01-01

    Circulating IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels both increase in puberty where growth velocity is high. The amount of free IGF-I is dependent on the IGF-I level and on the concentrations of the specific IGFBPs. Furthermore, IGFBP-3 proteolysis regulates the bioavailability of IGF......-I. However, the concentration of free IGF-I and possible IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity in puberty has not previously been studied....

  14. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling cascades for progesterone and IGF-binding protein-1 production in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto-Young, Donna; Zajac, Jacek; Liu, Hung-Ching; Rosenwaks, Zev; Poretsky, Leonid

    2003-07-01

    Insulin and IGF-I participate in the regulation of ovulation, steroidogenesis, and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) production in the ovary. Insulin and IGF-I actions in the ovary are closely related. For example, insulin may amplify IGF-I action in the ovary by up-regulating type I IGF receptors and inhibiting IGFBP-1 production, thus increasing the bioavailability of IGF-I. It is hypothesized that ovarian effects of insulin in insulin-resistant states are mediated via an insulin action pathway(s) distinct from those involved in glucose transport. We previously reported that insulin-induced stimulation of progesterone and inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in the human ovary are mediated by signaling pathways that are independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the enzyme whose activation is crucial for glucose transport. We now examined whether activation of MAPK is necessary to mediate insulin-induced or IGF-I-induced stimulation of progesterone or inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained during in vitro fertilization. Cells (0.5-1 x 10(5)) were incubated for 24 h in the presence of 0, 10, 10(2), or 10(3) ng/ml insulin or 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 ng/ml IGF-I and in the presence or absence of 1 micro M PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK. The progesterone concentration in the tissue culture medium was measured by RIA (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA), and the IGFBP-1 concentration was measured by immunoradiometric assay (DSL-7800, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX). MAPK activity was assessed using the MAPK IP-Kinase assay kit (Upstate Biotechnology, Inc., Lake Placid, NY). ANOVA was used to compare mean values of progesterone or IGFBP-1 concentrations. MAPK was stimulated by insulin up to 350% of the baseline value. Progesterone production in human granulosa cells was stimulated by insulin in a dose-related manner to 123% of the control value (P < 0.001), and IGFBP-1 production was inhibited to 25

  15. 氧化低密度脂蛋白诱导Zucker肥胖大鼠肾小球系膜细胞AP-1活性的变化%Enhancement of Ox-LDL on activator protein-1 activation in glomerular mesangial cells from Zucker rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘卫华; 丁桂霞; 陈荣华

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究氧化低密度脂蛋白(oxidized low-density lipoprotein,Ox-LDL)对体外培养的Zucker大鼠肾小球系膜细胞(glomerular mesangial cell,GMC)中核转录因子激活蛋白1(activator protein-1,AP-1)活化的影响,以及观察Ox-LDL诱导的AP-1活性的变化与Zucker大鼠鼠龄以及基因型的相关性.方法:①采用Zucker肥胖大鼠(3月龄和10月龄)及Zucker瘦型大鼠(3月龄和10月龄)的4种GMC株(O3m,O10m,L3m,L10m)进行传代培养.②利用凝胶迁移率实验(EMSA)和超迁移率实验检测不同浓度及不同时相Ox-LDL对Zucker大鼠GMC AP-1活性的影响,以及AP-1二聚体中c-jun和c-fos成分的变化.结果:①经Ox-LDL诱导后,4个组GMC内AP-1活性均较对照组明显增强(F=177.84,P<0.01);②随着Ox-LDL刺激浓度增加和时间的延长,GMC内AP-1活性相应增强,50 mg/L的Ox-LDL刺激8h时,AP-1活性强度达最高峰;③Ox-LDL主要激活AP-1二聚体成分中的c-jun;④O10m组AP-1的活性显著高于O3m组(P<0.01),L10m组AP-1的活性显著高于L3m组(P<0.01),O10m组显著高于L10m组(P<0.01),O3m组显著高于L3m组(P<0.01).结论:Ox-LDL可诱导Zucker大鼠GMC内AP-1活化,其活化方式呈时间和剂量依赖;活化强度与大鼠的基因型及鼠龄密切相关;Ox-LDL对肥胖型、老龄大鼠GMC中AP-1的激活作用更为明显.

  16. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  17. Activation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  18. Active turbulence in active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  19. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeling the benefits of getting active, such as sleeping better or getting toned. Here are 2 ways to add more activity to your life. Be active for longer each time. If you are walking 3 days a week for 30 minutes, try ...

  20. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  1. Active ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  4. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  5. Interaction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factors with the Latent Membrane Protein 1 Is Essential for Activation of NF-κB%EB病毒潜伏膜蛋白1通过结合TRAFs调控NF-κB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承兴; 李晓艳; 顾焕华; 邓锡云; 曹亚

    2001-01-01

    为了探讨EB病毒潜伏膜蛋白1(LMP1)的致瘤机制,对鼻咽癌中LMP1激活重要 的核转录因子NF-κB机制进行了研究.首先,采用免疫共沉淀-蛋白质印迹在稳定表达LMP1 的鼻咽癌细胞系HNE2-LMP1中证实LMP1与TRAF1,2,3结合形成免疫共沉淀复合物,进一步以 野生型LMP1及其三种突变体的鼻咽癌细胞系LMP1(野生型,wt)、HNE2-LMP1 del187~3 51(CTAR1缺失型)、HNE2-LMP1(1~231)(CTAR2缺失型)、HNE2-LMP1(1~187)(羧基端胞浆 区缺失型)、HNE2-pSG5(空白载体型)为材料,结合NF-κB报道基因质粒(pGL2-NF-κB -luc)的荧光素酶活性表达分析NF-κB的活性,证实:较之母细胞, 野生型LMP1活化NF- κB达13.8倍, LMP1(1~187)几乎不活化NF-κB,LMP1(1~231)活化NF-κB达4.9倍, L MP1(del187~351)活化NF-κB达9.1倍;TRAF1过表达升高LMP1(wt)及LMP1(1~231)介导的 NF-κB活性,而对LMP1(del 187~351)活化NF-κB无影响;TRAF3过表达或TRAF3负显性 突变体抑制LMP1(wt)及LMP1(1~231)介导的NF-κB活性,而不影响LMP1(del 187~351)活 化NF-κB; TRAF2过表达升高LMP1(wt)、LMP1 (1~231)及LMP1(del 187~351)介导的NF-κB活性.这些结果表明:鼻咽癌中LMP1通过TRAF1、TRAF2或TRAF3调控NF-κB,TRAF1 和TRAF3主要通过CTAR1发挥作用,TRAF2的作用主要是通过CTAR1和CTAR2介导的.%The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncopro tein causes multiple cellular changes, including activation of the NF-κB trans cription factor. To elucidate its possible mechanism, the interaction between LM P1 and the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) molecules was detected by the immunoprecipitation-Western blotting assay. Results showed tha t LMP1 was co-precipitated with TRAF1,2,3 in the LMP1-HNE2 cell line. In the m eantime, κB reporter gene analysis revealed that over expression of TRAF1 or TR AF2 augmented LMP1-mediated NF-κB activation from LMP1, suprisingly, overexpr ession of

  6. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  7. Active Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ActivePower,Inc.(NASDAQ股票代号:ACPW)成立于1992年,是一家久负盛誉的不间断电源解决方案供应商。Active Power凭借其卓越的飞轮储能技术,Cleansouce UPS系统和全系列的电源解决方案,为客户提供高效,可靠且环保的电源系统,以确保在发生电源波动时实现业务连续。

  8. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  9. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  11. Hepatoprotective Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a vital role in metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. Oxidative stress and free radicals enhance the severity of hepatic damage, which can be overcome by the antioxidant mechanism. Plant extracts can be the best source of such antioxidants and mediate hepatoprotective activity. In this chapter, high-dose paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model is discussed with explanations of biochemical and histopathological studies. PMID:26939279

  12. Glucokinase activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  13. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;

    2015-01-01

    objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the...... accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven...

  14. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  15. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  16. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  17. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  18. DAVIC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  19. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  20. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  1. Effect of the feeding system on the fatty acid composition, expression of the Δ9-desaturase, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, Gamma, and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 genes in the semitendinous muscle of light lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodellar Clementina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs are receiving increasing attention because of their beneficial effects on human health, with milk and meat products derived from ruminants as important sources of CLA in the human diet. SCD gene is responsible for some of the variation in CLA concentration in adipose tissues, and PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 genes are regulator of SCD gene. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding system on fatty acid composition, CLA content and relative gene expression of Δ9-desaturase (SCD, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, (PPARα and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP1 in Rasa Aragonesa light lambs in semitendinous muscle. Forty-four single-born male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of the feeding system, varying on an intensity gradient according to the use of concentrates: 1. grazing alfalfa, 2. grazing alfalfa with a supplement for lambs, 3. indoor lambs with grazing ewes and 4. drylot. Results Both grazing systems resulted in a higher concentration of vaccenic acid (VA, CLA, CLA/VA acid ratio, and a lower oleic content, oleic acid (C18:1/stearic acid (C18:0 ratio, PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio and SCD expression compared to other diets. In addition feeding system affected the fatty acid composition and SCD expression, possibly due to CLA concentration or the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio. Both expression of the SCD gene and the feeding system were important factors affecting CLA concentration in the animal's semitendinous muscle. PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 expression seemed to be unaffected by the feeding system. Although no significant results were found, PPARγ, PPARα and SREBP1 showed similar expression pattern as SCD. Moreover, the correlation results between SCD expression and PPARγ (p SREBP1 (p SCD expression in a different way. Conclusions The data indicated that the feeding system is the main factor

  2. Charitable activities in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailova Sevil Aydin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, found its proper reflection questions related to the issue of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Briefly described the history of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Also shown is the legal framework of charitable activities in Azerbaijan.

  3. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  4. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  5. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  6. Active commuting to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  7. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  8. Persistent active longitudes in sunspot activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S.; Usoskin, I.

    It has been recently shown that spot activity of cool stars including solar analogues, is grouped in two clearly distinguished active longitudes which are persistent within at least one starspot cycle. Solar data including positional information of individual sunspots / groups extends back for about 130 years covering 12 solar cycles. Here we present the results of our research of longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity using an analysis similar to that applied to the stars. First, we synthesized, from the actual sunspot data, the sun's light curve as if it was defined only by spots. Then solar images were calculated from this light curve, giving a natural smoothing of the spot pattern. For each Carrington rotation, longitudinal position of these smoothed spot regions was calculated. The analysis reveals the following main features: - Sunspot activity is grouped in two active longitudes (with the differential rotation taken into account) 180o apart from each other which are persistent through the entire studied period of 12 cycles, similarly to stars. - The longitude migration is determined by changing the mean latitude of sunspot activity (the Maunder butterfly) and differential rotation. - The two longitudes periodically alternate the dominant activity with about 3.7 year period implying for the existence of the Sflip-flopT phenomenon known in - starspot activity.

