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Sample records for activator inhibitor type-1

  1. Relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in Turkish women

    Merih Ozgen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The development of osteoporosis is associated with several risk factors, such as genetic structures that affect bone turnover and bone mass. The impact of genetic structures on osteoporosis is not known. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 regulates the bone matrix and bone balance. This study assessed the correlation between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphisms and osteoporosis in a population of Turkish women. METHODS: A total of 195 postmenopausal female patients who were diagnosed with osteoporosis (Group I based on bone mineral density measurements via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and 90 females with no osteoporosis (Group II were included in this study. Correlations between PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphisms and osteoporosis were investigated through the identification of PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism genotypes using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the genotype and allele frequency of 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 polymorphisms were observed between the two groups, and both groups exhibited the most frequently observed 4G5G genotype. CONCLUSION: No correlation between the development of osteoporosis in the female Turkish population and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene polymorphisms was observed.

  2. Overexpression of hepatic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 mRNA in rabbits with fatty liver

    Jian-Gao Fan; Liang-Hua Chen; Zheng-Jie Xu; Min-De Zeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 ( PAI-I ), an approximately Mr 50000 glycoprotein, is the major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators. It is not only the priming factor for atherosclerosis and coronary thrombosis[1-3] , but also participates in the genesis of chronic hepatitis and liver fibrosis[4-11] . However, there has been no available report yet about the research of hepatic PAl-1 gene expression in hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. The present study aimed to explore the change of hepatic PAl-1 mRNA and its plasma activity by means of animal model.

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

    Jeon Hyejin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA, which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles. Results The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 1/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 interacts with alpha3 subunit of proteasome and modulates its activity.

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Osinska, Magdalena; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S

    2011-02-25

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a multifunctional protein, is an important physiological regulator of fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix homeostasis, and cell motility. Recent observations show that PAI-1 may also be implicated in maintaining integrity of cells, especially with respect to cellular proliferation or apoptosis. In the present study we provide evidence that PAI-1 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity. First, by using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the α3 subunit of proteasome directly interacts with PAI-1. Then, to ensure that the PAI-1-proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-1 antibodies. Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-1-proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. Both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern but also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. Furthermore, PAI-1 induced formation of aggresomes freely located in endothelial cytoplasm. Increased PAI-1 expression abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and pd2EGFP-N1 and prevented degradation of p53 as well as IκBα, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting.

  5. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Interacts with α3 Subunit of Proteasome and Modulates Its Activity*

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Osinska, Magdalena; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a multifunctional protein, is an important physiological regulator of fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix homeostasis, and cell motility. Recent observations show that PAI-1 may also be implicated in maintaining integrity of cells, especially with respect to cellular proliferation or apoptosis. In the present study we provide evidence that PAI-1 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity. First, by using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the α3 subunit of proteasome directly interacts with PAI-1. Then, to ensure that the PAI-1-proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-1 antibodies. Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-1-proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. Both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern but also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. Furthermore, PAI-1 induced formation of aggresomes freely located in endothelial cytoplasm. Increased PAI-1 expression abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-1 and pd2EGFP-N1 and prevented degradation of p53 as well as IκBα, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting. PMID:21135093

  6. Interaction of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 and Proteasome Subunit, Beta Type 1

    JingFAN; Yu-QingZHANG; PingLI; MinHOU; LiTAN; XiaWANG; Yun-SongZHU

    2004-01-01

    The apoptosis protection by plasminogen activator inhibitor-2(PAI-2) is dependent on a 33 amino acid fragment between helix C and D of PAI-2 which is probably due to the interaction of PAI-2 with unknown intracellular proteins. In this study, we used the fragment between helix C and D of PAI-2 as bait to screen a HeLa cell cDNA library constructed during apoptosis in a yeast two-hybrid system and retrieved a clone encoding 241 amino acids of proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type 1(PSMβ1) which plays important roles in NF-κB activation. GST-pulldown experiments confirmed the interaction between PAI-2 and PSMβ1 in vitro. These data suggest that the antiapoptosis activity of PAI-2 is probably related to its interation with PSMβ1.

  7. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element.

    Frederick M Stanley

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter.

  8. Regulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in cultured rat Sertoli and Leydig cells

    刘以训; 杜群; 周红明; 刘奎; 胡召元

    1996-01-01

    New data are provided to show that (i) rat Sertoli cells produce two types of plasminogen activators, tissue type (tPA) and urokinase type (uPA), and a plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1); (ii) both tPA (but not uPA) and PAI-1 secretion in the culture are modified by FSH, forskolin, dbcAMP, GnRH, PMA and growth factors (EGF and FGF), but not by hCG and androstenedione (△4); (iii) in vitro secretion of tPA and PA-PAI-1 complexes of Sertoli cells are greatly enhanced by presence of Leydig cells which produce negligible tPA but measurable PAI-1 activity;(iv) combination culture of Sertoli and Leydig cells remarkably increases FSH-induced PAI-1 activity and decreases hCG- and forskolin-induced inhibitor activity as compared with that of two cell types cultured alone. These data suggest that rat Sertoli cells, similar to ovarian granulosa cells, are capable of secreting both tPA and uPA, as well as PAI-1. The interaction of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells is essential for the cells to response to

  9. Lack of association between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G polymorphism and osteoarthritis.

    Bayram, Banu; Sayin, Emrah; Erkasap, Nilüfer; Onlü, Harun; Ozkurt, Mete; Sahin, Fezan; Türkoğlu, Züleyha

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in Turkish osteoarthritis patients to determine the frequency of 4G/5G polymorphism genotypes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene and to examine the role of this polymorphism in osteoarthritis development. Genomic DNA obtained from 200 persons (140 patients with osteoarthritis and 60 healthy controls) was used in the study. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using 4G allele- and 5G allele-specific primers. Polymerase chain reaction products were assessed with CCD camera by being exposed to 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. No statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to genotype distribution was found (P > 0.05) in the study. The 4G allele frequency was indicated as 44% and 5G allele was as 56% in patients, whereas this was 45-55% in the control group. This study has established that 4G/5G polymorphism genotypes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene do not play a role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Turkish population.

  10. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis and the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are both informative prognostic markers in breast cancer. In cell cultures and in animal model systems, PAI-1 has a proangiogenic effect. To evaluate the interrelationship of angiogenesis and the PAI-1 level in b...... and the Chalkley count are independent prognostic markers for recurrence-free survival in patients with primary breast cancer, suggesting that the prognostic impact of PAI-1 is not only based on its involvement in angiogenesis.......Tumour angiogenesis and the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are both informative prognostic markers in breast cancer. In cell cultures and in animal model systems, PAI-1 has a proangiogenic effect. To evaluate the interrelationship of angiogenesis and the PAI-1 level...... in breast cancer, we have evaluated the prognostic value of those factors in a total of 228 patients with primary, unilateral, invasive breast cancer, evaluated at a median follow-up time of 12 years. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34 and quantitated by the Chalkley...

  11. Secretion of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 by Cultured Ovarian Cells Obtained From Gonadotropin-treated Immature Rats

    刘以训; 冯强; 彭晓蓉; Tor Ny

    1994-01-01

    It is demonstrated that i) theca-interstitial compartment synthesizes the majority ofplasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in the ovary before ovulation,and the follicular wall maytherefore serve as a specific barrier with the presence of PAI-1 activity to prevent the secretion of tPA intothe extrafollicular compartments;ii) granulosa cells secrete only a small amount of ovarian PAI-1,butsynthesize the most of tissue-type plasminogen activator tPA involved in the processes leading to ovula-tion;iii) since only matured cumulus-oocyte complexes secrete a large amount of tPA and PAI-1,bothtPA and PAI-1 activity in the conditioned medium may be used as reliable markers for evaluating oocytequality for in vitro fertilization.

  12. Copper(II) ions increase plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 dynamics in key structural regions that govern stability

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S;

    2016-01-01

    demonstrated that Cu(II) and other transition metals modulate the stability of PAI-1, exhibiting effects that are dependent on the presence or absence of the somatomedin B (SMB) domain of VN. The study presented here dissects the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the destabilizing effects of Cu...... effects are not a result of coordination of Cu(II) to these histidine residues. Finally, addition of Cu(II) results in an acceleration of the local unfolding kinetics of PAI-1 presumed to be on pathway to the latency conversion. The effect of ligands on the dynamics of PAI-1 adds another intriguing......Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates the fibrinolysis pathway by inhibiting the protease activity of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 works in concert with vitronectin (VN), an extracellular protein that aids in localization of active PAI-1 to tissues. The Peterson laboratory...

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression

    叶平; 胡晓晖; 刘永学; 赵亚力

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activators on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and elucidate a possible mechanism.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were obtained from normal fetus, and cultured conventionally. Then the HUVEC were exposed to fatty acids and prostaglandin J2 in varying concentrations with fresh media. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of PPAR and PAI-1 in HUVECs. Transient co-transfection of PAI-1 promoter and PPARα gene or PPARγ gene to ECV304 was performed.Results PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ mRNA in HUVECs were detected by RT-PCR. Treatment of HUVECs with PPARα and PPARγ activators-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and prostaglandin J2, but not with stearic acid could augment PAI-I mRNA expression and protein secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Proportional induction of PAI-1 promoter activity was observed through increasing amounts of PPARα DNA in HUVECs through a transient gene transfection assay, although the mRNA expression of the 3 subtypes of PPAR with their activators were not changed compared with controls.Conclusions HUVECs express PPARs. PPARs activators may increase PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells (EC). Although PPARs expression was not enhanced after being stimulated by their activators in EC, the functionally active PPARα is probably involved in regulating PAI-1 expression in EC.

  14. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K.R.; Vinberg, N;

    2001-01-01

    Using an invasive technique, we studied the mean transit time, the net quantitative turnover rate, and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in healthy young volunteers in the fasting, steady state. Blood...

  15. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K;

    2001-01-01

    -sensitive retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a shift to a permissive temperature induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. In U2OS cells stably expressing an E2F1-estrogen receptor chimeric protein that could be activated by tamoxifen, PAI-1 gene transcription was markedly reduced by tamoxifen even in the presence of cycloheximide...

  16. Regulation of programmed cell death by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)

    Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed

    2008-01-01

    PA) observed in tumours; however, several lines of evidence suggest that PAI-1 may contribute directly to the pathology of the disease. PAI-1 has been reported to have an effect on most of the basic cellular processes including cell adhesion, cell migration, cell invasion, and cell proliferation and increasing...... numbers of reports suggest that PAI-1 also can regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in cancer cells and normal cells. A number of reports suggest that PAI-1 can inhibit PCD through its pro-adhesive/anti-proteolytic property whereas other reports suggest that PAI-1 induces PCD through its anti......-adhesive property.Furthermore,it has been suggested that PAI-1 can either induce or inhibit PCD though activation of cell signalling pathways.This review will focus on the regulation of programmed cell death by PAI-1 in both normal cells and cancer cells....

  17. Lersivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity against drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Corbau, Romuald; Mori, Julie; Phillips, Chris; Fishburn, Lesley; Martin, Alex; Mowbray, Charles; Panton, Wendy; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Thornberry, Adele; Ringrose, Heather; Knöchel, Thorsten; Irving, Steve; Westby, Mike; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2010-10-01

    The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A major problem with the first approved NNRTIs was the emergence of mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), in particular K103N and Y181C, which led to resistance to the entire class. We adopted an iterative strategy to synthesize and test small molecule inhibitors from a chemical series of pyrazoles against wild-type (wt) RT and the most prevalent NNRTI-resistant mutants. The emerging candidate, lersivirine (UK-453,061), binds the RT enzyme in a novel way (resulting in a unique resistance profile), inhibits over 60% of viruses bearing key RT mutations, with 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) within 10-fold of those for wt viruses, and has excellent selectivity against a range of human targets. Altogether lersivirine is a highly potent and selective NNRTI, with excellent efficacy against NNRTI-resistant viruses.

  18. Inhibiting interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α does not reduce induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 by endotoxin in rats in vivo

    Emeis, J.E.; Hoekzema, R.; Vos, A.F. de

    1995-01-01

    In experimental animals and humans, intravenous (IV) injection of endotoxin induces large increases in circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of blood fibrinolysis. A similar increase is seen after the injection of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or of tumor necrosis fact

  19. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    Lampelj Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta modulates plasminogen activator activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression in human keratinocytes in vitro.

    Wikner, N E; Elder, J T; Persichitte, K A; Mink, P; Clark, R A

    1990-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional mediator with effects on cellular growth, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism. Because TGF-beta stimulates fibronectin expression in cultured human keratinocytes, we wished to determine whether it might also affect ECM degradation through the plasminogen activator (PA)-plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) system. Immunofluorescence of human keratinocytes using a monospecific antiserum to type 1 PAI (PAI-1) showed enhanced cellular and ECM staining when they were cultured in the presence of TGF-beta. The antiserum also identified an Mr 50,000 protein in conditioned media that was markedly enhanced by TGF-beta. A corresponding stimulation of PAI-1 mRNA was demonstrated by quantitative RNA blot analysis. Total plasminogen activating activity of conditioned medium was markedly decreased by TGF-beta. Zymography showed this to be at least partially due to decreased secreted urokinase activity. TGF-beta may play an important role in stabilizing the provisional matrix synthesized by keratinocytes in healing wounds.

  1. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in non-small cell lung cancer as measured by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry

    Pappot, Helle; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Pyke, Charles;

    1997-01-01

    , results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studies obtained by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry differ. If the prognostic value of the components of the plasminogen activation system is to be exploited clinically in the future, it is important to choose an easy and valid......PAR with the aim of predicting prognosis. In conclusion, a larger comparative study is needed to clarify the relationship between ELISA and immunohistochemical results, before a methodology for clinical use can be chosen in non-small cell lung cancer....... methodology. In the present study we investigated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-I) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), as quantitated by ELISA in tumour extracts from 64 NSCLC patients (38 squamous cell carcinomas, 26 adenocarcinomas), and compared them to staining...

  2. Hormonal Regulation of Expression of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Cultured Rat Granulosa Cells

    刘以训; 彭晓蓉; 刘奎

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulation of tPA and PAI-1 expression in PMSG-primed granulosa cells has been investigated, (i) Addition of go-nadotropins (FSH and LH) and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) or PMA to the culture increases tPA activity) FSH (or LH) plus GnRHa (or PMA) in the culture further enhances the enzyme production to such an extent that a more obvious effect than the additive effect caused by these hormones used alone has been observed; (ii) in contrast, FSH and LH decrease PAI-1 activity, whereas GnRHa and PMA alone markedly increase PAI-1 mRNA level and PAI-1 activity. Because FSH and LH stimulate tPA production and have no significant effect on PAI-1 mRNA induction, the observed inhibition of PAI-1 activity by gonadotropins may be due to the occurrence of neutralization of PA and PAI-1 proteins in the conditioned media by the formation of complexes between PA and PAI-1 ; (iii) increases in PAI-1 mRNA level and activity by GnRH and PMA are complet

  3. Expression of serine protease SNC19/matriptase and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in normal and malignant tissues of gastrointestinal tract

    Lei Zeng; Jiang Cao; Xing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the expression profile of serine protease SNC19/matriptase and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) in normal and malignant tissues of gastrointestinal tract at mRNA level for further study on their correlations with tumor progression and metastasis.METHODS: Total RNAs were prepared from 37 samples of colorectal cancer tissues, 40 samples of gastric cancer tissues, and their adjacent normal tissues. The expression of SNC19/matriptase and HAI-1 in these samples was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as internal standard, and the clinical significance for the correlation with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated.RESULTS: In gastric cancer tissues the expression of HAI-1and SNC19/matriptase was significantly lower than that in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues (Z= -3.280,P= 0.006; Z= -4.651, P= 0.000). HAI-1:SNC19/matriptase ratio showed no difference between normal and malignant tissues (P>0.05). Analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed decreased expression of HAI-1 and HAI-1 :SNC19/matriptase ratio associated with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ gastric tumors as compared to stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ ones (Z= -2.140, P = 0.031;Z = -2.155, P = 0.031), and with lymph node-positive gastric cancer tissues as compared to lymph node-negative ones (Z= -2.081, P= 0.036; Z= -2.686, P = 0.006). The expression of SNC19/matriptase had no relationship with stages and lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). The expression of HAI-1 and HAI-1:SNC19/matriptase ratio increased in well-differentiated gastric cancer tissues, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). The difference of SNC19/matriptase expression was not significant in gastric cancer tissues of different histological differentiation status (P>0.05). In colorectal cancer tissues, the expression of HAI-1 and SNC19/matriptase was also markedly lower than that in their adjacent normal tissues (Z= -3.100, P

  4. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for the determination of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 mRNA in primary tumor tissue of breast cancer patients: comparison to antigen quantification by ELISA.

    Biermann, J.C.; Holzscheiter, L.; Kotzsch, M.; Luther, T.; Kiechle-Bahat, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.; Schmitt, M.; Magdolen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumor-associated processes such as the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, tissue remodeling, cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. High antigen levels of uPA an

  5. Derivatives of (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)nicotine and (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)thiazole as novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: synthesis and biological activities in vitro

    Xu ZHANG; Yang ZHOU; Yu SHEN; Li-li DU; Jun-hua CHEN; Ying LENG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To design and synthese a novel class of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, featuring the (phenylsul-fonamido-methyl)pyridine and (phenyisulfonamido-methyl)thiazole framework. Methods: Our initial lead 4-(phenylsulfonamido-methyl)benzamides were modified. Inhibition of human and mouse 11β-HSD1 enzy-matic activities by the new compounds was determined by a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) using microsomes containing 11β-HSD1.Results: Sixteen new compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. In dose-response studies, several com-pounds showed strong inhibitory activities with IC_(50) values at nanomolar or low nanomolar concentrations. Structure-activity relation-ships are also discussed with respect to molecular docking results. Conclusion: This study provides two promising new templates for 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  6. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of halogenated gomisin J derivatives, new nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    Fujihashi, T; Hara, H.; Sakata, T.; Mori, K.; Higuchi, H.; Tanaka, A.; Kaji, H.; Kaji, A

    1995-01-01

    Halogenated gomisin J (a derivative of lignan compound), represented by the bromine derivative 1506 [(6R, 7S, S-biar)-4,9-dibromo-3,10-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetramethoxy-6, 7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]cyclo-octene], was found to be a potent inhibitor of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on MT-4 human T cells (50% effective dose, 0.1 to 0.5 microM). Gomisin J derivatives were active in preventing p24 production from acutely HIV-1-infected H9 cell...

  7. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

    2004-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition

  8. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors, IBMX and cilostazol, block ex vivo Equid Herpesvirus type-1-induced platelet activation

    Tracy Stokol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1 is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation. We hypothesized that coagulation inhibitors that suppress thrombin generation (heparins or platelet inhibitors that impede post-receptor thrombin signaling (phosphodiesterase [PDE] antagonists would inhibit EHV-1-induced platelet activation ex vivo. We exposed platelet-rich plasma collected from healthy horses to the RacL11 abortigenic and Ab4 neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 at 1 plaque forming unit/cell in the presence or absence of unfractionated heparin (UFH, low-molecular-weight (LMWH heparin or the PDE inhibitors, 3-isobutyl-1methylxanthine (IBMX and cilostazol. We assessed platelet activation status in flow cytometric assays by measuring P-selectin expression. We found that all of the inhibitors blocked EHV-1- and thrombin-induced platelet activation in a dose-dependent manner. Platelet activation in PRP was maximally inhibited at concentrations of 0.05 U/mL UFH and 2.5 μg/mL LMWH. These concentrations represented 0.1 to 0.2 U/mL anti-Factor Xa activity measured in chromogenic assays. Both IBMX and cilostazol showed maximal inhibition of platelet activation at the highest tested concentration of 50 μM but inhibition was lower than that seen with UFH and LMWH. Our results indicate that heparin anticoagulants and strong non-selective (IBMX or isoenzyme-3 selective (cilostazol PDE antagonists inhibit ex vivo EHV-1-induced platelet activation

  9. Decreased expression of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is involved in degradation of extracellular matrix surrounding cervical cancer stem cells.

    Sato, Masakazu; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Fujimoto, Asaha; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Hiroe; Nishida, Haruka; Inoue, Tomoko; Taguchi, Ayumi; Takahashi, Juri; Kojima, Satoko; Yamashita, Aki; Tomio, Kensuke; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-02-01

    The plasminogen activator (PA) system consists of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor (uPA and uPAR). PAI-1 inhibits the activation of uPA (which converts plasminogen to plasmin), and is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) through regulating plasmin. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cells within tumors, and are thought to be involved in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Considering these facts, we investigated the relationship between PAI-1 and cervical CSCs. We used ALDH1 as a marker of cervical CSCs. First, we demonstrated that culturing ALDH1-high cells and ALDH-low cells on collagen IV-coted plates increased their expression of active PAI-1 (ELISA), and these increases were suggested to be at mRNA expression levels (RT-qPCR). Secondly, we demonstrated PAI-1 was indeed involved in the ECM maintenance. With gelatin zymography assays, we found that ALDH1-high cells and ALDH-low cells expressed pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (pro-MMP-2) irrespective of their coatings. With gelatinase/collagenase assay kit, we confirmed that collagenase activity was increased when ALDH1-low cells were exposed to TM5275, a small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1. Putting the data together, we hypothesized that cancer cells adhered to basal membrane secrete abundant PAI-1, on the other hand, cancer cells (especially CSCs rather than non-CSCs) distant from basal membrane secrete less PAI-1, which makes the ECM surrounding CSCs more susceptible to degradation. Our study could be an explanation of conflicting reports, where some researchers found negative impacts of PAI-1 expression on clinical outcomes and others not, by considering the concept of CSCs.

  10. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of halogenated gomisin J derivatives, new nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    Fujihashi, T; Hara, H; Sakata, T; Mori, K; Higuchi, H; Tanaka, A; Kaji, H; Kaji, A

    1995-09-01

    Halogenated gomisin J (a derivative of lignan compound), represented by the bromine derivative 1506 [(6R, 7S, S-biar)-4,9-dibromo-3,10-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetramethoxy-6, 7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]cyclo-octene], was found to be a potent inhibitor of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on MT-4 human T cells (50% effective dose, 0.1 to 0.5 microM). Gomisin J derivatives were active in preventing p24 production from acutely HIV-1-infected H9 cells. The selective indices (toxic dose/effective dose) of these compounds were as high as > 300 in some systems. 1506 was active against 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-resistant HIV-1 and acted synergistically with AZT and 2',3'-ddC. 1506 inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in vitro but not HIV-1 protease. From the time-of-addition experiment, 1506 was found to inhibit the early phase of the HIV life cycle. A 1506-resistant HIV mutant was selected and shown to possess a mutation within the RT-coding region (at position 188 [Tyr to Leu]). The mutant RT expressed in Escherichia coli was resistant to 1506 in the in vitro RT assay. Some of the HIV strains resistant to other nonnucleoside HIV-1 RT inhibitors were also resistant to 1506. Comparison of various gomisin J derivatives with gomisin J showed that iodine, bromine, and chlorine in the fourth and ninth positions increased RT inhibitory activity as well as cytoprotective activity.

  11. Internalization of oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor mRNA in endothelial cells: a three-dimensional reconstruction by confocal microscopy.

    Wyroba, E; Pawlowska, Z; Kobylanska, A; Pluskota, E; Maszewska, M; Stec, W J; Cierniewski, C S

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction analysis of localization of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense to type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) mRNA within endothelial cells is described. When EA.hy 926 cells were incubated with fluorescently labelled phosphodiester (PO-16) or phosphorothioate (PS-16) oligonucleotides at low, not cytotoxical concentrations, the relative brightness composition of the images of the particular samples was much higher for PS-16 than PO-16 and dependent upon the extracellular concentration and the incubation time. The 3-D reconstructions based on the series of optical sections of the samples, spaced every 1.5 microns, showed the punctuate accumulation of the oligonucleotides and a striking difference in a spatial distribution between PO-16 and PS-16 within the cytoplasm. Even after 24 h incubation of endothelial cells with 2.5 microM of PO-16 and PS-16 oligonucleotides, there was a predominant oligonucleotide localization within the cytoplasm and only traces of oligonucleotides could be seen in the cell nucleus and/or perinuclear organelles.

  12. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...... statistical analysis including Dukes classification, gender, age, tumor location, perioperative blood transfusion, PAI-1 and CRP, plasma PAI-1 was a dependent prognostic variable, while serum CRP (P

  13. Interventional effect of flunarizine on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 during experimental Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in gerbils

    Wensheng Zhou; Zhiping Hu; Yan Hong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Some researches suggest that induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can cause brain injury through a series of ways at the phase of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia.Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1(PAI-1)is a kind of inhibitor of serine stretch protein enzyme and is able to protect cell surface and microvascular basement membrane from degradation of protease and also protect contact surface among cells so as to maintain integrality of tissue structure.However,correlation of protective effect of flunarizine on brain with COX-2 and PAI-1 should be studied further.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of flunadzine on expressions of COX-2 and PAI-1 protein in forebrain and degree of brain injury among gerbils after cerebral ischemia.DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal study.SEITING:Department of Neurology,the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University;Department of Neurology,Mawangdui Hospital of Hunan Province.MATERIALS:A total of 40 healthy gerbils,of both genders,aged 9 months,weighing(90±10)g,were selected in this study.Anti-COX-2 multi-antibody,anti-PAI-1 multi-antibody,SABC immunohistochemical kit and DAB kit were provided by Wuhan Boster Biological Engineering Co.,Ltd.;and flunarizine capsule was provided by Xi'an Yangsen Pharmaceutical Company(batch number:041018726,dosage:5 mg/pill).METHODS:The experiment was Carried out in Laboratory of Mental Disease,Hunan Provincial Gedatdcs Institute affiliated by Hunan Provincial Mawangdui Hospital from January 2004 to March 2005.① All gerbils were randomly divided into cerebral ischemia group,flunarizine intervention group,sham operation group and normal control group with 10 in each group.Gerbils in normal control group were only cut off their heads.Gerbils in sham operation group were only dissected their bilateral common carotid arteries and sacdficad 1 day later.Gerbils in cerebral ischemia group and flunanzine intervention group were anesthetized,centrally cut open skin of neck,bluntly dissected

  14. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  15. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K R; Vinberg, N

    2001-01-01

    that active t-PA was also eliminated outside the splanchnic region with a catabolism rate of about 8.4 pmol/min. No net complex formation could be demonstrated in the peripheral circulation. We therefore suggest that active t-PA is eliminated by a re-uptake in the endothelium in the peripheral vessels...

  16. Coordinated Regulation of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene Expression in Hypophysectomized Rat Ovaries During GnRHa-Induced Ovulation

    刘以训; 刘奎; 彭晓蓉; T.Ny

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells of hy-pophysectomized rat ovaries are capable of synthesizing tPA and PAI-1.Injection of a GnRH agonist canmarkedly induce these gene expressions in the ovary in a cell-specific and time-coordinated manner,so that asurge of tPA mRNA and its activity in both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells was obtained just prior toovulation.Theca-interstitial cells make PAI-1 become the most active in the ovary.Both the amount PAI-1mRNA and its activity in the cells reach the maximum level 6 h before the tPA peak.By contrast,granulosacells produce only a little amount of PAI-1 (most increase tPA activity),and both PAI-1 mRNA and activityin the cells reach the maximum after ovulation.The coordinated regulation of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarymay fine-tune the peak of tPA activity which may be important for the regulation of the ovulatory process.The changes of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarian cells of hypophysectomized rats during GnRHa-induced ovula-tion are similar to that in intact rats during hCG-induced ovulation,suggesting that the ovulatory process canbe modulated by different regulatory signals mediated by influencing the coordinated expression of both tPAand PAI-1.

  17. Physical Activity and Type 1 Diabetes

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Laan, Remmert; Dassau, Eyal; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    While being physically active bestows many health benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes, their overall blood glucose control is not enhanced without an effective balance of insulin dosing and food intake to maintain euglycemia before, during, and after exercise of all types. At present, a number of technological advances are already available to insulin users who desire to be physically active with optimal blood glucose control, although a number of limitations to those devices remain. In addition to continued improvements to existing technologies and introduction of new ones, finding ways to integrate all of the available data to optimize blood glucose control and performance during and following exercise will likely involve development of “smart” calculators, enhanced closed-loop systems that are able to use additional inputs and learn, and social aspects that allow devices to meet the needs of the users. PMID:25568144

  18. Resistance mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease to inhibitors: A molecular dynamic approach

    Mohammad Reza Dayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 protease inhibitors comprise an important class of drugs used in HIV treatments. However, mutations of protease genes accelerated by low fidelity of reverse transcriptase yield drug resistant mutants of reduced affinities for the inhibitors. This problem is considered to be a serious barrier against HIV treatment for the foreseeable future. In this study, molecular dynamic simulation method was used to examine the combinational and additive effects of all known mutations involved in drug resistance against FDA approved inhibitors. Results showed that drug resistant mutations are not randomly distributed along the protease sequence; instead, they are localized on flexible or hot points of the protein chain. Substitution of more hydrophobic residues in flexible points of protease chains tends to increase the folding, lower the flexibility and decrease the active site area of the protease. The reduced affinities of HIV-1 protease for inhibitors seemed to be due to substantial decrease in the size of the active site and flap mobility. A correlation was found between the binding energy of inhibitors and their affinities for each mutant suggesting the distortion of the active site geometry in drug resistance by preventing effective fitting of inhibitors into the enzymes' active site. To overcome the problem of drug resistance of HIV-1 protease, designing inhibitors of variable functional groups and configurations is proposed.

  19. Discovery of Adamantyl Heterocyclic Ketones as Potent 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) plays a key role in converting intracellular cortisone to physiologically active cortisol, which is implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity, and therefore constitutes a promising strategy to discover novel therapies for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl heterocyclic ketones provides potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Selected potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors show moderate metabolic stability upon incubation with human liver microsomes and weak inhibition of human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21608132

  20. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  1. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap

    2017-03-16

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  2. High-Resolution structure of the stable plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 variant 14-1B in its proteinase-cleaved form: A new tool for detailed interaction studies and modeling

    Jensen, J.; Gettins, P. (UIC)

    2008-10-22

    Wild-type plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) rapidly converts to the inactive latent state under conditions of physiological pH and temperature. For in vivo studies of active PAI-1 in cell culture and in vivo model systems, the 14-1B PAI-1 mutant (N150H-K154T-Q319L-M354I), with its stabilized active conformation, has thus become the PAI-1 of choice. As a consequence of the increased stability, the only two forms likely to be encountered are the active or the cleaved form, the latter either free or complexed with target proteinase. We hereby report the first structure of the stable 14-1B PAI-1 variant in its reactive center cleaved form, to a resolution of 2.0 {angstrom}. The >99% complete structure represents the highest resolved structure of free cleaved PAI-1. This high-resolution structure should be of great use for drug target development and for modeling protein-protein interactions such as those of PAI-1 with vitronectin.

  3. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  4. Expression and prognostic value of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in node-negative breast cancer%淋巴结阴性乳腺癌PAI-Ⅰ表达及预后价值

    Bin Wang; Ning Wang; Chunyan Xue; Bin Jiang; Yajie Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expressions of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1(PAI-1),C-erbB-2,VEGF and Ki-67 by immunohistostaining and then to evaluate the prognostic value of PAJ-1 in node-negative breast cancer,Methods:The study included a retrospective series of 62 female patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cencer.Expressions of PAI-1,C-erbB-2,VEGF and Ki-67 were determined by immunohistostaining on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from these patients after a median follow-up of 69 months(range 22-117 months).Correlations with well known clinicopathologic factors were assessed and multivariate survival analyses were performed.Results:High PAI-1 level was positively associated with high histologic grade of the tumors.Disease-free survival(DFS)was significantly shorter for the patients with moderate to intensive expression of PAI-1 lban for those with negative(X2=25.46,P<0.001:X2=23.07,P<0.001)to mild expression(X2=19.75,P<0.001:X2=17.40.P<0.001).Although on univariate analysis of the prognostic factors,tumor size,location of primary tumor and age as well as expressions of PAI-1,VEGF and Ki-67 were all significantly prognostic factors for DFS(P<0.05),PAI-1 was the only independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis(P<0.0001;hazard ratio[HR].4.041:95% confidence intewal[CI],1.928-8.468).Conclusion:These results of the current study indicate that intermediate or high expression of PAI-1 represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of recurrence or metastases in axillary node-negative breast cancer.

  5. Selective non-steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase type 1.

    Occhiato, Ernesto G; Guarna, Antonio; Danza, Giovanna; Serio, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha R) catalyses the reduction of testosterone (T) into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The abnormal production of DHT is associated to pathologies of the main target organs of this hormone: the prostate and the skin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, acne, androgenetic alopecia in men, and hirsutism in women appear related to the DHT production. Two isozymes of 5 alpha-reductase have been cloned, expressed and characterized (5 alpha R-1 and 5 alpha R-2). They share a poor homology, have different chromosomal localization, enzyme kinetic parameters, and tissue expression patterns. Since 5 alpha R-1 and 5 alpha R-2 are differently distributed in the androgen target organs, a different involvement of the two isozymes in the pathogenesis of prostate and skin disorders can be hypothesized. High interest has been paid to the synthesis of inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase for the treatment of DHT related pathologies, and the selective inhibition of any single isozyme represents a great challenge for medical and pharmaceutical research in order to have more specific drugs. At present, no 5 alpha R-1 inhibitor is marketed for the treatment of 5 alpha R-1 related pathologies but pharmaceutical research is very active in this field. This paper will review the major classes of 5 alpha R inhibitors focusing in particular on non-steroidal inhibitors and on structural features that enhance the selectivity versus the type 1 isozyme. Biological tests to assess the inhibitory activity towards the two 5 alpha R isozymes will be also discussed.

  6. Discovery of novel inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Trusselle, Melanie; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-03-25

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones, which play essential roles in various vital physiological processes. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Therefore, inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here we report the discovery of a series of novel adamantyl carboxamides as selective inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1 in HEK-293 cells transfected with the HSD11B1 gene. Compounds 9 and 14 show inhibitory activity against 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in 100nM range. Docking studies with the potent compound 8 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 (1XU9) reveals how the molecule may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  7. Temporal alteration of spreading depression by the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 in chicken retina.

    Kertesz, Szabolcs; Szabo, Geza; Udvari, Szabolcs; Levay, Gyorgy; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2013-01-25

    We used isolated chicken retina to induce spreading depression by the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate. The N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced latency time of spreading depression was extended by the glycine(B) binding site competitive antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid. Addition of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors NFPS and Org-24461 reversed the inhibitory effect of 7-chlorokynurenic acid on N-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked spreading depression. The glycine uptake inhibitory activity of Org-24461, NFPS, and some newly synthesized analogs of NFPS was determined in CHO cells stably expressing human glycine transporter type-1b isoform. Compounds, which failed to inhibit glycine transporter type-1, also did not have effect on retinal spreading depression. These experiments indicate that the spreading depression model in chicken retina is a useful in vitro test to determine activity of glycine transporter type-1 inhibitors. In addition, our data serve further evidence for the role of glycine transporter type-1 in retinal neurotransmission and light processing.

  8. Novel inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: templates for design.

    Allan, Gillian M; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani R; Tutill, Helena J; Day, Joanna M; Huchet, Marion; Ferrandis, Eric; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-04-15

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyze the interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms of androgens and estrogens at the 17 position. The 17beta-HSD type 1 enzyme (17beta-HSD1) catalyzes the reduction of estrone (E1) to estradiol and is expressed in malignant breast cells. Inhibitors of this enzyme thus have potential as treatments for hormone dependent breast cancer. Syntheses and biological evaluation of novel non-steroidal inhibitors designed to mimic the E1 template are reported using information from potent steroidal inhibitors. Of the templates investigated biphenyl ethanone was promising and led to inhibitors with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range.

  9. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  10. Allosteric activation and contrasting properties of L-serine dehydratase types 1 and 2.

    Chen, Shawei; Xu, Xiao Lan; Grant, Gregory A

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial L-serine dehydratases differ from mammalian L- and D-serine dehydratases and bacterial D-serine dehydratases by the presence of an iron-sulfur center rather than a pyridoxyl phosphate prosthetic group. They exist in two forms, types 1 and 2, distinguished by their sequence and oligomeric configuration. Both types contain an ASB domain, and the type 1 enzymes also contain an ACT domain in a tandem arrangement with the ASB domain like that in type 1 D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs). This investigation reveals striking kinetic differences between L-serine dehydratases from Bacillus subtilis (bsLSD, type 1) and Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD, type 2). lpLSD is activated by monovalent cations and inhibited by monovalent anions. bsLSD is strongly activated by cations, particularly potassium, and shows a mixed response to anions. Flouride is a competitive inhibitor for lpLSD but an apparent activator for bsLSD at low concentrations and an inhibitor at high concentrations. The reaction products, pyruvate and ammonia, also act as activators but to different extents for each type. Pyruvate activation is competitive with L-serine, but activation of the enzyme is not compatible with it simply competing for binding at the active site and suggests the presence of a second, allosteric site. Because activation can be eliminated by higher levels of L-serine, it may be that this second site is actually a second serine binding site. This is consistent with type 1 PGDH in which the ASB domain functions as a second site for substrate binding and activation.

  11. Novel non-steroidal inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Vicker, Nigel; Su, Xiangdong; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. 11beta-HSD1 is selectively expressed in many tissues including the liver and adipose tissue where metabolic events are important. Metabolic syndrome relates to a number of metabolic abnormalities and currently has a prevalence of >20% in adult Americans. 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors are being investigated by many major pharmaceutical companies for type 2 diabetes and other abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome. In this area of intense interest a number of structural types of 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor have been identified. It is important to have an array of structural types as the physicochemical properties of the compounds will determine tissue distribution, HPA effects, and ultimately clinical utility. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of three structurally different series of novel 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors that inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 in the low micromolar range. Docking studies with 1-3 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 reveal how the molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor and give further scope for structure based drug design in the optimisation of these series.

  12. Physical Activity in Adolescent Females with Type 1 Diabetes

    Bahareh Schweiger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11–19 years (n=203 were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7±2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1±2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P=.049 in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control.

  13. Adamantyl carboxamides and acetamides as potent human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors.

    Su, Xiangdong; Halem, Heather A; Thomas, Mark P; Moutrille, Cecile; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-11-01

    The modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Here we report the discovery of a series of novel adamantyl carboxamide and acetamide derivatives as selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1 in HEK-293 cells transfected with the HSD11B1 gene. Optimization based on an initially identified 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (3) led to the discovery of potent inhibitors with IC(50) values in the 100 nM range. These compounds are also highly selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Compound 15 (IC(50)=114 nM) with weak inhibitory activity against the key human cytochrome P450 enzymes and moderate stability in incubation with human liver microsomes is worthy of further development. Importantly, compound 41 (IC(50)=280 nM) provides a new lead that incorporates an adamantyl group surrogate and should enable further series diversification.

  14. Adamantyl Ethanone Pyridyl Derivatives: Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of active glucocorticoids have been implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses the intracellular conversion of inactive cortisone to cortisol. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A series of adamantyl ethanone pyridyl derivatives has been identified, providing potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective for this isoform, with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Structure–activity relationship studies reveal that an unsubstituted pyridine tethered to an adamantyl ethanone motif through an ether or sulfoxide linker provides a suitable pharmacophore for activity. The most potent inhibitors have IC50 values around 34–48 nm against human 11β-HSD1, display reasonable metabolic stability in human liver microsomes, and weak inhibition of key human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21714097

  15. Combination of monoclonal antibodies and DPP-IV inhibitors in the treatment of type 1 diabetes: a plausible treatment modality?

    Dubala, Anil; Gupta, Ankur; Samanta, Malay K

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when the immune-regulatory mechanism fails. In fact, T1D is reversed by islet transplantation but is associated with hostile effects of persistent immune suppression. T1D is believed to be dependent on the activation of type-1 helper T (Th1) cells. Immune tolerance is liable for the activation of the Th1 cells. The important role of Th1 cells in pathology of T1D entails the depletion of CD4(+) T cells, which initiated the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4(+) T cells to interfere with induction of T1D. Prevention of autoimmunity is not only a step forward for the treatment of T1D, but could also restore the β-cell mass. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 stimulates β-cell proliferation and also has anti-apoptotic effects on them. However, the potential use of GLP-1 as a possible method to restore pancreatic β-cells is limited due to rapid degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV. We hypothesize that treatment with combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitors could prevent/reverse T1D. CD4 mAbs have the ability to induce immune tolerance, thereby arresting further progression of T1D; DPP-IV inhibitors have the capability to regenerate the β-cell mass. Consequently, the combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitor could avoid or at least minimize the constraints of intensive subcutaneous insulin therapy. We presume that if this hypothesis proves correct, it may become one of the plausible therapeutic options for T1D.

  16. Adipose tissue-targeted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Lin; Yu, Jing; Zha, Juanmin; Lv, Shan; Cheng, Peng; Hu, Miao; Li, Yujie; Qi, Hanmei; Ding, Guoxian; Zhong, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for obesity and metabolic syndrome have various limitations. Recently, adipose tissue 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, there is no adipose tissue-targeted 11β-HSD1 inhibitor available now. We sought to develop a new 11β-HSD1 pharmacological inhibitor that homes specifically to the white adipose tissue and aimed to investigate whether adipose tissue-targeted 11β-HSD1 inhibitor might decrease body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obesity mice. BVT.2733, an 11β-HSD1 selective inhibitor was connected with a peptide CKGGRAKDC that homes to white fat vasculature. CKGGRAKDC-BVT.2733 (T-BVT) or an equimolar mixture of CKGGRAKDC and BVT.2733 (NT-BVT) was given to diet-induced obesity mice for two weeks through subcutaneous injection. T-BVT decreased body weight gain, improved glucose tolerance and decreased adipocyte size compared with vehicle treated mice. In adipose tissue T-BVT administration significantly increased adiponectin, vaspin mRNA levels; In liver T-BVT administration decreased the mRNA level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), increased the mRNA levels of mitochondrial carnitine palmi-toyltransferase-I (mCPT-I) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα(PPARα). No significant differences in adipocyte size and hepatic gene expression were observed after treatment with NT-BVT compared with vehicle treated mice, though NT-BVT also decreased body weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, and increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) mRNA levels in muscle. These results suggest that an adipose tissue-targeted pharmacological inhibitor of 11β-HSD1 may prove to be a new approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Discovery of adamantyl ethanone derivatives as potent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) inhibitors.

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Thomas, Mark P; Szeto, Michelle W Y; Halem, Heather A; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2010-07-05

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl ethanone compounds was identified as potent inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1. The most active compounds identified (52, 62, 72, 92, 103 and 104) display potent inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in the 50-70 nM range. Compound 72 also proved to be metabolically stable when incubated with human liver microsomes. Furthermore, compound 72 showed very weak inhibitory activity for human cytochrome P450 enzymes and is therefore a candidate for in vivo studies. Comparison of the publicly available X-ray crystal structures of human 11beta-HSD1 led to docking studies of the potent compounds, revealing how these molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  18. Photothermal therapy improves the efficacy of a MEK inhibitor in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    Sweeney, Elizabeth E.; Burga, Rachel A.; Li, Chaoyang; Zhu, Yuan; Fernandes, Rohan

    2016-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive tumors with low survival rates and the leading cause of death in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients under 40 years old. Surgical resection is the standard of care for MPNSTs, but is often incomplete and can generate loss of function, necessitating the development of novel treatment methods for this patient population. Here, we describe a novel combination therapy comprising MEK inhibition and nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy (PTT) for MPNSTs. MEK inhibitors block activity driven by Ras, an oncogene constitutively activated in NF1-associated MPNSTs, while PTT serves as a minimally invasive method to ablate cancer cells. Our rationale for combining these seemingly disparate techniques for MPNSTs is based on several reports demonstrating the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy with local PTT. We combine the MEK inhibitor, PD-0325901 (PD901), with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) as PTT agents, to block MEK activity and simultaneously ablate MPNSTs. Our data demonstrate the synergistic effect of combining PD901 with PBNP-based PTT, which converge through the Ras pathway to generate apoptosis, necrosis, and decreased proliferation, thereby mitigating tumor growth and increasing survival of MPNST-bearing animals. Our results suggest the potential of this novel local-systemic combination “nanochemotherapy” for treating patients with MPNSTs.

  19. Small molecule kinase inhibitors alleviate different molecular features of myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Taylor, Katarzyna; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Napierala, Marek; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2014-01-01

    Expandable (CTG)n repeats in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene are a cause of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which leads to a toxic RNA gain-of-function disease. Mutant RNAs with expanded CUG repeats are retained in the nucleus and aggregate in discrete inclusions. These foci sequester splicing factors of the MBNL family and trigger upregulation of the CUGBP family of proteins resulting in the mis-splicing of their target transcripts. To date, many efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies have been focused on disrupting the toxic nuclear foci and correcting aberrant alternative splicing via targeting mutant CUG repeats RNA; however, no effective treatment for DM1 is currently available. Herein, we present results of culturing of human DM1 myoblasts and fibroblasts with two small-molecule ATP-binding site-specific kinase inhibitors, C16 and C51, which resulted in the alleviation of the dominant-negative effects of CUG repeat expansion. Reversal of the DM1 molecular phenotype includes a reduction of the size and number of foci containing expanded CUG repeat transcripts, decreased steady-state levels of CUGBP1 protein, and consequent improvement of the aberrant alternative splicing of several pre-mRNAs misregulated in DM1.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Fibrinogen, Plasminogen, α2-Anti-Plasmin, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Levels (PAI and Their Correlation with Presence of Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 DM

    Sefika Burcak Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. Method. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin (α2-anti-plasmin, and PAI. Results. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P=0.209, P=0.224, and P=0.244, resp., whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.001, resp.. There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r=0,268, P=0.031. Conclusion. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  1. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors for metabolic syndrome.

    Schnackenberg, Christine G

    2008-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoids through the activity of two isozymes: type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD2). 11beta-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid to the active form, whereas 11beta-HSD2 converts active glucocorticoid to the inactive form. It is well established that reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity causes hypertension and electrolyte abnormalities. More recently, the pathophysiological role of 11beta-HSD1 has been explored and studies suggest that increased 11beta-HSD1 activity within target tissues may promote insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This review will discuss the evidence that inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 may be therapeutic in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Alternative Agents in Type 1 Diabetes in Addition to Insulin Therapy: Metformin, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors, Pioglitazone, GLP-1 Agonists, DPP-IV Inhibitors, and SGLT-2 Inhibitors.

    DeGeeter, Michelle; Williamson, Bobbie

    2016-04-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of current treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Due to increasing insulin resistance, insulin doses are often continually increased, which may result in weight gain for patients. Medications currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes offer varying mechanisms of action that can help to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or deter weight gain. A MEDLINE search was conducted to review literature evaluating the use of metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, in patients with T1DM. Varying results were found with some benefits including reductions in hemoglobin A1c, decreased insulin doses, and favorable effects on weight. Of significance, a common fear of utilizing multiple therapies for diabetes treatment is the risk of hypoglycemia, and this review displayed limited evidence of hypoglycemia with multiple agents.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikata, Kenichi [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Usui, Hitomi Kataoka [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Makino, Hirofumi [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

  4. In vivo islet protection by a nuclear import inhibitor in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    Daniel J Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a devastating autoimmune disease that destroys beta cells within the pancreatic islets and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. These patients face life-long risks for blindness, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and complications of insulin treatment. New therapies that protect islets from autoimmune destruction and allow continuing insulin production are needed. Increasing evidence regarding the pathomechanism of T1D indicates that islets are destroyed by the relentless attack by autoreactive immune cells evolving from an aberrant action of the innate, in addition to adaptive, immune system that produces islet-toxic cytokines, chemokines, and other effectors of islet inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that targeting nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors evoked by agonist-stimulated innate and adaptive immunity receptors would protect islets from autoimmune destruction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a first-in-class inhibitor of nuclear import, cSN50 peptide, affords in vivo islet protection following a 2-day course of intense treatment in NOD mice, which resulted in a diabetes-free state for one year without apparent toxicity. This nuclear import inhibitor precipitously reduces the accumulation of islet-destructive autoreactive lymphocytes while enhancing activation-induced cell death of T and B lymphocytes derived from autoimmune diabetes-prone, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that develop T1D. Moreover, in this widely used model of human T1D we noted attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a novel form of immunotherapy that targets nuclear import can arrest inflammation-driven destruction of insulin-producing beta cells at the site of autoimmune attack within pancreatic islets during the progression of T1D.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitor suppresses virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes

    Hara, N.; Alkanani, A.K.; Dinarello, C.A.; Zipris, D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial infections are hypothesized to play a key role in the mechanism leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D). We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced islet destruction to better understand how virus infection triggers T1D. Inoculation of the LEW1.WR1 rat with KRV results in sy

  6. Platelet Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Patients Is Not Altered with Cocaine Abuse.

    Michelle Kiebala

    Full Text Available Recent work has indicated that platelets, which are anucleate blood cells, significantly contribute to inflammatory disorders. Importantly, platelets also likely contribute to various inflammatory secondary disorders that are increasingly associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV infection including neurological impairments and cardiovascular complications. Indeed, HIV infection is often associated with increased levels of platelet activators. Additionally, cocaine, a drug commonly abused by HIV-infected individuals, leads to increased platelet activation in humans. Considering that orchestrated signaling mechanisms are essential for platelet activation, and that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB inhibitors can alter platelet function, the role of NF-κB signaling in platelet activation during HIV infection warrants further investigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibitory kappa B kinase complex (IKK activation would be central for platelet activation induced by HIV and cocaine. Whole blood from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, with or without cocaine abuse was used to assess platelet activation via flow cytometry whereas IKK activation was analyzed by performing immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assays. We demonstrate that increased platelet activation in HIV patients, as measured by CD62P expression, is not altered with reported cocaine use. Furthermore, cocaine and HIV do not activate platelets in whole blood when treated ex vivo. Finally, HIV-induced platelet activation does not involve the NF-κB signaling intermediate, IKKβ. Platelet activation in HIV patients is not altered with cocaine abuse. These results support the notion that non-IKK targeting approaches will be better suited for the treatment of HIV-associated inflammatory disorders.

  7. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  8. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor abrogates abnormal osteoclastogenesis in neurofibromatosis type 1

    LIU Ning; XU Ning; WEI Li-hui; CHAI Guo-lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common genetic syndrome predisposing patients to various tumors due to dysregulation of the Ras signaling pathway.Recent research has shown NF1 patients also suffer a spectrum of bone pathologies.The pathogenesis of NF1 bone diseases is largely unknown.There is no current treatment.By Nf1 heterozygote (Nf1+/-) mice and Nf1 conditional knockout mice,we and other groups demonstrated abnormal osteoblast and osteoclast function due to dysregulation of Ras signaling.However,the specific downstream effector pathways linked to NF1 abnormal osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis have not been defined.In this study,we investigated the Ras downstream effector related with NF1 bone disease.Methods We used Nf1+/+ and Nf1+/-mice as normal and NF1 models.Bone stromal cells extracted from Nf1+/+ and Nf1+/-mice were induced osteoclasts.The osteoclast cell was stained by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining.The osteoclast cell number was counted and the surface area of osteoclast cells was calculated under the microscope.The mRNA of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction.The presence of ribosomal protein S6 kinase was determined by Western blotting.Results Compared with Nf1+/+ mice,Nf1+/-mice had about 20% more of osteoclast cells.These osteoclast cells werelarger in size with more nuclei.Hyperactive mTOR was detected in Nf1+/-osteoclast cells.Inhibition of mTOR signalingby rapamycin in Nf1+/-osteoclasts abrogated abnormalities in cellular size and number.Conclusion mTOR pathway inhibition may represent a viable therapy for NF1 bone diseases.

  9. Selection of diverse and clinically relevant integrase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants.

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakahara, Koichiro; Seki, Takahiro; Miki, Shigeru; Kawauchi, Shinobu; Suyama, Akemi; Wakasa-Morimoto, Chiaki; Kodama, Makoto; Endoh, Takeshi; Oosugi, Eiichi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Murai, Hitoshi; Fujishita, Toshio; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Garvey, Edward; Foster, Scott; Underwood, Mark; Johns, Brian; Sato, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Tamio

    2008-11-01

    Resistance passage studies were conducted with five INIs (integrase inhibitors) that have been tested in clinical trials to date: a new naphthyridinone-type INI S/GSK-364735, raltegravir, elvitegravir, L-870,810 and S-1360. In establishing the passage system and starting from concentrations several fold above the EC(50) value, resistance mutations against S-1360 and related diketoacid-type compounds could be isolated from infected MT-2 cell cultures from day 14 to 28. Q148R and F121Y were the two main pathways of resistance to S/GSK-364735. Q148R/K and N155H, which were found in patients failing raltegravir treatment in Phase IIb studies, were observed during passage with raltegravir with this method. The fold resistance of 40 mutant molecular clones versus wild type virus was compared with these five INIs. The overall resistance pattern of S/GSK-364735 was similar to that of raltegravir and other INIs. However, different fold resistances of particular mutations were noted among different INIs, reflecting a potential to develop INIs with distinctly different resistant profiles.

  10. Resveratrol inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in rat adipose microsomes.

    Tagawa, Noriko; Kubota, Sayaka; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, can regulate adiposity because it decreases adipose deposition in mice and rats; however, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been fully clarified. In humans and rodents, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is expressed in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid into active glucocorticoid in adipocytes. Activated glucocorticoid plays an important role in the pathogenesis of central obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on 11β-HSD1 activity in rodent adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 activity in microsomes from rat mesenteric adipose depots and 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined in the presence of 11-dehydrocorticosterone with or without varying concentrations of resveratrol. Significant inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by resveratrol was observed in rat adipose microsomes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes within 10 min. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed. The 11β-HSD1 activity by resveratrol was also inhibited in rat epididymal adipose tissue, and this inhibition was not recovered by estrogen receptor blockers. The kinetic study revealed that resveratrol acted as a non-competitive inhibitor of 11β-HSD1. Ki and IC50 values of resveratrol were 39.6 and 35.2 μM respectively. Further, resveratrol did not affect the activities of 11β-HSD2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These results suggest that the most likely mechanism of 11β-HSD1 inhibition by resveratrol is via interaction between resveratrol and 11β-HSD1 enzyme, rather than via a transcriptional pathway. We demonstrated that the antiobesity effects of resveratrol may partially be attributed to the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity in adipocytes.

  11. Keeping pace with ACE: are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists potential doping agents?

    Wang, Pei; Fedoruk, Matthew N; Rupert, Jim L

    2008-01-01

    In the decade since the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was first proposed to be a 'human gene for physical performance', there have been numerous studies examining the effects of ACE genotype on physical performance phenotypes such as aerobic capacity, muscle function, trainability, and athletic status. While the results are variable and sometimes inconsistent, and corroborating phenotypic data limited, carriers of the ACE 'insertion' allele (the presence of an alu repeat element in intron 16 of the gene) have been reported to have higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), greater response to training, and increased muscle efficiency when compared with individuals carrying the 'deletion' allele (absence of the alu repeat). Furthermore, the insertion allele has been reported to be over-represented in elite athletes from a variety of populations representing a number of endurance sports. The mechanism by which the ACE insertion genotype could potentiate physical performance is unknown. The presence of the ACE insertion allele has been associated with lower ACE activity (ACEplasma) in number of studies, suggesting that individuals with an innate tendency to have lower ACE levels respond better to training and are at an advantage in endurance sporting events. This could be due to lower levels of angiotensin II (the vasoconstrictor converted to active form by ACE), higher levels of bradykinin (a vasodilator degraded by ACE) or some combination of the two phenotypes. Observations that individuals carrying the ACE insertion allele (and presumably lower ACEplasma) have an enhanced response to training or are over-represented amongst elite athletes raises the intriguing question: would individuals with artificially lowered ACEplasma have similar training or performance potential? As there are a number of drugs (i.e. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists [angiotensin receptor blockers--ARBs]) that have the ability to either reduce ACEplasma

  12. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and distribution to tissue of AG1343, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    Shetty, B V; Kosa, M B; Khalil, D A; Webber, S

    1996-01-01

    AG1343, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (Ki = 2 nM), was designed by protein structure-based drug design techniques. AG1343 has potent antiviral activity (95% effective dose = 0.04 microgram/ml) against a number of HIV-1 strains in acute and chronic models of infection. As part of its preclinical development, the oral bioavailability of AG1343 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and marmosets was determined and its tissue distribution in rats was evaluated. There were no major interspecies differences in AG1343 pharmacokinetics. Following intravenous administration, the elimination half-life of AG1343 ranged from 1 to 1.4 hr. The total volume of distribution (2 to 7 liters/kg) exceeded the volume of total body water, indicating extensive tissue distribution. Systemic clearance of AG1343 (1 to 4 liters/kg) in the different species corresponded to hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible hepatic involvement in the elimination of AG1343. Following oral administration, peak levels in plasma ranged from 0.34 microgram/ml after treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight in the dog to 1.7 micrograms/ml after dosing with 50 mg/kg in the rat. Because of the slow absorption of AG1343, plasma concentrations of AG1343 exceeding that required for 95% inhibition of HIV-1 replication were maintained for up to 7 h after a single oral dose in all species evaluated. Average oral bioavailability of AG1343 ranged from 17% in the marmoset to 47% in the dog. Studies of distribution to tissue in the rat after oral administration of 14C-AG1343 established extensive distribution with concentrations in most tissues exceeding that found in plasma. Of particular significance were high levels of AG1343 equivalent in mesenteric lymph nodes (32.05 micrograms/g) and spleen tissue (9.33 micrograms/g). The major excretory route for AG1343 was via feces, with 100% of the dose recovered by 48 h. Results from these studies demonstrate that AG1343 is orally bioavailable and

  13. The complex between urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in pulmonary adenocarcinoma: Relation to prognosis

    Pappot, Helle; Pedersen, Anders N; Brünner, Nils

    2006-01-01

    In a lung cancer population comprising tumor tissue from 99 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the relationship between tumor tissue level of the complex formed of urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) and survival was studied. The study included patient material previously investigated....... The amounts of uPA-PAI-1 complex measured in pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue were within the same range as previously reported in breast cancer tissue (0.11-5.74 ng/mg protein). uPA and PAI-1 levels were weakly correlated to the uPA-PAI-1 complex, r = 0.52 and r = 0.47, respectively, and no relation was found...... these interactions and the clinical importance of the tissue levels of uPA, PAI-1 and uPA-PAI-1 complex, the results suggest further exploratory studies of the components in pulmonary adenocarcinomas and other cancers....

  14. The complex between urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    Pappot, Helle; Pedersen, Anders N.; Brünner, Nils

    2006-01-01

    In a lung cancer population comprising tumor tissue from 99 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the relationship between tumor tissue level of the complex formed of urokinase (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) and survival was studied. The study included patient material previously investigated....... The amounts of uPA-PAI-1 complex measured in pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue were within the same range as previously reported in breast cancer tissue (0.11-5.74 ng/mg protein). uPA and PAI-1 levels were weakly correlated to the uPA-PAI-1 complex, r = 0.52 and r = 0.47, respectively, and no relation was found...... these interactions and the clinical importance of the tissue levels of uPA, PAI-1 and uPA-PAI-1 complex, the results suggest further exploratory studies of the components in pulmonary adenocarcinomas and other cancers....

  15. Progress of bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Xu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported in 1981, AIDS, as the global disease affecting 33.2 million people in 2007, has always been an unsolved problem worldwide. Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and thereby has been the prime drugs target for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy against AIDS. To date, two classes of RT inhibitors (RTIs), e.g., nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and a lot of compounds tested as RTIs have been described. To our knowledge, bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) have been considered as one class of promising NNRTIs, such as structurally and chemically related NNRTI delavirdine, which was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in 1997. In this mini-review, we make attempts to report the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of BHAPs, in the meantime, the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 replication by combining delavirdine with other HIV-1 inhibitors is also discussed. It will pave the way for the design and development of BHAPs as anti-HIV-1 agents in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  16. Metabolic Characterization of a Tripeptide Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor, KNI-272, in Rat Liver Microsomes

    Kiriyama, Akiko; Nishiura, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Hirokazu; Takada, Kanji

    1999-01-01

    KNI-272 is a tripeptide protease inhibitor for treating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In in vitro stability studies using rat tissue homogenates, KNI-272 concentrations in the liver, kidney, and brain decreased significantly with time. Moreover, in tissue distribution studies, KNI-272 distributed highly to the liver, kidney, and small intestine in vivo. From these results and reported physiological parameters such as the tissue volume and tissue blood flow rate, we considered the liver to be the main organ which takes part in the metabolic elimination of KNI-272. Then the hepatic metabolism of KNI-272 was more thoroughly investigated by using rat liver microsomes. KNI-272 was metabolized in the rat liver microsomes, and five metabolites were found. The initial metabolic rate constant (kmetabolism) tended to decrease when the KNI-272 concentration in microsomal suspensions increased. The calculated Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the maximum velocity of KNI-272 metabolism (Vmax), after correction for the unbound drug concentration, were 1.12 ± 0.09 μg/ml (1.68 ± 0.13 μM) and 0.372 ± 0.008 μg/mg of protein/min (0.558 ± 0.012 nmol/mg of protein per min), respectively. The metabolic clearance (CLint,metabo), calculated as Vmax/Km, was 0.332 ml/mg of protein per min. Moreover, by using selective cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and recombinant human CYP3A4 fractions, KNI-272 was determined to be metabolized mainly by the CYP3A isoform. In addition, ketoconazole, a representative CYP3A inhibitor, inhibited KNI-272 metabolism competitively, and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 4.32 μM. PMID:10049266

  17. Pharmacovirological impact of an integrase inhibitor on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA species in vivo.

    Goffinet, Christine; Allespach, Ina; Oberbremer, Lena; Golden, Pamela L; Foster, Scott A; Johns, Brian A; Weatherhead, Jason G; Novick, Steven J; Chiswell, Karen E; Garvey, Edward P; Keppler, Oliver T

    2009-08-01

    Clinical trials of the first approved integrase inhibitor (INI), raltegravir, have demonstrated a drop in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA loads of infected patients that was unexpectedly more rapid than that with a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and apparently dose independent. These clinical outcomes are not understood. In tissue culture, although their inhibition of integration is well documented, the effects of INIs on levels of unintegrated HIV-1 cDNAs have been variable. Furthermore, there has been no report to date on an INI's effect on these episomal species in vivo. Here, we show that prophylactic treatment of transgenic rats with the strand transfer INI GSK501015 reduced levels of viral integrants in the spleen by up to 99.7%. Episomal two-long-terminal-repeat (LTR) circles accumulated up to sevenfold in this secondary lymphoid organ, and this inversely correlated with the impact on the proviral burden. Contrasting raltegravir's dose-ranging study with HIV patients, titration of GSK501015 in HIV-infected animals demonstrated dependence of the INI's antiviral effect on its serum concentration. Furthermore, the in vivo 50% effective concentration calculated from these data best matched GSK501015's in vitro potency when serum protein binding was accounted for. Collectively, this study demonstrates a titratable, antipodal impact of an INI on integrated and episomal HIV-1 cDNAs in vivo. Based on these findings and known biological characteristics of viral episomes, we discuss how integrase inhibition may result in additional indirect antiviral effects that contribute to more rapid HIV-1 decay in HIV/AIDS patients.

  18. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... to 0.5 or 20 microM ADP) was higher in nephropathy patients compared with normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.027), and non-diabetic controls (P = 0.0057). NPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.0088). MPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to non-diabetic...

  19. 纤溶酶原激活物抑制因子-1对肝星状细胞活化及细胞外基质合成的影响%The effect of Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 on HSC and synthesis of extrocellar matrix

    焦黎; 武希润; 王琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) on the activation of hepatic stellate cells(LX-2) and extrocellar matrix. Methods The effect of PAI-1 on LX-2 proliferation was detected by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT). After incubation with PAI-1 for 12 h, the level of hyaluronic acid(HA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) in LX-2 supernatant were detected with ELISA, and the level of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA),matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2),tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator(PLAU)and PAI-1 in LX-2 were detected by immunocytochemistry and the level of PAI-1 mRNA, TGFβ1 mRNA were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results After incubation with PAI-1 for 12 h, the level of HA and TGFβ1 in the LX-2 supernatant increased significantly(t = 5. 474, t′= 5. 785, P<0. 01 ). The protein expression of α-SMA, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 in LX-2 in the PAI-1 treatment group increased remarkally when compared to normal group as well (t = 5.438,9.511,4. 857, P<0.01 ). The protein expression of MMP-2 and PLAU remain unchanged (t= 0. 473,0. 581 ,P>0.05), while the level of PAI-1mRNA and TGFβ1mRNA in LX-2 increased significantly (t = 4. 683, t′ = 4. 135, P<0. 01 ). There was a positive correlation between PAI-1 mRNA and TGFβ1mRNA(r = 0. 827,P<0. 05). Conclusion PAI-1 may accelerate the formation and development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis through activating LX-2, upregulating TGFβ1 mRNA and protein and promoting synthesis of extrocellar matrix.%目的 探讨外源性纤溶酶原激活物抑制因子-1(PAI-1)对人肝星状细胞(LX-2)活化及细胞外基质合成的影响.方法 采用四甲基偶氮唑盐法(MTT)检测培养液中加入PAI-1后LX-2细胞的增殖变化,确定PAI-1的最佳干预浓度.将LX-2培养液中加入PAI-1培养12 h,ELISA法检测细胞上清液中转化生长因子(TGFβ1)、透明质酸(HA)的变

  20. In vivo and in vitro effect of androstene derivatives as 5α-reductase type 1 enzyme inhibitors.

    Bratoeff, Eugene; Sánchez, Araceli; Arellano, Yazmín; Heuze, Yvonne; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2013-12-01

    The aim of these studies was to synthesize twelve ester derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone with therapeutic potential. The effect of 1-12 was demonstrated in the flank organs of gonadectomized hamsters treated with testosterone and the synthesized steroids. In vitro studies were carried out determining the IC50 values for the inhibition of the activity of 5α-reductase type 1 and 2, which are present in rat liver and human prostate respectively. The binding of 1-12 to the androgen receptors (AR) was determined using rat's prostate cytosol. Steroids 1-12 containing different substituents in the phenyl group of the ester moiety in C-3 reduced the flank organs and inhibited the activity of 5α-R type 1; however only steroids 1 and 2 inhibited 5α-R type 2. 1-12 did not bind to the AR. The modification of one atom of the substituents in the phenyl group of the ester moiety in C-3 changed their biological potency (IC50).

  1. Toll-like receptor 8 ligands activate a vitamin D mediated autophagic response that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Campbell, Grant R; Spector, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in recognizing microbial pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy, and in the mediation of immune activation during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) infection. We report here that TLR8 activation in human macrophages induces the expression of the human cathelicidin microbial peptide (CAMP), the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP27B1), which 1α-hydroxylates the inactive form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, into its biologically active metabolite. Moreover, we demonstrate using RNA interference, chemical inhibitors and vitamin D deficient media that TLR8 agonists inhibit HIV through a vitamin D and CAMP dependent autophagic mechanism. These data support an important role for vitamin D in the control of HIV infection, and provide a biological explanation for the benefits of vitamin D. These findings also provide new insights into potential novel targets to prevent and treat HIV infection.