  9. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  10. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  11. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  12. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests. PMID:24318349

  13. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  14. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  15. USAID Activity Locatons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  16. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    of physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices......In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...

  17. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  18. Active magnetic regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  19. Physical Activity and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  20. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  1. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  2. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  3. Canonical active Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Alexander; Huffel, Helmuth; Ilijic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Active Brownian motion is the complex motion of active Brownian particles. They are active in the sense that they can transform their internal energy into energy of motion and thus create complex motion patterns. Theories of active Brownian motion so far imposed couplings between the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the system. We investigate how this idea can be naturally taken further to include also couplings to the potential energy, which finally leads to a general theory of cano...

  4. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  5. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  6. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  7. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  8. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evseeva

    2015-01-01

    fibrin clots preventing bacteria dissemination after bites of infected fleas or subcutaneous challenge is believed to be the main Y. pestis factor responsible for generalization of infectious process. Pla-mediated ability of Y. pestis for selective binding with extracellular matrix and basal membranes may promote further hydrolysis of these structures by the host’s plasmin and overcoming tissue barriers by the pathogen. Y. pestis plasminogen activator also hydrolyses C3 complement component, human antimicrobial peptide — cathelicidin LL-37 and such cytokines as tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 8 and protein 1 of monocyte chemotaxis. The main endogenic TFPI tissue factor pathway inhibitor also highly susceptible to proteolytic action of Pla, and efficiency of TFPI inactivation is much higher than efficacy of plasminogen activation. The review also debates the possibility of using Pla as a molecular target for prophylaxis and treatment of plague. 

  9. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  10. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  11. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E;

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  12. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    and instrumental actions, between human and non-human participants, and between an activity and its spatio-temporal context. The advent of pervasive technologies, where active or passive systems become embedded in our working and living spaces, from where they offer their services to us, puts the need...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  13. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  14. Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; de Araújo, V C; Chilvarquer, I

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia which were treated with condylectomy alone are presented. The first case was an adult form and the other a juvenile form. Both were classified as active by using 99Tc bone scintigraphy. Clinical and radiographic features of both cases conformed to the hemimandibular hypertrophy type. Satisfactory facial symmetry and dental occlusion were achieved. Histopathological data confirmed the activity of the articular cartilage layers. PMID:8181091

  15. Poverty And Civic Activism

    OpenAIRE

    William R. DiPietro

    2013-01-01

    This paper hypothesizes that country poverty is negatively associated with the civic activism of its citizens. It employs cross country regression analysis to test the proposition. In general, the findings of the paper lend support to the contention that greater civic activism leads to reduced poverty.Poverty is a worldwide problem. One of the possible ways that pressure can be brought to bear to change a countrys policies, institutions, attitudes, and beliefs is through civic activism and pr...

  16. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  17. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  18. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers,...

  19. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling,...

  20. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  1. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  2. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  3. Activities of the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  4. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  5. Plasminogen activation in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerkerk, Arie

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this thesis focusses on the role of the plasminogen activation system in angiogenesis and cancer. The plasminogen activation system regulates fibrinolysis and controls cell migration and invasion by plasmin-mediated matrix proteolysis. Plasmin is formed upon cleavage of the zymogen pl

  6. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  7. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  8. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  9. HYDRATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydration induced conformation and dynamic changes are followed using a variety of experimental techniques applied to hen egg white lysozyme. These changes are completed just before the onset of enzyme activity, which occurs before all polar groups are hydrated, and before monolayer coverage is attained. We suggest that these hydration induced changes are necessary for the return of enzyme activity.

  10. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  11. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  12. Active Students in Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  13. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  14. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  15. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  16. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  17. [Field Learning Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  18. Activation Force Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  19. Rainy Day Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  20. Comparison of kinetics of active tetracycline uptake and active tetracycline efflux in sensitive and plasmid RP4-containing Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedstrom, R C; Crider, B P; Eagon, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane vesicles prepared from tetracycline-sensitive cells of Pseudomonas putida took up tetracycline by an active transport system with an apparent Km of 2.5 mM and a Vmax of 50 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. In contrast, resistance determinant RP4-containing P. putida had an active high-affinity efflux system for tetracycline with a Km of 2.0 to 3.54 microM and a Vmax of 0.15 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. Thus, the efflux system of tetracycline-resistant P. putida(RP4) had an average of 1,000-fold g...

  1. GOVERNOR ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVITY LICENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslennikova L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the licensing of governor organizations activity in connection with amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation by adoption of a Federal law of 21.07.2014 N 255-FZ «On amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation, some legislative acts of the Russian Federation and on declare force Certain Provisions of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation void » and the Government Resolution adoption of the of 28.10.2014г. N 1110 «On entrepreneur activity in apartment buildings’ government licensing». The urgency of the issue of the apartment buildings licensing activity is associated with the modernization of housing and communal services and legal regulation in this area. Introduction of the governor organizations activity licensing without securing in law the concept of "governor organizations" is a significant flaw of the legislator. As a result, the author gives the concept of governor organizations based on the analysis of scientific papers and current legislation. In addition, the article analyzes the introduction of licensing control, assesses the established order of the three registers on the governor organizations activity. The presented paper examines the experience of foreign countries associated with the activities on the apartment building common property management as well, and the state control over such activity. The authors examine violations of housing legislation that may cause the governor organizations and their officials’ administrative responsibility

  2. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  3. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  4. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  5. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  6. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  7. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  8. 1985. Activity progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group

  9. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  10. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  11. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  12. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  13. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  14. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  15. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), improving the immune response ; and assisting with ... studies have started examining the factors related to long-term behavior change and increases in physical activity. ...

  17. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  18. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  19. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  20. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  1. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  2. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  3. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  4. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  5. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978

  6. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  7. Active at Any Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coordinating Committees NIDDK Advisory Council, Board of Scientific Advisors, and committees that coordinate research activities Research Areas ... the rest of the way. Even a shopping trip can be exercise because it provides a chance ...

  8. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  9. The Active Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Some asteroids eject dust, producing transient, comet-like comae and tails; these are the active asteroids. The causes of activity in this newly-identified population are many and varied. They include impact ejection and disruption, rotational instabilities, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of asteroidal ice. These processes were either unsuspected or thought to lie beyond the realm of observation before the discovery of asteroid activity. Scientific interest in the active asteroids lies in their promise to open new avenues into the direct study of asteroid destruction, the production of interplanetary debris, the abundance of asteroid ice and the origin of terrestrial planet volatiles.

  10. Activities in Teaching Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  11. Designing for Design Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sunghyun

    2009-01-01

    The area of graphic design has expanded since digital media was introduced, and it requires new creative thinking skills in the design process. This paper proposes a design process for a graphic design graduate class using activity theory as a theoretical background. This design process consists of three phases to solve the design problems within diverse design projects. Each phase was examined in terms of how the elements of activity theory could apply to the design process. As a research me...

  12. Creative activity and inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shemanov A.Yu.; Vostrov I.M.; Yegorova V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being...

  13. ACTIVITY - BASED COSTING DESIGNING

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Skibiñska; Marta Kad³ubek

    2010-01-01

    The traditional costing system sometimes does not give accurate information about the consumption of different resources and the activities of the organisation. The activity-based costing system is an information-rich costing system which is more and more necessary for the success of many European companies. Base of designing and implementation of an ABC system in the enterprises are presented in the article.

  14. TPR And TPR Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  15. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity i...

  16. Activation Energy for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1952-08-29

    The experimentally determined exponential dependence of spontaneous fission rate on Z{sup 2}/A has been used to derive an expression for the dependence of the fission activation energy on Z{sup 2}/A. This expression has been used to calculate the activation energy for slow neutron induced fission and photofission. The correlation with the experimental data on these types of fission seems to be quite good.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Grepafloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1998-01-01

    Grepafloxin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin - or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin ...

  18. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L N; Dalboge, H; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet material. The enzyme has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and is encoded by the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1

  19. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Østergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may have greater incentives to sell their stake than to intervene. We also document ...

  20. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Nenortas, Elizabeth; Burri, Christian; Shapiro, Theresa A.

    1999-01-01

    Six fluoroquinolones presently in clinical use and four investigational tetracyclic fluoroquinolones were tested for in vitro activity against bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei brucei. All compounds had measurable activity, but the tetracyclic analogs were most potent, with 50% effective concentrations in the low micromolar range. In general, trypanosomes were more susceptible than L1210 leukemia cells. Consistent with the notion that they target type II topoisomerase in trypanosomes, the f...

  1. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  2. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas...

  3. Active Noice Reduction headset

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Conventional (passive) headsets used in propeller aircrafts are reasonably good at attenuating mid to high frequency noise, but fail to achieve good attenuation in the low frequency region (below approximately 300 Hz). Active Noise Reduction (ANR) improves the low frequency attenuation by introducing an anti-noise signal creating destructive interference thus decreasing the residual noise level. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement a digital narrowband active noise reduction hea...

  4. Active social insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Røed, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The paper argues that a comprehensive activation strategy is called for - in both unemployment and disability insurance - to minimize the conflict between income insurance and work incentives and to prevent the economic crisis from causing a long-lasting decline in labor force participation. A review of recent empirical evidence, particularly from the Scandinavian countries, indicates that 'mild' activation requirements effectively counteract moral hazard problems in social insurance. The pap...

  5. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  6. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  7. Fraudulent activities in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Fábriová, Kristína

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on fraudulent activities in accounting. The aim of this thesis is to analyze current cases of accounting fraud and examine motives for committing accounting fraud, identify methods used by companies to commit accounting fraud and reasons why these fraud cases were not revealed sooner. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. First part provides theoretical introduction to the topic of fraudulent activities in accounting and describes various me...

  8. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  9. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  10. Active Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity has become a dominant feature of most American’s lives over the past quarter century. This has spurred an entire research domain straddling several different disciplines. Although model development within the field of travel behavior as a whole continues today with more momentum than ever, the focus on active mode choice has largely been overlooked and left to a small fragment of transportation and public health researchers. Research regarding active mode choice has been...

  11. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  12. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  13. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  14. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  16. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  17. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrui Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  18. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  19. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  20. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  1. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  2. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  3. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  4. Physical activity & depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiantoula E.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.