  2. High throughput cell-based assay for identification of glycolate oxidase inhibitors as a potential treatment for Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1

    Wang, Mengqiao; Xu, Miao; Long, Yan; Fargue, Sonia; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; McKew, John C.; Danpure, Christopher J.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GO) and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) are both involved in the peroxisomal glyoxylate pathway. Deficiency in AGT function causes the accumulation of intracellular oxalate and the primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). AGT enhancers or GO inhibitors may restore the abnormal peroxisomal glyoxylate pathway in PH1 patients. With stably transformed cells which mimic the glyoxylate metabolic pathway, we developed an indirect glycolate cytotoxicity assay in a 1,536-well plate format for high throughput screening. This assay can be used to identify compounds that reduce indirect glycolate-induced cytotoxicity by either enhancing AGT activity or inhibiting GO. A pilot screen of 4,096 known compounds identified two membrane permeable GO inhibitors: dichromate salt and colistimethate. We also developed a GO enzyme assay using the hydrogen peroxide-Amplex red reporter system. The IC50 values of potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, and colistimethate sodium were 0.096, 0.108, and 2.3 μM in the GO enzyme assay, respectively. Further enzyme kinetic study revealed that both types of compounds inhibit GO activity by the mixed linear inhibition. Our results demonstrate that the cell-based assay and GO enzyme assay developed in this study are useful for further screening of large compound libraries for drug development to treat PH1. PMID:27670739

  3. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a 27 year-old female patient with type-1-Diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor Canagliflozin

    Bader, Nimrah; Mirza, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a timely case of atypical euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor canagliflozin. The clinical history, physical examination findings and laboratory values are described. Other causes of acidosis such as salicylate toxicity or alcohol intoxication were excluded. Ketoacidosis resolved after increasing dextrose and insulin doses supporting the hypothesis that SGLT-2 inhibitors may lead to hypoin...

  4. New mechanism of radiation polarization in type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2016-10-01

    In most type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the optical linear continuum polarization degree is usually small (less than 1 per cent) and the polarization position angle is nearly parallel to the AGN radio axis. However, there are many type 1 AGNs with unexplained intermediate values for both positional angles and polarization degrees. Our explanation of polarization degree and positional angle of type 1 Seyfert AGNs focuses on the reflection of non-polarized radiation from sub-parsec jets in optically thick accretion discs. The presence of a magnetic field surrounding the scattering media will induce Faraday rotation of the polarization plane, which may explain the intermediate values of positional angles if there is a magnetic field component normal to the accretion disc. The Faraday rotation depolarization effect in the disc diminishes the competition between polarization of the reflected radiation with the parallel component of polarization and the perpendicular polarization from internal radiation of the disc (the Milne problem) in favour of polarization of the reflected radiation. This effect allows us to explain the observed polarization of type 1 Seyfert AGN radiation even though the jet optical luminosity is much lower than the luminosity of the disc. We present the calculation of polarization degrees for a number of type 1 Seyfert AGNs.

  5. Multi-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistant HIV type-1 in a patient from Sierra Leone failing stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine

    R.L. Hamers; A.M.J. Wensing; N.K.T. Back; M.S. Arcilla; J.P.H. Frissen

    2011-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected male from Sierra Leone who harboured extensive drug resistance mutations to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs, including the multi-NRTI-resistance Q151M complex, K65R, M184I and Y181I, after using standard first-

  6. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  7. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release after heparin stimulation is increased in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria

    Leurs, PB; van Oerle, R; Hamulyak, K; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    2003-01-01

    Aims To study heparin-stimulated TFPI release in relation to complications in Type 1 diabetic patients. Subjects and methods Nineteen uncomplicated Type 1 diabetic patients (group I) were compared with 18 patients with retinopathy (group II), and nine patients with retinopathy and albuminuria (group

  8. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions and type 1 modic changes

    Dallaudière, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.dallaudiere@gmail.com [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Inserm U698, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Dautry, Raphaël, E-mail: raphael_dautry@yahoo.fr [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Preux, Pierre-Marie, E-mail: pierre-marie.preux@unilim.fr [Faculté de Médecine de Limoges, Unité fonctionelle de recherche clinique et de biostatistique, hôpital Le Cluzeau, 23, avenue Dominique Larrey, 87042 Limges Cedex (France); Perozziello, Anne, E-mail: aperozziello@gmail.com [Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Unité de recherche clinique, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Lincot, Julien, E-mail: julienlincot@gmail.com [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.schouman-claeys@bch.aphp.fr [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); and others

    2014-02-15

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the values of ADC in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions are different from ADC values in type 1 Modic changes. Subjects and methods: 95 patients with recent lumbar pain, including 46 patients with diagnosed or suspected spondylarthritis and 49 patients with purely degenerative history, underwent spine MRI. T1w, STIR, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were obtained. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. Axial active inflammatory lesions from the SpA group and type 1 Modic changes from the degenerative group were identified on T1w and STIR sequences. ADC values from these lesions and from healthy subchondral bone were compared. Results: All axial active inflammatory lesions (n = 27) and type 1 Modic changes (n = 22) identified in T1w and STIR images were visible on DWI. ADC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for axial active inflammatory lesions (median = 0.788 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.7 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.9 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) than for type 1 Modic changes (median = 0.585 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.55 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.60 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) and normal subchondral bone (median = 0.443 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.40 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.50 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]). Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-reader ADC values comparison were excellent (0.89 and 0.98 respectively). Conclusion: DWI is a sensitive and fast sequence that offer the possibility of quantifying diffusion coefficients of the lesions, which could help to discriminate between spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory and type 1 Modic changes.

  9. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a 27 year-old female patient with type-1-Diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor Canagliflozin

    Bader, Nimrah; Mirza, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a timely case of atypical euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor canagliflozin. The clinical history, physical examination findings and laboratory values are described. Other causes of acidosis such as salicylate toxicity or alcohol intoxication were excluded. Ketoacidosis resolved after increasing dextrose and insulin doses supporting the hypothesis that SGLT-2 inhibitors may lead to hypoinsulinemia. Euglycemic ketoacidosis did not recur in our patient after discontinuing canagliflozin. We recommend reserving SGLT2 inhibitor therapy to type 2 diabetics, discontinuing medication and treating patients presenting with ketoacidosis due to SGLT-2 inhibitors with higher concentrations of dextrose with appropriate doses of insulin to help resolve acidosis. PMID:27375734

  10. Alternative nucleophilic substrates for the endonuclease activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase

    Ealy, Julie B. [Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Mail Services H036, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Penn State Lehigh Valley, 2809 E. Saucon Valley Road, Center Valley, PA 18034 (United States); Sudol, Malgorzata [Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Mail Services H036, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu [Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Katzman, Michael, E-mail: mkatzman@psu.edu [Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, PO Box 850, Mail Services H036, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Retroviral integrase can use water or some small alcohols as the attacking nucleophile to nick DNA. To characterize the range of compounds that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase can accommodate for its endonuclease activities, we tested 45 potential electron donors (having varied size and number or spacing of nucleophilic groups) as substrates during site-specific nicking at viral DNA ends and during nonspecific nicking reactions. We found that integrase used 22 of the 45 compounds to nick DNA, but not all active compounds were used for both activities. In particular, 13 compounds were used for site-specific and nonspecific nicking, 5 only for site-specific nicking, and 4 only for nonspecific nicking; 23 other compounds were not used for either activity. Thus, integrase can accommodate a large number of nucleophilic substrates but has selective requirements for its different activities, underscoring its dynamic properties and providing new information for modeling and understanding integrase.

  11. Type 1 Active Galactic Nucleus Fraction in SDSS/FIRST Survey

    Lu, Yu; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hong-Yan

    2010-01-01

    In the unification scheme, narrow-lined (type 2) active galactic nuclei (AGN) are intrinsically similar to broad-lined (type 1) AGN with the exception that the line of sight to the broad emission line region and accretion disk is blocked by a dusty torus. The fraction of type 1 AGN measures the average covering factor of the torus. In this paper, we explore the dependence of this fraction on nuclear properties for a sample of low redshift (z 10^{23}W/Hz) AGN selected by matching the spectroscopic catalog of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the radio source catalog of Faint Image of Radio Sky at Twenty cm. After correcting for several selection effects, we find that : (1) type 1 fraction $f_1$ keeps at a constant of ~20 per cent in the [O III] 5007 luminosity range of 40.7< log(L_{[O III]}/ erg/s) <43.5 . This result is significantly different from previous studies, and the difference can be explained by extinction correction and different treatment of selection effects. (2) $f_1$ rises with black hole mass ...

  12. Exercise training improves cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in type 1 diabetic children.

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio; Woo, Jinhee; Jang, Ki Soeng; Bae, Ju Yong; Yoo, Jaeho; Kang, Sunghwun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect exercise training has on cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and cardiovascular risk profiles in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). [Subjects] Fifteen type 1 DM children (all boys; 13.0±1.0 years of age) were enrolled in the study. [Methods] The subjects received exercise training three times a week in a 12-week program. Each child was asked to walk on a treadmill to achieve an exercise intensity of VO2max 60%. ANS activity was measured by power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Blood samples were obtained for serum lipid profiles. To evaluate Doppler-shifted Fourier pulsatility index (PI) analysis, a 5-MHz continuous wave Doppler (VASCULAB D10) set was used to measure forward blood flow velocity (FLOW) in the radial artery. [Results] Total and low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability increased significantly after exercise intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) levels were significant lower after exercise intervention. Total and high-frequency (HF) power were significantly correlated with higher TC levels, but diastolic blood pressure and HF was significantly correlated with lower TC levels. [Conclusion] Regular exercise intervention should be prescribed for children with type 1 DM.

  13. Novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors screened by the cytoprotective function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Yuri Kim

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human viruses, such as HTLV, HPV, HCV and HIV-1, also modulate this pathway, presumably in order to extend the life span of the infected target cells for productive viral replication. The expression of HIV-1 Tat protein exhibited the cytoprotective effect in macrophages and a human microglial cell line by inhibiting the negative regulator of this pathway, PTEN. This cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 appears to contribute to the long-term survival and persistent HIV-1 production in human macrophage reservoirs. In this study we exploited the PI3K/Akt dependent cytoprotective effect of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. We screened a collection of compounds known to modulate inflammation, and identified three novel compounds: Lancemaside A, Compound K and Arctigenin that abolished the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. All three compounds antagonized the kinase activity of Akt. Further detailed signaling studies revealed that each of these three compounds targeted different steps of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3. Lancemaside A1 inhibited the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation. Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors.

  14. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1a (AT1a) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model......) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...... to be completely resolved. Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis is a computational method, which identifies clusters of functionally important residues by integrating information on evolutionary important residue variations with receptor structure. Combined with known mutational data, ET predicted a patch of residues...

  15. Chronic inhibition of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity decreases hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia in metabolic syndrome.

    Schnackenberg, Christine G; Costell, Melissa H; Krosky, Daniel J; Cui, Jianqi; Wu, Charlene W; Hong, Victor S; Harpel, Mark R; Willette, Robert N; Yue, Tian-Li

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity that promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome has been associated with changes in the secretion or metabolism of glucocorticoids, which have important functions in adipose, liver, kidney, and vasculature. Tissue concentrations of the active glucocorticoid cortisol are controlled by the conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β -HSD1). Because of the various cardiovascular and metabolic activities of glucocorticoids, we tested the hypothesis that 11 β -HSD1 is a common mechanism in the hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. In obese and lean SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp), cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal functions were measured before and during four weeks of administration of vehicle or compound 11 (10 mg/kg/d), a selective inhibitor of 11 β -HSD1. Compound 11 significantly decreased 11 β -HSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver of SHR-cp. In obese SHR-cp, compound 11 significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and plasma renin activity with no effect on heart rate, body weight gain, or microalbuminuria. These results suggest that 11 β -HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue is a common mediator of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  16. Chronic Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Activity Decreases Hypertension, Insulin Resistance, and Hypertriglyceridemia in Metabolic Syndrome

    Christine G. Schnackenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity that promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome has been associated with changes in the secretion or metabolism of glucocorticoids, which have important functions in adipose, liver, kidney, and vasculature. Tissue concentrations of the active glucocorticoid cortisol are controlled by the conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1. Because of the various cardiovascular and metabolic activities of glucocorticoids, we tested the hypothesis that 11β-HSD1 is a common mechanism in the hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. In obese and lean SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp, cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal functions were measured before and during four weeks of administration of vehicle or compound 11 (10 mg/kg/d, a selective inhibitor of 11β-HSD1. Compound 11 significantly decreased 11β-HSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver of SHR-cp. In obese SHR-cp, compound 11 significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and plasma renin activity with no effect on heart rate, body weight gain, or microalbuminuria. These results suggest that 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue is a common mediator of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  17. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through evolutionary trace analysis

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong;

    2010-01-01

    in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1a (AT1a) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model...... for 7TM receptor activation and signaling. Six mutations: F66A, L67R, L70R, L119R, D125A, and I245F were targeted to the putative switch and assayed for changes in activation state by their ligand binding, signaling, and trafficking properties. All but one receptor mutant (that was not expressed well...

  18. A Styrene-alt-Maleic Acid Copolymer Is an Effective Inhibitor of R5 and X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    Vanessa Pirrone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic acid (alt-PSMA differs from other polyanionic antiviral agents in that the negative charges of alt-PSMA are provided by carboxylic acid groups instead of sulfate or sulfonate moieties. We hypothesized that alt-PSMA would have activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 comparable to other polyanions, such as the related compound, poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS. In assays using cell lines and primary immune cells, alt-PSMA was characterized by low cytotoxicity and effective inhibition of infection by HIV-1 BaL and IIIB as well as clinical isolates of subtypes A, B, and C. In mechanism of action assays, in which each compound was added to cells and subsequently removed prior to HIV-1 infection (“washout” assay, alt-PSMA caused no enhancement of infection, while PSS washout increased infection 70% above control levels. These studies demonstrate that alt-PSMA is an effective HIV-1 inhibitor with properties that warrant further investigation.

  19. Preparation of 16β-Estradiol Derivative Libraries as Bisubstrate Inhibitors of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Using the Multidetachable Sulfamate Linker

    Donald Poirier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial chemistry is a powerful tool used to rapidly generate a large number of potentially biologically active compounds. In our goal to develop bisubstrate inhibitors of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 that interact with both the substrate (estrone or estradiol and the cofactor (NAD(PH binding sites, we used parallel solid-phase synthesis to prepare three libraries of 16β-estradiol derivatives with two or three levels of molecular diversity. From estrone, we first synthesized a sulfamate precursor that we loaded on trityl chloride resin using the efficient multidetachable sulfamate linker strategy recently developed in our laboratory. We then introduced molecular diversity [one or two amino acid(s followed by a carboxylic acid] on steroid nucleus by Fmoc peptide chemistry. Finally, after a nucleophilic cleavage, libraries of 30, 63 and 25 estradiol derivatives were provided. A library of 30 sulfamoylated estradiol derivatives was also generated by acidic cleavage and its members were screened for inhibition of steroid sulfatase. Biological evaluation on homogenated HEK-293 cells overexpressing 17β-HSD1 of the estradiol derivatives carrying different oligoamide-type chains at C-16 first revealed that three levels of molecular diversity (a spacer of two amino acids were necessary to interact with the adenosine part of the cofactor binding site. Second, the best inhibition was obtained when hydrophobic residues (phenylalanine were used as building blocks.

  20. A Case of Angioedema Associated with Decreased C1 Inhibitor Activity

    Chizuko Yano

    2007-01-01

    Discussion: Based on the presence of the typical clinical features and the positive results on the complement tests, we diagnosed hereditary angioedema. A decrease in C1 inhibitor activity and an increase in specific protein concentrations indicated type 1.

  1. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Cracco, V; Di Mille, F; Rafanelli, P

    2013-01-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size $r 2000 km/s) and narrow line (1000 km/s < FWHMH$_{\\rm H\\beta}\\, \\leq$ 2000 km/s) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z = 0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present anal...

  2. Activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes

    Beata Zalewska-Szajda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, by measurement of the activity of N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (HEX in their saliva.Material/Methods: The study was performed in 65 children with type 1 diabetes and 39 healthy children. Salivary HEX activity was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Zwierz et al. in the modification of Marciniak et al. Protein was determined by the bicinchoninic acid method (BCATM Assay Protein Kit. Concentration of the HEX activity was expressed in pKat/mL and HEX specific activity in pKat/μg of protein.Results: A significant increase in the concentration and the specific activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes, compared to healthy children, was found.Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes increases salivary catabolism of glycoconjugates reflected by the significant increase in the activity of HEX in the saliva of children with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy children. The salivary HEX activity may be used in the diagnosis of children with type 1 diabetes after confirmation of our results on a larger cohort of children with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Serological evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) activity in polo horses in Nigeria.

    Adeyefa, C A

    1992-10-01

    Serological evidence of Equine Herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) activity in Polo horses in Nigeria is reported for the first time. Eighty-two percent of horses tested with known antigen had precipitating antibodies to EHV-1 while 43% of sera tested against antigen prepared from nasal discharges were positive suggesting that the virus was being excreted in the nasal discharges and probably acting as a source of infection for incontact animals as occurs in on-going acute infections. The result of this study indicates a high prevalence of EHV-1 activity among Polo horses in Nigeria and demonstrates the ubiquitous distribution of the virus in a country that has not been previously investigated.

  4. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun

    2007-01-01

    in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels......We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect...... of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined fluorometrically in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and in human visceral fat tissue. Adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was determined by oil red O-staining of intracellular lipid droplets, triglyceride levels, expression of peroxisome proliferator...

  5. The different neighbours around Type-1 and Type-2 active galactic nuclei

    Villarroel, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    One of the most intriguing open issues in galaxy evolution is the structure and evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that emit intense light believed to come from an accretion disk near a super-massive black hole (Rees 1984, Lynden-Bell 1969). To understand the zoo of different AGN classes, it has been suggested that all AGN are the same type of object viewed from different angles (Antonucci 1993). This model -- called AGN unification -- has been successful in predicting e.g. the existence of hidden broad optical lines in the spectrum of many narrow-line AGN. But this model is not unchallenged (Tran 2001) and it is an open problem whether more than viewing angle separates the so-called Type-1 and Type-2 AGN. Here we report the first large-scale study that finds strong differences in the galaxy neighbours to Type-1 and Type-2 AGN with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) (York et al. 2000) Data Release 7 (DR7) (Abazajian et al. 2008) and Galaxy Zoo (Lintott et al, 2008, Lintott et al 2011). We fi...

  6. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  7. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    Geisa B. Gallardo-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects.

  8. Comparison of a homology model and the crystallographic structure of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in a structure-based identification of inhibitors

    Miguet, Laurence; Zhang, Ziding; Barbier, Maryse; Grigorov, Martin G.

    2006-02-01

    Human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of cortisone into active cortisol. 11βHSD1 inhibition is a tempting target for the treatment of a host of human disorders that might benefit from blockade of glucocorticoid action, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type 2. Here, we report an in silico screening study aimed at identifying new selective inhibitors of human 11βHSD1 enzyme. In the first step, homology modeling was employed to build the 3D structure of 11βHSD1. Further, molecular docking was used to validate the predicted model by showing that it was able to discriminate between known 11βHSD1 inhibitors or substrates and non-inhibitors. The homology model was found to reproduce closely the crystal structure that became publicly available in the final stages of this work. Finally, we carried out structure-based virtual screening experiments on both the homology model and the crystallographic structure with a database of 114'000 natural molecules. Among these, 15 molecules were consistently selected as inhibitors based on both the model and crystal structures of the enzyme, implying a good quality for the homology model. Among these putative 11βHSD1 inhibitors, two were flavonone derivatives that have already been shown to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme.

  9. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  10. Green tea and one of its constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, are potent inhibitors of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Jan Hintzpeter

    Full Text Available The microsomal enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid deydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoid receptor-inert cortisone to receptor- active cortisol, thereby acting as an intracellular switch for regulating the access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. There is strong evidence for an important aetiological role of 11β-HSD1 in various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity. Hence, modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Since tea has been associated with health benefits for thousands of years, we sought to elucidate the active principle in tea with regard to diabetes type 2 prevention. Several teas and tea specific polyphenolic compounds were tested for their possible inhibition of cortisone reduction with human liver microsomes and purified human 11β-HSD1. Indeed we found that tea extracts inhibited 11β-HSD1 mediated cortisone reduction, where green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 3.749 mg dried tea leaves per ml. Consequently, major polyphenolic compounds from green tea, in particular catechins were tested with the same systems. (--Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG revealed the highest inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity (reduction: IC50 = 57.99 µM; oxidation: IC50 = 131.2 µM. Detailed kinetic studies indicate a direct competition mode of EGCG, with substrate and/or cofactor binding. Inhibition constants of EGCG on cortisone reduction were Ki = 22.68 µM for microsomes and Ki = 18.74 µM for purified 11β-HSD1. In silicio docking studies support the view that EGCG binds directly to the active site of 11β-HSD1 by forming a hydrogen bond with Lys187 of the catalytic triade. Our study is the first to provide evidence that the health benefits of green tea and its

  11. Green tea and one of its constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, are potent inhibitors of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Stapelfeld, Claudia; Loerz, Christine; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Maser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid deydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoid receptor-inert cortisone to receptor- active cortisol, thereby acting as an intracellular switch for regulating the access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. There is strong evidence for an important aetiological role of 11β-HSD1 in various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity. Hence, modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Since tea has been associated with health benefits for thousands of years, we sought to elucidate the active principle in tea with regard to diabetes type 2 prevention. Several teas and tea specific polyphenolic compounds were tested for their possible inhibition of cortisone reduction with human liver microsomes and purified human 11β-HSD1. Indeed we found that tea extracts inhibited 11β-HSD1 mediated cortisone reduction, where green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 3.749 mg dried tea leaves per ml. Consequently, major polyphenolic compounds from green tea, in particular catechins were tested with the same systems. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) revealed the highest inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity (reduction: IC50 = 57.99 µM; oxidation: IC50 = 131.2 µM). Detailed kinetic studies indicate a direct competition mode of EGCG, with substrate and/or cofactor binding. Inhibition constants of EGCG on cortisone reduction were Ki = 22.68 µM for microsomes and Ki = 18.74 µM for purified 11β-HSD1. In silicio docking studies support the view that EGCG binds directly to the active site of 11β-HSD1 by forming a hydrogen bond with Lys187 of the catalytic triade. Our study is the first to provide evidence that the health benefits of green tea and its polyphenolic compounds may

  12. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp.

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation.

  13. Identification of a type 1 diabetes-associated CD4 promoter haplotype with high constitutive activity

    Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Larsen, Z M;

    2004-01-01

    CD4 is a candidate gene in autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), because the CD4 receptor is crucial for appropriate antigen responses of CD4(+) T cells. We previously found linkage between a CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) promoter polymorphism and T1DM. In the present study, we...... screened the human CD4 promoter for mutations and identified three frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): CD4-181C/G, CD4-521C/G and CD4-1050T/C. The SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association with the CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) alleles, and we observed nine CD4 promoter haplotypes...... promoter activity and (2) the CD4-181G variant encodes higher stimulated promoter activity than the CD4-181C variant. This difference is in part neutralized in the frequently occurring CD4 promoter haplotypes by the more upstream genetic variants. Thus, we report functional impact of a novel CD4-181C/G SNP...

  14. Emodin, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, regulates adipocyte function in vitro and exerts anti-diabetic effect in ob/ob mice

    Yue-jing WANG; Su-ling HUANG; Ying FENG; Meng-meng NING; Ying LENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy 6-methylanthraquinone) is a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) with the ability to ameliorate metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese mice.In the present study,we investigated the effects of emodin on adipocyte function and the underlying mechanisms in vitro,and its anti-diabetic effects in ob/ob mice.Methods:3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for in vitro studies.11β-HSD1A activity was evaluated with a scintillation proximity assay.The adipogenesis,glucose uptake,lipolysis and adiponectin secretion were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with emodin in the presence of active (corticosterone) or inactive glucocorticoid (11-dehydrocorticosterone).For in vivo studies,ob/ob mice were administered emodin (25 and 50 mg.kg-1·d-1,ip) for 26 d.On the last day of administration,the serum was collected and the mesenteric and perirenal fat were dissected for analyses.Results:Emodin inhibited the 11β-HSD1 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in concentration- and time dependent manners (the IC50 values were 7,237 and 4.204 μmol/L,respectively,after 1 and 24 h treatment,in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,emodin (30 μmol/L) suppressed 11-dehydrocorticosterone-induced adipogenesis without affecting corticosterone-induced adipogenesis; emodin (3 μmol/L) reduced 11-dehydrocorticosterone-stimulated lipolysis,but had no effect on corticosterone-induced lipolysis.Moreover,emodin (3 μmol/L)partly reversed the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion induced by 11-dehydrocorticosterone but not those induced by corticosterone.In ob/ob mice,long-term emodin administration decreased 11β-HSD1 activity in mesenteric adipose tissues,lowered non-fasting and fasting blood glucose levels,and improved glucose tolerance.Conclusion:Emodin improves the inactive glucocorticoid-induced adipose tissue dysfunction by selective inhibition on 11β-HSD1 in adipocyte in vitro and improves glycemic control in ob

  15. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming, E-mail: qmchen@scu.edu.cn

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  16. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors reduce membrane fluidity of capacitated boar sperm by impairing their activation by bicarbonate.

    Barbara Barboni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian spermatozoa acquire their full fertilizing ability (so called capacitation within the female genital tract, where they are progressively exposed to inverse gradients of inhibiting and stimulating molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present research, the effect on this process of anandamide, an endocannabinoid that can either activate or inhibit cannabinoid receptors depending on its concentration, and bicarbonate, an oviductal activatory molecule, was assessed, in order to study the role exerted by the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R in the process of lipid membrane remodeling crucial to complete capacitation. To this aim, boar sperm were incubated in vitro under capacitating conditions (stimulated by bicarbonate in the presence or in the absence of methanandamide (Met-AEA, a non-hydrolysable analogue of anandamide. The CB1R involvement was studied by using the specific inhibitor (SR141716 or mimicking its activation by adding a permeable cAMP analogue (8Br-cAMP. By an immunocytochemistry approach it was shown that the Met-AEA inhibits the bicarbonate-dependent translocation of CB1R from the post-equatorial to equatorial region of sperm head. In addition it was found that Met-AEA is able to prevent the bicarbonate-induced increase in membrane disorder and the cholesterol extraction, both preliminary to capacitation, acting through a CB1R-cAMP mediated pathway, as indicated by MC540 and filipin staining, EPR spectroscopy and biochemical analysis on whole membranes (CB1R activity and on membrane enriched fraction (C/P content and anisotropy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system strongly inhibits the process of sperm capacitation, acting as membrane stabilizing agent, thus increasing the basic knowledge on capacitation-related signaling and potentially opening new perspectives in diagnostics and therapeutics of male infertility.

  17. Transcellular activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat in cocultured lymphocytes.

    Marcuzzi, A; Weinberger, J; Weinberger, O K

    1992-01-01

    One of the unexplained aspects of the progression of AIDS is that immunological abnormalities are detectable before CD4+ T-helper cell depletion occurs (A.R. Gruters, F.G. Terpstra, R. De Jong, C.J.M. Van Noesel, R.A.W. Van Lier, and F. Miedema, Eur. J. Immunol. 20:1039-1044, 1990; F. Miedema, A.J. Chantal-Petit, F.G. Terpstra, J.K.M.E. Schattenkerk, F. de Wolf, B.J.M. Al, M. Roos, J.M.A. Lang, S.A. Danner, J. Goudsmit, and P.T.A. Schellekens, J. Clin. Invest. 82:1908-1914, 1988; G.M. Shearer, D.C. Bernstein, K.S. Tung, C.S. Via, R. Redfield, S.Z. Salahuddin, and R.C. Gallo, J. Immunol. 137:2514-2521, 1986). In this report, we describe a mechanism by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells can influence neighboring HIV-1-infected T lymphocytes and uninfected T cells as well. We have examined the interaction of T-cell and macrophage cell lines that are transfected with HIV-1 DNA by using cocultured lymphocytes. The HIV-1 constructs we used lack a functional pol gene and therefore do not produce infectious virus. Cocultivation results in the transcellular activation of the HIV long terminal repeat in the cocultured T cells. This transcellular activation is evident in as little as 3 h of cocultivation, at ratios of HIV-expressing cells to target cells as low as 1:1,000, and is dependent on the Tat-responsive element. The demonstration that a small number of HIV-expressing cells can affect a large number of uninfected bystander cells in a short period of time suggests a mechanism by which global immune dysfunction can precede the high prevalence of infected cells. Images PMID:1602543

  18. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B. [IASF-Bologna, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P. [IAPS-Roma, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bird, A. J., E-mail: malizia@iasfbo.inaf.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Predisposes to Type 1 Diabetes in Murine Model

    Carlos, Daniela; Costa, Frederico R. C.; Pereira, Camila A.; Rocha, Fernanda A.; Yaochite, Juliana N. U.; Oliveira, Gabriela G.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.; Ramos, Simone G.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Camara, Niels O. S.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Silva, João S.

    2017-01-01

    Although a correlation between polymorphisms of NOD-like receptor family-pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been identified, the potential function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in T1D have not been clarified. The present study shows that non-obese diabetic mice exhibited increased NLRP3, and pro-IL-1β gene expression in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs). Similar increases in gene expression of NLRP3, apoptosis associated speck like protein (ASC) and pro-IL-1β were induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, diabetic C57BL/6 mice also exhibited increased IL-1β protein expression in the pancreatic tissue at day 7, which remained elevated until day 15. Diabetic mice also showed increased positive caspase-1 macrophages in the PLNs, which were decreased in NLRP3−/− mice, but not in ASC−/− mice, after STZ treatment. NLRP3- and IL-1R-deficient mice, but not ASC-deficient mice, showed reduced incidence of diabetes, less insulitis, lower hyperglycemia, and normal insulin levels compared to wild-type (WT) diabetic mice. Notably, these mice also displayed a decrease in IL-17-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th17 and Tc17) and IFN-γ-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th1 and Tc1) in the PLNs. Following STZ treatment to induce T1D, NLRP3-deficient mice also exhibited an increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cell and mast cell numbers in the PLNs along with a significant increase in IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4 expression in the pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, diabetic mice revealed increased circulating expression of genes related to mitochondrial DNA, such as cytochrome b and cytochrome c, but not NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NADH). Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) from diabetic mice, but not from non-diabetic mice, induced significant IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation by WT macrophages, which was reduced in NLRP3−/− macrophages. Finally, mDNA administration in vivo increased

  20. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) Losartan has cardioprotective effects during ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits reperfusion arrhythmias -effects that go beyond the benefits of lowering blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are intricately...

  1. Lovastatin regulates brain spontaneous low-frequency brain activity in Neurofibromatosis type 1

    Chabernaud, C.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Kardel, P.G.; Gaillard, W.D.; Kalbfleisch, M.L.; Vanmeter, J.W.; Packer, R.J.; Milham, M.P.; Castellanos, F.X.; Acosta, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    In the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mouse model, lovastatin, used clinically for hypercholesterolemia, improves cognitive dysfunction. While such impairment has been studied in NF1, the neural substrates remain unclear. The aim of this imaging add-on to a Phase 1 open-label trial was to examine th

  2. Hepatic iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 activity is decreased in two DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis mouse models.

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Looijmans, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal thyroid status has been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and this can possibly be correlated to neuromuscular symptoms. Iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (D1) activity is an important determinant of thyroid status, and we chose to investigate D1 activity in CF liver. MET

  3. Use of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled CCR5 receptors by CCR5 inhibitor-resistant and -sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants.

    Berro, Reem; Yasmeen, Anila; Abrol, Ravinder; Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Abi-Habib, Sarya; Grunbeck, Amy; Lascano, Danny; Goddard, William A; Klasse, Per Johan; Sakmar, Thomas P; Moore, John P

    2013-06-01

    Small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as vicriviroc (VVC) and maraviroc (MVC) are allosteric modulators that impair HIV-1 entry by stabilizing a CCR5 conformation that the virus recognizes inefficiently. Viruses resistant to these compounds are able to bind the inhibitor-CCR5 complex while also interacting with the free coreceptor. CCR5 also interacts intracellularly with G proteins, as part of its signal transduction functions, and this process alters its conformation. Here we investigated whether the action of VVC against inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant viruses is affected by whether or not CCR5 is coupled to G proteins such as Gαi. Treating CD4(+) T cells with pertussis toxin to uncouple the Gαi subunit from CCR5 increased the potency of VVC against the sensitive viruses and revealed that VVC-resistant viruses use the inhibitor-bound form of Gαi-coupled CCR5 more efficiently than they use uncoupled CCR5. Supportive evidence was obtained by expressing a signaling-deficient CCR5 mutant with an impaired ability to bind to G proteins, as well as two constitutively active mutants that activate G proteins in the absence of external stimuli. The implication of these various studies is that the association of intracellular domains of CCR5 with the signaling machinery affects the conformation of the external and transmembrane domains and how they interact with small-molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry.

  4. SCREENING THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ESCHERICHIA COLI TYPE (1

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM, FRDOOS MOHAMMAD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of Escherichia coli causing mastitis and of bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics has become aserious problem in recent years. So the search for new antibiotics and alternative products to solve this problem is the question ofthe age. This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of the following plants:Olea europea Linn (Oleaceae ، Myrtus communis Linn (Liliaceae، Majorana syriacus Linn (Laminaceae، Zingiber officinaleLinn (Zingiberaceae، Achillea falcata Linn (Asteraceae against resistant Escherichia coli Type (1. Investigation began forE.coli bacteria in 667 milk samples. The bacteria were identified culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibioticsusceptibility testing against E.coli by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were conducted. Then using the blood agar,MacConkey agar, salmonella - shigella agar, and biochemical testing method [API 20 E testing Enterobacteriaceae] were made totype E.coli. Plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether using a soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuumevaporator. Then extracts susceptibility testing against antibiotic resistant E.coli Type (1 were studied. E. coli was defined asoxidase negative, indole positive, catalase positive. The studied antibiotics did not show any antibacterial effect against E.coli .By the results of the biochemical analysis (API20e on resistant E.coli , E.coli type (1 was 33.35% of the total number ofsamples. The anti-bacterial effectiveness against E.coli type (1 of ethanol extracts prepared from different parts of the studiedplants were variant, whereas the Myrtus communis extract effectively has the most powerful antibacterial effect for these bacteria,while the Zingiber officinale extract has the lowest influence.

  5. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase through an artificial receptor for proMMP-2 generates active MMP-2.

    Nishida, Yuki; Miyamori, Hisashi; Thompson, Erik W; Takino, Takahisa; Endo, Yoshio; Sato, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    The suggested model for pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) activation by membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) implicates the complex between MT1-MMP and tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2) as a receptor for proMMP-2. To dissect this model and assess the pathologic significance of MMP-2 activation, an artificial receptor for proMMP-2 was created by replacing the signal sequence of TIMP-2 with cytoplasmic/transmembrane domain of type II transmembrane mosaic serine protease (MSP-T2). Unlike TIMP-2, MSP-T2 served as a receptor for proMMP-2 without inhibiting MT1-MMP, and generated TIMP-2-free active MMP-2 even at a low level of MT1-MMP. Thus, MSP-T2 did not affect direct cleavage of the substrate testican-1 by MT1-MMP, whereas TIMP-2 inhibited it even at the level that stimulates proMMP-2 processing. Expression of MSP-T2 in HT1080 cells enhanced MMP-2 activation by endogenous MT1-MMP and caused intensive hydrolysis of collagen gel. Expression of MSP-T2 in U87 glioma cells, which express a trace level of endogenous MT1-MMP, induced MMP-2 activation and enhanced cell-associated protease activity, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and metastatic ability into chick embryonic liver and lung. MT1-MMP can exert both maximum MMP-2 activation and direct cleavage of substrates with MSP-T2, which cannot be achieved with TIMP-2. These results suggest that MMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP potentially amplifies protease activity, and combination with direct cleavage of substrate causes effective tissue degradation and enhances tumor invasion and metastasis, which highlights the complex role of TIMP-2. MSP-T2 is a unique tool to analyze physiologic and pathologic roles of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in comparison with TIMP-2.

  6. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity a

  7. Genetic variation and activity of the renin-angiotensin system and severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Dhamrait, S.S.; Sethi, A.A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The deletion-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and elevated ACE activity are associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. We explored whether genetic and phenotypic variations in other components of the renin-angiotensin system...

  8. Low-Cytotoxic Synthetic Bromorutaecarpine Exhibits Anti-Inflammation and Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 Activities

    Chi-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutaecarpine (RUT, the major bioactive ingredient isolated from the Chinese herb Evodia rutaecarpa, possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammation and preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, its high cytotoxicity hampers pharmaceutical development. We designed and synthesized a derivative of RUT, bromo-dimethoxyrutaecarpine (Br-RUT, which showed no cytotoxicity at 20 μM. Br-RUT suppressed nitric oxide (NO production and tumor necrosis factor-α release in concentration-dependent (0~20 μM manners in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages; protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS were downregulated. Br-RUT inhibited cell migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells with 0~48 h of treatment. Furthermore, Br-RUT enhanced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and activated endothelial NOS in human aortic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the synthetic Br-RUT possesses very low cytotoxicity but retains its activities against inflammation and vasodilation that could be beneficial for cardiovascular disease therapeutics.

  9. BVT.2733, a selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, attenuates obesity and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, which suppresses glucocorticoid action, on adipose tissue inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of BVT.2733, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a normal chow diet (NC or high fat diet (HFD. HFD treated mice were then administrated with BVT.2733 (HFD+BVT or vehicle (HFD for four weeks. Mice receiving BVT.2733 treatment exhibited decreased body weight and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to control mice. BVT.2733 also down-regulated the expression of inflammation-related genes including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and the number of infiltrated macrophages within the adipose tissue in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and RNA interference against 11β-HSD1 reduced the mRNA levels of MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cultured J774A.1 macrophages and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BVT.2733 treatment could not only decrease body weight and improve metabolic homeostasis, but also suppress the inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. 11β-HSD1 may be a very promising therapeutic target for obesity and associated disease.

  10. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  11. Severe hypoglycaemia during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes: possible role of renin-angiotensin system activity?

    Nielsen, L Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in early pregnancy is related to pregnancy-induced changes in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS: Severe hypoglycaemic events the year preceding pregnancy were recorded...... preceding pregnancy and postpartum ACE activity (relative rate of severe hypoglycaemia above versus below median ACE activity: 4.4 (CI: 1.7-11.9), p=0.003). No association was found between severe hypoglycaemia during pregnancy and renin angiotensin system activity at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: In early...

  12. Multi-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistant HIV type-1 in a patient from Sierra Leone failing stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine.

    Hamers, Raph L; Wensing, Annemarie Mj; Back, Nicole Kt; Arcilla, Maria S; Frissen, Jos Ph

    2011-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected male from Sierra Leone who harboured extensive drug resistance mutations to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs, including the multi-NRTI-resistance Q151M complex, K65R, M184I and Y181I, after using standard first-line generic fixed-dose stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Triomune™) for 36 months. In the context of non-B subtypes in resource-limited countries, first-line stavudine-containing regimens have been associated with more extensive and complex mutation patterns, compared with subtype B viruses. Whether the extensive and complex NRTI resistance patterns found among African patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy is explained by viral genetic diversity or by different patient monitoring strategies remains to be elucidated. Emerging multi-NRTI resistance in sub-Saharan Africa would not only compromise second-line treatment options and the success of antiretroviral rollout, but could also contribute to the spread of drug-resistant variants worldwide.

  13. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of basal renin-angiotensin system activity

    Due-Andersen, Rikke; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Larroude, Charlotte Ellen;

    2008-01-01

    activity affects cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia, thereby potentially carrying prognostic information on risk of the 'dead-in-bed syndrome'. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine subjects with high RAS activity and nine subjects with low RAS activity were subjected to single-blinded placebo...

  14. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta

    Yan, Zhen Cheng; Liu, Dao Yan; Zhang, Li Li

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow...... or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p...

  15. Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity

    Yoonkyung Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins (peptides are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides. Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins. Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  16. Ligand-induced internalization of the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor independent of recognized signaling activity.

    Cawston, Erin E; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2012-02-01

    distinct from that being studied. This interpretation was further supported by the inability of peptide 309-323 to inhibit its d-Trp-OPE-stimulated internalization. Thus the 309-323 region of the type 1 CCK receptor affects antagonist-stimulated internalization of this receptor, although its mechanism and interacting partner are not yet clear.

  17. Association between erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and some blood lipids in type 1 diabetic patients from Lagos, Nigeria

    Iwalokun Senapon O

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered levels of erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase, atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipid metabolites have been implicated in diabetic complications but their pattern of interactions remains poorly understood. This study evaluated this relationship in Nigerian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 34 consented Type 1 diabetic patients and age -matched 27 non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically and LDL-cholesterol estimated using Friedewald formula. Total protein content and Na+K+-ATPase activity were also determined spectrophotometrically from ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Results Results indicate significant (P +K+-ATPase activity in the Type 1 diabetic patients (0.38 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.07 uM Pi/mgprotein/h compared to the control but with greater reduction in the diabetic subgroup with poor glycemic control (n = 20 and in whom cases of hypercholesterolemia (8.8%, hypertriglyceridemia (2.9% and elevated LDL-cholesterol (5.9% each were found. Correlation analyses further revealed significant (P +K+-ATPase in this subgroup contrary to group with good glycemic control or non-diabetic subjects in which significant (P +K+-ATPase and HDL-C association were found (r = 0.427 - 0.489. The Na+K+-ATPase from the diabetic patients also exhibited increased sensitivity to digoxin and alterations in kinetic constants Vmax and Km determined by glycemic status of the patients. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor glycemic control evokes greater reduction in erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and promote enzyme-blood atherogenic lipid relationships in Type 1 diabetic Nigerian patients.

  18. Physical activity and soybean products : interests in management of oxidant stress associated to type 1 diabetes

    Malardé, Ludivine

    2012-01-01

    Oxidant stress (OS) is well known to contribute to the onset and the development of diabetic complications. OS mainly result from marked rises in blood glucose level. Insulin treatment is required to keep patients alive, but fails to prevent long term complications progression, which result from hyperglycemic induced OS.In healthy people, diet and/or physical activity succeed to significantly reduce OS. Physical activity exhibit moreover glucoregulatory properties.Consequently, the aim of thi...

  19. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    Pei, Ying, E-mail: peiying-19802@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Chen, Zhen-Ping, E-mail: 530670663@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Ju, Huai-Qiang, E-mail: 344464448@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Komatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: komatsu-ms@igakuken.or.jp [Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Ji, Yu-hua, E-mail: tjyh@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Ge, E-mail: lggege_15@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Guo, Chao-wan, E-mail: chaovan_kwok@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Zhang, Ying-Jun, E-mail: zhangyj@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Yang, Chong-Ren, E-mail: cryang@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Wang, Yi-Fei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Kitazato, Kaio, E-mail: kkholi@msn.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  20. Discovering anti-platelet drug combinations with an integrated model of activator-inhibitor relationships, activator-activator synergies and inhibitor-inhibitor synergies.

    Federica Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying effective therapeutic drug combinations that modulate complex signaling pathways in platelets is central to the advancement of effective anti-thrombotic therapies. However, there is no systems model of the platelet that predicts responses to different inhibitor combinations. We developed an approach which goes beyond current inhibitor-inhibitor combination screening to efficiently consider other signaling aspects that may give insights into the behaviour of the platelet as a system. We investigated combinations of platelet inhibitors and activators. We evaluated three distinct strands of information, namely: activator-inhibitor combination screens (testing a panel of inhibitors against a panel of activators; inhibitor-inhibitor synergy screens; and activator-activator synergy screens. We demonstrated how these analyses may be efficiently performed, both experimentally and computationally, to identify particular combinations of most interest. Robust tests of activator-activator synergy and of inhibitor-inhibitor synergy required combinations to show significant excesses over the double doses of each component. Modeling identified multiple effects of an inhibitor of the P2Y12 ADP receptor, and complementarity between inhibitor-inhibitor synergy effects and activator-inhibitor combination effects. This approach accelerates the mapping of combination effects of compounds to develop combinations that may be therapeutically beneficial. We integrated the three information sources into a unified model that predicted the benefits of a triple drug combination targeting ADP, thromboxane and thrombin signaling.

  1. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are elevated and associated with complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Theilade, S; Lyngbaek, S; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS......: From 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 nondiabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The investigated diabetic...... of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity ≥10 m s(-1) ). Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, UAER, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), total cholesterol, body mass index, C-reactive protein, antihypertensive treatment and smoking. RESULTS: Soluble...

  2. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  3. Antiviral Activity of Hatay Propolis Against Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2.

    Yildirim, Ayse; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Duran, Nizami; Jenedi, Kemal; Bolgul, Behiye Sezgin; Miraloglu, Meral; Muz, Mustafa

    2016-02-09

    BACKGROUND Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine and possessing many pharmacological properties. In this study we aimed to investigate: i) the antiviral activities of Hatay propolis samples against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in HEp-2 cell line, and ii) the presence of the synergistic effects of propolis with acyclovir against these viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS All experiments were carried out in HEp-2 cell cultures. Proliferation assays were performed in 24-well flat bottom microplates. We inoculated 1x105 cells per ml and RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal calf serum into each well. Studies to determine cytotoxic effect were performed. To investigate the presence of antiviral activity of propolis samples, different concentrations of propolis (3200, 1600, 800, 400, 200, 100, 75, 50, and 25 μg/mL) were added into the culture medium. The amplifications of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA were performed by real-time PCR method. Acyclovir (Sigma, USA) was chosen as a positive control. Cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS The replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was significantly suppressed in the presence of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of Hatay propolis. We found that propolis began to inhibit HSV-1 replication after 24 h of incubation and propolis activity against HSV-2 was found to start at 48 h following incubation. The activity of propolis against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was confirmed by a significant decrease in the number of viral copies. CONCLUSIONS We determined that Hatay propolis samples have important antiviral effects compared with acyclovir. In particular, the synergy produced by antiviral activity of propolis and acyclovir combined had a stronger effect against HSV-1 and HSV-2 than acyclovir alone.

  4. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers on lymphangiogenesis of gastric cancer in a nude mouse model

    WANG Liang; CAI Shi-rong; ZHANG Chang-hua; HE Yu-long; ZHAN Wen-hua; WU Hui; PENG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) can inhibit tumor growth by inhibition of angiogenesis.This study was designed to study the anticancer effects of ACEI and ARB on tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis in an implanted gastric cancer mouse model.Methods A model of gastric cancer was established by subcutaneously inoculating human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 into 60 nude mice.One week later,all mice were randomly divided into 5 groups.A control group received physiologic saline once daily for 21 days.Mice in the 4 treatment groups received one of the following agents by gavage once daily for 21 days:perindopril,2 mg/kg;captopril,5 mg/kg;Iosartan,50 mg/kg;or valsartan,40 mg/kg.Twenty-one clays after treatment,all the mice were sacrificed and the tumors were removed.Tumor sections were processed,and immunohistochemical methods were used to observe the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C),matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7),and lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD).Results Tumor volume was significantly inhibited in all ACEI and ARB groups,compared with the control group (all P <0.01).LMVD in the ACEI and ARB groups was also significantly lower than that of the control group (all P<0.01).In the ACEI groups,the expressions of VEGF-C and MMP-7 were both significantly decreased,compared with the control group (all P<0.05).In the ARB groups,expression of VEGF-C was significantly decreased compared with the control group (all P<0.05).However,no significant difference was found in the expression of MMP-7 between ARB groups and the control group.Conclusion In a mouse model,ACEI and ARB might inhibit gastric cancer tumor growth by suppressing lymphangiogenesis.

  5. Contribution of Gag and protease to variation in susceptibility to protease inhibitors between different strains of subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Sutherland, Katherine A; Mbisa, Jean L; Cane, Patricia A; Pillay, Deenan; Parry, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag can directly affect susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PIs) in the absence of known resistance mutations in protease. Inclusion of co-evolved Gag alongside protease in phenotypic drug susceptibility assays can alter PI susceptibility in comparison with protease with a WT Gag. Using a single-replication-cycle assay encompassing full-length Gag together with protease we demonstrated significant variation in PI susceptibility between a number of PI-naïve subtype B viruses. Six publicly available subtype B molecular clones, namely HXB2, NL4-3, SF2, YU2, JRFL and 89.6, displayed up to nine-fold reduced PI susceptibility in comparison with the assay reference strain. For two molecular clones, YU2 and JRFL, Gag contributed solely to the observed reduction in susceptibility, with the N-terminal region of Gag contributing significantly. Gag and protease from treatment-naïve, patient-derived viruses also demonstrated significant variation in susceptibility, with up to a 17-fold reduction to atazanavir in comparison with the assay reference strain. In contrast to the molecular clones, protease was the main determinant of the reduced susceptibility. Common polymorphisms in protease, including I13V, L63P and A71T, were shown to contribute to this reduction in PI susceptibility, in the absence of major resistance mutations. This study demonstrated significant variation in PI susceptibility of treatment-naïve patient viruses, and provided further evidence of the independent role of Gag, the protease substrate and in particular the N-terminus of Gag in PI susceptibility. It also highlighted the importance of considering co-evolved Gag and protease when assessing PI susceptibility.

  6. Recurrent hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus resulting from intensive academic activity: an illustrative case report

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a common diabetes management problem illustrated by an adolescent female university student with recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia on Tuesdays when she has intensive academic activity lasting most of the day. Steps taken to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia were patient education and empowerment, frequent self monitoring of blood glucose, reduction in insulin dose on Tuesdays and emphasizing availability of ongoing professional guidance and support anytime she may need it. One of the challenges encountered in the management of this patient was her family’s inability to afford the cost of basal-bolus regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion via insulin pump; the two insulin regimens that best fit into university lifestyle. Conclusion: Adolescents with diabetes mellitus attending tertiary educational institutions may be at increased risk of hypoglycaemia, particularly on days when they have intensive academic activities.

  7. Antiviral Activity of Hatay Propolis Against Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2

    Yildirim, Ayse; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; DURAN, Nizami; Jenedi, Kemal; Bolgul, Behiye Sezgin; Miraloglu, Meral; MUZ, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine and possessing many pharmacological properties. In this study we aimed to investigate: i) the antiviral activities of Hatay propolis samples against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in HEp-2 cell line, and ii) the presence of the synergistic effects of propolis with acyclovir against these viruses. Material/Methods All experiments were carried out in HEp-2 cell cultures. Proliferation assays were performed in 24-well flat bottom microplates. We...

  8. [Impact of physical activity on metabolic control and the development of chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Ayala Ortega, Carmen; García Calzado, Concepción; Silva Rodríguez, Juan José; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Together with a balanced diet, regular physical activity is one of the pillars of diabetes mellitus (DM) management. Physical activity theoretically provides the same advantages in people with DM as in the general population and also has some beneficial effects in controlling metabolic factors, such as improving blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity. In this article, we analyze the main clinical studies published to date that evaluate the impact of physical activity on metabolic control or the development of chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, most of the evaluated studies show that regular physical activity favorably affects metabolic control in DM (or at least does not have adverse effects). However, there is insufficient information about the impact of physical activity on the development and progression of chronic complications.

  9. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Giridharan Nappan V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of obesity. 11β-HSD1 activity in liver, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 3 month-old male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats was assayed. As observed in other rodent models, 11β-HSD1 activity was lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue. In contrast to other rodent obese models, WNIN/Ob obese rats had elevated 11β-HSD1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is in line with the observation in human obesity. Here, we conclude that dysregulation of 11β-HSD1 in WNIN/Ob obese rat model is identical to human obesity, which makes it an excellent model for studying the effect of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors in ameliorating obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  10. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Prasad, Sakamuri S S Vara; Prashanth, Anamthathmakula; Kumar, Chodavarapu Pavan; Reddy, Sirisha J; Giridharan, Nappan V; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-11-17

    11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11 β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of obesity. 11 β-HSD1 activity in liver, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 3 month-old male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats was assayed. As observed in other rodent models, 11 β-HSD1 activity was lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue. In contrast to other rodent obese models, WNIN/Ob obese rats had elevated 11 β-HSD1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is in line with the observation in human obesity. Here, we conclude that dysregulation of 11 β-HSD1 in WNIN/Ob obese rat model is identical to human obesity, which makes it an excellent model for studying the effect of 11 β-HSD1 inhibitors in ameliorating obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Active inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion

    Bzik, D.J.; Person, S.; Read, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that syn mutant-infected cells fuse less well with nonsyncytial virus-infected cells than with uninfected cells, a phenomenon defined as function inhibition. The present study characterizes the kinetics as well as the requirements for expression of fusion inhibition. Initially, the capacity of sparse syn mutant-infected cells to fuse with uninfected surrounding cells was determined throughout infection. Of seven syn mutants examined, including representatives with alterations in two different viral genes that affect cell fusion, all showed an increase in fusion capacity up to 12 hr after infection and a decrease at later times. Fusion inhibition was examined in experiments employing sparse syn20-infected cells which had been incubated to a maximum fusion capacity; it was shown that surrounding cells infected with KOS, the parent of syn20, began to inhibit fusion by the syn20-infected cells at about 4 hr after infection, and that the maximum ability to inhibit fusion was attained at about 6 hr after infection. The metabolic blocking agents actinomycin D (RNA), cycloheximide (protein), 2-deoxyglucose, and tunicamycin (glycoslyation of glycoproteins) all showed the ability to inhibit the expression of fusion inhibition by KOS-infected cells if added shortly after infection. It is concluded that fusion inhibition is an active process that requires the synthesis of RNA, proteins, and glycoproteins. 17 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Hemin activation of innate cellular response blocks human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Takeda, Kazuyo [Microscopy and Imaging Core Facility, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Adhikari, Rewati [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The normal skeletal developmental and homeostatic process termed osteoclastogenesis is exacerbated in numerous pathological conditions and causes excess bone loss. In cancer and HIV-1-infected patients, this disruption of homeostasis results in osteopenia and eventual osteoporesis. Counteracting the factors responsible for these metabolic disorders remains a challenge for preventing or minimizing this co-morbidity associated with these diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that a hemin-induced host protection mechanism not only suppresses HIV-1 associated osteoclastogenesis, but it also exhibits anti-osteoclastogenic activity for non-infected cells. Since the mode of action of hemin is both physiological and pharmacological through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous host protective response to an FDA-licensed therapeutic used to treat another disease, our study suggests an approach to developing novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategies for treating bone disorders, because hemin administration in humans has previously met required FDA safety standards. - Highlights: • HIV-1 infection induced osteoclastogenesis in primary human macrophages. • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited HIV-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in macrophages. • HO-1 induction suppressed RANKL-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in HIV-1-infected macrophages. • This inverse relationship between HO-1 and HIV-1 pathogenesis may define a novel host defense response against HIV-1 infection.

  13. Functional Stability of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    Songul Yasar Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA, and a major regulator of the fibrinolytic system. PAI-1 plays a pivotal role in acute thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT and myocardial infarction (MI. The biological effects of PAI-1 extend far beyond thrombosis including its critical role in fibrotic disorders, atherosclerosis, renal and pulmonary fibrosis, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. The conversion of PAI-1 from the active to the latent conformation appears to be unique among serpins in that it occurs spontaneously at a relatively rapid rate. Latency transition is believed to represent a regulatory mechanism, reducing the risk of thrombosis from a prolonged antifibrinolytic action of PAI-1. Thus, relying solely on plasma concentrations of PAI-1 without assessing its function may be misleading in interpreting the role of PAI-1 in many complex diseases. Environmental conditions, interaction with other proteins, mutations, and glycosylation are the main factors that have a significant impact on the stability of the PAI-1 structure. This review provides an overview on the current knowledge on PAI-1 especially importance of PAI-1 level and stability and highlights the potential use of PAI-1 inhibitors for treating cardiovascular disease.

  14. Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children is associated with a sustained effect on growth

    G. Verweel; N.G. Hartwig (Nico); H.J. Scherpbier; R. de Groot (Ronald); T.F.W. Wolfs (Tom); A.M.C. van Rossum (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: Growth failure is a common feature of children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Children who are treated with mono or dual nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy show a temporary increase in weight gai

  15. The pro-urokinase plasminogen-activation system in the presence of serpin-type inhibitors and the urokinase receptor

    Behrendt, Niels; List, Karin; Andreasen, Peter A;

    2003-01-01

    The reciprocal pro-enzyme activation system of plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their respective zymogens is a potent mechanism in the generation of extracellular proteolytic activity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) acts as a negative regulator. This system ...

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  17. Inhibitors of p21-activated kinases (PAKs).

    Rudolph, Joachim; Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Wang, Weiru

    2015-01-08

    The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases plays important roles in cytoskeletal organization, cellular morphogenesis, and survival, and members of this family have been implicated in many diseases including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. Owing to their large and flexible ATP binding cleft, PAKs, particularly group I PAKs (PAK1, -2, and -3), are difficult to drug; hence, few PAK inhibitors with satisfactory kinase selectivity and druglike properties have been reported to date. Examples are a recently discovered group II PAK (PAK4, -5, -6) selective inhibitor series based on a benzimidazole core, a group I PAK selective series based on a pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-one core, and an allosteric dibenzodiazepine PAK1 inhibitor series. Only one compound, an aminopyrazole based pan-PAK inhibitor, entered clinical trials but did not progress beyond phase I trials. Clinical proof of concept for pan-group I, pan-group II, or PAK isoform selective inhibition has yet to be demonstrated.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulatory activity by Gardnerella vaginalis: relationship to biotypes and other pathogenic characteristics.

    Simoes, J A; Hashemi, F B; Aroutcheva, A A; Heimler, I; Spear, G T; Shott, S; Faro, S

    2001-07-01

    Stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 expression by Gardnerella vaginalis is one possible cause for an increase in the amount of virus in the genital tract. The ability of G. vaginalis to induce HIV expression in chronically infected U1 cells was investigated, along with its possible relationship to biotype, genotype, and resistance to metronidazole and bacteriocin. Significant HIV stimulatory activity was found in 5 (50%) lysates of G. vaginalis. The ability to induce HIV expression in U1 cells was statistically associated with G. vaginalis biotype (P=.048) but not with genotype or resistance to metronidazole and bacteriocin. Further studies to explore the in vivo relevance of HIV activation by G. vaginalis in the female genital tract are warranted, since prevention strategies of bacterial vaginosis and colonization by certain biotypes of G. vaginalis may be valuable in reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

  19. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.

  20. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.

  1. Physical Activity Capture Technology With Potential for Incorporation Into Closed-Loop Control for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Dadlani, Vikash; Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Dassau, Eyal; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-10-18

    Physical activity is an important determinant of glucose variability in type 1 diabetes (T1D). It has been incorporated as a nonglucose input into closed-loop control (CLC) protocols for T1D during the last 4 years mainly by 3 research groups in single center based controlled clinical trials involving a maximum of 18 subjects in any 1 study. Although physical activity data capture may have clinical benefit in patients with T1D by impacting cardiovascular fitness and optimal body weight achievement and maintenance, limited number of such studies have been conducted to date. Clinical trial registries provide information about a single small sample size 2 center prospective study incorporating physical activity data input to modulate closed-loop control in T1D that are seeking to build on prior studies. We expect an increase in such studies especially since the NIH has expanded support of this type of research with additional grants starting in the second half of 2015. Studies (1) involving patients with other disorders that have lasted 12 weeks or longer and tracked physical activity and (2) including both aerobic and resistance activity may offer insights about the user experience and device optimization even as single input CLC heads into real-world clinical trials over the next few years and nonglucose input is introduced as the next advance.

  2. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells

    Zhu Liqian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase: epitope mapping and differential effects on integrase activities in vitro.

    Nilsen, B M; Haugan, I R; Berg, K; Olsen, L; Brown, P O; Helland, D E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome, an essential step in retroviral replication. As a tool to study the structure and function of this enzyme, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against HIV-1 IN were produced. Epitope mapping demonstrated that the 17 MAbs obtained could be divided into seven different groups, and the selection of MAbs representing these groups were tested for their effect on in vitro activities of IN. Four groups of MAbs recognized epitopes within the region of amino acids (aa) 1 to 16, 17 to 38, or 42 to 55 in and around the conserved HHCC motif near the N terminus of IN. MAbs binding to these epitopes inhibited end processing and DNA joining and either stimulated or had little effect on disintegration and reintegration activities of IN. Two MAbs binding to epitopes within the region of aa 56 to 102 in the central core or aa 186 to 250 in the C-terminal half of the protein showed only minor effects on the in vitro activities of IN. Three Mabs which recognized on epitope within the region of aa262 to 271 of HIV-1 IN cross-reacted with HIV-2 IN. MAbs binding to this epitope clearly inhibited end processing and DNA joining and stimulated or had little effect on disintegration. In contrast to the N-terminal-specific MAbs, these C-terminal-specific MAbs abolished reintegration activity of IN. PMID:8627677

  4. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Activity and Mrna Expression of Type 1 Deiodinase in Mice With Excessive lodine Intake

    XUE-FENG YANG; XIAO-HUI HOU; JIAN XU; HUAI-LAN GUO; CHEN-JIANG YING; XIAO-YI CHEN; XIU-FA SUN

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium supplementation on the selenium status and selenoenzyme, especially the activity and mRNA expression of type 1 deiodinase (D1) in mice with excessive iodine (EI) intake and to explore the mechanism of selenium intervention on iodine-induced abnormities. Methods Weanling female BALB/c mice were given tap water or 3 mg/L of iodine or supplemented with 0.5 mg/L or 1.0 mg/L of selenium in the presence of excessive iodine for 5months. Selenium status, thyroid hormone level, hepatic and renal D 1 activity and mRNA expression were examined. Results Excessive iodine intake significantly decreased the selenium concentration in urine and liver, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver. Meanwhile, serum total T4 (TT4) increased while serum total T3 (TT3) decreased. Hepatic D1enzyme activity and mRNA expression were reduced by 33% and 86%, respectively. Renal D1 enzyme activity and mRNA were reduced by 30% and 55%, respectively. Selenium supplementation obviously increased selenium concentration, activity of GSH-Px and D1 as well as mRNA expression of D1. However, increasing the supplementation of Se from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L did not further increase selenoenzyme activity and expression. Conclusion Relative selenium deficiency caused by excessive iodine plays an essential role in the mechanism of iodine-induced abnormalities. An appropriate dose of selenium supplementation exercises a beneficial intervention.

  5. Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity and mRNA expression in rat thyroid tissue with different iodine intakes

    WANG Kun; SUN Yi-na; LIU Jia-yu; YAN Yu-qin; CHEN Zu-pei

    2006-01-01

    Background Type 1 deiodinase (D1) plays an important role in the metabolism of thyroid hormone and has close relationship with thyroid function. In this study we explore the effects of iodine intake on D1 activity and its mRNA expression and its possible mechanism.Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups with 8 in each: low iodine (LI), normal iodine (NI), five-fold iodine (HI5), ten-fold iodine (HI10), fifty-fold iodine (HI50), one hundred-fold iodine (HI100)group. Three months, six months and twelve months after admistration of potassium iodate, they were sacrificed and thyroids were excised. The expression of D1 mRNA in the thyroid tissue was determined by RT-PCR and D1 activity was analyzed by 125I-rT3 as substrate. The thyroid hormone was measured with radioimmunoassay method.Results Compared with NI group, D1 mRNA expression in LI groups slightly decreased, and D1 activity greatly increased. Both T3 and T4 in thyroid tissue significantly decreased, but the T3/T4 ratio increased. D1 mRNA expression decreased in all HI groups, and D1 activity was significantly lower in HI groups. There was a tendency of decrease in D 1 activity with increased doses of iodine intakes. There was no significant difference in T4 in thyroid tissue between HI groups and NI group, but a tendency of decrease in T3 level was found in all HI groups.Conclusions In the case of iodine deficiency, D1 activity increased greatly in order to convert more T4 to T3.Excess iodine can inhibit both D1 mRNA expression and its activity to protect organism from being injured by excessive T3.

  6. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells.

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    The dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in renal proximal tubule cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pretreatment with PD128077 for 1 week augmented the antihypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension.

  7. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone cell cultures.

    Sara Xapelli

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of adult neurogenesis. Here, we describe the effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R activation on self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mouse neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ stem/progenitor cell cultures. Expression of CB1R was detected in SVZ-derived immature cells (Nestin-positive, neurons and astrocytes. Stimulation of the CB1R by (R-(+-Methanandamide (R-m-AEA increased self-renewal of SVZ cells, as assessed by counting the number of secondary neurospheres and the number of Sox2+/+ cell pairs, an effect blocked by Notch pathway inhibition. Moreover, R-m-AEA treatment for 48 h, increased proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assay, an effect mediated by activation of MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Surprisingly, stimulation of CB1R by R-m-AEA also promoted neuronal differentiation (without affecting glial differentiation, at 7 days, as shown by counting the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the cultures. Moreover, by monitoring intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+]i in single cells following KCl and histamine stimuli, a method that allows the functional evaluation of neuronal differentiation, we observed an increase in neuronal-like cells. This proneurogenic effect was blocked when SVZ cells were co-incubated with R-m-AEA and the CB1R antagonist AM 251, for 7 days, thus indicating that this effect involves CB1R activation. In accordance with an effect on neuronal differentiation and maturation, R-m-AEA also increased neurite growth, as evaluated by quantifying and measuring the number of MAP2-positive processes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CB1R activation induces proliferation, self-renewal and neuronal differentiation from mouse neonatal SVZ cell cultures.

  8. Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Mediates Collagen-Induced Activation of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Fibroblasts.

    Majkowska, Iwona; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Ito, Noriko; Gray, Nathanael S; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2017-03-07

    Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-bound MMP that is highly expressed in cells with invading capacity including fibroblasts and invasive cancer cell. A potential physiological stimulus for MT1-MMP expression is fibrillar collagen, and it has been shown that it upregulates both MT1-MMP gene and functions in various cell types. However, the mechanisms of collagen-mediated MT1-MMP activation is not clearly understood. In this study we identified discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) as a crucial receptor that mediates this process in human fibroblasts. Knocking down DDR2, but not β1 integrin subunit, a common subunit for all collagen-binding integrins, inhibited collagen-induced activation of proMMP-2 and upregulation of MT1-MMP at the gene and protein level. Interestingly DDR2 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of DDR2 also inhibited MT1-MMP-dependent cellular degradation of collagen film, suggesting that cell surface collagen degradation by MT1-MMP involves DDR2-mediated collagen signalling. This DDR2-mediated mechanism is only present in non-transformed mesenchymal cells, as collagen-induced MT1-MMP activation in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and MT1-MMP function in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were not affected by DDR kinase inhibition. DDR2 activation was found to be noticeably more effective when cells were stimulated by collagen without non-helical telopeptides region compared to intact collagen fibrils. Those data suggest that DDR2 is a microenvironmental sensor that regulates fibroblasts migration in collagen-rich environment.