  5. Prenucleosomes and Active Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Mai T.; Fei, Jia; Ishii, Haruhiko; Kadonaga, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin consists of nucleosomes as well as nonnucleosomal histone-containing particles. Here we describe the prenucleosome, which is a stable conformational isomer of the nucleosome that associates with ~80 bp DNA. Prenucleosomes are formed rapidly upon the deposition of histones onto DNA and can be converted into canonical nucleosomes by an ATP-driven chromatin assembly factor such as ACF. Different lines of evidence reveal that there are prenucleosome-sized DNA-containing particles with histones in the upstream region of active promoters. Moreover, p300 acetylates histone H3K56 in prenucleosomes but not in nucleosomes, and H3K56 acetylation is found at active promoters and enhancers. These findings therefore suggest that there may be prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles in the upstream region of active promoters. More generally, we postulate that prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles are present at dynamic chromatin, whereas canonical nucleosomes are at static chromatin. PMID:26767995

  6. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  7. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid and solid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1978. Works in the plant are closely related to the decontamination in cooperation with specialized firms. Active operation of bituminization facility was started in June, and a total of 66 m3 of medium level waste was incorporated into bitumen by the end of 1978. The associated storage facility was in active operation since June and preliminary studies for its extension were completed. A facility was completed for the conditioning of solid wastes arising from the decontamination operation of solid wastes whch were stored under water during plant operation. (AF)

  8. Activity report CEREM 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEREM (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux) is one of the departments in CEA. The aim of this report is to outline the main developments in the department activities. It si divide din three main chapters. The first one presents the material design and processing, the researches on the energy electrochemical storage and a presentation of the robotic activities. The chapter 2 deals with the material characterization and testing. The last chapter presents the works of simulation on Material Science. The report is completed by some data on the budget and the staff. (A.L.B.)

  9. SCOR announces new activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  10. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  11. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  12. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  13. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10-5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  14. Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  15. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  16. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  17. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  18. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  19. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F;

    2012-01-01

    , such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  20. Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  1. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  2. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...

  3. An electrochemical active valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neagu, C.R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.; Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel electrochemical microactuator was developed, which operates as an active valve. The microactuator consists of an electrochemical cell and a membrane that deflects because of the pressure of oxygen gas generated by electrolysis. Relatively large pressures (up to tens of bars) can be reached w

  4. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and cost-ef

  5. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiolino, R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Nagar, NM; Bianchi, S; Boker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically 'elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtai

  6. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  7. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  8. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  9. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  10. Shark Tagging Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  11. CMMs Development Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; HU Yefa; HUANG Anyi

    2006-01-01

    The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been an important role in the digital manufacturing. This paper reviews CMM early stage development history and current activities. The authors provide some ideas about the areas that academic research can help to the CMMs development.

  12. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  13. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  14. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  15. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt

    2005-01-01

    Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  16. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  17. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M

    1994-06-01

    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  18. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  19. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  20. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  1. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  2. Planets around active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, J; Henning, T; Hatzes, A P; Pasquini, L; da Silva, L; Girardi, L; Von der Lühe, O; Dollinger, M P; Weiss, A; Biazzo, K

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of radial velocity measurements of two samples of active stars. The first sample contains field G and K giants across the Red Giant Branch, whereas the second sample consists of nearby young stars (d < 150 pc) with ages between 10 - 300 Myrs. The radial velocity monitoring program has been carried out with FEROS at 1.52 m ESO telescope (1999 - 2002) and continued since 2003 at 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope. We observed stellar radial velocity variations which originate either from the stellar activity or the presence of stellar/substellar companions. By means of a bisector technique we are able to distinguish the sources of the radial velocity variation. Among them we found few candidates of planetary companions, both of young stars and G-K giants sample.

  3. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  4. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  5. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1999, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  7. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  8. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma. PMID:15880361

  9. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  10. LANSCE Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  11. Physical activity & depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...

  12. Activity report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report of the DSIN (Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 13 chapters bearing on: (1)Nuclear safety (2) Nuclear safety organisation (3) Regulations (4) Nuclear installations inspections (5) Crisis organisation (6) Information and communication (7) International relations (8) PWR (9)Other reactors (10) Experimental reactors, laboratories and other installations (11) Fuel cycle centers (12) Radioactive wastes storages (13) Nuclear installations definitively stopped

  13. Social media and activism

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the ways in which social media and digital networks are contextualized and examined in relation to social movements and activism. A number of communicative practices that activists deploy are identified and the ways in which information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated practices are embedded in roles and functions relevant to activists and social movements are addressed giving attention to the importance of social ties and networks online and offl...

  14. Business Activity Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Frühauf, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Main focus of the thesis lies in the corporate management decision support deploying and using IT / ICT. Specific technology described is Business Activity Monitoring. The contribution of the work lies primarily in two planes. The first plane is to create as far as the most comprehensive view of the BAM. The findings are collected from different directions and areas. The first direction of research is focused on the development of Business Intelligence and description of BAM as a trend of BI,...

  15. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  16. Diamond dipole active antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, I. N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  17. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  18. Activity report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADEME means agency for defence of environment and for mastery of energy, these two aims are ADEME's mission; to serve its mission, this agency has to mobilize managers able to reduce tensions on natural resources and to limit impacts on environment; the concerned areas are transport, building, industry because of their weight in energy consumption, in pollutants emission and waste recovery. Here is the report of its activity for the year 1992

  19. Quality Of Construction Activity

    OpenAIRE

    LOREDANA VALENTINA HEDRE

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the quality works of building has a different importance because, as opposed to another activities of material productions here are not admitted bear of the quality in respect resistances, stability, durability, safeties in exploitation. The responsibility concerning assurance quality is not summed up just to the level of builders or beneficiaries, they became a national problem and last recently, European and even global issues. Implications are considered factors contributing...

  20. NEA activities in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the activities in 1994 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency including : trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and fuel cycle (data, tools, methodologies, nuclear industry and its context, fuel cycle policy, energy policy reviews), reactor safety and regulation (exchange of operating experience and human factors, accident prevention activities, severe-accident phenomenology and management, structural integrity, probabilistic safety assessment, fuel cycle safety, regulatory approaches to severe-accident issues, inspection practices), radiation protection (radiation protection today and tomorrow, application of radiation protection standards, protection of workers, international emergency exercises), radioactive waste management (the philosophical and ethical basis of disposal, safety assessment and site investigations, other radiation waste management activities), nuclear science (scientific studies, validation of working methods, the NEA data bank, projects in support of other NEA programmes), joint projects (the Rasplav project, the Halden reactor project, information system on occupational exposure, decommissioning of nuclear facilities), legal affairs (liability and nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, training seminar on nuclear law, information on nuclear law), information programme (review of Nea information programme, publications programme, a major information forum), and relations with nonmember countries (NEA relations with non-members countries, the Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States of the former Soviet Union programme of co-operation and assistance). (O.L.). 22 figs

  1. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review. PMID:26295461

  2. Active inference and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. PMID:27375276

  3. Antimicrobial activity of antiproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M

    2002-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass neutrophil elastase inhibitors have been shown to be important in the control of lung inflammation. In addition to inhibiting the enzyme neutrophil elastase, these low-molecular-mass compounds (10 kDa) have been shown to have other activities. For example, secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor/SKALP (skin-derived antileucoproteinase)/elafin have also been shown to have "defensin"-like antimicrobial activities. Indeed, these inhibitors have antimicrobial properties in vitro against bacteria, fungi and, potentially, HIV. In addition, we have shown, using an adenovirus-mediated gene transfer overexpression strategy, that elafin is also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice in vivo. The mechanism of action is currently under investigation. In addition to these direct or indirect effects on microbes, it has been shown that lipopolysaccharide is able to up-regulate SPLI production in macrophages in vitro, and that the addition of recombinant SLPI to human monocytes or the transfection of macrophages with SPLI can down-regulate pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, presumably to limit self-damaging excessive inflammation. Using viral gene transfer vectors, we are currently investigating the potential of these inhibitors in various models of inflammation in vivo. PMID:12023836

  4. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  5. Active quantum plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  6. Photodynamic activation as a molecular switch to promote osteoblast cell differentiation via AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical "molecular switch" to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470

  7. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  8. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  9. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  10. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  11. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  12. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal......In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  13. Crew Activity Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  14. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  15. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  16. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...... are conducted in three different phases corresponding to different teaching sequences During the first phase the classes are taught as they are usually taught. During the next two phases classes are taught on the basis of a common understanding of the flipped classroom teaching model obtained during a 4 day...

  17. Agrice 2002. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable raw materials derived from agricultural crops are used to manufacture bio-products in energy, chemicals and materials industries. Renewable feedstocks address a double need. On the one hand, they offer alternatives to fossil resources, and on the other hand, they are a response to today's environmental challenges: mitigation of the greenhouse affect, reduction of air, soil and water pollution, innocuousness and biodegradability of products. A new chemistry must be created. Large-scale and ongoing research work must be committed to this goal. The research effort implies active coordination of all the various actors involved - multidisciplinary research teams, agro-industrial enterprises, user industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, materials), and specific agricultural branches. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE - Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy - was established by public authorities and eight partners in France in 1994. The AGRICE consortium was renewed for six years in 2001, with a broader membership base. AGRICE now includes the following partners: - the research arms of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), and the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), - professional organisations representing producers of oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), - corporate members ATOFINA, AUTOBAR PACKAGING France, BAYER CROP SCIENCE, CERESTAR France, LIMAGRAIN Agro-Industrie, RHODIA, TOTAL FINA ELF, - the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and the Environment, - the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), - the French Agency for Innovation (ANVAR). ADEME is responsible for managing AGRICE. The consortium is involved in major international undertakings, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity, structure and Operations

  18. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  19. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  20. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  1. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  2. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  3. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  4. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  5. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  6. FY 1996 activity summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported

  7. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) work of the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam for the calendar year 1978 is reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: reactor physics, reactor engineering, FBTR construction/commissioning, reprocessing, reactor chemistry, metallurgy of reactor materials, materials science, instrumentation. The major thrust of the R and D activities is on reactor technology of fast breeders, and at present, primarily directed to the problems associated with the Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is under construction. (M.G.B.)

  8. LeActiveMath

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Christian

    2005-01-01

    LeActiveMath (Language-Enhanced, User-Adaptive, Interactive e-Learning for Mathematics) ist ein von der EU finanziertes dreijähriges Projekt (2004 - 2006), an dem sich britische, spanische, niederländische und deutsche Universitäten, Firmen und Institute beteiligen, zum Zwecke der Entwicklung und Evaluation einer innovativen Mathematik-Lernsoftware für Differentialrechnung. Diese soll sich für die Oberstufe wie auch für die ersten Semester mathematisch ausgerichteter Studiengänge eignen und s...