  9. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  10. Enriched environment induces beneficial effects on memory deficits and microglial activation in the hippocampus of type 1 diabetic rats.

    Piazza, Francele Valente; Segabinazi, Ethiane; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Achaval, Matilde; Marcuzzo, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been associated with long-term complications in the central nervous system, causing brain cellular dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) induces experience-dependent plasticity, especially in the hippocampus, improving the performance of animals in learning and memory tasks. Thus, our objective was to investigate the influence of the EE on memory deficits, locomotion, corticosterone levels, synaptophysin (SYP) protein immunoreactivity, cell survival and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of T1DM rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to EE or maintained in standard housing (controls, C) for 3 months. At adulthood, the C and EE animals were randomly divided and diabetes was induced in half of them. All the animals received 4 doses of BrdU, 24 h apart. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, general locomotion and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The animals were transcardially perfused 30 days post-BrdU administration. Our results showed that EE was able to prevent/delay the development of memory deficits caused by diabetes in rats, however it did not revert the motor impairment observed in the diabetic group. SYP immunoreactivity was increased in the enriched healthy group. The EE decreased the serum corticosterone levels in diabetic adult rats and attenuated the injurious microglial activation, though without altering the decrease of the survival cell. Thus, EE was shown to help to ameliorate cognitive comorbidities associated with T1DM, possibly by reducing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and microglial activation in diabetic animals.

  11. Abnormal brain activation in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link between visual processing and the default mode network.

    Inês R Violante

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is one of the most common single gene disorders affecting the human nervous system with a high incidence of cognitive deficits, particularly visuospatial. Nevertheless, neurophysiological alterations in low-level visual processing that could be relevant to explain the cognitive phenotype are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study early cortical visual pathways in children and adults with NF1. We employed two distinct stimulus types differing in contrast and spatial and temporal frequencies to evoke relatively different activation of the magnocellular (M and parvocellular (P pathways. Hemodynamic responses were investigated in retinotopically-defined regions V1, V2 and V3 and then over the acquired cortical volume. Relative to matched control subjects, patients with NF1 showed deficient activation of the low-level visual cortex to both stimulus types. Importantly, this finding was observed for children and adults with NF1, indicating that low-level visual processing deficits do not ameliorate with age. Moreover, only during M-biased stimulation patients with NF1 failed to deactivate or even activated anterior and posterior midline regions of the default mode network. The observation that the magnocellular visual pathway is impaired in NF1 in early visual processing and is specifically associated with a deficient deactivation of the default mode network may provide a neural explanation for high-order cognitive deficits present in NF1, particularly visuospatial and attentional. A link between magnocellular and default mode network processing may generalize to neuropsychiatric disorders where such deficits have been separately identified.

  12. Tobacco as biofactory for biologically active hPL production: a human hormone with potential applications in type-1 diabetes.

    Urreta, Iratxe; Oyanguren, Iñigo; Castañón, Sonia

    2011-08-01

    Human placental lactogen (hPL) is a peptidic hormone that belongs to the short list of growth factors that could treat type-1 diabetes through pancreatic islet transplantation. Placental lactogen has the capacity to improve islet survival and function before or after transplantation. In this study, transgenic tobacco plants were used as a novel expression system for the production of recombinant hPL protein (rhPL). The expression vector pNEKhPL2 containing hPL cDNA was introduced into tobacco plants; the transcriptional activity was confirmed by real-time PCR, and the rhPL levels reached 1% of the total soluble protein (TSP) content in plants cultivated in the greenhouse. In vitro bioassays using the rat insulinoma (INS-1) cell line showed that recombinant protein was able to induce cell proliferation and activate the JAK-2/STAT-5 signal transduction pathway, demonstrating that plant cells can produce the biologically active hPL protein. To further characterize the plant expression system for hPL production, we analyzed the stability of the protein during the life cycle of tobacco plants as well as the transmission of the transgenic trait to the progeny. The recombinant protein was stably accumulated in young leaves, reaching the maximum level in the first month (6.51 μg/g of fresh weight), but showing a decreasing trend of 26% from the initial sampling time until the end of plant's life cycle. The progeny of the selected pNEKhPL2 plant showed in vitro expression levels of up to 1.1% of TSP. Our results therefore indicate that transgenic plants are a suitable expression system for hPL production.

  13. The efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors for adjunctive treatment of type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Chen, Jiao; Fan, Fang; Wang, J. Y.; Long, Yang; Gao, C. L.; Stanton, R. C.; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of the SGLT-2 inhibitors as adjunct therapy to insulin in T1DM, clinical trials indexed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase from inception through April 5, 2016. A meta-analysis was conducted on trials of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with T1DM on insulin therapy using RevMan 5.3 software. Of the 371 articles identified, ten met eligibility criteria. Seven clinical trials including four randomized controlled trials and 581 patients were included. Compared with the control group, SGLT-2 inhibitors group had significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose by 0.69 mmol/L [1.32; 0.07], glycosylated hemoglobin A1C by 0.37% [0.54; 0.20], body weight by 2.54 kg [3.48; 1.60] and total daily insulin dose by 6.22 IU [8.04; 4.40]. The total incidence of adverse events (AEs), hypoglycemia, and genital and urinary infections were also similar to placebo, while an increased incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (n = 16) was seen in SGLT-2 inhibitors group. The present study demonstrates that SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective as adjunct therapy to insulin in T1DM, heralding improved glycemic control, reduced body weight and total daily insulin dose without an increase in total AEs, hypoglycemia, or genital and urinary infections. However, the risk of DKA should be carefully monitored in future clinical trials. PMID:28276512

  14. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  15. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY. I. THE XMM-COSMOS SAMPLE

    Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Civano, F. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Jahnke, K.; Lusso, E.; Cisternas, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Trump, J. R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute for Science, Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Aussel, H. [AIM Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA CNRS, Universite Paris VII UMR n158, Paris (France); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Hasinger, G., E-mail: elvis@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hhao@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The 'Cosmic Evolution Survey' (COSMOS) enables the study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present an SED catalog of 413 X-ray (XMM-Newton)-selected type 1 (emission line FWHM > 2000 km s{sup -1}) AGNs with Magellan, SDSS, or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for Galactic extinction, broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest-frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame {approx}8 {mu}m-4000 A), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available online.

  16. Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in nonsmall-cell lung cancer: relation to prognosis and angiogenesis

    Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Pfeiffer, Per; Andreasen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    years. CONCLUSIONS: The present study investigated the prognostic role of the protein levels of uPA and PAI-1 in 118 tumour specimens from patients diagnosed with NSCLC. Neither of the factors were identified as prognostic markers when evaluated with survival as endpoint. However, in tumours previously...... to angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Frozen tumour tissue from surgical specimens from 118 previously untreated patients diagnosed with NSCLC in the period 1984-1991 were investigated. All patients were treated with surgery, and no chemo- or radiotherapy was given. UPA and PAI-1 levels were assessed using...... a sandwich ELISA method. RESULTS: Both uPA and PAI-1 were independent of classical histopathological parameters as well as of microvessel density and vascular pattern. Using death within the first 5 years as endpoint, neither of the factors were prognostic markers in univariate analysis, however...

  17. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test

    Giacon, Thais Roque; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1), of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population. Objectives To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices. Method Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16) and Control (n = 19). The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level. Results The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2), rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6) and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6). During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group. Conclusion We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic

  18. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    Barnard, Sunelle A.; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C.

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  19. Clustering, cosmology and a new era of black hole demographics- II. The conditional luminosity functions of Type 2 and Type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line of sight into the central engine. If this model is correct then there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g. the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9. At both z, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g. radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

  20. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics - II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9. At both z, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g., radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

  1. Syntheses of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid analogues modified by α-acylaminoamido groups at the C-4 position using isocyanide-based four-component coupling and biological evaluation as inhibitors of human parainfluenza virus type 1.

    Nishino, Reiko; Hayakawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sato, Masayuki; Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Novel sialidase inhibitors 11 having an α-acylaminoamido group at the C-4 position of Neu5Ac2en 1 against human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) were synthesized using one-pot isocyanide-based four-component condensation, and their inhibitory activities against hPIV-1 sialidase were studied. Compound 11b showed inhibitory activity (IC(50)=5.1 mM) against hPIV-1 sialidase. The degree of inhibition of 11b was much weaker than that of 1 (IC(50)=0.3 mM).

  2. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-03-14

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) leaf extract rich in biophenols for the treatment of T1D. The phytochemical profile of methanolic oregano extract (MOE) and aqueous oregano extract (AOE) was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion-trap tandem MS (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn), while their main compounds were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. After establishing their potent in vitro antioxidant activity, the extracts were administered to C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin for diabetes induction. While prophylactic AOE therapy had no impact on diabetes induction, MOE reduced diabetes incidence and preserved normal insulin secretion. In addition, MOE scavenged reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, therefore, alleviated the need for the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. MOE treatment specifically attenuated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by T helper 17 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory T helper 2 and T regulatory cells through the impact on specific signalling pathways and transcription factors. Importantly, MOE preserved β-cells from in vitro apoptosis via blockade of caspase 3. Finally, rosmarinic acid, a predominant compound in MOE, exhibited only partial protection from diabetes induction. In conclusion, acting as an antioxidant, immunomodulator and in an anti-apoptotic manner, MOE protected mice from diabetes development. Seemingly, there is more than one compound responsible for the beneficial effect of MOE.

  3. Late-onset primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in a Chinese individual with absent alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity

    黃炳南; 唐美華; 麥肇嘉; 盧建宜; 黃煜; 黃矩民

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical problem, and its cause is often classified as idiopathic. Primary hyperoxaluria, mostly type 1, constitutes one of the rare causes of recurrent nephrolithiasis, but its diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The exact prevalence of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), therefore, has been unclear. The reported prevalence varies in different countries. No Chinese PH1 has ever been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of late-onset primary hyperoxaluria, which was diagnosed only after the development of end-stage renal failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first confirmed Chinese PH1.

  4. Different effects of lipopolysaccharide on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production in aortic media in vivo and in culture

    Leeuwen, R.T.J. van; Quax, P.H.A.; Tippins, J.R.; Antoniw, J.W.; Andreotti, F.; Maseri, A.; Kluft, C.; Sperti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) has been shown to increase the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in the vessel wall. Endotoxin is known to increase PAI-1 production in endothelial cells, but its action on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is presently not clear. In thi

  5. Innate Immune Activity Is Detected Prior to Seroconversion in Children With HLA-Conferred Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    Kallionpaa, Henna; Elo, Laura L.; Laajala, Essi; Mykkanen, Juha; Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Vaarma, Matti; Laajala, Teemu D.; Hyoty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Tuula; Wijmenga, Cisca; Knip, Mikael; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Simell, Olli; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The insult leading to autoantibody development in children who will progress to develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) has remained elusive. To investigate the genes and molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of this disease, we performed genome-wide transcriptomics analysis on a unique series of prospective

  6. Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in São Paulo City, Brazil.

    Arruda, Liã Bárbara; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M; Duarte, Alberto J S; Casseb, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The presence of mutations associated with integrase inhibitor (INI) resistance among INI-naive patients may play an important clinical role in the use of those drugs Samples from 76 HIV-1-infected subjects naive to INIs were submitted to direct sequencing. No differences were found between naive (25%) subjects and subjects on HAART (75%). No primary mutation associated with raltegravir or elvitegravir resistance was found. However, 78% of sequences showed at least one accessory mutation associated with resistance. The analysis of the 76 IN sequences showed a high polymorphic level on this region among Brazilian HIV-1-infected subjects, including a high prevalence of aa substitutions related to INI resistance. The impact of these findings remains unclear and further studies are necessary to address these questions.

  7. Cognitive performance, symptoms and counter-regulation during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and high or low renin-angiotensin system activity

    Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Andersen, Rikke Due;

    2009-01-01

    with low RAS activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with type 1 diabetes and high and nine with low RAS activity were subjected to hypoglycaemia and euglycaemia in a cross-over study using an intravenous insulin infusion protocol. Cognitive function, electroencephalography, auditory evoked...

  8. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at $z\\approx ...

  9. Treatment with Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Increases the Proinvasive Nature of SW620 Cells on 3D Collagen Type 1 Matrix

    Ramana Vishnubhotla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using tissue density as a mechanism to diagnose a tumor has been around for centuries. However, this concept has not been sufficiently explored in a laboratory setting. Therefore, in this paper, we observed the effects of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM density on colon cancer invasion and proliferation using SW620 cells. We also attempted to inhibit ROCK-I to determine its effect on cell invasion and proliferation using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. Increasing cell seeding density resulted in a 2-fold increase in cell invasion as well as cell proliferation independent of treatment with Y-27632. Increasing collagen I scaffold density resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in cell proliferation while treatment with Y-27632 attenuated this effect although 1.5 fold increase in cell invasion was observed in ROCK inhibited samples. Intriguingly, ROCK inhibition also resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in cell invasion within 3D collagen scaffolds for cells seeded at lower densities. We show in this paper that ROCK-I inhibition leads to increased invasion within 3D collagen I microenvironments. This data suggests that although ROCK inhibitors have been used clinically to treat several medical conditions, its effect largely depends on the surrounding microenvironment.

  10. Activity-Dependent Calcium, Oxygen, and Vascular Responses in a Mouse Model of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1

    Khennouf, Lila; Gesslein, Bodil; Lind, Barbara Lykke;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a subtype of migraine with aura caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying how the disease is brought about and the prolonged aura remain...... explain impaired neurovascular responses in the mutant, and these alterations could contribute to brain frailty in FHM1 patients...

  11. Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis.

    Amoros, M; Simões, C M; Girre, L; Sauvager, F; Cormier, M

    1992-12-01

    The in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 of the major flavonoids identified in propolis was investigated. Flavonols were found to be more active than flavones, the order of importance being galangin, kaempferol, and quercetin. The efficacy against HSV-1 of binary flavone-flavonol combinations has been also investigated. The synergy demonstrated by all combinations could explain why propolis is more active than its individual compounds.

  12. Combinations of mutations in the connection domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase: assessing the impact on nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance.

    Gupta, Soumi; Fransen, Signe; Paxinos, Ellen E; Stawiski, Eric; Huang, Wei; Petropoulos, Christos J

    2010-05-01

    Recent reports have described the effect of mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) on nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI and NNRTI, respectively) resistance in the presence of thymidine analog resistance mutations (TAMs) and NNRTI mutations (J. H. Brehm, D. Koontz, J. D. Meteer, V. Pathak, N. Sluis-Cremer, and J. W. Mellors, J. Virol. 81:7852-7859, 2007; K. A. Delviks-Frankenberry, G. N. Nikolenko, R. Barr, and V. K. Pathak, J. Virol. 81:6837-6845, 2007; G. N. Nikolenko, K. A. Delviks-Frankenberry, S. Palmer, F. Maldarelli, M. J. Fivash, Jr., J. M. Coffin, and V. K. Pathak, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:317-322, 2007; G. N. Nikolenko, S. Palmer, F. Maldarelli, J. W. Mellors, J. M. Coffin, and V. K. Pathak, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102:2093-2098, 2005; and S. H. Yap, C. W. Sheen, J. Fahey, M. Zanin, D. Tyssen, V. D. Lima, B. Wynhoven, M. Kuiper, N. Sluis-Cremer, P. R. Harrigan, and G. Tachedjian, PLoS Med. 4:e335, 2007). In the present study, novel mutations in the connection domain of RT (T369I/V), first identified in patient-derived viruses, were characterized, and their effects on NNRTI and NNRTI susceptibility were determined. Furthermore, the effect of N348I on NRTI and NNRTI resistance was confirmed. HIV-1 with either N348I or T369I/V demonstrated reduced susceptibility to nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), delaviridine (DLV), and zidovudine (ZDV) compared to wild-type HIV-1. However, HIV-1 with T369I and N348I demonstrated 10- to 60-fold resistance to these same drugs. In clinical samples, these two connection domain RT mutations were predominantly observed in viruses containing TAMs and NNRTI mutations and did not alter the susceptible-resistant classifications of these samples. Introduction of T369I, N348I, or T369I/N348I also reduced replication capacity (RC). These observations suggest that it may be of scientific interest to test these mutations against new NNRTI

  13. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  14. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes : the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    Aman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F.

    2009-01-01

    angstrom man J, Skinner TC, de Beaufort CE, Swift PGF, Aanstoot H-J, Cameron F, for and on behalf of the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere St

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor during hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: relation to cognitive function and renin-angiotensin system activity

    Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Boomsma, Frans;

    2009-01-01

    hypoglycemia. High activity in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Renin-angiotensin system possibly exerts its mechanism in hypoglycemia via VEGF. We studied the impact of mild hypoglycemia on plasma VEGF...

  16. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  17. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces

    2007-09-01

    mortality after heart attack (6), and RU486, which is used as emergency birth control (7). New NR inhibitors would most likely be useful for...mifepristone and levonorgestrel when used for emergency contraception. Hum Reprod Update 10:341-348 8. Webb P NN, Chiellini G, Yoshihara HA, Cunha Lima ST

  18. The danish protease inhibitor study: a randomized study comparing the virological efficacy of 3 protease inhibitor-containing regimens for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Katzenstein, TL; Kirk, O; Pedersen, C;

    2000-01-01

    The Danish Protease Inhibitor (PI) Study has enrolled 318 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, PI-naive patients for the purpose of comparing 3 PI-containing regimens for the treatment of HIV infection. The regimens include 2 nucleoside analogues in combination with indinavir (Idr), riton...

  19. The danish protease inhibitor study: a randomized study comparing the virological efficacy of 3 protease inhibitor-containing regimens for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Katzenstein, T L; Kirk, O; Pedersen, C;

    2000-01-01

    The Danish Protease Inhibitor (PI) Study has enrolled 318 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, PI-naive patients for the purpose of comparing 3 PI-containing regimens for the treatment of HIV infection. The regimens include 2 nucleoside analogues in combination with indinavir (Idr...

  20. Diabetes Type 1

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  1. Expression of urokinase plasminogen activator, its receptor and type-1 inhibitor in malignant and benign prostate tissue

    Usher, Pernille Autzen; Thomsen, Ole Frøkjær; Iversen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    RNAs was predominantly seen in cells identified as macrophages, which in most of the carcinomas (approximately 90%) were located in the interstitial tissue between the tumor cell islands, while in most of the benign hyperplasias they were located in the lumen of the glands and were in only a few cases (approximately 30......%) found in the interstitial tissue. uPAR immunoreactivity correlated with the mRNA expression and was, in addition, found in neutrophils. PAI-1 mRNA was detected in 13 of the 16 carcinomas and in 8 of the 9 benign hyperplasias, located in scattered fibroblast-like cells in both groups, in some vascular...... structures and in a few macrophages located in the interstitial tissue of both malignant and benign lesions. A similar expression pattern was found for PAI-1 immunoreactivity. In 8 of the 16 carcinomas, all 3 components were present, and in several areas colocalization was observed in stromal cells in close...

  2. Hydroxyapatite microparticles as feedback-active reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors.

    Snihirova, D; Lamaka, S V; Taryba, M; Salak, A N; Kallip, S; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S; Montemor, M F

    2010-11-01

    This work contributes to the development of new feedback-active anticorrosion systems. Inhibitor-doped hydroxyapatite microparticles (HAP) are used as reservoirs, storing corrosion inhibitor to be released on demand. Release of the entrapped inhibitor is triggered by redox reactions associated with the corrosion process. HAP were used as reservoirs for several inhibiting species: cerium(III), lanthanum(III), salicylaldoxime, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. These species are effective corrosion inhibitors for a 2024 aluminum alloy (AA2024), used here as a model metallic substrate. Dissolution of the microparticles and release of the inhibitor are triggered by local acidification resulting from the anodic half-reaction during corrosion of AA2024. Calculated values and experimentally measured local acidification over the aluminum anode (down to pH = 3.65) are presented. The anticorrosion properties of inhibitor-doped HAP were assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The microparticles impregnated with the corrosion inhibitors were introduced into a hybrid silica-zirconia sol-gel film, acting as a thin protective coating for AA2024, an alloy used for aeronautical applications. The protective properties of the sol-gel films were improved by the addition of HAP, proving their applicability as submicrometer-sized reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors for active anticorrosion coatings.

  3. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; de Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A.

  4. Cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation by BRAF inhibitors

    Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Li, Shuoran; Xie, Michael W.; Sun, Lu; Hugo, Willy; Huang, Rong Rong; Jiao, Jing; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Realegeno, Susan; Krystofinski, Paige; Azhdam, Ariel; Komenan, Sara Marie D.; Atefi, Mohammad; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Pellegrini, Matteo; Cochran, Alistair J.; Modlin, Robert L.; Herschman, Harvey R.; Lo, Roger S.; McBride, William H.; Segura, Tatiana; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitors are highly effective therapies for the treatment of BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with the main toxicity being a variety of hyperproliferative skin conditions due to paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in BRAF wild-type cells. Most of these hyperproliferative skin changes improve when a MEK inhibitor is co-administered, as it blocks paradoxical MAPK activation. Here we show how the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib accelerates skin wound healing by inducing the proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Topical treatment with vemurafenib in two wound-healing mice models accelerates cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation; addition of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reverses the benefit of vemurafenib-accelerated wound healing. The same dosing regimen of topical BRAF inhibitor does not increase the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in mice. Therefore, topical BRAF inhibitors may have clinical applications in accelerating the healing of skin wounds. PMID:27476449

  5. Narcolepsy Type 1 Is Associated with a Systemic Increase and Activation of Regulatory T Cells and with a Systemic Activation of Global T Cells

    Pitoiset, Fabien; Regnault, Armelle; Tran, Tu Anh; Liblau, Roland; Klatzmann, David; Rosenzwajg, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination. The goal of this study was to compare peripheral blood immune cell populations in recent onset pediatric NT1 subjects (post or non-post 2009-influenza A H1N1 vaccination) to healthy donors. We demonstrated an increased number of central memory CD4+ T cells (CD62L+ CD45RA-) associated to an activated phenotype (increase in CD69 and CD25 expression) in NT1 patients. Percentage and absolute count of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in NT1 patients were increased associated with an activated phenotype (increase in GITR and LAP expression), and of activated memory phenotype. Cytokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after activation was not modified in NT1 patients. In H1N1 vaccinated NT1 patients, absolute counts of CD3+, CD8+ T cells, and B cells were increased compared to non-vaccinated NT1 patients. These results support a global T cell activation in NT1 patients and thus support a T cell-mediated autoimmune origin of NT1, but do not demonstrate the pathological role of H1N1 prophylactic vaccination. They should prompt further studies of T cells, particularly of Tregs (such as suppression and proliferation antigen specific assays, and also T-cell receptor sequencing), in NT1. PMID:28107375

  6. Type 1 diabetes

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  7. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Giridharan Nappan V; Reddy Sirisha J; Kumar Chodavarapu; Prashanth Anamthathmakula; Prasad Sakamuri; Vajreswari Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of...

  8. Antiviral Activity of Obtained Extracts from Different Parts of Cupressus sempervirens against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Mehrangiz Khajeh Karamadini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe aim of this study was to search for new antiviral agents from herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts of C. semipervirens, C. semipervirens var. horizontalis and C. semipervirens cv. Cereiformis were used in experiments to test their influence on herpes viruses (HSV-1. Materials and MethodsHeLa cells monolayers were infected with herpes viruses (HSV-1. Antiviral activity of the plant extracts assessed using Hematoxylin & Eosin method and observed under a light microscope. All tests were compared with a positive control, acyclovir.ResultsResults showed that all three plants have antiviral activity against HSV-1 virus. The most active extract was the obtained extract from C. semipervirens. Among the different parts of this medicinal plant tested, the fruit’s extract appeared to possess the strongest anti- HSV activity.ConclusionIn conclusion, of the extracts tested in this survey all showed significant antiviral potency.

  9. Unexpected Activity of a Novel Kunitz-type Inhibitor

    Smith, David; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Jewhurst, Heather L.; Drysdale, Orla C.; Dvořák, Jan; Robinson, Mark W.; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Kunitz-type (KT) protease inhibitors are low molecular weight proteins classically defined as serine protease inhibitors. We identified a novel secreted KT inhibitor associated with the gut and parenchymal tissues of the infective juvenile stage of Fasciola hepatica, a helminth parasite of medical and veterinary importance. Unexpectedly, recombinant KT inhibitor (rFhKT1) exhibited no inhibitory activity toward serine proteases but was a potent inhibitor of the major secreted cathepsin L cysteine proteases of F. hepatica, FhCL1 and FhCL2, and of human cathepsins L and K (Ki = 0.4-27 nm). FhKT1 prevented the auto-catalytic activation of FhCL1 and FhCL2 and formed stable complexes with the mature enzymes. Pulldown experiments from adult parasite culture medium showed that rFhKT1 interacts specifically with native secreted FhCL1, FhCL2, and FhCL5. Substitution of the unusual P1 Leu15 within the exposed reactive loop of FhKT1 for the more commonly found Arg (FhKT1Leu15/Arg15) had modest adverse effects on the cysteine protease inhibition but conferred potent activity against the serine protease trypsin (Ki = 1.5 nm). Computational docking and sequence analysis provided hypotheses for the exclusive binding of FhKT1 to cysteine proteases, the importance of the Leu15 in anchoring the inhibitor into the S2 active site pocket, and the inhibitor's selectivity toward FhCL1, FhCL2, and human cathepsins L and K. FhKT1 represents a novel evolutionary adaptation of KT protease inhibitors by F. hepatica, with its prime purpose likely in the regulation of the major parasite-secreted proteases and/or cathepsin L-like proteases of its host. PMID:27422822

  10. Modification of Monoaminergic Activity by MAO Inhibitors Influences Methamphetamine Actions

    Junichi Kitanaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH abuse is a serious health and social problem worldwide. At present, however, there are no effective medications for the treatment of METH abuse. Of the intracellular METH target proteins, monoamine oxidase (MAO is involved in the regulation of monoaminergic tone in the brain, resulting in the modulation of METHinduced behavioral abnormalities in mammals. The METH-induced expression of increased motor activity, stereotypy, and sensitization is closely associated with monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Modifi cation of MAO activity by MAO inhibitors can influence METH action. Of the MAO inhibitors, the propargylamine derivative clorgyline, an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, effectively blocks METH-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization in rodents. Analysis of the associated monoaminergic activity indicates an involvement of altered striatal serotonergic transmission as well as an increased dopaminergic tone. Some effects of MAO inhibitors on METH action appear to be independent of MAO, suggesting complex mechanisms of action of MAO inhibitors in METH abuse. This review describes current research to find effective treatment for METH abuse, using MAO inhibitors.

  11. FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) polymorphism acts as an activity switch of a membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase - FGFR4 complex

    Sugiyama, N.; Varjosalo, M.; Meller, P.; Lohi, J; Chan, K.M.; Zhou, Z.; Alitalo, K; Taipale, J; Keski-Oja, J.; Lehti, K

    2010-01-01

    Tumor cells use membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie MT1-MMP regulation in cancer have remained unclear. Using a systematic gain-of-function kinome screen for MT1-MMP activity, we have here identified kinases that significantly enhance MT1-MMP activity in tumor cells. In particular, we discovered an MT1-MMP/FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) membrane complex that either stimulates or suppresses MT1-MMP and FGFR4 ac...

  12. Effect of active immunization against angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on hypertension & arterial remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    Liu-Dong Li; Miao Tian; Yu-Hua Liao; Zi-Hua Zhou; Fen Wei; Feng Zhu; Min Wang; Bin Wang; Yu-Miao Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: a0 ngiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. t0 his study was undertaken to explore the effect of active immunization against AT1 receptor on blood pressure and small artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Methods: Male SHR and Wistar rats aged two months were actively immunized with different peptides (ATR12185ͱͲATR10014 and ATR12181) corresponding to particular sequences of rat AT1 recep...

  13. Relation of thyroid hormone abnormalities with subclinical inflammatory activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Moura Neto, Arnaldo; Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Alegre, Sarah Monte; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). These thyroid hormone abnormalities have been associated with inflammatory activity in several conditions but this link remains unclear in DM. We assessed the influence of subclinical inflammation in TH metabolism in euthyroid diabetic patients. Cross-sectional study involving 258 subjects divided in 4 groups: 70 patients with T2DM and 55 patients with T1DM and two control groups of 70 and 63 non-diabetic individuals, respectively. Groups were paired by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association between clinical and hormonal variables [thyrotropin, reverse T3 (rT3), total and free thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3)] with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serum T3 and free T3 were lower in patients with diabetes (all P diabetic individuals were related to increased subclinical inflammatory activity and BMI. Altered deiodinase activity was probably involved. These findings were independent of sex, age, BMI, and HbA1c levels.

  14. Statins, bone, and neurofibromatosis type 1

    Korf Bruce R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a dominantly inherited multi-system disorder. Major features include pigmentary abnormalities, benign tumors of the nerve sheath (neurofibromas, malignant tumors, learning disabilities, and skeletal dysplasia. The NF1 gene functions as a tumor suppressor, but haploinsuffiency probably accounts for some aspects of the non-tumor phenotype. The protein product, neurofibromin, is a Ras GTPase-activating protein, and various Ras pathway inhibitors are being tested in preclinical models and clinical trials for effectiveness in treating NF1 complications. This month in BMC Medicine, a paper by Kolanczyk et al describes a preclinical mouse model for tibial dysplasia and provides evidence that the drug lovastatin – in use to treat cardiovascular disease – may be beneficial, opening the door to clinical trials in humans.

  15. Antitumor Activity of Cytotoxic Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors

    Uddin, Md. Jashim; Crews, Brenda C.; Xu, Shu; Ghebreselasie, Kebreab; Daniel, Cristina K.; Kingsley, Philip J.; Banerjee, Surajit; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2017-01-01

    Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors has been explored as a means to increase the selectivity and potency of cytotoxicity. Most efforts in this area have exploited the molecular recognition of proteins highly expressed on the surface of cancer cells followed by internalization. A related approach that has received less attention is the targeting of intracellular proteins by ligands conjugated to anti-cancer drugs. An attractive target for this approach is the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is highly expressed in a range of malignant tumors. Herein, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of chemotherapeutic agents targeted to COX-2 by conjugation to indomethacin. Detailed characterization of compound 12, a conjugate of indomethacin with podophyllotoxin, revealed highly potent and selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro and in intact cells. Kinetics and X-ray crystallographic studies demonstrated that compound 12 is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor that likely binds to COX-2’s allosteric site with its indomethacin moiety in a conformation similar to that of indomethacin. Compound 12 exhibited cytotoxicity in cell culture similar to that of podophyllotoxin with no evidence of COX-2-dependent selectivity. However, in vivo, compound 12 accumulated selectively in and more effectively inhibited the growth of a COX-2-expressing xenograft compared to a xenograft that did not express COX-2. Compound 12, which we have named chemocoxib A, provides proof-of-concept for the in vivo targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to COX-2, but suggests that COX-2-dependent selectivity may not be evident in cell culture-based assays. PMID:27588346

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 (PAC1) receptor is expressed during embryonic development of the earthworm.

    Boros, Akos; Somogyi, Ildikó; Engelmann, Péter; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Pollák, Edit; Molnár, László

    2010-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-like molecules have been shown to be present in cocoon albumin and in Eisenia fetida embryos at an early developmental stage (E1) by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Here, we focus on detecting the stage at which PAC1 receptor (PAC1R)-like immunoreactivity first appears in germinal layers and structures, e.g., various parts of the central nervous system (CNS), in developing earthworm embryos. PAC1R-like immunoreactivity was revealed by Western blot and Far Western blot as early as the E2 developmental stage, occurring in the ectoderm and later in specific neurons of the developing CNS. Labeled CNS neurons were first seen in the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and subsequently in the subesophageal and ventral nerve cord ganglia. Ultrastructurally, PAC1Rs were located mainly on plasma membranes and intracellular membranes, especially on cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, PACAP-like compounds probably influence the differentiation of germinal layers (at least the ectoderm) and of some neurons and might act as signaling molecules during earthworm embryonic development.

  17. The Blueshifting and Baldwin effects for the [OIII] 5007 Emission Line in Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ting-Gui; Gaskell, C Martin

    2011-01-01

    We use homogeneous samples of radio-quiet Seyfert 1 galaxies and QSOs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the connection between the velocity shift and the equivalent width (EW) of the [OIII] 5007 emission line, and their correlations with physical parameters of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find a fairly strong and negative correlation between the EW of the core component, EW(core), and the blueshift of either the core (the peak), the wing, or the total profile of [OIII] emission. However, both quantities (EW and velocity shift) have only weak, if any, correlations with fundamental AGN parameters such as the nuclear continuum luminosity at 5100 \\AA\\ ($L_{5100}$), black hole mass (M_{bh}), and the Eddington ratio (L/L_{Edd}); these weak correlations include the classical Baldwin effect of EW(core), an inverse Baldwin effect of EW(wing), and the relationship between velocity shifts and L/L_{Edd}. Our findings suggest that both the large object-to-object variation in the strength of [O...