  9. Stellar magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stellar emission in the chromospheric Ca II H+K lines is compared with the coronal soft X-ray emission, measuring the effects of non-radiative heating in the outer atmosphere at temperatures differing two orders of magnitude. The comparison of stellar flux densities in Ca II H+K and X-rays is extended to fluxes from the transition-region and the high-temperature chromosphere. The stellar magnetic field is probably generated in the differentially rotating convective envelope. The relation between rotation rate and the stellar level of activity measured in chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal radiative diagnostics is discovered. X-ray observations of the binary λ Andromedae are discussed. The departure of M-type dwarfs from the main relations, and the implications for the structure of the chromospheres of these stars are discussed. Variations of the average surface flux densities of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle agree with flux-flux relations derived for other cool stars, suggesting that the interpretation of the stellar relations may be furthered by studying the solar analogue in more detail. (Auth.)

  10. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  11. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  12. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  13. The Active Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  14. Agrice 2001. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AGRICE was created in 1994 to support research on new renewable plant-based products other than foodstuffs, to open up new markets for agriculture, and to take action on today's environmental challenges: fighting the greenhouse effect, curbing pollution (VOCs, effluents, etc.), eco-toxics, preservation of health, and depletion of fossil energy supplies. The scope of AGRICE's activity covers primarily the industrial conversion of crop production to chemicals (lubricants, surfactants, solvents, etc.), energy (liquid and solid biofuels) and materials (agro-materials, biopolymers). AGRICE's brief is to stimulate applied technological research. The consortium first tackled work aimed at substituting plant-based products for products derived from fossil resources. This strategy has been progressively widened to take into account the inherent characteristics of plant-based products in order to meet new needs. In addition to research focusing on industrial products and processes, this action spans the study of agronomic improvements, project economics, markets, and energy and environmental assessments. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels (vehicles and non-vehicles), Biomolecules, Biomaterials), structure and Operations, and sectors of focus; 2 - the year 2001: Toward a new golden age of renewable plant based resources?, Financial Report and Applications, Noteworthy Achievements in 2001, Events in 2001, European Joint Undertakings; 3 - appendixes: Breakdown of AGRICE grants by sector 1994-2001, Financial report 1994-2001, Partners, The ADEME / AGRICE team, Projects initiated and completed in 2001

  15. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  16. Leadership Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human resource development is considered as a developed concept in HR field. It is a process for helping personnel to conduct their duties better. Most organizations tend to leadership development as a separable subject and as areas of responsibility within organization. Whereas the leadership development plans have been unsuccessful. This article aim to draw attention to the fact that leadership development is crucial in organizations. A literature review was conducted by searching journal databases, textbooks, and relevant reports. A categorization of the evidence allowed informed discussions on the key themes surrounding leadership development activities. Leadership development is caused to employees' promotion and progress via nurture of new talents, stimulus in employees by persuade to do individual development, save time and cost, and increase customers' satisfaction by relations improvement. Accordingly, the development systems can cover a wide scope in organization. They are effective to career management, training and development, performance management, strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection, and succession planning activities. Despite the need for further scientific and validated studies, organizations should be urged to devote sufficient resources and attention towards leadership development for promoting long-term survival and prosperity.

  17. Active Optics in LAMOST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Qiang Su; Xiang-Qun Cui

    2004-01-01

    Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)is one of the major national projects under construction in China. Active optics is one of the most important technologies for new large telescopes. It is used for correcting telescope errors generated by gravitational and thermal changes. Here,however, we use this technology to realize the configuration of LAMOST, -a task that cannot be done in the traditional way. A comprehensive and intensive research on the active optics used in LAMOST is also reported, including an open-loop control method and an auxiliary closed-loop control method. Another important development is in our pre-calibration method of open-loop control, which is with some new features: simultaneous calculation of the forces and displacements of force actuators and displacement actuators; the profile of mirror can be arbitrary;the mirror surface shape is not expressed by a fitting polynomial, but is derived from the mirror surface shape formula which is highly accurate; a proof is given that the solution of the pre-calibration method is the same as the least squares solution.

  18. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments - Communication from the European Commission 'Towards an Integrated Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan: Accelerating the European Energy System Transformation'; 2014 Annual Report of the Euratom Supply Agency; Report of June 2015 from the Euratom Supply Agency to the European Commission on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 59. regular session of the IAEA General Conference (Resolutions of the Conference, Measures to Strengthen International Cooperation in Nuclear, Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (GC(59)/RES/9): conventions, regulatory frameworks and supporting non-legally-binding instruments for safety, Nuclear liability, National infrastructures, Nuclear installation safety, Safe management of radioactive sources, Nuclear and radiological incident and emergency preparedness and response); Nuclear Security (GC(59)/RES/10); IAEA Treaty Event; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Inaugural Session for the 9. mandate; New signatories to the extension of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Framework Agreement; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC); 15. session of the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL); 2016 session of the International Nuclear Law Essentials (INLE)

  19. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  20. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  1. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J;

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  2. Negotiating active ageing at a Danish activity centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    aging means in the everyday live of the elderly. Active aging is formed in many arenas and takes a variety of forms with different actors focusing on physical, occupational, social and mental activity. This paper focuses on how the elderly takes part in this forming, by asking how the elderly negotiates...... produced by the EU and a Danish municipality, as well as reports and articles published by mainstream media. Results: The elderly at the activity centres perceives of active ageing differently than how it is formed in the documents explored. Active ageing is situated and contextualised in practice......, and becomes a subject of dispute when the elderly feel subjected to specific activities. In this way active ageing is negotiable, and is simultaneously internalized and rejected in the practice of the elderly at the activity centre....

  3. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  4. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus santalinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of leaf and stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae was investigated. The antibacterial activity was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Among the two extracts tested, stem bark extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the tested organisms. The stem bark extract showed maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus . The leaf extract showed maximum activity against Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Both extracts exhibited concentration dependent activity.

  5. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  6. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manne...

  7. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  8. Association of neopterin as a marker of immune system activation and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mones M. Abu Shady

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neopterin plasma concentrations in patients with active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA and correlate them with disease activity.METHODS: Sixty patients diagnosed as active JIA, as well as another 60 apparently healthy age- and gender-matched children as controls, were recruited from the Pediatrics Allergy and Immunology Clinic, Ain Shams University. Disease activity was assessed by the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score 27 (JADAS-27. Laboratory investigations were performed for all patients, including determination of hemoglobin concentration (Hgb, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and neopterin were measured.RESULTS: Significant differences were found between JIA patients and controls with regard to the mean levels of Hgb, ESR, TNF-a, IL-6, and MCP-1 (p 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that JADAS- 27 and ESR were the main variables associated with serum neopterin in JIA patients (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: The elevation of plasma neopterin concentrations in early JIA patients may indicate stimulation of immune response. Serum neopterin can be used as a sensitive marker for assaying background inflammation and disease activity score in JIA patients.

  9. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling...... and filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this....

  10. RTE - Activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This publication gathers in a single document the 2011 Activity and Sustainable development report of RTE, the Management report with the consolidated financial statements, and the Report from the chairman of the supervisory board

  11. Activity report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constituted by a public and commercial establishment, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste. This activity report presents the three missions of the ANDRA during the year 2004. The industrial mission deals with the Aube center disposal and the Manche center disposal facilities and the collection effort concerning the diffuse nuclear waste. The research mission focuses on the presentation of several topics: the repository design by studying various potential architectures, the reversibility and the safety assessment under operating conditions and the description of the behavior of repository at various space and time scales. The last mission concerns the information and the communication program. (A.L.B.)

  12. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.;

    2005-01-01

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  13. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...... came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week...

  14. Uranium management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the missions of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) has been the management of the Department's uranium materials. This mission has been accomplished through successful integration of ORO's uranium activities with the rest of the DOE complex. Beginning in the 1980's, several of the facilities in that complex have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. With the end of the Cold War, the shutdown of many other facilities is planned. As a result, inventories of uranium need to be removed from the Department facilities. These inventories include highly enriched uranium (HEU), low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). The uranium materials exist in different chemical forms, including metals, oxides, solutions, and gases. Much of the uranium in these inventories is not needed to support national priorities and programs. (author)

  15. RTE - Activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This publication gathers in a single document the 2010 Activity and Sustainable development report of RTE, the Management report with the consolidated financial statements, and the Report from the chairman of the supervisory board

  16. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  17. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  18. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  19. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  20. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  1. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  2. Report of Activity, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) - IPSN carries out research and expert studies needed in managing nuclear risk and consequences of nuclear events on population and environment, i.e. supervises the safety of installations, the prevention and study of accidents, the human health and environmental conditions, the safety of transport and has also the task of organizing the management of the crisis situations. IPSN has the mission of informing the public and participates in numerous international actions. Thus, since 1989 IPSN and its German counterpart, GRS, co-operate towards improving of the nuclear safety in Europe and developing a common approach of international issues. As acting for public authorities (government departments in charge with industry, environment, health or labor), IPSN grants technical authorizations on request of DSIN exploiters. The IPSN personnel amounts up to 1300 employees of whom around two thirds are engineers, researchers, physicians, agronomists, and veterinarians. This IPSN annual report contains in the 'Free Tribune' section two general papers entitled: 'The federalist role of research at IPSN' by Catherine Lecompte and 'The dose, a central issue in radioprotection debates' by Annie Sugier. Then five sub-reports follow: 1.The safety of nuclear facilities and radioactive wastes; 2.Crisis management; 3. The management of sensitive materials (protection and control of sensitive materials and safety analysis of the radioactive materials transport); 4.Protection of human health; 5.Environment protection. The report also presents the international activities, the cooperation IPSN/GRS, the budget, the staff and the human resource policy and the communication activity

  3. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  4. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  5. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  6. [Antibiotic activity of some fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchuk, Ia I; Tsyganenko, K S; Zaĭchenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    Biological activity of pure extracts of cultural filtrates of Aspergillus niveus 2411, Myrothecium cinctum 910, Ulocladium consortiale 960, Penicillium sp. 10-51 concerning wide spectrum of test-organisms was investigated. It was shown that the extracts had high levels of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, especially against Bacillus genus. But their activity against Gram-negative bacteria was a bit lower. On the other hand, metabolites of M. cinctum 910 and Penicillium sp. 10-51 did show the activity concerning phytopathogenic bacteria. Extracts of fungi showed fungistatic activity against yeasts, but they were not so active concerning fungal test-cultures. Extracts of A. niveus 2411, Penicillium sp. 10-51 suppressed the growth of Phoma betae. The highest level of fungistatic activity was shown by metabolites of M. cinctum 910. They showed activity against Aspergillus genus strains and phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium lactis, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:24479314

  7. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  8. Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more! Email * Zipcode Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis Physical activity plays an important role in overall well-being. If you have psoriatic arthritis, moderate exercise may offer specific benefits, including improved ...