  18. Role for the disulfide-bonded region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 in receptor-triggered activation of membrane fusion function

    Bellamy-McIntyre, Anna K. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Baer, Severine [Program Infection and Cancer, Abt. F010 and INSERM U701, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Ludlow, Louise [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Drummer, Heidi E. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Poumbourios, Pantelis, E-mail: apoumbourios@burnet.edu.au [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia)

    2010-04-16

    The conserved disulfide-bonded region (DSR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion glycoprotein, gp41, mediates association with the receptor-binding glycoprotein, gp120. Interactions between gp120, CD4 and chemokine receptors activate the fusion activity of gp41. The introduction of W596L and W610F mutations to the DSR of HIV-1{sub QH1549.13} blocked viral entry and hemifusion without affecting gp120-gp41 association. The fusion defect correlated with inhibition of CD4-triggered gp41 pre-hairpin formation, consistent with the DSR mutations having decoupled receptor-induced conformational changes in gp120 from gp41 activation. Our data implicate the DSR in sensing conformational changes in the gp120-gp41 complex that lead to fusion activation.

  19. Regulation of the tumor marker Fascin by the viral oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) depends on promoter activation and on a promoter-independent mechanism.

    Mohr, Caroline F; Gross, Christine; Bros, Matthias; Reske-Kunz, Angelika B; Biesinger, Brigitte; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2015-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a highly infiltrative neoplasia of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes that occurs in about 5% of carriers infected with the deltaretrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral oncoprotein Tax perturbs cellular signaling pathways leading to upregulation of host cell factors, amongst them the actin-bundling protein Fascin, an invasion marker of several types of cancer. However, transcriptional regulation of Fascin by Tax is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a triple mode of transcriptional induction of Fascin by Tax, which requires (1) NF-κB-dependent promoter activation, (2) a Tax-responsive region in the Fascin promoter, and (3) a promoter-independent mechanism sensitive to the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2. Thus, Tax regulates Fascin by a multitude of signals. Beyond, using Tax-expressing and virus-transformed lymphocytes as a model system, our study is the first to identify the invasion marker Fascin as a novel target of PP2, an inhibitor of metastasis.

  20. A serine proteinase inhibitor from frog eggs with bacteriostatic activity.

    Han, Yaoping; Yu, Haining; Yang, Xinbo; Rees, Huw H; Liu, Jingze; Lai, Ren

    2008-01-01

    By Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, Resource Q anionic exchange and C4 reversed phase liquid high performance liquid chromatography, a proteinase inhibitor protein (Ranaserpin) was identified and purified from the eggs of the odour frog, Rana grahami. The protein displayed a single band adjacent to the molecular weight marker of 14.4 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The inhibitor protein homogeneity and its molecular weight were confirmed again by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis gave this inhibitor protein an m/z of 14422.26 that was matched well with the result from SDS-PAGE. This protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor targeting multiple proteinases including trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. Ranaserpin inhibited the proteolytic activities of trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. It has an inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 6.2 x 10(-8) M, 2.7 x 10(-7) M and 2.2 x 10(-8) M for trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin, respectively. This serine proteinase inhibitor exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). It was suggested that ranaserpin might act as a defensive role in resistance to invasion of pests or pathogens. This is the first report of serine proteinase inhibitor and its direct defensive role from amphibian eggs.

  1. Transcellular activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat in T lymphocytes requires CD4-gp120 binding.

    Marcuzzi, A; Lowy, I; Weinberger, O K

    1992-01-01

    Cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat can transactivate the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in cocultured T lymphocytes. In this report, we describe the molecular requirements for transcellular activation of the LTR in Jurkat cells. An analysis with deletion mutants and blocking antibodies demonstrated a requirement for env expression in addition to tat expression for transcellular activation to occur. The results suggest that the transient association of CD4 and gp120 in cocultured cells is required for tat-mediated transcellular activation. The events that follow CD4-gp120 binding in transactivation, however, do not require the gp120-neutralizing domain, in contrast to HIV-mediated fusion and infection. The consequences of this interaction on cellular function are currently under investigation. Images PMID:1351104

  2. Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Synthetic Approaches, Derivatives and Biological Activity

    Pedro Laborda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a common viral disease, influenza has very negative consequences, causing the death of around half a million people each year. A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release of viruses from infected host cells. The treatment of influenza is mainly based on the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir, laninamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir have been commercialized and have been demonstrated to be potent influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitors against most influenza strains. In order to create more potent neuraminidase inhibitors and fight against the surge in resistance resulting from naturally-occurring mutations, these anti-influenza drugs have been used as templates for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors through structure-activity relationship studies. Here, we review the synthetic routes to these commercial drugs, the modifications which have been performed on these structures and the effects of these modifications on their inhibitory activity.

  3. Characterization of inhibitor(s) of β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in GUS-transgenic wheat

    Ramadan, Ahmed M Ali

    2011-06-26

    The uidA gene, encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS), is the most frequently used reporter gene in plants. As a reporter enzyme, GUS can be assayed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In wheat, there are numerous reports of failure in detecting GUS enzyme activity in tissues of transgenic plants, while other reports have suggested presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor(s) in wheat tissues. In the present study, we show that the β-glucuronidase enzyme activity is not only tissue-specific but also genotype-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the glucuronic acid could be the candidate inhibitor for β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in wheat leaves and roots. It should be noted that the assays to detect β-glucuronidase enzyme activity in wheat should be interpreted carefully. Based on the data of our present study, we recommend studying the chemical pathways, the unintended effects and the possible loss-of-function of any candidate transgene prior to transformation experiments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. HDAC Inhibitors without an Active Site Zn2+-Binding Group

    Vickers, Chris J.; Olsen, Christian Adam; Leman, Luke J.;

    2012-01-01

    Natural and synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors generally derive their strong binding affinity and high potency from a key functional group that binds to the Zn2+ ion within the enzyme active site. However, this feature is also thought to carry the potential liability of undesirable o...

  5. X4 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 promotes human hepatic stellate cell activation and collagen I expression through interactions with CXCR4.

    Feng Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HCV develop more rapid liver fibrosis than patients monoinfected with HCV. HIV RNA levels correlate with fibrosis progression implicating HIV directly in the fibrotic process. While activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs express the 2 major HIV chemokine coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, little is known about the pro-fibrogenic effects of the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120, on HSCs. We therefore examined the in vitro impact of X4 gp120 on HSC activation, collagen I expression, and underlying signaling pathways and examined the in vivo expression of gp120 in HIV/HCV coinfected livers. METHODS: Primary human HSCs and LX-2 cells, a human HSC line, were challenged with X4 gp120 and expression of fibrogenic markers assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot +/- either CXCR4-targeted shRNA or anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody. Downstream intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated with Western blot and pre-treatment with specific pathway inhibitors. Gp120 immunostaining was performed on HIV/HCV coinfected liver biopsies. RESULTS: X4 gp 120 significantly increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA and collagen I in HSCs which was blocked by pre-incubation with either CXCR4-targeted shRNA or anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, X4 gp120 promoted Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and pretreatment with an ERK inhibitor attenuated HSC activation and collagen I expression. Sinusoidal staining for gp120 was evident in HIV/HCV coinfected livers. CONCLUSIONS: X4 HIV-1 gp120 is pro-fibrogenic through its interactions with CXCR4 on activated HSCs. The availability of small molecule inhibitors to CXCR4 make this a potential anti-fibrotic target in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  6. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome.

  7. A metal-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    Hai-Jing Zhong

    Full Text Available A cyclometallated rhodium(III complex [Rh(ppy(2(dppz](+ (1 (where ppy=2-phenylpyridine and dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE. The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme.

  8. Bicyclic Peptide Inhibitor of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    Roodbeen, Renée; Paaske, Berit; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptidebased inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... monocyclic peptide, upain-2. It was successfully converted to a bicyclic peptide, without loss of inhibitory properties. The aim was to produce a peptide cyclised by an amide bond with an additional stabilising across-the-ring covalent bond. We expected this bicyclic peptide to exhibit a lower entropic...... burden upon binding. Two bicyclic peptides were synthesised with affinities similar to that of upain-2, and their binding energetics were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Indeed, compared to upain-2, the bicyclic peptides showed reduced loss of entropy upon binding to uPA. We also...

  9. Differential extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation by the angiotensin type 1 receptor supports distinct phenotypes of cardiac myocytes

    Aplin, Mark; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schneider, Mikael;

    2007-01-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a seven-transmembrane receptor well established to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by discrete G protein-dependent and beta-arrestin2-dependent pathways. The biological importance of this, however, remains...... that phosphorylates p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase, a ubiquitous and versatile mediator of ERK1/2 signal transduction. Moreover, the beta-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2 signal supports intact proliferation of cardiac myocytes. In contrast to G(q)-activated ERK1/2, and in keeping with its failure to translocate to the nucleus......, the beta-arrestin2-scaffolded pool of ERK1/2 does not phosphorylate the transcription factor Elk-1, induces no increased transcription of the immediate-early gene c-Fos, and does not entail myocyte hypertrophy. These results clearly demonstrate the biological significance of differential signalling...

  10. Type 1 narcolepsy

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...... attack, and this is supported by evidence of both environmental and genetic factors pointing toward an involvement of the immune system. However, definitive proof of an autoimmune etiology is still missing. Several different immune-mediated disorders targeting neurons are known, and many...

  11. Laryngeal cleft type 1

    Danilo de Assis Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical itinerary and the institution of conservative therapy in a case of laryngeal cleft type 1 refers to a child born by cesarean section, Apgar 9 and 10, a history of placental nd abruption in the 2 month of pregnancy, with respiratory nd distress on the 2 day of life and difficulty in breast feeding mothers. Presented evidence of aspiration pneumonia. The videodeglutogram showed aspiration of large amounts of material contrasted during swallowing. In bronchoscopy was visualized formation of threadlike small slit making the diagnosis of laryngeal cleft. We then decided, by institution of conservative treatment with enteral nutrition training and thickened with swallowing.

  12. Parathyroid hormone is not an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Arnadottir, M; Nilsson-Ehle, P

    1994-01-01

    The reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in uraemia are reflected by increased serum triglyceride concentrations and reduced HDL cholesterol concentrations. Both hyperparathyroidism and circulating inhibitor(s) of LPL have been associated with the disturbances of lipid metabolism in uraemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if parathyroid hormone (PTH) had an inhibitory effect on LPL activity. Plasma post-heparin LPL activities, plasma LPL inhibitory activities, serum PTHintact and serum PTHC-terminal concentrations were analysed in 20 patients on haemodialysis and 20 healthy controls. The effects of purified, human PTHintact and a carboxyterminal fragment of PTH (PTH39-84) on LPL activities in post-heparin plasma from healthy individuals and on the enzyme activity of purified, bovine milk LPL, activated with apolipoprotein CII, were studied. Patients had significantly higher plasma LPL inhibitory activities than controls, but there was no correlation between plasma LPL inhibitory activities and serum PTH concentrations. Neither PTHintact nor PTH39-84 had a significant effect on LPL activities in vitro. Thus there was no evidence of a direct inhibition of LPL activity by PTH under the present in-vivo or in-vitro conditions.

  13. Failure in activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax in non-hematopoietic cell lines

    Mizukoshi, Terumi; Komori, Hideyuki; Mizuguchi, Mariko [Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Abdelaziz, Hussein [Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Hara, Toshifumi [Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Higuchi, Masaya [Division of Virology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Japan); Tanaka, Yuetsu [Department of Immunology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, Ryukyu University, Okinawa (Japan); Ohara, Yoshiro [Department of Microbiology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa (Japan); Funato, Noriko [Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Fujii, Masahiro [Division of Virology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, Masataka, E-mail: naka.gene@tmd.ac.jp [Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax (Tax1) plays crucial roles in leukemogenesis in part through activation of NF-κB. In this study, we demonstrated that Tax1 activated an NF-κB binding (gpκB) site of the gp34/OX40 ligand gene in a cell type-dependent manner. Our examination showed that the gpκΒ site and authentic NF-κB (IgκB) site were activated by Tax1 in hematopoietic cell lines. Non-hematopoietic cell lines including hepatoma and fibroblast cell lines were not permissive to Tax1-mediated activation of the gpκB site, while the IgκB site was activated in those cells in association with binding of RelB. However RelA binding was not observed in the gpκB and IgκB sites. Our results suggest that HTLV-1 Tax1 fails to activate the canonical pathway of NF-κB in non-hematopoietic cell lines. Cell type-dependent activation of NF-κB by Tax1 could be associated with pathogenesis by HTLV-1 infection. - Highlights: • HTLV-1 Tax1 does not activate RelA of NF-κB in non-hematopoietic cell lines. • Tax1 activates the NF-κB non-canonical pathway in non-hematopoietic cell lines. • Tax1 does not induce RelA nuclear translocation in those cell lines, unlike TNFα. • The OX40L promoter κB site is activated by ectopic, but not endogenous, RelA.

  14. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 tax requires CADM1/TSLC1 for inactivation of the NF-κB inhibitor A20 and constitutive NF-κB signaling.

    Rajeshree Pujari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activation of NF-κB by the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 oncoprotein, Tax, is vital for the development and pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. K63-linked polyubiquitinated Tax activates the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid raft microdomain. Tax also interacts with TAX1BP1 to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulatory ubiquitin-editing A20 enzyme complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of Tax-mediated IKK activation and A20 protein complex inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that membrane associated CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule1 recruits Ubc13 to Tax, causing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Tax, and IKK complex activation in the membrane lipid raft. The c-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing PDZ binding motif of CADM1 is critical for Tax to maintain persistent NF-κB activation. Finally, Tax failed to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulator ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex, and activate the IKK complex in the lipid raft in absence of CADM1. Our results thus indicate that CADM1 functions as a critical scaffold molecule for Tax and Ubc13 to form a cellular complex with NEMO, TAX1BP1 and NRP, to activate the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid rafts, to inactivate NF-κB negative regulators, and maintain persistent NF-κB activation in HTLV-1 infected cells.

  15. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    Meng, Zhen [Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Gan, Ye-Hua, E-mail: kqyehuagan@bjmu.edu.cn [Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  16. p53 dysfunction precedes the activation of nuclear factor-κB during disease progression in mice expressing Tax, a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein.

    Ohsugi, Takeo; Ishida, Takaomi; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Seiji; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing Tax, a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein, develop mature T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The leukemic cells in Tg mice expressing Tax show p53 dysfunction and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, similar to that seen in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells from patients infected with HTLV-1. However, it is unclear when these effects occur in HTLV-1 carriers during the development of ATLL. Here, we examined p53 function and NF-κB activity before the onset of leukemia in Tax-expressing Tg (Tax-Tg) mice between 4 and 25 months of age. At 4-10 months of age, 71% of mice showed p53 inactivation, without evidence for NF-κB activation, even though tax expression was consistent from 4 to 25 months of age. The decline in p53 function resulted from decreased p53 accumulation after DNA damage. From 11 months of age onward, 75% of mice showed p53 dysfunction and 37.5% showed constitutive NF-κB activation with the components of p50 and RelB. An NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), reduced NF-κB activity (i.e. p50/RelB) but did not restore p53 function. In vivo, treatment with DHMEQ until 24 months of age prevented the onset of T-cell leukemia in Tax-Tg mice. These results suggest that the Tax-induced decline in p53 function, which is independent of NF-κB activation in the early stage, might be the first stage in the onset of ATLL. NF-κB activity is involved in the later stages of ATLL onset.

  17. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  18. High-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of corticotropin-releasing factor and its type-1 receptors

    Xue-qun CHEN; Fan-ping KONG; Yang ZHAO; Ji-zeng DU

    2012-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia can induce physiological dysfunction and mountain sickness,but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF type-1 receptors (CRFR1) are members of the CRF family and the essential controllers of the physiological activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and modulators of endocrine and behavioral activity in response to various stressors.We have previously found that high-altitude hypoxia induces disorders of the brain-endocrine-immune network through activation of CRF and CRFR1 in the brain and periphery that include activation of the HPA axis in a time-and dose-dependent manner,impaired or improved learning and memory,and anxiety-like behavioral change.Meanwhile,hypoxia induces dysfunctions of the hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine and immune systems,including suppression of growth and development,as well as inhibition of reproductive,metabolic and immune functions.In contrast,the small mammals that live on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow display low responsiveness to extreme high-altitudehypoxia challenge,suggesting well-acclimatized genes and a physiological strategy that developed during evolution through interact-ions between the genes and environment.All the findings provide evidence for understanding the neuroendocrine mechanisms of hypoxia-induced physiological dysfunction.This review extends these findings.

  19. Assessing upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Raymond, Kateri; Auger, Louis-Pierre; Cormier, Marie-France; Vachon, Christine; St-Onge, Sabrina; Mathieu, Jean; Noreau, Luc; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). A cross-sectional study was set in an outpatient neuromuscular clinic where 200 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of DM1 (121 women; mean age: 47 y) were selected from the registry of a neuromuscular clinic to participate. Housing-related activities were assessed using the "housing" section of the Assessment of Life Habits Questionnaire (LIFE-H). The upper extremity assessment included grip strength (Jamar dynamometer), lateral pinch strength (pinch gauge), gross dexterity (Box and Block Test) and fine dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). Correlations with the LIFE-H item "housing" were stronger for grip and lateral strength (r = 0.62; 0.61). When difficulties were present in "housing", the cut-off score associated with lateral pinch strength was 4.8 kg (sensitivity: 75.6%; specificity: 79.2%). Grip strength presented cut-off scores that clinically differed by gender. In conclusion, potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services with valid assessment tools were developed for people with DM1 who experience difficulties in housing-related activities. These criteria will assist health professionals in their attempt to refer DM1 patients to rehabilitation services at the appropriate time.

  20. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.

  1. FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) polymorphism acts as an activity switch of a membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-FGFR4 complex.

    Sugiyama, Nami; Varjosalo, Markku; Meller, Pipsa; Lohi, Jouko; Chan, Kui Ming; Zhou, Zhongjun; Alitalo, Kari; Taipale, Jussi; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Lehti, Kaisa

    2010-09-07

    Tumor cells use membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie MT1-MMP regulation in cancer have remained unclear. Using a systematic gain-of-function kinome screen for MT1-MMP activity, we have here identified kinases that significantly enhance MT1-MMP activity in tumor cells. In particular, we discovered an MT1-MMP/FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) membrane complex that either stimulates or suppresses MT1-MMP and FGFR4 activities, depending on a tumor progression-associated polymorphism in FGFR4. The FGFR4-R388 allele, linked to poor cancer prognosis, increased collagen invasion by decreasing lysosomal MT1-MMP degradation. FGFR4-R388 induced MT1-MMP phosphorylation and endosomal stabilization, and surprisingly, the increased MT1-MMP in return enhanced FGFR4-R388 autophosphorylation. A phosphorylation-defective MT1-MMP was stabilized on the cell surface, where it induced simultaneous FGFR4-R388 internalization and dissociation of cell-cell junctions. In contrast, the alternative FGFR4-G388 variant down-regulated MT1-MMP, and the overexpression of MT1-MMP and particularly its phosphorylation-defective mutant vice versa induced FGFR4-G388 degradation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for FGFR4-R388 function in cancer invasion.

  2. Effects of type 1 diabetes, sprint training and sex on skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity.

    Harmer, A R; Ruell, P A; Hunter, S K; McKenna, M J; Thom, J M; Chisholm, D J; Flack, J R

    2014-02-01

    Calcium cycling is integral to muscle performance during the rapid muscle contraction and relaxation of high-intensity exercise. Ca(2+) handling is altered by diabetes mellitus, but has not previously been investigated in human skeletal muscle. We investigated effects of high-intensity exercise and sprint training on skeletal muscle Ca(2+) regulation among men and women with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 8, 3F, 5M) and matched non-diabetic controls (CON, n = 8, 3F, 5M). Secondarily, we examined sex differences in Ca(2+) regulation. Subjects undertook 7 weeks of three times-weekly cycle sprint training. Before and after training, performance was measured, and blood and muscle were sampled at rest and after high-intensity exercise. In T1D, higher Ca(2+)-ATPase activity (+28%) and Ca(2+) uptake (+21%) than in CON were evident across both times and days (P women across both times and days. Intense exercise did not alter Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in T1D or CON. However, sex differences were evident: Ca(2+)-ATPase was reduced with exercise among men but increased among women across both days (time × sex interaction, P Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase (-8%, P Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase in T1D and CON. Sex differences in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were evident and may be linked with fibre type proportion differences.

  3. A vascular endothelial growth factor activating transcription factor increases the endothelial progenitor cells population and induces therapeutic angiogenesis in a type 1 diabetic mouse with hindlimb ischemia

    Diao Yongpeng; Lian Lishan; Guo Lilong; Chen Houzao; Chen Yuexin; Song Xiaojun; Li Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapeutic angiogenesis has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and improve tissue perfusion.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis.However,it has side effects that limit its therapeutic utility in vivo,especially at high concentrations.This study aimed to investigate whether an intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered zinc finger VEGF-activating transcription factor modulates the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and promotes therapeutic angiogenesis in a hindlimb ischemia model with type 1 diabetes.Methods Alloxan (intravenous injection) was used to induce type Ⅰ diabetes in C57BL/6 mice (n=58).The ischemic limb received ZFP-VEGF (125 μg ZFP-VEGF plasmid in 1% poloxamer) or placebo (1% poloxamer) intramuscularly.Mice were sacrificed 3,5,10,or 20 days post-injection.Limb blood flow was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging.VEGF mRNA and protein expression were examined using real-time PCR and ELISA,respectively.Capillary density,proliferation,and apoptosis were examined using immunohistochemistry techniques.Flow cytometry was used to detect the EPC population in bone marrow.Two-tailed Student's paired t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis.Results ZFP-VEGF increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression at 3 and 10 days post-injection,and increased EPC in bone marrow at day 5 and 20 post-injection compared with controls (P<0.05).ZFP-VEGF treatment resulted in better perfusion recovery,a higher capillary density and proliferation,and less apoptosis compared with controls (P<0.05).Conclusions Intramuscular ZFP-VEGF injection promotes therapeutic angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model with type 1 diabetes.This might be due to the effects of VEGF on cell survival and EPC recruitment.

  4. Co-infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1: does immune activation lead to a faster progression to AIDS?

    Savino Wilson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the phenotypic profile of T lymphocytes subsets among Mozambican patients co-infected by HIV and HTLV-1. Methods We enrolled 29 patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and HIV (co-infected, 59 patients mono-infected by HIV (HIV and 16 healthy controls (HC, respectively. For phenotypic analysis, cells were stained with the following fluorochrome-labeled anti-human monoclonal antibodies CD4-APC, CD8-PerCP, CD25-PE, CD62L-FITC, CD45RA-FITC. CD45RO-PE, CD38-PE; being analysed by four-colour flow cytometry. Results We initially found that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly higher in co-infected, as compared to HIV groups. Moreover, CD4+ T Lymphocytes from co-infected patients presented significantly higher levels of CD45RO and CD25, but lower levels of CD45RA and CD62L, strongly indicating that CD4+ T cells are more activated under HTLV-1 plus HIV co-infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients progress with higher CD4+ T cell counts and higher levels of activation markers. In this context, it is conceivable that in co-infected individuals, these higher levels of activation may account for a faster progression to AIDS.

  5. Identification of covalent active site inhibitors of dengue virus protease

    Koh-Stenta X

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Koh-Stenta,1 Joma Joy,1 Si Fang Wang,1 Perlyn Zekui Kwek,1 John Liang Kuan Wee,1 Kah Fei Wan,2 Shovanlal Gayen,1 Angela Shuyi Chen,1 CongBao Kang,1 May Ann Lee,1 Anders Poulsen,1 Subhash G Vasudevan,3 Jeffrey Hill,1 Kassoum Nacro11Experimental Therapeutics Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore; 2Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore; 3Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporeAbstract: Dengue virus (DENV protease is an attractive target for drug development; however, no compounds have reached clinical development to date. In this study, we utilized a potent West Nile virus protease inhibitor of the pyrazole ester derivative class as a chemical starting point for DENV protease drug development. Compound potency and selectivity for DENV protease were improved through structure-guided small molecule optimization, and protease-inhibitor binding interactions were validated biophysically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our work strongly suggests that this class of compounds inhibits flavivirus protease through targeted covalent modification of active site serine, contrary to an allosteric binding mechanism as previously described.Keywords: flavivirus protease, small molecule optimization, covalent inhibitor, active site binding, pyrazole ester derivatives

  6. Reconstitution of the type-1 active site of the H145G/A variants of nitrite reductase by ligand insertion

    Wijma, HJ; Boulanger, MJ; Molon, A; Fittipaldi, M; Huber, M; Murphy, MEP; Verbeet, MP; Canters, GW

    2003-01-01

    Variants of the copper-containing nitrite reductase (NiR) of Alcaligenes faecalis S6 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, by which the C-terminal histidine ligand (His145) of the Cu in the type-1 site was replaced by an alanine or a glycine. The type-1 sites in the NiR variants as isolated

  7. Synthesis of a selective HDAC6 inhibitor active in neuroblasts.

    Zwick, Vincent; Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Nurisso, Alessandra; Petit, Charlotte; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe; Cuendet, Muriel

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, the role of HDAC6 in neurodegeneration has been partially elucidated, which led some authors to propose HDAC6 inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. In an effort to develop a selective HDAC6 inhibitor which can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), a modified hydroxamate derivative (compound 3) was designed and synthetized. This compound was predicted to have potential for BBB penetration based on in silico and in vitro evaluation of passive permeability. When tested for its HDAC inhibitory activity, the IC50 value of compound 3 towards HDAC6 was in the nM range in both enzymatic and cell-based assays. Compound 3 showed a cell-based selectivity profile close to that of tubastatin A in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and a good BBB permeability profile.

  8. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  9. The AKARI 2.5-5.0 Micron Spectral Atlas of Type-1 Active Galactic Nuclei: Black Hole Mass Estimator, Line Ratio, and Hot Dust Temperature

    Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Ohyama, Youichi; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0 $\\mu$m spectra of 83 nearby ($0.002\\,<\\,z\\,<\\,0.48$) and bright ($K<14$mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board $\\it{AKARI}$. The 2.5-5.0 $\\mu$m spectral region contains emission lines such as Br$\\beta$ (2.63 $\\mu$m), Br$\\alpha$ (4.05 $\\mu$m), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; 3.3 $\\mu$m), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activities in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green (PG) and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. (2004). Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physica...

  10. The effect of antiviral activity of a green seaweed from the Persian Gulf, Caulerpa sertularioides on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Keyvan Zandi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering the daily increase in drug resistance of various viruses, novel antiviral compounds extracted from natural resources – due to their fewer side effects, had always been important to researchers. In the present study, we investigated antiviral activity of the hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides, collected from coastal water of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf, against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1. Methods: The hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides was sterilized by autoclave and filtration methods. After determining its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 value, the effect of the extract on the inhibition of HSV-1 replication was examined in Vero cell culture. Results: The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 in both attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells and also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values of the autoclaved extract were 81µg/ml and 126 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. IC50 values of the filtered extract were 73 µg/ml and 104 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. CC50 values for autoclaved and filtered extracts were 3140 µg/ml and 3095 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hot water extract of Caulerpa sertularioides of the Persian Gulf had antiviral effect against HSV-1.

  11. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  12. Localization and the possible role of plasminogen activators and inhibitors in early stages of placentation

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of mRNAs of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activator (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) have been studied in the tissues of human first and second trimester placentae by in situ hybridization. The results show that: (ⅰ) All the molecules, tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2, were identified in the blood vessels, the majority of extravillous trophoblastic cells of the decidual layer between Rohr's and Nitabuch's stria and in the trophoblast cells lining the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (ⅱ) No expression of such probes was observed in the basal and chorionic plate, glandular cells of the decidua, the septal tissues or the villous core mesenchyme. The co-distribution of the molecules observed suggests that the co-ordinated expression of the activators and inhibitors in various cells of the placental tissue may play a role in angiogenesis related to conversion of spiral arteries into utero-placental arteries and establishment of a chorio-decidual blood flow during early stages of placentation.

  13. Plasma pharmacokinetics and biological activity of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, F105, in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Cavacini, L A; Power, J; Emes, C L; Mace, K; Treacy, G; Posner, M R

    1994-05-01

    The IgG1 kappa human monoclonal antibody (HMab), F105 reacts with a discontinuous epitope on the CD4 binding site (CD4BS) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/gp120 and has broad neutralizing activity. F105 HMab (60 mg/kg bolus) was administered intravenously to four monkeys and serum was collected at intervals to determine pharmacokinetics in a primate model. Average serum F105 concentrations, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were analyzed with MINSQ software using a two-compartment, first-order model. The half-life for the alpha phase of the distribution curve is 6.7 h and for the beta elimination phase, 9.6 days. The volume of distribution is 0.65 L/kg and the rate of clearance 2 ml/kg/h. Serum levels of 1.3-1.6 mg/ml of F105 were maintained for 24 h. When monkey serum from day 15 postdose was tested, total serum F105 was 230 +/- 79 micrograms/ml and was immunoreactive with cells infected with the MN and IIIB strains of HIV-1 as determined by flow cytometry. Binding activity was identical to that obtained with stock F105 HMab. Identical neutralizing activity between the injected and uninjected antibody was also observed. Thus, serum neutralizing titers (90%) of 1:2000 at peak and 1:30 at day 15 postdose for MN virus were observed. These data indicate that high in vivo levels of HMab F105 can be attained by single bolus administration with full retention of biological activity. Of importance, levels of antibody necessary for effective neutralization can be achieved and maintained.

  14. T-cell receptor/CD28 engagement when combined with prostaglandin E2 treatment leads to potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

    Dumais, Nancy; Paré, Marie-Eve; Mercier, Simon; Bounou, Salim; Marriot, Susan J; Barbeau, Benoit; Tremblay, Michel J

    2003-10-01

    Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is characterized by long latency periods, indicating that viral gene expression is under tight control. There is presently little information available regarding the nature of extracellular stimuli that can transactivate the regulatory elements of HTLV-1 (i.e., long terminal repeat [LTR]). To gain insight into the biological importance of externally induced activation pathways in virus gene expression, primary and established T cells were transfected with HTLV-1-based reporter gene vectors and then were treated with agents that cross-linked the T-cell receptor (TCR) or the costimulatory CD28 molecule with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). We demonstrated that a potent induction of HTLV-1 LTR-driven reporter gene activity was seen only when the three agents were used in combination. Interestingly, similar observations were made when using C91/PL, a cell line that carries integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA. This TCR-CD28-PGE(2)-mediated increase in virus transcription was dependent on protein kinase A activation and induction of the cAMP response element binding protein. Experiments with a mutated reporter construct further revealed the importance of the Tax-responsive elements in the HTLV-1 LTR in the observed up regulation of virus gene expression when TCR/CD28 engagement was combined with PGE(2) treatment. The protein tyrosine kinases p56(lck) and the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 were all found to be involved in TCR-CD28-PGE(2)-directed increase in HTLV-1 LTR activity. This study presents new information on the possible mechanisms underlying reactivation of this retrovirus.

  15. Synergistic activity of amenamevir (ASP2151) with nucleoside analogs against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus.

    Chono, Koji; Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2013-02-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase complex inhibitor with antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). To assess combination therapy of ASP2151 with existing antiherpes agents against HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies of two-drug combinations. The combination activity effect of ASP2151 with nucleoside analogs acyclovir (ACV), penciclovir (PCV), or vidarabine (VDB) was tested via plaque-reduction assay and MTS assay, and the data were analyzed using isobolograms and response surface modeling. In vivo combination therapy of ASP2151 with valaciclovir (VACV) was studied in an HSV-1-infected zosteriform spread mouse model. The antiviral activity of ASP2151 combined with ACV and PCV against ACV-susceptible HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV showed a statistically significant synergistic effect (P<0.05). ASP2151 with VDB was observed to have additive effects against ACV-susceptible HSV-2 and synergistic effects against VZV. In the mouse model of zosteriform spread, the inhibition of disease progression via combination therapy was more potent than that of either drugs as monotherapy (P<0.05). These results indicate that the combination therapies of ASP2151 with ACV and PCV have synergistic antiherpes effects against HSV and VZV infections and may be feasible in case of severe disease, such as herpes encephalitis or in patients with immunosuppression.

  16. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  17. Methylene bisphosphonates as the inhibitors of HIV RT phosphorolytic activity.

    Yanvarev, D V; Korovina, A N; Usanov, N N; Khomich, O A; Vepsäläinen, J; Puljula, E; Kukhanova, M K; Kochetkov, S N

    2016-08-01

    The structure-function analysis of 36 methylenebisphosphonates (BPs) as inhibitors of the phosphorolytic activity of native and drug-resistant forms of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) was performed. It was shown that with the increase of the inhibitory potential of BPs towards the phosphorolytic activity raises their ability to inhibit the RT-catalyzed DNA elongation. Herein, we report the impact of the thymidine analog mutations (TAM) on the activity of bisphosphonates, as well as some structural features of the BPs, allowing them to maintain the inhibitory activity on the enzyme resistant to nucleoside analog therapy. We estimated the Mg(2+)-coordinating group structure, the linker and the aromatic pharmacophore influence on the inhibitory potential of the BPs. Based on the 31 BPs SAR, several BPs with improved inhibitory properties were designed and synthesized.

  18. BLOCKADE OF ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA (RVLM BOMBESIN RECEPTOR TYPE 1 DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Izabella Silva De Jesus Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available IIntrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1 the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; (2 the contribution of RVLM bombesin type 1 receptors (BB1 to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg−1, i.v. were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP, diaphragm (DIA motor and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 mmHg and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05 and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 % and 84.5 ± 18.1 %, respectively; p < 0.05. In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7 %; p < 0.05. BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05 and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8 %; p < 0.05 in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6 %, respectively. These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR.

  19. ATP regulation of type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity does not require walker A-type ATP-binding motifs.

    Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Wagner, Larry E; Park, Hyung Seo; Yule, David I

    2009-06-12

    ATP is known to increase the activity of the type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R1). This effect is attributed to the binding of ATP to glycine rich Walker A-type motifs present in the regulatory domain of the receptor. Only two such motifs are present in neuronal S2+ splice variant of InsP3R1 and are designated the ATPA and ATPB sites. The ATPA site is unique to InsP3R1, and the ATPB site is conserved among all three InsP3R isoforms. Despite the fact that both the ATPA and ATPB sites are known to bind ATP, the relative contribution of these two sites to the enhancing effects of ATP on InsP3R1 function is not known. We report here a mutational analysis of the ATPA and ATPB sites and conclude neither of these sites is required for ATP modulation of InsP3R1. ATP augmented InsP3-induced Ca2+ release from permeabilized cells expressing wild type and ATP-binding site-deficient InsP3R1. Similarly, ATP increased the single channel open probability of the mutated InsP3R1 to the same extent as wild type. ATP likely exerts its effects on InsP3R1 channel function via a novel and as yet unidentified mechanism.

  20. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor, a calcium release channel, through non-enzymatic posttranslational modification by nitric oxide

    Sho eKakizawa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a typical gaseous messenger involved in a wide range of biological processes. In our classical knowledge, effects of NO are largely achieved by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine-3’, 5’-monophosphate. However, emerging evidences have suggested another signaling mechanism mediated by NO: S-nitrosylation of target proteins.S-nitrosylation is a covalent addition of an NO group to a cysteine thiol/sulfhydryl (RSH, and categorized into non-enzymatic posttranslational modification of proteins, contrasted to enzymatic posttranslational modification of proteins, such as phosphorylation mediated by various protein kinases.Very recently, we found novel intracellular calcium (Ca2+ mobilizing mechanism, NO-induced Ca2+ release (NICR in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is mediated by type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1, a Ca2+ release channel expressed in endoplasmic-reticular membrane. Furthermore, NICR is indicated to be dependent on S-nitrosylation of RyR1, and involved in synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum. In this review, molecular mechanisms and functional significance of NICR, as well as non-enzymatic posttranslational modification of proteins by gaseous signals, are described.

  2. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  3. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of multiple doses of ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355), an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults.

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Godofsky, Eliot; DeJesus, Edwin; Larson, Jeffrey A; Weinheimer, Steven P; Lewis, Stanley T

    2009-02-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and inhibits the viral entry process. A phase lb multidose study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of ibalizumab was conducted with 22 HIV-1-infected patients. Nineteen patients were randomized to receive either 10 mg/kg of body weight weekly (arm A) or a 10-mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg every 2 weeks (arm B) intravenously for 9 weeks. Three patients were assigned to receive 25 mg/kg every 2 weeks for five doses (arm C). During the study, the patients remained off other antiretrovirals or continued a stable failing regimen. Treatment with ibalizumab resulted in substantial reductions in HIV-1 RNA levels (0.5 to 1.7 log(10)) in 20 of 22 subjects. In most patients, HIV-1 RNA fell to nadir levels after 1 to 2 weeks of treatment and then returned to baseline despite continued treatment. Baseline viral isolates were susceptible to ibalizumab in vitro, regardless of coreceptor tropism. Emerging resistance to ibalizumab was manifested by reduced maximal percent inhibition in a single-cycle HIV infectivity assay. Resistant isolates remained CD4 dependent and were susceptible to enfuvirtide in vitro. Complete coating of CD4(+) T-cell receptors was correlated with serum ibalizumab concentrations. There was no evidence of CD4(+) T-cell depletion in ibalizumab-treated patients. Ibalizumab was not immunogenic, and no serious drug-related adverse effects occurred. In conclusion, ibalizumab administered either weekly or biweekly was safe and well tolerated and demonstrated antiviral activity. Further studies with ibalizumab in combination with standard antiretroviral treatments are warranted.

  4. Activation of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor mediates the anticonvulsant properties of cannabinoids in the hippocampal neuronal culture models of acquired epilepsy and status epilepticus.

    Blair, Robert E; Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Sombati, Sompong; Falenski, Katherine W; Martin, Billy R; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2006-06-01

    Cannabinoids have been shown to have anticonvulsant properties, but no studies have evaluated the effects of cannabinoids in the hippocampal neuronal culture models of acquired epilepsy (AE) and status epilepticus (SE). This study investigated the anticonvulsant properties of the cannabinoid receptor agonist R(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolol[1,2,3 de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone (WIN 55,212-2) in primary hippocampal neuronal culture models of both AE and SE. WIN 55,212-2 produced dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects against both spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SRED) (EC50 = 0.85 microM) and SE (EC50 = 1.51 microM), with total suppression of seizure activity at 3 microM and of SE activity at 5 microM. The anticonvulsant properties of WIN 55,212-2 in these preparations were both stereospecific and blocked by the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamidehydrochloride (SR141716A; 1 microM), showing a CB1 receptor-dependent pathway. The inhibitory effect of WIN 55,212-2 against low Mg2+-induced SE is the first observation in this model of total suppression of SE by a selective pharmacological agent. The clinically used anticonvulsants phenytoin and phenobarbital were not able to abolish low Mg2+-induced SE at concentrations up to 150 microM. The results from this study show CB1 receptor-mediated anticonvulsant effects of the cannabimimetic WIN 55,212-2 against both SRED and low Mg2+-induced SE in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures and show that these in vitro models of AE and SE may represent powerful tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of cannabinoids on neuronal excitability.

  5. Renoprotective effect of renal liver-type fatty acid binding protein and angiotensin II type 1a receptor loss in renal injury caused by RAS activation.

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Katayama, Kimie; Hoshino, Seiko; Igarashi-Migitaka, Junko; Hirata, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the renoprotective effect of renal human liver-type fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1A receptor (AT1a) loss in renal injury caused by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. We established hL-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)), crossed the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+) with AT1a knockdown homo mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)), and generated L-FABP(+/-)AT1a hetero mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)). After the back-cross of these cubs, L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were obtained. To activate the renal RAS, wild-type mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-), and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were administered high-dose systemic ANG II infusion plus a high-salt diet for 28 days. In the L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+), RAS activation (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS) caused hypertension and tubulointerstitial damage. In the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS, tubulointerstitial damage was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS. In the AT1a partial knockout (AT1a(+/-)) or complete knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice, reduction of AT1a expression led to a significantly lower degree of renal injury compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS or L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS mice. Renal injury in L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice. In both L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS mice, renal damage was rarely found. The degrees of renal hL-FABP expression and urinary hL-FABP levels increased by RAS activation and gradually decreased along with reduction of AT1a expression levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model, renal hL-FABP expression and a decrease in AT1a expression attenuated tubulointerstitial damage due to RAS activation.

  6. The analgesic activity of Bestatin as a potent APN inhibitor

    Mei-Rong Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bestatin, a small molecular weight dipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of various aminopeptidases as well as LTA4 hydrolase. Various physiological functions of Bestatin have been identified, viz.: (1 an immunomodifier for enhancing the proliferation of normal human bone marrow granulocyte–macrophage progenitor cells to form CFU-GM colonies; Bestatin exerts a direct stimulating effect on lymphocytes via its fixation on the cell surface and an indirect effect on monocytes via aminopeptidase B inhibition of tuftsin catabolism; (2 an immunorestorator and curative or preventive agent for spontaneous tumor; Bestatin alone or its combination with chemicals can prolongate the disease-free interval and survival period in adult acute or chronic leukemia, therefore, it was primarily marketed in 1987 in Japan as an anticancer drug and servers as the only marketed inhibitor of Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 to cure leukemia to date; (3 a pan-hematopoietic stimulator and restorator; Bestatin promotes granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in vitro and restores them in myelo-hypoplastic men; (4 an inhibitor of several natural opioid peptides. Based on the knowledge that APN can cleave several bioactive neuropeptides such as Met-enkaphalins, Leu-enkaphalins, β-Endorphin, and so on, the antiaminopeptidase action of Bestatin also allows it to protect endopeptides against their catabolism, exhibiting analgesic activity. Although many scientific studies and great accomplishments have been achieved in this field, a large amount of problems are unsolved. This article reviews the promising results obtained for future development of the analgesic activity of Bestatin that can be of vital interest in a number of severe and chronic pain syndromes.

  7. Application and interpretation of current autophagy inhibitors and activators

    Ya-ping YANG; Li-fang HU; Hui-fen ZHENG; Cheng-jie MAO; Wei-dong HU; Kang-ping XIONG; Fen WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aut ophagy is the major intracellular degradation system,by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome.As a quality control mechanism for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles,autophagy plays important roles in a variety of human diseases,including neurodegenerative diseases,cancer,cardiovascular disease,diabetes and infectious and inflammatory diseases.The discovery of ATG genes and the dissection of the signaling pathways involved in regulating autophagy have greatly enriched our knowledge on the occurrence and development of this lysosomal degradation pathway.In addition to its role in degradation,autophagy may also promote a type of programmed cell death that is different from apoptosis,termed type II programmed cell death.Owing to the dual roles of autophagy in cell death and the specificity of diseases,the exact mechanisms of autophagy in various diseases require more investigation.The application of autophagy inhibitors and activators will help us understand the regulation of autophagy in human diseases,and provide insight into the use of autophagy-targeted drugs.In this review,we summarize the latest research on autophagy inhibitors and activators and discuss the possibility of their application in human disease therapy.

  8. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Montoya, Carlos J; Toro, Maria F; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Hernandez, Mariluz; Arango, Liliana P; Echeverry, Marta; Arango, Ana E; Prada, Maria C; Alarcon, Herminia del P; Rojas, Mauricio

    2007-06-01

    Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40) against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  9. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  10. Physalis alkekengi carotenoidic extract inhibitor of soybean lipoxygenase-1 activity.

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Pintea, Adela; Bunea, Andrea; Braicu, Cornelia; Stanila, Andreea; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA) towards the lipoxygenase (LOX) oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car), lutein (Lut), and zeaxanthin (Zea). The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA) after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  11. What causes type 1 diabetes?

    Buschard, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T...... the T1D process, even if initiated by virus. Theoretically, the risk from immunotherapy elicits a higher frequency of malignancy. (2) The activity of the beta cells: Resting beta cells display less antigenicity and are less sensitive to immune destruction. Beta-cell rest can be induced by giving insulin...... externally in metabolic doses or by administering potassium-channel openers. Both procedures prevent T1D in animal models, whereas no good human data exist due to the risk of hypoglycemia. (3) NKT cells: According to the hygiene hypothesis, stimulation of NKT cells by non-pathogen microbes gives rise to less...

  12. Inhibition of the ribonuclease H activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by GSK5750 correlates with slow enzyme-inhibitor dissociation.

    Beilhartz, Greg L; Ngure, Marianne; Johns, Brian A; DeAnda, Felix; Gerondelis, Peter; Götte, Matthias

    2014-06-06

    Compounds that efficiently inhibit the ribonuclease (RNase) H activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) have yet to be developed. Here, we demonstrate that GSK5750, a 1-hydroxy-pyridopyrimidinone analog, binds to the enzyme with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of ~400 nM. Inhibition of HIV-1 RNase H is specific, as DNA synthesis is not affected. Moreover, GSK5750 does not inhibit the activity of Escherichia coli RNase H. Order-of-addition experiments show that GSK5750 binds to the free enzyme in an Mg(2+)-dependent fashion. However, as reported for other active site inhibitors, binding of GSK5750 to a preformed enzyme-substrate complex is severely compromised. The bound nucleic acid prevents access to the RNase H active site, which represents a possible biochemical hurdle in the development of potent RNase H inhibitors. Previous studies suggested that formation of a complex with the prototypic RNase H inhibitor β-thujaplicinol is slow, and, once formed, it dissociates rapidly. This unfavorable kinetic behavior can limit the potency of RNase H active site inhibitors. Although the association kinetics of GSK5750 remains slow, our data show that this compound forms a long lasting complex with HIV-1 RT. We conclude that slow dissociation of the inhibitor and HIV-1 RT improves RNase H active site inhibitors and may circumvent the obstacle posed by the inability of these compounds to bind to a preformed enzyme-substrate complex.

  13. Antiviral effects of milk proteins : Acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Pauwels, R; deBéthune, M P; de Clercq, E; Meijer, D K; Huisman, J G

    1996-01-01

    A number of native and modified milk proteins from bovine or human sources were analyzed for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in vitro in an MT4 cell test system, The proteins investigated were lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and

  14. Antiviral effects of milk proteins : acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Pauwels, R; deBéthune, M P; de Clercq, E; Meijer, D K; Huisman, J G

    1996-01-01

    A number of native and modified milk proteins from bovine or human sources were analyzed for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in vitro in an MT4 cell test system. The proteins investigated were lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and

  15. A role for DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor in the recognition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by glial cells

    Furr Samantha R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid onset of potentially lethal neuroinflammation is a defining feature of viral encephalitis. Microglia and astrocytes are likely to play a significant role in viral encephalitis pathophysiology as they are ideally positioned to respond to invading central nervous system (CNS pathogens by producing key inflammatory mediators. Recently, DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor (DAI has been reported to function as an intracellular sensor for DNA viruses. To date, the expression and functional role of DAI in the inflammatory responses of resident CNS cells to neurotropic DNA viruses has not been reported. Methods Expression of DAI and its downstream effector molecules was determined in C57BL/6-derived microglia and astrocytes, either at rest or following exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and/or murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, by immunoblot analysis. In addition, such expression was studied in ex vivo microglia/macrophages and astrocytes from uninfected animals or mice infected with HSV-1. Inflammatory cytokine production by glial cultures following transfection with a DAI specific ligand (B-DNA, or following HSV-1 challenge in the absence or presence of siRNA directed against DAI, was assessed by specific capture ELISA. The production of soluble neurotoxic mediators by HSV-1 infected glia following DAI knockdown was assessed by analysis of the susceptibility of neuron-like cells to conditioned glial media. Results We show that isolated microglia and astrocytes constitutively express DAI and its effector molecules, and show that such expression is upregulated following DNA virus challenge. We demonstrate that these resident CNS cells express DAI in situ, and show that its expression is similarly elevated in a murine model of HSV-1 encephalitis. Importantly, we show B-DNA transfection can elicit inflammatory cytokine production by isolated glial cells and DAI knockdown can significantly reduce

  16. An analogy between optical turbulence and activator-inhibitor dynamics

    Spineanu, F

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of laser beams through madia with cubic nonlinear polarization is part of a wide range of practical applications. The processes that are involved are at the limit of extreme (cuasi-singular) concentration of intensity and the transversal modulational instability, the saturation and defocusing effect of the plasma generated through avalanche and multi-photon (MPI) ionization are competing leading to a complicated pattern of intensity in the transversal plane. This regime has been named \\textquotedblleft optical turbulence\\textquotedblright and it has been studied in experiments and numerical simulations. Led by the similarity of the portraits we have investigated the possibility that the mechanism that underlies the creation of the complex pattern of the intensity field is the manifestation of the dynamics \\textit{activator-inhibitor}. In a previous work we have considered a unique connection, the \\textit{complex Landau-Ginzburg equation}, a common ground for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation ...

  17. Toxicity of Nitrification Inhibitors on Dehydrogenase Activity in Soils

    Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs such as 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphate=DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate=ClMPP and dicyandiamide,DCD which might be expected to inhibit microbial activity, on dehydrogenase activity (DRA,in three different soils in laboratory conditions. Dehydrogenase activity were assessed via reduction of 2-p-Iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyltetrazoliumchloride (INT. The toxicity and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using a loamy clay, a sandy loam and a sandy soil. The quantitative determination of DHA was carried out spectrophotometrically. In all experiments, the influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration were examined. To evaluate the rate of inhibition with the increasing NI concentrations, dose reponse curves were presented and no observable effect level =NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED 50(10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for common microbial activity such as DHA was about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils if it compare to DMPP and DCD. The NOEL,ED10 and ED50 values higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs were generally most effective in sandy soils. The three NIs considered at the present state of knowledge as environmentally safe in use.

  18. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  19. Interleukin 18 stimulates HIV type 1 in monocytic cells.

    Shapiro, L; Puren, A J; Barton, H A; Novick, D; Peskind, R L; Shenkar, R; Gu, Y; Su, M S; Dinarello, C A

    1998-10-13

    The cytokine interleukin (IL) 18 (formerly interferon gamma-inducing factor) induces the T helper type 1 response. In the present studies, IL-18 increased HIV type 1 (HIV-1) production from 5- to 30-fold in the chronically infected U1 monocytic cell line. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity by the addition of TNF-binding protein reduced IL-18-stimulated HIV-1 production by 48%. In the same cultures, IL-18-induced IL-8 was inhibited by 96%. Also, a neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAb reduced IL-18-induced HIV-1 by 63%. Stimulation of U1 cells with IL-18 resulted in increased production of IL-6, and exogenous IL-6 added to U1 cells increased HIV-1 production 4-fold over control. A specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase reduced IL-18-induced HIV-1 by 73%, and a 50% inhibition was observed at 0.05 microM. In the same cultures, IL-8 was inhibited by 87%. By gel-shift and supershift analyses, increased binding activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB was measured in nuclear extracts from U1 cells 1 h after exposure to IL-18. These results demonstrate induction of HIV-1 by IL-18 in a monocyte target associated with an intermediate role for TNF and IL-6, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    Swartz, Jonathan M; Byström, Jonas; Dyer, Kimberly D; Nitto, Takeaki; Wynn, Thomas A; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2004-10-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) as a potential eosinophil protein was inferred from our gene microarray study of mouse eosinophilopoiesis. Here, we detect 47 kDa intracellular and approximately 60 kDa secretory forms of PAI-2 in purified human eosinophil extracts. PAI-2 is present at variable concentrations in eosinophil lysates, ranging from 30 to 444 ng/10(6) cells, with a mean of 182 ng/10(6) cells from 10 normal donors, which is the highest per-cell concentration among all leukocyte subtypes evaluated. Enzymatic assay confirmed that eosinophil-derived PAI-2 is biologically active and inhibits activation of its preferred substrate, urokinase. Immunohistochemical and immunogold staining demonstrated PAI-2 localization in eosinophil-specific granules. Immunoreactive PAI-2 was detected in extracellular deposits in and around the eosinophil-enriched granuloma tissue encapsulating the parasitic egg in livers of wild-type mice infected with the helminthic parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Among the possibilities, we consider a role for eosinophil-derived PAI-2 in inflammation and remodeling associated with parasitic infection as well as allergic airways disease, respiratory virus infection, and host responses to tumors and metastasis in vivo.

  1. Identification of Early Intermediates of Caspase Activation Using Selective Inhibitors and Activity-Based Probes

    Berger, Alicia B.; Witte, Martin D.; Denault, Jean-Bernard; Sadaghiani, Amir Masoud; Sexton, Kelly M.B.; Salvesen, Guy S.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Caspases are cysteine proteases that are key effectors in apoptotic cell death. Currently, there is a lack of tools that can be used to monitor the regulation of specific caspases in the context of distinct apoptotic programs. We describe the development of highly selective inhibitors and active sit

  2. The L-arginine/NO pathway, homoarginine, and nitrite-dependent renal carbonic anhydrase activity in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Carmann, Christina; Lilienthal, Eggert; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona; Hörster, Irina; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Lücke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    High circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low circulating levels of homoarginine (hArg) are known cardiovascular risk factors in adults. While in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) circulating ADMA is significantly elevated, in children and adolescents the reported ADMA data are contradictory. In 102 children with T1DM and 95 healthy controls (HC) serving as controls, we investigated the L-arginine (Arg)/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Children with T1DM were divided into two groups, i.e., in children with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus [T1DM-ND; n = 10; age, 8.8 (4.4-11.2) years; HbA1c, 13 (8.9-13.9) %] and in those with long-term treatment [T1DM-T; n = 92; age, 12.5 (10.5-15.4) years; HbA1c, 8.0 (7.2-8.6) %]. The age of the HC was 11.3 (8-13.3) years. Amino acids and NO metabolites of the Arg/NO pathway, creatinine and the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by GC-MS or GC-MS/MS. Plasma hArg, ADMA and the hArg/ADMA molar ratio did not differ between the T1DM and HC groups. There was a significant difference between T1DM-T and HC with regard to plasma nitrite [0.53 (0.48-0.61) vs 2.05 (0.86-2.36) µM, P 86-2.36) µM, P < 0.0001]. Plasma MDA did not differ between the groups. The urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio (UNOXR), a measure of nitrite-dependent renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, was higher in T1DM-T [1173 (738-1481), P < 0.0001] and T1DM-ND [1341 (1117-1615), P = 0.0007] compared to HC [540 (324-962)], but did not differ between T1DM-T and T1DM-ND (P = 0.272). The lower nitrite excretion in the children with T1DM may indicate enhanced renal CA-dependent nitrite reabsorption compared with healthy children. Yet, lower plasma nitrite concentration in the T1DM patients may have also contributed to the higher UNOXR. Patients' age correlated positively with plasma hArg and hArg/ADMA and urinary DMA/ADMA. Plasma ADMA and urinary ADMA, DMA, nitrite and nitrate correlated negatively with age of the

  3. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  4. "Mixed inhibitor-prodrug" as a new approach toward systemically active inhibitors of enkephalin-degrading enzymes.

    Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Coric, P; Turcaud, S; Lucas, E; Noble, F; Maldonado, R; Roques, B P

    1992-06-26

    In order to evaluate the possible advantages of potentiating the effects of the endogenous enkephalins, to obtain analgesia without the serious drawbacks of morphine, it was essential to design systemically active compounds which inhibit the two metabolizing enzymes, aminopeptidase N (APN) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP). A new concept combining the idea of "prodrug" and "mixed inhibitor" was therefore developed. Given the high efficiency of beta-mercaptoalkylamines as APN inhibitors and of N-(mercaptoacyl) amino acids as NEP inhibitors, compounds associating these molecules through disulfide or thioester bonds, which are known to increase lipophilicity and to favor passage across the blood-brain barrier, have been synthesized. An HPLC study indicated that the disulfide bridge was resistant to serum enzymes but was cleaved by brain membrane homogenates, suggesting that the active inhibitors were released in the central nervous system. The validity of the approach was verified by the efficient antinociceptive responses obtained in the hot plate test in mice after iv administration of disulfide-containing inhibitors (ED50s of from 4 to 26 mg/kg on the jump latency time). The analgesic potencies of the "mixed inhibitor-prodrug" RB 101 [H2NCH(CH2CH2SCH3)CH2SSCH2CH(CH2Ph)CONHCH( CH2Ph)COOCH2Ph] after iv administration were three times greater than those of a similar combined dose of its two constitutive moieties. The separation of the two diastereoisomers constituting RB 101 showed that the analgesia has a stereochemical dependence, the (S,S,S)-isomer being more active than the (S,R,S)-isomer. Furthermore, in the tail flick test in the rat, RB 101 gave 38% analgesia at a dose of 80 mg/kg. Due to its high efficiency and its longer pharmacological effect, RB 101 was selected for a complete study of its analgesic properties.

  5. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    Ponranjini, Vedeswari C.; Jayachandran, S; L Kayal; K Bakyalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison′s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case o...

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  7. Antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    Masferrer, J L; Leahy, K M; Koki, A T; Zweifel, B S; Settle, S L; Woerner, B M; Edwards, D A; Flickinger, A G; Moore, R J; Seibert, K

    2000-03-01

    We provide evidence that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostaglandins contribute to tumor growth by inducing newly formed blood vessels (neoangiogenesis) that sustain tumor cell viability and growth. COX-2 is expressed within human tumor neovasculature as well as in neoplastic cells present in human colon, breast, prostate, and lung cancer biopsy tissue. COX-1 is broadly distributed in normal, as well as in neoplastic, tissues. The contribution of COX-2 to human tumor growth was indicated by the ability of celecoxib, an agent that inhibits the COX-2 enzyme, to suppress growth of lung and colon tumors implanted into recipient mice. Mechanistically, celecoxib demonstrated a potent antiangiogenic activity. In a rat model of angiogenesis, we observe that corneal blood vessel formation is suppressed by celecoxib, but not by a COX-1 inhibitor. These and other data indicate that COX-2 and COX-2-derived prostaglandins may play a major role in development of cancer through numerous biochemical mechanisms, including stimulation of tumor cell growth and neovascularization. The ability of celecoxib to block angiogenesis and suppress tumor growth suggests a novel application of this anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of human cancer.

  8. Initial Assessment of β3-Adrenoceptor-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Rodent Model Using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Aparna Baranwal; M. Reza Mirbolooki; Jogeshwar Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by β3-adrenoceptor agonists and norepinephrine transporter (NET) blockers and is measurable using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in rats. Using the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we investigated BAT activity in this rat model under fasting and nonfasting conditions using [18F]FDG PET/CT. Drugs that enhance BAT activity may have...

  9. Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common genetically transmitted diseases with a high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. It is diagnosed by the existence of certain clinical criteria. The presence of numerous localised cutaneous neurofibromas or a plexiform neurofibroma is virtually pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 is 0.1-5.7%. CASE OUTLINE A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT. She had previously unrecognized neurofibromatosis type 1 and a clinical picture which could remind of pheochromocytoma. None of the catecholamine samples in 24 hr urine indicated functionally active pheochromocytoma. Chromogranin A was moderately increased. Decision for operation was made after performing the image techniques. Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. After being treated with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, she was operated on. The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSION Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.

  10. Comparison of Inhibitory Activities of meta and para Substituted N-aryl 3-Hydroxypyridin-4-one Mannosides Towards Type 1 Fimbriated E. coli

    Vesna Petrović Peroković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In uropathogenic Escherichia coli, mannose-specific adhesion is mediated by the FimH adhesin located at the tip of type 1 fimbriae. Novel mannosylated N-aryl substituted 3-hydroxypyridin-4ones with meta substituents on the aryl part of the molecule were prepared, and their inhibitory properties towards the adhesion of E. coli to guinea pig erythrocytes explored using the hemagglutination assay. These results were compared with inhibitory potencies of analogous para derivatives. The assays revealed greater preference of FimH towards para substituted compounds in general, with p-nitro and p-methoxy substituted substrates being much more effective then the hydrophobic p-methyl compound. When substituents are in meta position the positive affect on the binding of compounds in the FimH binding site was observed with all compounds tested but the structure with an alkyl group was shown to be the most effective one. This study provides guidelines for the rational design of novel, more effective series of FimH antagonists. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  11. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  12. Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 by hypoxia and irradiation in human head and neck carcinoma cell lines

    Mengele Karin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN often contain highly radioresistant hypoxic regions, nonetheless, radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for these tumours. Reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy is desired to render these hypoxic tumour regions more radiosensitive. Hypoxia additionally leads to up-regulation of PAI-1, a protein involved in tumour progression and an established prognostic marker for poor outcome. However, the impact of reoxygenation and radiation on PAI-1 levels is not yet clear. Therefore, we investigated the kinetics of PAI-1 expression and secretion after hypoxia and reoxygenation, and determined the influence of ionizing radiation on PAI-1 levels in the two human SCCHN cell lines, BHY and FaDu. Methods HIF-1α immunoblot was used to visualize the degree of hypoxia in the two cell lines. Cellular PAI-1 expression was investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy. ELISA was used to quantify relative changes in PAI-1 expression (cell lysates and secretion (cell culture supernatants in response to various lengths (2 – 4 h of hypoxic exposure (2, reoxygenation (24 h, 20 % O2, and radiation (0, 2, 5 and 10 Gy. Results HIF-1α expression was induced between 2 and 24 h of hypoxic exposure. Intracellular PAI-1 expression was significantly increased in BHY and FaDu cells as early as 4 h after hypoxic exposure. A significant induction in secreted PAI-1 was seen after 12 to 24 h (BHY and 8 to 24 h (FaDu hypoxia, as compared to the normoxic control. A 24 h reoxygenation period caused significantly less PAI-1 secretion than a 24 h hypoxia period in FaDu cells. Irradiation led to an up-regulation of PAI-1 expression and secretion in both, BHY and FaDu cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that both, short-term (~4 – 8 h and long-term (~20 – 24 h hypoxic exposure could increase PAI-1 levels in SCCHN in vivo. Importantly, radiation itself could lead to PAI-1 up-regulation in head and neck tumours, whereas reoxygenation of hypoxic tumour cells during fractionated radiotherapy could counteract the increased PAI-1 levels.

  13. An IgM-kappa rat monoclonal antibody specific for the type 1 sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptor with antagonist and agonist activities.

    Goetzl, Edward J; Dembrow, Dale; Van Brocklyn, James R; Gráler, Markus; Huang, Mei-Chuan

    2004-04-30

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) type 1G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1 GPCRs) are specific high-affinity transducers for this lipid growth factor and cellular mediator. S1P1 GPCRs are widely-expressed and physiologically critical in the cardiovascular and immune systems. Functional rat monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been generated against human S1P1 GPCRs expressed in rat null-cell transductants to provide bioavailable agents capable of stimulating or suppressing the S1P-S1P1 GPCR axis. The rat IgM-kappa anti-S1P1 GPCR MoAb designated 4B5.2 binds specifically to native human or mouse S1P1 GPCRs in cell membranes, but not to solubilized and denatured S1P1 GPCRs. Specific binding of 32P-S1P to cellular S1P1 GPCRs is not blocked by 4B5.2. T cell chemotactic responses to S1P and S1P suppression of T cell chemotaxis to chemokines both are inhibited selectively by 4B5.2. In contrast, generation of gamma-interferon by stimulated T cells is diminished by 4B5.2 as by S1P. T cell S1P1 GPCR-selective antagonist and agonist effects of 4B5.2 in vivo may alter immune responses as distinctively as the available poly-S1P GPCR-directed pharmacological agents, without the undesirable side-effects attributable to actions of these agents on other S1P GPCRs.

  14. Discovery of a series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with dual activity at angiotensin II type 1 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A; Edmunds, Jeremy J; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P; Stoner, Chad

    2011-06-23

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPARγ confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPARγ activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC(50) = 1.6 nM) with partial PPARγ agonism (EC(50) = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  15. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F.; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A.; Edmunds, Jeremy J.; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J.; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P.; Stoner, Chad (Pfizer)

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partial PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  16. Inhibitor of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Sensitizes Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Activating ROS/JNK Signaling Pathway

    Jun Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming temozolomide (TMZ resistance is a great challenge in glioblastoma (GBM treatment. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and has a crucial role in cancer cell metabolism. In this study, we investigated whether FK866 and CHS828, two specific NAMPT inhibitors, could sensitize GBM cells to TMZ. Low doses of FK866 and CHS828 (5 nM and 10 nM, resp. alone did not significantly decrease cell viability in U251-MG and T98 GBM cells. However, they significantly increased the antitumor action of TMZ in these cells. In U251-MG cells, administration of NAMPT inhibitors increased the TMZ (100 μM-induced apoptosis and LDH release from GBM cells. NAMPT inhibitors remarkably enhanced the activities of caspase-1, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Moreover, NAMPT inhibitors increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and superoxide anion level but reduced the SOD activity and total antioxidative capacity in GBM cells. Treatment of NAMPT inhibitors increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and JNK. Administration of JNK inhibitor SP600125 or ROS scavenger tocopherol with TMZ and NAMPT inhibitors substantially attenuated the sensitization of NAMPT inhibitor on TMZ antitumor action. Our data indicate a potential value of NAMPT inhibitors in combined use with TMZ for GBM treatment.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitors, 1-phenyl-tetrazole-formazan analogues.

    Yamazaki, Kazuto; Hasegawa, Hirohiko; Umekawa, Kayo; Ueki, Yasuyuki; Ohashi, Naohito; Kanaoka, Masaharu

    2002-05-06

    A novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor was obtained through a pharmacophore analysis of known inhibitors and three-dimensional structure database search. Analogues of the new inhibitor were designed using the structure-activity relationship of known inhibitors and synthesized. In anesthetized rats, intraperitoneal administration of the analogues suppressed the pressor responses induced by big endothelin-1.

  18. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    Sriram Ravindran; Marc Schapira; Patston, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the...

  19. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E

    2009-01-01

    whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb...... in reported physical activity (p sedentary behavior (p

  20. Molecular advances in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 interaction with thrombin and tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Stoop, A; van Meijer, M; Horrevoets, A J; Pannekoek, H

    1997-02-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein that controls the activity of the key enzymes of the fibrinolytic system, the serine proteases tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Inhibition is accomplished by rapid formation of inactive, equimolar PAI-1/PA complexes. The physiological importance of PAI-1 for the fibrinolytic system has been underscored by the observation that in humans, a homozygous defect results in hemorrhagic episodes. In addition to its function in surveillance of the integrity of clots, PAI-1 efficiently inhibits the serine protease thrombin in vitro, provided that either the high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan heparin or the glycoprotein vitronectin is present. These cofactors accelerate the rate of thrombin inhibition by PAI-1 by more than two orders of magnitude. Inhibition of thrombin by PAI-1 proceeds according to a "suicide substrate mechanism," typified by a branched reaction pathway, leading either to stable PAI-1/thrombin complexes or to degradation of the inhibitor and recycling of enzyme. The cofactors heparin and vitronectin, although increasing inhibition through different mechanisms, essentially promote PAI-1 degradation by thrombin. In view of the multitude of functions attributed to thrombin, the authors propose that the relevance of thrombin inhibition by PAI-1 is to restrict its mitogenic activity, rather than to affect its coagulation function in plasma. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:47-51). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  1. Peptide-Based Selective Inhibitors of Matrix Metalloproteinase-Mediated Activities

    Margaret W. Ndinguri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs exhibit a broad array of activities, some catalytic and some non-catalytic in nature. An overall lack of selectivity has rendered small molecule, active site targeted MMP inhibitors problematic in execution. Inhibitors that favor few or individual members of the MMP family often take advantage of interactions outside the enzyme active site. We presently focus on peptide-based MMP inhibitors and probes that do not incorporate conventional Zn2+ binding groups. In some cases, these inhibitors and probes function by binding only secondary binding sites (exosites, while others bind both exosites and the active site. A myriad of MMP mediated-activities beyond selective catalysis can be inhibited by peptides, particularly cell adhesion, proliferation, motility, and invasion. Selective MMP binding peptides comprise highly customizable, unique imaging agents. Areas of needed improvement for MMP targeting peptides include binding affinity and stability.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles as transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase inhibitors.