  9. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  10. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  11. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  12. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus santalinus

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha B

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of leaf and stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) was investigated. The antibacterial activity was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Among the two extracts tested, stem bark extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the tested organisms. The stem bark extract showed maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cere...

  13. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  14. Audit Activities and Their Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hudcová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with audit activities and assurance engagements. So it deals with similar issues from Czech and international perspective. It describes the types of audit activities and assurance engagements. It also describes related legislation, standards and regulatory authorities. The work contains information about persons, who perform audit activities and assurance engagements. This thesis compares audit activities and assurance engagements. The comparison shows a great similarity. This...

  15. Organic active materials for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  16. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  17. c-Jun activation is associated with proliferation and angiogenesis in invasive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, M.M.; Greijer, A.E.; Bos, R.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2006-01-01

    c-Jun is a component of the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1), which binds and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements. Extra- or intracellular signals, including growth factors, transforming oncoproteins, and UV irradiation, stimulate phosphorylation of c-Jun at serine 63/73 and

  18. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  19. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...

  20. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  1. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  2. Report of Activity 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a report of activity of the Direction of Studies and Research of the France's Electricity Authority (Electricite de France) on 1997. It contains the following six main sections: 1. development; 2. environment; 3. development and managing of production-transport system; 4. production; 5. international relations; 6. future developments. The second section deals with the air and water quality, reduction of energy network impact on environment and the case of renewable energies. The following section is devoted to the research and development problems raised by the management of production-transport system. The section number four reports about the experience obtained in the operation of N4 stage, particularly, in the conception of REP 2000. Also mentioned are progress in the field of virtual reality used in professional formation, robot intervention in case of leaks in reactor vessel, multi-recycling of plutonium in PWR, etc. The fifth section reports about the international collaboration in the field of superconductivity, superconductor cables, combined cycles with integrated gasification of carbon and biomass and energy programs in Morocco and China. Finally, it is mentioned the launching of the Galaxie-server in charge with the documentation management of EDF

  3. Elusive Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Nagar, N M; Bianchi, S; Böker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically "elusive". X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive AGN in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 10^24 cm^-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN, the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical Narrow Line Region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30 keV bump of the X-ray background.

  4. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  5. Recent activity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  6. Script activation in lipreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, S; Rönnberg, J

    1991-01-01

    In three experiments the roles of script, basic and low-level contexts in lipreading (Abbott et al., 1985) were studied. Three scripts were used: a restaurant, a railway station, and a clothing store. Presence or absence of script headers constituted a between-subjects factor. Basic and low-level context, as well as test-sentences (referring to basic and low-level of abstraction), were within-subjects factors. Also, different kinds of working memory tests were employed to assess potentially important information-processing skills for lipreading. The results show that (a) lipreaders benefit from a compatibility between context level and sentence type, (b) the directions of inferences were asymmetric such that the basic context prevented inferences at the low-level of abstraction, but not vice versa, (c) low-level context in general was most useful for skilled lipreaders in the script group, (d) skilled lipreaders in the non-script group took most advantage of basic level sentences, and (e) working memory capacity did not prove to be important for lipreading skill. Guessing and pure lipreading control experiments established that each of these potentially confounding factors only accounted for about 5% of the lipreading performance, and thus, can not explain the obtained interactive effects between visual information conveyed by lip movements and context. Theorizing departing from prototypicality vs. script accounts of inference-making was critically evaluated, and a predictive script activation mechanism, relevant to lipreading skill, was suggested. PMID:2068548

  7. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  8. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  9. Needs assessment activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of a Transportation Management Division task (TMD), the Packaging Programs and Testing Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of some of the mid- and small-sized US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by visiting them and meeting with their transportation and packaging personnel. To date, ten DOE facilities have been visited. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that TMD has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of possible upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities.. This report summarizes the findings from visits to the following sites: Fermi National Laboratory; Argonne National Laboratory; New Brunswick Laboratory; EG and G Mound Applied Technologies; Fernald Environmental Management Project; West Valley Demonstration Project; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Brookhaven National Laboratory; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  10. RTE - activity report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE is a public company that operates, maintains and develops the largest high and very high-voltage electricity network in Europe. With its 100,000 km of lines, its 45 cross-border connections and its central geographical location, at the crossroads of European exchange, RTE has decisive assets for responding to the new economic and environmental challenges related to its activity, and for taking part actively in the construction of the internal electricity market. Since 2000, in the context of the public-service duties entrusted to it by the law, RTE has been the guarantor of the correct functioning and reliability of the French electricity system. It ensures free and equitable access to its network by all users, while respecting the code of good conduct that is checked annually by the Energy Regulatory Commission. Its income (public transmission network usage prices) and its expenditure (annual investment programme) are fixed by this regulatory authority. In accordance with the law, RTE is fully independent within the EDF group. Its status as a limited company with board of directors and supervisory board ensures its neutrality in relation to all players in the electricity market. In 2008: RTE's Turnover: euros 4,221 million, investments: euros 835 million, Employees: 8,536. This activity report presents: 1 - an interview with Dominique Maillard Chairman of the RTE Executive Board; 2 - 2008, a transitional year for RTE: overview and key figures, governance and organisation, significant events; 3 - Investments and clients, the fundamentals of RTE's assets: investing, adapting the network, ensuring the security of the system, dialogue with clients; 4 - RTE's men and women, more effective and higher added value: recruiting, preserving diversity, strengthening team spirit, supporting human resources; 5 - RTE, player and vehicle for sustainable development: a proactive commitment by RTE, participating in regional development, RTE, a socially-responsible company

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Michelia champaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Kihara, M; Omoloso, A D

    2002-12-01

    The methanol extracts of leaves, seeds, stem and root barks, stem and root heart-woods of Michelia champaca and the obtained fractions (petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol) exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Fractionation drastically enhanced the level of activity particularly in all fractions of the stem bark and dichloromethane fraction of the root bark. Some fractions of the leaves, stem and root barks demonstrated antifungal activity against some of the tested moulds. Liriodenine was the active constituent of the root bark, with a broader and, in some cases, better level of activity as compared to the standard. PMID:12490248

  12. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  13. Canonical Notch activation in osteocytes causes osteopetrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Bridgewater, David; Schilling, Lauren; Zanotti, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Activation of Notch1 in cells of the osteoblastic lineage inhibits osteoblast differentiation/function and causes osteopenia, whereas its activation in osteocytes causes a distinct osteopetrotic phenotype. To explore mechanisms responsible, we established the contributions of canonical Notch signaling (Rbpjκ dependent) to osteocyte function. Transgenics expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp1) promoter were crossed with Rbpjκ conditional mice to generate Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ) mice. These mice did not have a skeletal phenotype, indicating that Rbpjκ is dispensable for osteocyte function. To study the Rbpjκ contribution to Notch activation, Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette is placed between the Rosa26 promoter and the NICD coding sequence, were crossed with Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice and studied in the context (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ)) or not (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch)) of Rbpjκ inactivation. Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch) mice exhibited increased femoral trabecular bone volume and decreased osteoclasts and bone resorption. The phenotype was reversed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation, demonstrating that Notch canonical signaling was accountable for the phenotype. Notch activation downregulated Sost and Dkk1 and upregulated Axin2, Tnfrsf11b, and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression, and these effects were not observed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation. In conclusion, Notch activation in osteocytes suppresses bone resorption and increases bone volume by utilization of canonical signals that also result in the inhibition of Sost and Dkk1 and upregulation of Wnt signaling. PMID:26578715

  14. Human ZCCHC12 activates AP-1 and CREB signaling as a transcriptional co-activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Qian Liu; Xiang Hu; Du Feng; Shuanglin Xiang; Zhicheng He; Xingwang Hu; Jianlin Zhou; Xiaofeng Ding; Chang Zhou; Jian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Mouse zinc finger CCHC domain containing 12 gene (ZCCHC12) has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) sig-naling,and human ZCCHC12 was reported to be related to non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR).However,the details of how human ZCCHCI2 involve in the NS-XLMR still remain unclear.In this study,we identified a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the middle of human ZCCHC12 protein which is responsible for the nuclear localization.Multiple-tissue northern blot analysis indi-cated that ZCCHC12 is highly expressed in human brain.Furthermore,in situ hybridization showed that ZCCHC12 is specifically expressed in neuroepithelium of forebrain,midbrain,and diencephalon regions of mouse E10.5 embryos.Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ZCCHC12 enhanced the transcrip-tional activities of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) as a co-activator.In conclusion,we identified a new NLS in ZCCHC12 and figured out that ZCCHC12 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-1 and CREB.

  15. Danthron activates AMP-activated protein kinase and regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZHOU; Ling WANG; Xing XU; Jing CHEN; Li-hong HU; Li-li CHEN; Xu SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To discover the active compound on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and investigate the effects of the active compound 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (danthron) from the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb on AMPK-mediated lipid and glucose metabolism in vitro.Methods:HepG2 and C2C12 cells were used.Cell viability was determined using MTT assay.Real-time PCR was performed to measure the gene expression.Western blotting assay was applied to investigate the protein phosphorylation level.Enzymatic assay kits were used to detect the total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG) and glucose contents.Results:Danthron (0.1,1,and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)in both HepG2 and C2C12 cells.Meanwhile,danthron treatment significantly reduced the lipid synthesis related sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) gene expressions,and the TC and TG levels.In addition,danthron treatment efficiently increased glucose consumption.The actions of danthron on lipid and glucose metabolism were abolished or reversed by co-treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C.Conclusion:Danthron effectively reduces intracellular lipid contents and enhanced glucose consumption in vitro via activation of AMPK signaling pathway.

  16. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  17. Resources Management in Active Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  18. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  19. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  20. Atmospheric neutrino data Active-Active x Active-Sterile oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, O L G

    1998-01-01

    I summarize here the results of a global fit to the full data set corresponding to 33.0 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the active-active and active-sterile neutrinos oscillation channels to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

  1. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  2. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment. PMID:16171216

  3. Photobiological activity of furazolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furazolidone, a synthetic nitrofuran, is used in the treatment of cholera and other diseases. The photobiological activity of this drug has been investigated using Vibrio cholerae OGAWA 154 and the cholera phage PL 163/10. The phage suspension was exposed to a fluorescent daylight lamp for photodynamic studies and to a germicidal lamp for U.V.-inactivation studies. When the phage was exposed to U.V. light in the presence of furazolidone, the rate of inactivation was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of the drug, and the inactivation followed first-order reaction kinetics. The drug thus afforded pH-dependent protection for the target of U.V.-light, which was most probably the phage DNA. For any drug concentration a constant dose-reduction factor irrespective of the survival level was obtained. White light, in contrast to U.V., caused an increase in the rate of inactivation with increasing drug concentrations. Kinetic studies of this photodynamic action gave values of 8.88 x 10-5M (in phosphate buffered saline pH 7.0), and 3.97 x 10-5M (in 5 mM tris-HCl buffer pH 7.4), for the dissociation constant (Ksub(a)) of furazolidone phage complex. Varying times of pre-incubation with furazolidone before irradiation demonstrated that less than 5 minutes was required for the saturation of the target with the drug, indicating that the protein coat of the phage is highly permeable to the drug. Furazolidone therefore exhibits both a photodynamic action under visible light and a photoprotective action under U.V.-light. (U.K.)

  4. Waste safety activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety standards develop by the IAEA in the Safety Standard Series and other publication are reviewed. The Waste Safety Action plan includes: Action 1: Develop a common framework for the management and disposal of different types of radioactive waste, paying particular attention to large volumes of waste containing long-lived naturally occurring radionuclides. Action 2: Assess the safety implications of the extended storage of radioactive waste and of any future reconditioning which may be necessary and develop safety standards for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. Action 3: Promptly develop safety standards for geological disposal, addressing inter alia, issues of human intrusion, institutional control, retrievability, the content of the safety case and any implications of nuclear safeguards requirements for the design of the repositories. Action 4: Develop an internationally accepted and harmonized approach for controlling the removal of materials and sites from regulatory control. Action 5: Develop a structured and systematic programme to ensure adequate application of the Agency waste safety standards and facilitate their application in implementation of the Joint Convention. Action 6: Explore ways to ensure that information, knowledge and skills concerning radioactive waste management are made available to future generations. Action 7: Address the broader societal dimensions of radioactive waste management. Action 8: Review the new developments related to policies for the control of radioactive discharges to the environment, taking into account the availability and cost-effectiveness of discharge reduction technologies and the broader implications for radioactive waste management of reducing discharges. Action 9: Explore international mechanisms for facilitating the management of spent sealed radioactive sources. Some other activities as training courses and technical cooperation are also presented

  5. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  6. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  7. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACTIVE DENITRIFIERS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  9. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  10. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the

  11. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  12. Who Spends More: Sport-Active versus Active Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Slak Valek; Eva Podovšovnik Axelsson

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically investigated the influences of gender, age and educational level on the main motive for travel, which then explored the relationship of these influences to travel spending. Furthermore, sports-active tourists were compared with other tourists who are interested in active travel. Active traveling, in this present study, includes tourists with other main motives of traveling, but not those whose main motive is “rest and relaxation”. Slovenian tourists traveling within Slo...

  13. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  14. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  15. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  16. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin...

  17. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  18. How physical activity can work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  19. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  20. The Activity-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Michael G.; Rindt, Craig

    2008-01-01

    What is the activity-based approach (ABA) and how does it differ from the conventional trip-based model of travel behavior? From where has the activity approach evolved, what is its current status, and what are its potential applications in transportation forecasting and policy analysis. What have been the contributions of activity-based approaches to understanding travel behavior? The conventional trip-based model of travel demand forecasting (see Chapters 2 and 3) has always lacked...

  1. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are di...

  2. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  3. Active Learning for Matching Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Charlin, Laurent; Zemel, Rich; Boutilier, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Effective learning of user preferences is critical to easing user burden in various types of matching problems. Equally important is active query selection to further reduce the amount of preference information users must provide. We address the problem of active learning of user preferences for matching problems, introducing a novel method for determining probabilistic matchings, and developing several new active learning strategies that are sensitive to the specific matching objective. Expe...

  4. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  5. Template-Based Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Mogali, Jayanth Krishna; Pediredla, Adithya Kumar; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    We develop a generalized active contour formalism for image segmentation based on shape templates. The shape template is subjected to a restricted affine transformation (RAT) in order to segment the object of interest. RAT allows for translation, rotation, and scaling, which give a total of five degrees of freedom. The proposed active contour comprises an inner and outer contour pair, which are closed and concentric. The active contour energy is a contrast function defined based on the intens...

  6. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  7. THERMAL ACTIVATION OF IMMOBILIZED PAPAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Papain (Papainase, EC 3.4.22.2) was immobilized on porous silica beads by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The thermal activation of this immobilized papain in aqueous system was found at a temperature range from 50 to 90℃. The higher the temperature, the more active the immobilized papain will possess. At the same time,the durability of the immobilized papain on heating was greatly improved. The effect of additives and salts on the activity of the immobilized papain were also studied. The results showed that the additives and some of the salts studied could markedly enhance the activity of the immobilized papain at elevated temperature.

  8. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  9. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  10. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  11. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  12. Microglial control of neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eBéchade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-tuning of neuronal activity was thought to be a neuron-autonomous mechanism until the discovery that astrocytes are active players of synaptic transmission. The involvement of astrocytes has changed our understanding of the roles of non-neuronal cells and shed new light on the regulation of neuronal activity. Microglial cells are the macrophages of the brain and they have been mostly investigated as immune cells. However recent data discussed in this review support the notion that, similarly to astrocytes, microglia are involved in the regulation of neuronal activity. For instance, in most, if not all, brain pathologies a strong temporal correlation has long been known to exist between the pathological activation of microglia and dysfunction of neuronal activity. Recent studies have convincingly shown that alteration of microglial function is responsible for pathological neuronal activity. This causal relationship has also been demonstrated in mice bearing loss-of-function mutations in genes specifically expressed by microglia. In addition to these long-term regulations of neuronal activity, recent data show that microglia can also rapidly regulate neuronal activity, thereby acting as partners of neurotransmission.

  13. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  14. A prioritization of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the efforts in prioritizing the activities in the Office of Research. The purpose of this prioritization is to provide a basis on which to make management decisions. The report describes also the methodology and criteria upon which the priority rankings are based. Each activity was evaluated against four attributes. These attributes are: safety assurance, usefulness, appropriateness and resources. This report will be periodically revised to include the prioritization of new activities, deletion of completed activities and to reflect changes in budget allocations and projections. 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. Active Directory Designing, Deploying, and Running Active Directory

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Brian

    2008-01-01

    By giving you a thorough grounding in Active Directory, this bestselling book teaches you how to design, manage, and maintain an AD infrastructure, whether it's for a small business network or a multinational enterprise with thousands of resources, services, and users. The fourth edition covers Active Directory from Windows 2000 through Windows Server 2008 in an easy-to-understand narrative style.

  16. Curcumin attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Ahn, Jiyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-09-01

    Curcumin is a well-known component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa), which has been reported to prevent obesity and diabetes. However, the effect of curcumin on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin on hepatic steatosis in high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND), HFD or HFD with 0.15% curcumin (HFD+C) for 11 weeks. We found that curcumin significantly lowered the body-weight and adipose tissue weight of mice in the HFD+C group compared with the findings for the HFD group (p cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in serum were decreased, and HFD-induced impairment of insulin sensitivity was improved by curcumin supplementation (p Curcumin protected against the development of hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic fat accumulation. Moreover, curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. By contrast, curcumin suppressed the HFD-mediated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase and cluster of differentiation 36 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism via AMPK activation, suggesting its use as a therapeutic for hepatic steatosis.

  17. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  18. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  19. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  20. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The

  1. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  2. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong; ZHU Su-wen; LIU Dong-juan; LIU Guo-liang; SHAN Zhong-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes has been recognized as an organ specific autoimmune disease owing to the immune destruction of pancreatic islet β cells in genetically susceptible individuals.In both human and rodent models of type 1 diabetes, such as nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, biobreeding rats, the disease has a distinct stage characterized by immune cells infiltrating in the pancreas (insulitis).The major populations of infiltrating cells are macrophages and T lymphocytes.Therefore, immune cell infiltration of pancreatic islets may be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can specifically attract monocytes in vivo.Interferon induced protein-10 has chemoattractant effects on the activated lymphocytes.In this study, we analysed the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of mice and interferon inducible protein-10 mRNA in the pancreas of NOD mice, and discussed their possible role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.Methods The immunohistochemical method and immunoelectronmicroscopy were used to evaluate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the pancreas of NOD mice and BALB/c mice.RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon inducible protein mRNA in NOD mice.Results Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positive in the pancreas of NOD mice, whereas negative in the pancreas of BALB/C mice.RT-PCR showed that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon inducible protein-10 mRNA could be found in the pancreas of NOD mice.Immunoelectronmicroscopy demonstrated that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was produced by β cells and stored in the cytoplasm of the cells.Conclusions Pancreatic islet β cells produce monocyte chemoattractantprotein-1 in NOD mice.Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 may play an important part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes by attracting monocytes/macrophages to infiltrate pancreatic

  3. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  4. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  5. Pure spreading activation is pointless

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Berthold; Ulrik Brandes; Tobias Kötter; Martin Mader; Uwe Nagel; Kilian Thiel

    2009-01-01

    Almost every application of spreading activation is accompanied by its own set of often heuristic restrictions on the dynamics. We show that in constraint-free scenarios spreading activation would actually yield query-independent results, so that the specific choice of restrictions is not only a pragmatic computational issue, but crucially determines the outcome.

  6. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  7. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  8. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  9. Simultaneous Tracking and Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2011-01-01

    recognition, our framework performs these two tasks simultaneously. In particular, we adopt a Bayesian standpoint where the system maintains a joint distribution of the positions, the interactions and the possible activities. This turns out to be advantegeous, as information about the ongoing activities can...

  10. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods. PMID:15636189

  12. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  13. Ralleyball: A Tennis Intramural Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Stanley J.; Duncan, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Physical education teachers often look for ways to bring any activity to life and give it meaning with all-out participation from students. To showcase the talents of each sports-enthusiast-students, schools facilitate an intramural activity. The authors of this article present an intramural program titled Ralleyball, which is an ideal way to…

  14. An Interdisciplinary Concept of Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Blunden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that if Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT is to fulfil its potential as an approach to cultural and historical science in general, then an interdisciplinary concept of activity is needed. Such a concept of activity would provide a common foundation for all the human sciences, underpinning concepts of, for example, state and social movement equally as, for example, learning and personality. For this is needed a clear conception of the ‘unit of analysis’ of activity, i.e., of what constitutes ‘an activity’, and a clear distinction between the unit of analysis and the substance, i.e., ultimate reality underlying all the human sciences: artifact-mediated joint activity. It is claimed that the concept of ‘project collaboration’ – the interaction between two or more persons in pursuit of a common objective – forms such a unit of activity, the single ‘molecule’ in terms of which both sociological and psychological phenomena can be theorised. It is suggested that such a clarification of the notion of activity allows us to see how individual actions and societal activities mutually constitute one another and are each construed in the light of the other.

  15. An Application of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  16. E-Division activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics. In addition, this report describes work on accelerators, radiation damage, microwaves, and plasma diagnostics

  17. Physical activity: an unknown concept

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion.

  18. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  19. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity, or both. 2. The casual athlete: This child is interested in being active but isn't a star player and is at risk of getting discouraged in a competitive athletic environment. 3. The athlete: This child has athletic ability, is committed to a sport ...

  20. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  1. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  2. Antimicrobial activity of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, A; Mares, M; Rios, J L; Canton, E; Gobernado, M

    1987-04-01

    The antimicrobial in vitro activity of 14 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids was investigated by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods against several genera of microorganisms that included Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Lysteria, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, Shigella, Mycobacterium and Candida. Anolobine was the most active compound against grampositive bacteria with MIC90 between 12 and 50 mg/l; less active were anonaine, lysicamine and liriodenine. All the alkaloids of the noraporphine and oxoaporphine groups, with the exception of isopiline, showed activity against Mycobacterium phlei (MIC 6-25 mg/l). Candida albicans ATCC26555 was inhibited by anonaine, nornantenine and xylopine (MIC 3-12 mg/l). None of the alkaloids tested had a significant activity against gramnegative rods. The action against susceptible microorganisms was bactericidal. PMID:3615557

  3. Antiprotozoal activity of Senna racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J; Quijano, Leovigildo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto

    2007-06-13

    Methanol extracts of leaves, roots and bark of Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) were tested for antiprotozooal activity against Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of the tested extracts showed good activity against both protozoa species. Extracts from stem bark and leaves were most active, with an IC(50) of 2.10 microg/mL for Giardia intestinalis and 3.87 microg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica. Of the previously isolated compounds from Senna racemosa, the piperidine alkaloid cassine had greater activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC(50) of 3.28 microg/mL and chrysophanol, a 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, was the most active agent against Entamoeba histolytica, with an IC(50) of 6.21 microg/mL.

  4. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  5. Advances on Active Tectonics Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Chen Qifu; Li Juan

    2001-01-01

    The tectonic movement at human scale has not been fully understood yet, especially for active tectonics, although it is the basis to study natural hazards and environmental variations. Many national and international scientific plans related closely to active tectonics research have been made in the past ten years. This paper briefly summarized the background of the undertaking of active tectonics research, its advances and existing problems, and the key points in its future studies are also pointed out. The emerging of new technologies like the Earth Observing Sys tem, Digital Seismology and so on provides unusual opportunities for tectonic research. It is emphasized, however, that careful analyses and building up of new theoretical frame are sill the key problems for studies of active tectonics, especially for active tectonics in China' s conti nent.

  6. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  7. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2014-01-01

    differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said...

  8. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student a...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed.......Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...

  9. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  10. Structural basis of transcription activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Ebright, Richard H

    2016-06-10

    Class II transcription activators function by binding to a DNA site overlapping a core promoter and stimulating isomerization of an initial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter closed complex into a catalytically competent RNAP-promoter open complex. Here, we report a 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of an intact bacterial class II transcription activation complex. The structure comprises Thermus thermophilus transcription activator protein TTHB099 (TAP) [homolog of Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP)], T. thermophilus RNAP σ(A) holoenzyme, a class II TAP-dependent promoter, and a ribotetranucleotide primer. The structure reveals the interactions between RNAP holoenzyme and DNA responsible for transcription initiation and reveals the interactions between TAP and RNAP holoenzyme responsible for transcription activation. The structure indicates that TAP stimulates isomerization through simple, adhesive, stabilizing protein-protein interactions with RNAP holoenzyme. PMID:27284196

  11. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  12. Activated and non-activated dephasing in a spin bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze different decoherence processes in a system coupled to a bath. Apart from the well known standard dephasing mechanism which is temperature dependent an alternative mechanism is presented, the spin-swap dephasing which does not need initial bath activation and is temperature independent. We show that for dipole interaction in the weak coupling regime the separation of time scales between system and bath can not produce pure dephasing, the process being accompanied by dissipation. Activated and non-activated dephasing processes are analyzed in a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center.

  13. Active array design for FAME: Freeform Active Mirror Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskó, Attila; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Agócs, Tibor; Venema, Lars; Hugot, Emmanuel; Schnetler, Hermine; Bányai, Evelin

    2014-07-01

    In this paper a status report is given on the development of the FAME (Freeform Active Mirror Experiment) active array. Further information regarding this project can be found in the paper by Venema et al. (this conference). Freeform optics provide the opportunity to drastically reduce the complexity of the future optical instruments. In order to produce these non-axisymmetric freeform optics with up to 1 mm deviation from the best fit sphere, it is necessary to come up with new design and manufacturing methods. The way we would like to create novel freeform optics is by fine tuning a preformed high surface-quality thin mirror using an array which is actively controlled by actuators. In the following we introduce the tools deployed to create and assess the individual designs. The result is an active array having optimal number and lay-out of actuators.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Bernard, E M; Sadownik, A; Regen, S L; Armstrong, D

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and fungi. Some had little or no hemolytic activity. The hydrophobicity of the sterol backbone and the length and the cationic charge of the side chains appeared to be critical determinants of activity. One of the squalamine mimics, SM-7, was bactericidal against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and S. aureus; its activity was decreased by divalent or monovalent cations and by bovine serum albumin. Subinhibitory concentrations of SM-7 markedly enhanced the antimicrobial activity of rifampin against gram-negative rods. These results suggest that the compounds may disrupt an outer membrane of gram-negative rods. Squalamine mimics are a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The antagonism of their activity by serum and albumin and their hemolytic properties may limit their use as systemic agents. The squalamine mimics, because of their potencies, broad spectra of antimicrobial activity, and potential for systemic toxicity, appear to be good candidates for development as topical antimicrobial agents. PMID:9210661

  15. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B; Robledo, S; Arango, G J; Deharo, E; Aragón, R; Muñoz, V; Callapa, J; Lobstein, A; Anton, R

    2001-12-01

    In our search for therapeutical alternatives for antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 44 plants from western Colombia upon ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic considerations. Polar and apolar extracts of these species were examined for antimalarial activity using in vitro tests with two clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity were determined in vitro using promastigote and amastigote forms of several strains of Leishmania sp. and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, the 15 following species showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro: Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Campnosperma panamense, Conobea scoparioides, Guarea polymera, Guarea guidonia, Guatteria amplifolia, Huberodendron patinoi, Hygrophila guianensis, Jacaranda caucana, Marila laxiflora, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parviflora, Protium amplium, Swinglea glutinosa and Tabernaemontana obliqua. Cytotoxicity was assessed in U-937 cells and the ratio of cytotoxicity to antiprotozoal activity was determined for the active extracts. Ten extracts from eight species showed selectivity indexes > or = 10. Among the extracts that showed leishmanicidal activity, the methylene chloride extract of leaves from C. scoparioides showed a selectivity index in the same range that the one of the Glucantime control. Several of the active leishmanicidal plants are traditionally used against leishmaniasis by the population of the concerned area. PMID:11694364

  16. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon. PMID:24898563

  17. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cells continuously produce free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a part of metabolic processes. Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. Also, anaerobic physical activity and oxidative stress are interrelated because the intense anaerobic activity leads to damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in muscle cells and blood. Complex system of antioxidant defense, which has the enzymatic and non-enzymatic part, has a role in protecting tissues from excessive oxidative damage. Most of the research conducted so far about the impact of various forms of physical activity on levels of oxidative stress is confirmed by changes in biomarkers that indicate lipid peroxidation and proteins modification. Untrained persons, as opposed to trained, are more susceptible to major changes in the body caused by oxidative stress during physical activity. The results of researches have shown that there are no significant differences between the genders in the level of oxidative stress during physical activity and response to antioxidant supplementation possibly applied. It is interesting that, despite of numerous studies, the exact location of oxidative stress origin during physical activity has not been reliably established. In addition, research results provide insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of using antioxidant supplementation to increase the defense against oxidative stress. It is necessary further investigation about the redox status and oxidative stress during physical activity in adolescent athletes.

  18. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  19. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  20. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  1. Activity Cycle of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. J. Li; Q. X. Li; P. X. Gao; J. Mu; H. D. Chen; T. W. Su

    2007-06-01

    Long-term variation in the distribution of the solar filaments observed at the Observatorie de Paris, Section de Meudon from March 1919 to December 1989 is presented to compare with sunspot cycle and to study the periodicity in the filament activity, namely the periods of the coronal activity with the Morlet wavelet used. It is inferred that the activity cycle of solar filaments should have the same cycle length as sunspot cycle, but the cycle behavior of solar filaments is globally similar in profile with, but different in detail from, that of sunspot cycles. The amplitude of solar magnetic activity should not keep in phase with the complexity of solar magnetic activity. The possible periods in the filament activity are about 10.44 and 19.20 years. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 10.44 years is statistically significant during the whole consideration time. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 19.20 years is under the 95% confidence spectrum during the whole consideration time, but over the mean red-noise spectrum of = 0.72 before approximate Carrington rotation number 1500, and after that the filament activity does not statistically show the period. Wavelet reconstruction indicates that the early data of the filament archive (in and before cycle 16) are more noiseful than the later (in and after cycle 17).

  2. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaycev V.P.; Manucharyan S.V.; Kramskoy S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of acti...

  3. Activation and proteolytic activity of the Treponema pallidum metalloprotease, pallilysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Houston

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum is a highly invasive pathogen that undergoes rapid dissemination to establish widespread infection. Previous investigations identified the T. pallidum adhesin, pallilysin, as an HEXXH-containing metalloprotease that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage and degrades laminin and fibrinogen. In the current study we characterized pallilysin's active site, activation requirements, cellular location, and fibrin clot degradation capacity through both in vitro assays and heterologous treponemal expression and degradation studies. Site-directed mutagenesis showed the pallilysin HEXXH motif comprises at least part of the active site, as introduction of three independent mutations (AEXXH [H¹⁹⁸A], HAXXH [E¹⁹⁹A], and HEXXA [H²⁰²A] abolished pallilysin-mediated fibrinogenolysis but did not adversely affect host component binding. Attainment of full pallilysin proteolytic activity was dependent upon autocatalytic cleavage of an N-terminal pro-domain, a process which could not occur in the HEXXH mutants. Pallilysin was shown to possess a thrombin cleavage site within its N-terminal pro-domain, and in vitro studies confirmed cleavage of pallilysin with thrombin generates a truncated pallilysin fragment that has enhanced proteolytic activity, suggesting pallilysin can also exploit the host coagulation process to facilitate protease activation. Opsonophagocytosis assays performed with viable T. pallidum demonstrated pallilysin is a target of opsonic antibodies, consistent with a host component-interacting, surface-exposed cellular location. Wild-type pallilysin, but not the HEXXA mutant, degraded fibrin clots, and similarly heterologous expression of pallilysin in the non-invasive spirochete Treponema phagedenis facilitated fibrin clot degradation. Collectively these results identify pallilysin as a surface-exposed metalloprotease within T. pallidum that possesses an HEXXH active site motif and requires autocatalytic or host

  4. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  5. InterActive: Inter-Layer Activeness Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Lingxi; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Jingdong; Yuille, Alan; TIAN Qi

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of computer vision tasks can be tackled with deep features, which are the intermediate outputs of a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network. Despite the astonishing performance, deep features extracted from low-level neurons are still below satisfaction, arguably because they cannot access the spatial context contained in the higher layers. In this paper, we present InterActive, a novel algorithm which computes the activeness of neurons and network connections. Activenes...

  6. Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kazuki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsumura, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakao, Saya [Department of Environmental & Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan); Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Statins induce PPARγ activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statin-induced PPARγ activation is mediated by COX-2 expression. • Statins suppress cell migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statins inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by PPARγ activation. • Fluvastatin suppress the progression of atherosclerosis and induces PPARγ activation in the aorta of apoE-deficient mice. - Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects

  7. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  8. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  9. Leisure activities, time and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to explore the relationships between leisure activities and the environment. Most research on leisure is unrelated to environmental issues, but when this research is “read” through environmental “glasses”, it provides relevant inputs for environmental studies....... The paper thus investigates the leisure literature in order to identify some of the environmentally interesting trends in the development of leisure activities. As leisure is usually conceived in terms of a specific segment of time or in terms of a certain selection of activities, the paper focuses on time...

  10. Organelle morphogenesis by active remodeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, N; Rao, Madan; Kumar, P B Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular organelles are subject to a steady flux of lipids and proteins through active, energy consuming transport processes. Active fission and fusion are promoted by GTPases, e.g., Arf-Coatamer and the Rab-Snare complexes, which both sense and generate local membrane curvature. Here we investigate through Dynamical Triangulation Monte Carlo simulations, the role that these active processes play in determining the morphology and compositional segregation in closed membranes. Our results suggest that the ramified morphologies of organelles observed in-vivo are a consequence of driven nonequilibrium processes rather than equilibrium forces.

  11. An enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovod, L.V.; Dalboge, H; Andersen, L N; Kauppinen, M.; Christgan, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, which enzyme: a) is encoded by the DNA sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 1 or a sequence homologous thereto encoding a polypeptide with RGase activity, b) has the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 2 or an analogue thereof, c) is reactive with an antibody raised against the enzyme encoded by the DNA sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 1, d) has a pH optimum above pH 5, and/or e) has a relative activity of at least 30t a pH in the range of 5.5-6.5. T...

  12. The Leadership Challenge Activities Book

    CERN Document Server

    Kouzes, James M; Biech, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ACTIVE Learning for Exemplary Leaders. The best leaders are the best learners. This evidence-based truth has been a foundational principle of The Leadership Challenge since it was first published nearly twenty-five years ago. In this new work, bestselling Leadership Challenge authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner team up with experiential learning expert Elaine Biech to bring today's leaders over 100 engaging activities designed to expand and accelerate their leadership development efforts. Grounded in The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® model, The Leadership Challenge Activities Book in

  13. Solar activity and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczeklik, E; Mergentaler, J; Kotlarek-Haus, S; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M; Kucharczyk, J; Janus, W

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between the incidence of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, the solar activity and geomagnetism in the period 1969-1976 was studied, basing on Wrocław hospitals material registered according to WHO standards; sudden death was assumed when a person died within 24 hours after the onset of the disease. The highest number of infarctions and sudden deaths was detected for 1975, which coincided with the lowest solar activity, and the lowest one for the years 1969-1970 coinciding with the highest solar activity. Such an inverse, statistically significant correlation was not found to exist between the studied biological phenomena and geomagnetism. PMID:6851574

  14. Stresslets induced by active swimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Active particles disturb the fluid around them as force dipoles, or stresslets, which govern their collective dynamics. Unlike swimming speeds, the stresslets of active particles are rarely determined due to the lack of a suitable theoretical framework for arbitrary geometry. We propose a general method, based on the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flows, to compute stresslets as integrals of the velocities on the particle's surface, which we illustrate for spheroidal chemically-active particles. Our method will allow tuning the stresslet of artificial swimmers and tailoring their collective motion in complex environments.

  15. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  16. Activated protein C modulates the proinflammatory activity of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Matsumoto,1,2* Yuki Matsushima,1* Masaaki Toda,1 Ziaurahman Roeen,1 Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza,1,5 Josephine A Hinneh,1 Etsuko Harada,1,3 Taro Yasuma,4 Yutaka Yano,4 Masahito Urawa,1,5 Tetsu Kobayashi,5 Osamu Taguchi,5 Esteban C Gabazza1 1Department of Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, 2BONAC Corporation, BIO Factory 4F, Fukuoka, 3Iwade Research Institute of Mycology, 4Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial activity of activated protein C in allergic diseases including bronchial asthma and rhinitis. However, the exact mechanism of action of activated protein C in allergies is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that pharmacological doses of activated protein C can modulate allergic inflammation by inhibiting dendritic cells. Materials and methods: Dendritic cells were prepared using murine bone marrow progenitor cells and human peripheral monocytes. Bronchial asthma was induced in mice that received intratracheal instillation of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. Results: Activated protein C significantly increased the differentiation of tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the secretion of type I interferons, but it significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in myeloid dendritic cells. Activated protein C also inhibited maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Activated protein C-treated dendritic cells were less effective when differentiating naïve CD4 T-cells from Th1 or Th2 cells, and the cellular effect of activated protein C was mediated by its receptors. Mice that received adoptive transfer of activated protein C

  17. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow. (paper)

  18. Be active – eat well

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The campaign was held from 25 to 29 May 2009, and was organised by the Medical Service jointly with the Restaurants Supervisory Committee, CERN Management, the Staff Association and CHIS, with the active support of CERN restaurants.

  19. Sustainability of natural movement activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Metzgar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a focus on reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings as a means of increasing their sustainability. As part of this trend, various health clubs and fitness centers have been designed to lower consumption of resources such as electricity and water. However, energy consumption is just one part of sustainability, with human health and economic health also paramount. When all components of sustainability are analyzed, other forms of physical activity may possess higher levels of sustainability than traditional gym exercise. Natural movement activity consists of outdoor activity that replicates movements performed by ancient humans during the Paleolithic era. A full analysis of sustainability shows that natural movement activity consumes fewer resources and provides unique psychological and physical benefits compared with traditional indoor exercise.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  1. Work activities within sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  2. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  3. How Active Is Your Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > How Active is ...

  4. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  5. Exploring neuronal activity with photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Information coding * Optical recordings of neuronal activity * Functional organization of the cortex at the level of a cortical column * Microarchitecture of a cortical column * Dynamics of neuronal populations * Outlook * Bibliography

  6. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  7. Autocatalytic activation of influenza hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong H; Goulian, Mark; Boder, Eric T

    2006-12-01

    Enveloped viruses contain surface proteins that mediate fusion between the viral and target cell membranes following an activating stimulus. Acidic pH induces the influenza virus fusion protein hemagglutinin (HA) via irreversible refolding of a trimeric conformational state leading to exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides on each trimer subunit. Herein, we show that cells expressing fowl plague virus HA demonstrate discrete switching behavior with respect to the HA conformational change. Partially activated states do not exist at the scale of the cell, activation of HA leads to aggregation of cell surface trimers, and newly synthesized HA refold spontaneously in the presence of previously activated HA. These observations imply a feedback mechanism involving self-catalyzed refolding of HA and thus suggest a mechanism similar to the autocatalytic refolding and aggregation of prions.

  8. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Sônia Pereira; Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2006-01-01

    Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showe...

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia Pereira Leite; Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira; Paloma Lys de Medeiros; Roberta Maria Pereira Leite; Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima; Haroudo Satiro Xavier; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

    2006-01-01

    Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which sh...

  11. Antioxidant activity of polyaniline nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Well-confined uniform polyaniline (PANT) nanofibers were synthesized by using photo-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different dopant acids, and the radical scavenging ability of the produced PANI nanofibers was determined by the DPPH assay. It was found that the antioxidant activity of PANI nanofibers was higher than conventional PANI,and increased with decreasing of averaged diameter of the nanofibers. The enhanced antioxidant activity was concerned with increased surface area of PANI nanofibers.

  12. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Cheng-Ye; Middlestadt Susan E; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a...

  13. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  14. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  15. Citizen participation in community activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnarová, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis on the Citizen participation in community activities deals with the applicable legislation of the forms of the citizen participation in community activities and afterwards it evaluates the system of the citizen participation in governance in the city of Louny and gives proposals and recommendations for higher extent of the citizen participation. The first chapter comprises a legal entity status of municipalities, their scope of authority and characteristic of particular a...

  16. FAME: Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Agocs, Tibor; Challita, Zalpha; Jasko, Attila; Kroes, Gabby; Banyai, Evelin; Miller, Chris; Taylor, William; Schnetler, Hermine; Venema, Lars

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses the development of a demonstrator freeform active mirror for future astronomical instruments both on Earth and in space. It consists of a system overview and progress in various areas of technology in the building blocks of the mirror: an extreme freeform thin face sheet, an active array, design tools and the metrology and control of the system. The demonstrator aims to investigate the applicability of the technique in high end astronomical systems, also for space and cryogenically.

  17. Eosinophilic activation in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, D. Y.; Götz, M.; Eichler, I; Urbanek, R

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil is a potent contributor to pulmonary destruction in cystic fibrosis. Since eosinophils also possess destructive potential the involvement of eosinophils in cystic fibrosis has been investigated. METHODS--Eosinophil numbers and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of eosinophil activation, were determined in the serum of 42 patients with cystic fibrosis and in the sputum of 10 of them. To determine neutrophil activation levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO...

  18. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    Lövgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  19. Activity in PythonPDEVS

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tendeloo Yentl; Vangheluwe Hans

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an activity-enhanced version of PythonPDEVS, a Parallel DEVS simulator. PythonPDEVS supports both sequential and distributed simulation. Both sequential and distributed variants of PythonPDEVS exploit information about computational activity to reduce simulation time. DEVS models can be augmented by the user with domain-specific information about computational load. This information is used by the simulator to improve performance.

  20. Population Aging and Inventive Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas; Litina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel of 33 OECD countries over the period 1960-2012. The increasing part of the hump captures the awareness that population aging requires inventive activity to guarantee current and future standards of living. The decreasing part reflects the tendency of aging societies to lose dynamism and the w...