    Li, Fei; Park, Yunjeong; Hah, Jung-Mi; Ryu, Jae-Sang

    2013-02-15

    A series of 1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles has been synthesized and evaluated for their ALK5 inhibitory activity. The 1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles were assembled by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Following this, quinoxaline was introduced through Pd-catalyzed direct arylation. The synthesized 1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-(quinoxalin-6-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles revealed significant selectivity differences with respect to p38α MAP kinase. In particular, 12k showed 80.8% ALK5 inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 μM and IC(50) value of 4.69 μM, but did not show p38α MAP kinase inhibitory activity (-1.94% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μM).

  3. Correlation between blood glucose fluctuations and activation of oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic children during the acute metabolic disturbance period

    WU Di; GONG Chun-xiu; MENG Xi; YANG Qiu-lan

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children are mainly due to oxidative stress (OS).Lipid peroxidation is the main marker of OS and iso-prostaglandin is a reliable biomarker of lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).However,there have been few studies on OS in T1DM children with hyperglycemia and glucose fluctuations.Methods We prospectively enrolled 23 newly diagnosed T1DM patients and 23 age and sex matched healthy controls in Beijing Children's Hospital from May 2010 to January 2011.They were treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) and monitored by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS).Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected to measure the concentration of 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α).Samples taken from diabetic children were collected at days 8 to 10 after insulin treatment.Intraday glucose fluctuations were assessed by mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE),largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE),standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and number of glycemic excursions (NGE).The correlations between glucose parameters and the index of oxidative stress were analyzed.Results Urine 8-isoPGF2α in the T1DM group was higher than that in the control group ((967.70±412.68) ng vs.(675.23±354.59) ng,P=0.019).There was a correlation between urine 8-isoPGF2α level and MAGE (r=0.321,P=-0.039),a significant correlation between low-density lipoprotein and urine 8-isoPGF2α level (r=0.419,P=0.03).There was no significant correlation between urine 8-isoPGF2α level and blood pressure,glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c),fasting C-peptide or other lipid indices.Conclusion A correlation between urine 8-isoPGF2α levels and MAGE and low-density lipoprotein was found in children newly diagnosed with T1DM.

  4. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes has demonstrated persistent differences in metabolic outcomes between pediatric diabetes centers. These differences cannot be accounted for by differences in demographic, medical, or treatment variables. Therefore, we sought to explore...... whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb...... in reported physical activity (p metabolic control. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity is strongly associated with psychological well-being but has weak associations with metabolic control. Leisure time...

  5. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  6. The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility.

    Barranco, I; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Perez-Patiño, C; Alkmin, D V; Ceron, J J; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Roca, J

    2015-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) is a hydrolytic enzyme present in body fluids, capable of protecting cells against oxidative stress. The hypothesis was hereby to test that PON-1, present in seminal plasma (SP), acts protecting boar spermatozoa when showing a reasonable high activity in the ejaculate. SP-PON-1 activity differed (p boars (from 0.10 to 0.29 IU/mL). Intra-boar variability was also observed (p boars. SP-PON-1 activity differed among ejaculate portions, showing the spermatozoa-peak portion of spermatozoa-rich ejaculate fraction the highest levels (0.35 ± 0.03 IU/mL, ranging from 0.12 to 0.69) and the post-sperm ejaculate fraction the lowest levels (0.12 ± 0.01 IU/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 0.21). SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with rapid and progressive movement (p boars with highest farrowing rates. In conclusion, SP-PON-1 activity differed among boars and ejaculate fractions/portions. SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with sperm quality and functionality of liquid-stored semen samples and it evidenced a positive association with in vivo fertility.

  7. Activation of mu opioid receptors sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 via β-arrestin-2-mediated cross-talk.

    Matthew P Rowan

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential family V1 channel (TRPV1 is activated by multiple stimuli, including capsaicin, acid, endovanilloids, and heat (>42C. Post-translational modifications to TRPV1 result in dynamic changes to the sensitivity of receptor activation. We have previously demonstrated that β-arrestin2 actively participates in a scaffolding mechanism to inhibit TRPV1 phosphorylation, thereby reducing TRPV1 sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of β-arrestin2 sequestration by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs on thermal and chemical activation of TRPV1. Here we report that activation of mu opioid receptor by either morphine or DAMGO results in β-arrestin2 recruitment to mu opioid receptor in sensory neurons, while activation by herkinorin does not. Furthermore, treatment of sensory neurons with morphine or DAMGO stimulates β-arrestin2 dissociation from TRPV1 and increased sensitivity of the receptor. Conversely, herkinorin treatment has no effect on TRPV1 sensitivity. Additional behavioral studies indicate that GPCR-driven β-arrestin2 sequestration plays an important peripheral role in the development of thermal sensitivity. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel cross-talk mechanism between GPCRs and TRPV1 that may contribute to multiple clinical conditions.

  8. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  9. The inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 activity by crude and purified human pregnancy plug mucus and mucins in an inhibition assay

    Schoeman Leann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pregnancy plug mucins and determine their anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Methods Pregnancy plug mucins were purified by caesium chloride density-gradient ultra-centrifugation and characterized by Western blotting analysis. The anti-HIV-1 activities of the crude pregnancy plug mucus and purified pregnancy plug mucins was determined by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Results The pregnancy plug mucus had MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified pregnancy plug mucins inhibit HIV-1 activity by approximately 97.5%, the crude pregnancy plug mucus failed to inhibit HIV-1 activity. Conclusion Although it is not clear why the crude sample did not inhibit HIV-1 activity, it may be that the amount of mucins in the crude pregnancy plug mucus (which contains water, mucins, lipids, nucleic acids, lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins and ions, is insufficient to cause viral inhibition or aggregation.

  10. Effects of infrared treatment on urease, trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities of soybean samples.

    Yalcin, Seda; Basman, Arzu

    2015-02-15

    In this study, infrared (IR) treatment at different powers (814W, 1003W, 1208W, 1342W) and times (10min, 15min) were applied to unsoaked and soaked (30min, 45min) soybeans (cvs. Adasoy, Nazlican). Effects of IR treatment on urease, trypsin inhibitor, lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-3 activities were investigated. Infrared treatment caused a substantial reduction in urease and trypsin inhibitor activities and considerable decrease was observed as the IR power increased. Urease inactivation in unsoaked samples was achieved at even lower power (1208W). In contrast to urease activity, IR treatment had a more pronounced effect on trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities of soaked soybeans as compared to unsoaked counterparts. Maximum trypsin inhibitor reduction in IR-treated samples was 95% for cv. Adasoy and 97% for cv. Nazlican. IR power of 1003W was sufficient for complete inactivation of lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-3, regardless of the moisture contents of the samples.

  11. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predicts myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected individuals

    Knudsen, Andreas; Katzenstein, Terese L; Benfield, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    of antiretroviral therapy, sex, smoking and no known cardiovascular disease. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloprotease 9, myeloperoxidase, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1...

  12. Effect of histone acetylate modification on the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene regulation in mesangial cells

    刘念

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of histone acetylation change on the transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1)-associated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1(PAI-1)regulation in mesangial cells(MCs). Methods MCs were

  13. Serum proteomics reveals systemic dysregulation of innate immunity in type 1 diabetes

    Zhang, Qibin; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Mueller, Patricia W.; Rewers, Marian; Atkinson, Mark A.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2013-01-14

    Using global liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics analyses, we identified 24 serum proteins significantly variant between those with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. Functionally, these proteins represent innate immune responses, the activation cascade of complement, inflammatory responses and blood coagulation. Targeted verification analyses were performed on 52 surrogate peptides representing these proteins with serum samples from an antibody standardization program cohort of 100 healthy control and 50 type 1 diabetic subjects, and 16 peptides were verified having very good discriminating power, with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve ≥ 0.8. Further validation with blinded serum samples from an independent cohort (10 healthy control and 10 type 1 diabetic) demonstrated that peptides from platelet basic protein and C1 inhibitor achieved both 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for classification of samples. The disease specificity of these proteins was assessed using serum from 50 age matched type 2 diabetic individuals, and a subset of proteins, particularly C1 inhibitor were exceptionally good discriminators between these two forms of diabetes. The panel of biomarkers distinguishing those with type 1 diabetes from healthy control and type 2 diabetes suggests dysregulated innate immune responses may be associated with the development of this disorder.

  14. Erythropoietin during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Preservation of cognitive function during hypoglycaemic episodes is crucial for patients with insulin-treated diabetes to avoid severe hypoglycaemic events. Erythropoietin has neuroprotective potential. However, the role of erythropoietin during hypoglycaemia is unclear. The aim of the stud....... CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycaemia triggers a rise in plasma erythropoietin in patients with type 1 diabetes. The response is influenced by basal RAS activity. Erythropoietin may carry a neuroprotective potential during hypoglycaemia....... was to explore plasma erythropoietin response to hypoglycaemia and the relationship to basal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and cognitive function. METHODS: We performed a single-blinded, controlled, cross-over study with induced hypoglycaemia or maintained glycaemic level. Nine patients with type 1......AIMS: Preservation of cognitive function during hypoglycaemic episodes is crucial for patients with insulin-treated diabetes to avoid severe hypoglycaemic events. Erythropoietin has neuroprotective potential. However, the role of erythropoietin during hypoglycaemia is unclear. The aim of the study...

  15. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  16. Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency.

    Resino, Salvador; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; de José, Maria Isabel; Martin-Fontelos, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Maria Dolores Gurbindo; Léon, Juan Antonio; Ramos, José Tomás; Ciria, Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the CD4 recovery of naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with severe immunodeficiency who were followed up during at least 4 years of receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Children with baseline CD4 of or =25% after the 4th year on HAART. We conclude that starting HAART after severe immunosuppression of naive HIV-infected children may not be effective for recovery of normal %CD4.

  17. STAT5 activity in pancreatic beta-cells influences the severity of diabetes in animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    Jackerott, Malene; Møldrup, Annette; Thams, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell growth and survival and insulin production are stimulated by growth hormone and prolactin through activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5. To assess the role of STAT5 activity in beta-cells in vivo, we generated transgenic...... of glucose tolerance, whereas RIP-CASTAT5 mice were more glucose tolerant and less hyperleptinemic than wild-type mice. Although the pancreatic insulin content and relative beta-cell area were increased in high-fat diet-fed RIP-DNSTAT5 mice compared with wild-type or RIP-CASTAT5 mice, RIP-DNSTAT5 mice showed...... reduced beta-cell proliferation at 6 months of age. The inhibitory effect of high-fat diet or leptin on insulin secretion was diminished in isolated islets from RIP-DNSTAT5 mice compared with wild-type islets. Upon multiple low-dose streptozotocin treatment, RIP-DNSTAT5 mice exhibited higher plasma...

  18. p53 Small Molecule Inhibitor Enhances Temozolomide Cytotoxic Activity against Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts

    Dinca, Eduard B.; Lu, Kan V.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Pieper, Russell O.; Prados, Michael D.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; VandenBerg, Scott R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; James, C. David

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated corresponding precursor and active forms of a p53 small molecule inhibitor for effect on temozolomide (TMZ) anti-tumor activity against glioblastoma (GBM), using both in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. Results from in vitro cell viability analysis showed that the cytotoxic activity of TMZ was substantially increased when GBMs with wild-type p53 were co-treated with the active form of p53 inhibitor, and this heightened cytotoxic response was accompanied by increased PARP cleavage as well as elevated cellular phospho-H2AX. Analysis of the same series of GBMs, as intracranial xenografts in athymic mice, and administering corresponding p53 inhibitor precursor, that is converted to the active compound in vivo, yielded results consistent with the in vitro analyses: i.e., TMZ + p53 inhibitor precursor co-treatment, of three distinct wild-type p53 GBM xenografts, resulted in significant enhancement of TMZ anti-tumor effect relative to treatment with TMZ alone, as indicated by serial bioluminescence monitoring as well as survival analysis (p < 0.001 for co-treatment survival benefit in each case). Mice receiving intracranial injection with p53 null GBM showed similar survival benefit from TMZ treatment regardless of the presence or absence of p53 inhibitor precursor. In total, our results indicate that the p53 active and precursor inhibitor pair enhance TMZ cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively, and do so in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:19074867

  19. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    C S Muralidhara Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  20. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival.

  1. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals: implication in agriculture, cereal processing and nutrition

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  2. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    Vedeswari C Ponranjini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison′s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient with a history of seizure from the age of 11 years, who was managed with anticonvulsant drugs. With worsening of the seizure episodes, patient was diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism together with the manifestations of oral candidiasis, nails dystrophy, enamel hypoplasia, and hypogonadism. A diagnosis of APS-1 was considered. The facility for genetic analysis of the AIRE gene mutation was not accessible, as the test costs were prohibitive and not affordable for the patient. Patient management was directed to treating individual disease components. However, cerebral and dental changes were irreversible.

  3. The Oncogenic Response to MiR-335 Is Associated with Cell Surface Expression of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Activity.

    Rojas, Fausto; Hernandez, Maria E; Silva, Milagros; Li, Lihua; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wilson, Michael J; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA miR-335 has been reported to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic activities. In order to determine possible tissue and cell type differences in response to miR-335, we examined the effect of miR-335 on cell expression of MT1-MMP, a proteinase commonly expressed in tumors and associated with cell proliferation and migration. miR-335 increased cell surface expression of MT1-MMP in fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and benign prostate BPH-1 cells, but not in prostate LNCaP or breast MCF-7 tumor cells. miR-335 stimulated proliferation and cell migration in a wound healing in vitro assay in HT-1080, BPH-1, and U87 glioblastoma cells, cells which demonstrated significant cell surface expression of MT1-MMP. In contrast, miR-335 did not affect proliferation or migration in cells without a prominent plasma membrane associated MT1-MMP activity. Our data suggest that differences in response to miR-335 by tumor cells may lie in part in the mechanism of regulation of MT1-MMP production.

  4. The Oncogenic Response to MiR-335 Is Associated with Cell Surface Expression of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP Activity.

    Fausto Rojas

    Full Text Available MicroRNA miR-335 has been reported to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic activities. In order to determine possible tissue and cell type differences in response to miR-335, we examined the effect of miR-335 on cell expression of MT1-MMP, a proteinase commonly expressed in tumors and associated with cell proliferation and migration. miR-335 increased cell surface expression of MT1-MMP in fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and benign prostate BPH-1 cells, but not in prostate LNCaP or breast MCF-7 tumor cells. miR-335 stimulated proliferation and cell migration in a wound healing in vitro assay in HT-1080, BPH-1, and U87 glioblastoma cells, cells which demonstrated significant cell surface expression of MT1-MMP. In contrast, miR-335 did not affect proliferation or migration in cells without a prominent plasma membrane associated MT1-MMP activity. Our data suggest that differences in response to miR-335 by tumor cells may lie in part in the mechanism of regulation of MT1-MMP production.

  5. Uncharged isocoumarin-based inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    Deck Lorraine M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA plays a major role in extracellular proteolytic events associated with tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis. Consequently, uPA is an attractive target for the development of small molecule active site inhibitors. Most of the recent drug development programs aimed at nonpeptidic inhibitors targeted at uPA have focused on arginino mimetics containing amidine or guanidine functional groups attached to aromatic or heterocyclic scaffolds. There is a general problem of limited bioavailability of these charged inhibitors. In the present study, uPA inhibitors were designed on an isocoumarin scaffold containing uncharged substituents. Results 4-Chloro-3-alkoxyisocoumarins were synthesized in which the 3-alkoxy group contained a terminal bromine; these were compared with similar inhibitors that contained a charged terminal functional group. Additional variations included functional groups attached to the seven position of the isocoumarin scaffold. N- [3-(3-Bromopropoxy-4-chloro-1-oxo-1H-isochromen-7-yl]benzamide was identified as an uncharged lead inhibitor of uPA, Ki = 0.034 μM. Molecular modeling of human uPA with these uncharged inhibitors suggests that the bromine occupies the same position as positively charged arginino mimetic groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that potent uncharged inhibitors of uPA can be developed based upon the isocoumarin scaffold. A tethered bromine in the three position and an aromatic group in the seven position are important contributors to binding. Although the aim was to develop compounds that act as mechanism-based inactivators, these inhibitors are competitive reversible inhibitors.

  6. A Functional Interplay between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Residues 77 and 93 Involved in Differential Regulation of Precursor Autoprocessing and Mature Protease Activity.

    Christopher J Counts

    Full Text Available HIV-1 protease (PR is a viral enzyme vital to the production of infectious virions. It is initially synthesized as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor in the infected cell. The free mature PR is liberated as a result of precursor autoprocessing upon virion release. We previously described a model system to examine autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. Here, we report that a covariance analysis of miniprecursor (p6*-PR sequences derived from drug naïve patients identified a series of amino acid pairs that vary together across independent viral isolates. These covariance pairs were used to build the first topology map of the miniprecursor that suggests high levels of interaction between the p6* peptide and the mature PR. Additionally, several PR-PR covariance pairs are located far from each other (>12 Å Cα to Cα relative to their positions in the mature PR structure. Biochemical characterization of one such covariance pair (77-93 revealed that each residue shows distinct preference for one of three alkyl amino acids (V, I, and L and that a polar or charged amino acid at either of these two positions abolishes precursor autoprocessing. The most commonly observed 77V is preferred by the most commonly observed 93I, but the 77I variant is preferred by other 93 variances (L, V, or M in supporting precursor autoprocessing. Furthermore, the 77I93V covariant enhanced precursor autoprocessing and Gag polyprotein processing but decreased the mature PR activity. Therefore, both covariance and biochemical analyses support a functional association between residues 77 and 93, which are spatially distant from each other in the mature PR structure. Our data also suggests that these covariance pairs differentially regulate precursor autoprocessing and the mature protease activity.

  7. A Functional Interplay between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Residues 77 and 93 Involved in Differential Regulation of Precursor Autoprocessing and Mature Protease Activity.

    Counts, Christopher J; Ho, P Shing; Donlin, Maureen J; Tavis, John E; Chen, Chaoping

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme vital to the production of infectious virions. It is initially synthesized as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor in the infected cell. The free mature PR is liberated as a result of precursor autoprocessing upon virion release. We previously described a model system to examine autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. Here, we report that a covariance analysis of miniprecursor (p6*-PR) sequences derived from drug naïve patients identified a series of amino acid pairs that vary together across independent viral isolates. These covariance pairs were used to build the first topology map of the miniprecursor that suggests high levels of interaction between the p6* peptide and the mature PR. Additionally, several PR-PR covariance pairs are located far from each other (>12 Å Cα to Cα) relative to their positions in the mature PR structure. Biochemical characterization of one such covariance pair (77-93) revealed that each residue shows distinct preference for one of three alkyl amino acids (V, I, and L) and that a polar or charged amino acid at either of these two positions abolishes precursor autoprocessing. The most commonly observed 77V is preferred by the most commonly observed 93I, but the 77I variant is preferred by other 93 variances (L, V, or M) in supporting precursor autoprocessing. Furthermore, the 77I93V covariant enhanced precursor autoprocessing and Gag polyprotein processing but decreased the mature PR activity. Therefore, both covariance and biochemical analyses support a functional association between residues 77 and 93, which are spatially distant from each other in the mature PR structure. Our data also suggests that these covariance pairs differentially regulate precursor autoprocessing and the mature protease activity.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: optic atrophy type 1

    ... Home Health Conditions optic atrophy type 1 optic atrophy type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Optic atrophy type 1 is a condition that affects vision. ...

  9. Insights into structure and activity of natural compound inhibitors of pneumolysin

    Li, Hongen; Zhao, Xiaoran; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng; Song, Meng; Niu, Xiaodi; Peng, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Pneumolysin is the one of the major virulence factor of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. In previous report, it is shown that β-sitosterol, a natural compound without antimicrobial activity, is a potent antagonist of pneumolysin. Here, two new pneumolysin natural compound inhibitors, with differential activity, were discovered via haemolysis assay. To explore the key factor of the conformation for the inhibition activity, the interactions between five natural compound inhibitors with differential activity and pneumolysin were reported using molecular modelling, the potential of mean force profiles. Interestingly, it is found that incorporation of the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25) to replace the double bond (hydrocarbon sidechain) improved the anti-haemolytic activity. In view of the molecular modelling, binding of the five inhibitors to the conserved loop region (Val372, Leu460, and Tyr461) of the cholesterol binding sites led to stable complex systems, which was consistent with the result of β-sitosterol. Owing to the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25), campesterol and brassicasterol could form strong interactions with Val372 and show higher anti-haemolytic activity, which indicated that the single bond (C22-C23-C24-C25) in inhibitors was required for the anti-haemolytic activity. Overall, the current molecular modelling work provides a starting point for the development of rational design and higher activity pneumolysin inhibitors. PMID:28165051

  10. New subtypes and genetic recombination in HIV type 1-infecting patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru (2008-2010).

    Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Acuña, Maribel; Gazzo, Cecilia; Salinas, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Fanny; Valverde, Ada; Romero, Soledad

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is the most frequent strain in Peru. However, there is no available data about the genetic diversity of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) here. A group of 267 patients in the Peruvian National Treatment Program with virologic failure were tested for genotypic evidence of HIV drug resistance at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Peru between March 2008 and December 2010. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and the segments of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), purified, and fully sequenced. Consensus sequences were submitted to the HIVdb Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm Database from Stanford University, and then aligned using Clustal X v.2.0 to generate a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood method. Intrasubtype and intersubtype recombination analyses were performed using the SCUEAL program (Subtype Classification by Evolutionary ALgo-rithms). A total of 245 samples (91%) were successfully genotyped. The analysis obtained from the HIVdb program showed 81.5% resistance cases (n=198). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype B was predominant in the population (98.8%), except for new cases of A, C, and H subtypes (n=4). Of these cases, only subtype C was imported. Likewise, recombination analysis revealed nine intersubtype and 20 intrasubtype recombinant cases. This is the first report of the presence of HIV-1 subtypes C and H in Peru. The introduction of new subtypes and circulating recombinants forms can make it difficult to distinguish resistance profiles in patients and consequently affect future treatment strategies against HIV in this country.

  11. Activation of CRH receptor type 1 expressed on glutamatergic neurons increases excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by the modulation of voltage-gated ion channels

    Stephan eKratzer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH plays an important role in a substantial number of patients with stress-related mental disorders, such as anxiety disorders and depression. CRH has been shown to increase neuronal excitability in the hippocampus, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The effects of CRH on neuronal excitability were investigated in acute hippocampal brain slices. Population spikes (PS and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP were evoked by stimulating Schaffer-collaterals and recorded simultaneously from the somatic and dendritic region of CA1 pyramidal neurons. CRH was found to increase PS amplitudes (mean  Standard error of the mean; 231.8  31.2% of control; n=10 while neither affecting fEPSPs (104.3 ± 4.2%; n=10 nor long-term potentiation (LTP. However, when Schaffer-collaterals were excited via action potentials (APs generated by stimulation of CA3 pyramidal neurons, CRH increased fEPSP amplitudes (119.8 ± 3.6%; n=8 and the magnitude of LTP in the CA1 region. Experiments in slices from transgenic mice revealed that the effect on PS amplitude is mediated exclusively by CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1 expressed on glutamatergic neurons. The effects of CRH on PS were dependent on phosphatase-2B, L- and T-type calcium channels and voltage-gated potassium channels but independent on intracellular Ca2+-elevation. In patch-clamp experiments, CRH increased the frequency and decay times of APs and decreased currents through A-type and delayed-rectifier potassium channels. These results suggest that CRH does not affect synaptic transmission per se, but modulates voltage-gated ion currents important for the generation of APs and hence elevates by this route overall neuronal activity.

  12. An investigation of the effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark extracts on oxidative DNA damage and possible cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in transformed/untransformed cell lines from Type 1 diabetic patients, in vitro.

    Ferzan Lermioglu Erciyas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM had increased level of oxidative DNA damage and decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These changes were implicated in the increased cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cinnamon bark extracts have diverse biological activities including antidiabetic and anti-tumor properties. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia is a common used cinnamon species present in commercial cinnamon preparations. We aimed to investigate the effects of cinnamon extracts prepared from C. cassia bark on endogenous and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage, as well as cytotoxic and apoptotic activities in this study. Type 1 diabetic (T1DM lymphocytes (GM02765, GM01838 and fibroblasts (GM01837 were obtained from NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository of Coriell Institute, New Jersey, USA. Cytotoxicity analysis were performed by using a tetrazolium salt, 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl 2-(4-nitrophenyl 2H-5-tetrazolio] 1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1. The effects of extracts on endogenous and H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage were studied using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; Comet Assay, a technique allowing DNA damage in a single cell. Apoptotic activities of extracts were investigated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays. using flow cytometry. IC50 and IC20 values of the extracts varied and the effects on endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage were different regarding cell lines and extracts. Although their protective effects at some doses against to H2O2-induced oxidative damage, our results suggested DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of cinnamon bark extracts on Type 1 diabetic cell lines, in vitro.

  13. A straightforward ninhydrin-based method for collagenase activity and inhibitor screening of collagenase using spectrophotometry.

    Zhang, Yanfang; Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2013-06-01

    Currently protease assay kits, requiring substrate that is either radiolabeled or fluorescence labeled and specialized instruments, are all expensive. A simple, reliable assay of protease activity and its inhibitor screening for general laboratory is rare. Here we demonstrated a straightforward ninhydrin-based method for assay of collagenase activity and its inhibitor screening using spectrophotometry. In the method, without multistep sample treatments and substrate labeling, the hydrolytic products were directly traced by ninhydrin. The method is expected to be suitable for not only the assay of collagenase activity but also the others matrix metalloproteinases activities, and can be used for kinetic study.

  14. A quantitative measurement of antiviral activity of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drugs against simian immunodeficiency virus infection: dose-response curve slope strongly influences class-specific inhibitory potential.

    Deng, Kai; Zink, M Christine; Clements, Janice E; Siliciano, Robert F

    2012-10-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques is so far the best animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) studies, but suppressing viral replication in infected animals remains challenging. Using a novel single-round infectivity assay, we quantitated the antiviral activities of antiretroviral drugs against SIV. Our results emphasize the importance of the dose-response curve slope in determining the inhibitory potential of antiretroviral drugs and provide useful information for regimen selection in treating SIV-infected animals in models of therapy and virus eradication.

  15. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Antiretroviral Activity of Multiple Doses of Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355), an Anti-CD4 Monoclonal Antibody, in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adults ▿

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Daniel R Kuritzkes; Godofsky, Eliot; DeJesus, Edwin; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Weinheimer, Steven P.; Lewis, Stanley T.

    2008-01-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and inhibits the viral entry process. A phase lb multidose study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of ibalizumab was conducted with 22 HIV-1-infected patients. Nineteen patients were randomized to receive either 10 mg/kg of body weight weekly (arm A) or a 10-mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg every 2 weeks (arm B) intr...

  16. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  17. Improved antitumor activity of immunotherapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E melanoma

    Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Mok, Stephen; Moreno, Blanca Homet; Tsoi, Jennifer; Faja, Lidia Robert; Goedert, Lucas; Pinheiro, Elaine M.; Koya, Richard C; Graeber, Thomas; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Ribas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Combining immunotherapy and BRAF targeted therapy may result in improved antitumor activity with the high response rates of targeted therapy and the durability of responses with immunotherapy. However, the first clinical trial testing the combination of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab was terminated early due to substantial liver toxicities. MEK inhibitors can potentiate the MAPK inhibition in BRAF mutant cells, while potentially alleviating the unwanted para...

  18. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-21

    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.

  19. Proteinase activity in human and murine saliva as a biomarker for proteinase inhibitor efficacy.

    Fingleton, Barbara; Menon, Ramkumar; Carter, Kathy J; Overstreet, P Dawn; Hachey, David L; Matrisian, Lynn M; McIntyre, J Oliver

    2004-12-01

    As molecularly targeted agents reach the clinic, there is a need for assays to detect their presence and effectiveness against target molecules in vivo. Proteinase inhibitors are one example of a class of therapeutic agent for which satisfactory methods of identifying successful target modulation in vivo are lacking. This is of particular importance while these drugs are in clinical trials because standard maximum-tolerated dose-finding studies often are not suitable due to lack of toxicity. Saliva represents a readily accessible bodily fluid that can be repeatedly sampled and used for assaying in vivo effects of systemic drugs. Here we show the development of a simple assay that can be used to measure proteinase activity in saliva and proteinase inhibition after systemic treatment with three different proteinase inhibitors. A variety of gelatinolytic activities present in human and murine saliva have been assayed with a fluorescent dye-labeled substrate and assigned to different proteinase categories by inclusion of specific classes of inhibitors. Treatment of mice with either matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or a urokinase inhibitor for a period as short as 48 hours results in levels of the drugs that can be detected in saliva by mass spectrometry and concomitant decreases in salivary proteinase activity, thus demonstrating that these inhibitors successfully modulate their targets in vivo.

  20. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  1. Search for Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity: isolation and SAR studies of radicicol and monocillin I from two plant-associated fungi of the Sonoran desert.

    Turbyville, Thomas J; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Liu, Manping X; Burns, Anna M; Seliga, Christopher J; Luevano, Libia A; David, Cynthia L; Faeth, Stanley H; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to discover small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, we have screened over 500 EtOAc extracts of Sonoran desert plant-associated fungi using a two-stage strategy consisting of a primary cell-based heat shock induction assay (HSIA) followed by a secondary biochemical luciferase refolding assay (LRA). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts active in these assays derived from Chaetomium chiversii and Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata furnished the Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (1) and monocillin I (2), respectively. In SAR studies, 1, 2, and their analogues, 3-16, were evaluated in these assays, and the antiproliferative activity of compounds active in both assays was determined using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Radicicol and monocillin I were also evaluated in a solid-phase competition assay for their ability to bind Hsp90 and to deplete cellular levels of two known Hsp90 client proteins with relevance to breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), and the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Some inferences on SAR were made considering the crystal structure of the N-terminus of yeast Hsp90 bound to 1 and the observed biological activities of 1-16. Isolation of radicicol and monocillin I in this study provides evidence that we have developed an effective strategy for discovering natural product-based Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

  2. Damping properties of type 1 fimbriae

    Zakrisson, Johan; Axner, Ove; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae mediate adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to host cells. It has been hypothesized that fimbriae can, by their ability to uncoil under exposure to force, reduce fluid shear stress on the adhesin-receptor interaction by which the bacterium adheres to the surface. In this work we develop a model that describes how the force on the adhesin-receptor interaction of a type 1 fimbriae varies as a bacterium is affected by a time dependent fluid flow mimicking in vivo conditions. The model combines in vivo hydrodynamic conditions with previously assessed biomechanical properties of the fimbriae. Numerical methods are used to solve for the motion and adhesion force under the presence of time dependent fluid profiles. It is found that a bacterium tethered with a type 1 pilus will experience significantly reduced shear stress for moderate to high flow velocities and that the maximum stress the adhesin will experience is limited to ~120 pN, which is sufficient to activate the conformational ...

  3. Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

    Leissring, Malcolm A.; Malito, Enrico; Hedouin, Sabrine; Reinstatler, Lael; Sahara, Tomoko; Abdul-Hay, Samer O.; Choudhry, Shakeel; Maharvi, Ghulam M.; Fauq, Abdul H.; Huzarska, Malwina; May, Philip S.; Choi, Sungwoon; Logan, Todd P.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Manolopoulou, Marika; Tang, Wei-Jen; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Selkoe, Dennis J. (Harvard-Med); (BWH); (Yale-MED); (Scripps); (UC); (Mayo)

    2010-09-20

    Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are {approx} 10{sup 6} times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-a-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's 'closed,' inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. Conclusions/Significance: The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  4. Designed inhibitors of insulin-degrading enzyme regulate the catabolism and activity of insulin.

    Malcolm A Leissring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are approximately 10(6 times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-à-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's "closed," inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  5. Synthesis and extended activity of triazole-containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors

    Pehere, A.D.; Pietsch, M.; Gütschow, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Peptide-derived protease inhibitors are an important class of compounds with the potential to treat a wide range of diseases. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a series of triazole- containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors pre-organized into a b-strand conformation and an evaluation...... of their activity against a panel of proteases. Acyclic azidoalkyne-based aldehydes are also evaluated for comparison. The macrocyclic peptidomimetics showed considerable activity towards calpain II, cathepsin L and S, and the 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity. Some of the first examples of highly potent...

  6. Molecular design, synthesis and biological activities of amidines as new ketol-acid reductoisomerase inhibitors

    Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Jian Guo Wang; Yi Ma; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Diamidine (A) was identified in our in vitro bio-assay as a possible inhibitor of ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) from the ACD database search based on the known three-dimensional crystal structure of KARI. An investigation on interaction of A on KARI active sites, led to the design and synthesis of 15 novel monoamidines. Some of those showed better biological activity than A on rice KARI (in vitro) and in greenhouse herbicidal tests (in vivo). The structure-biological activity relationship was investigated, which provides valuable information to further study of potential KARI inhibitors.

  7. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir is potentially active against urological malignancies

    Sato A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori Sato Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir has recently been shown to have antineoplastic activity, and its use in urological malignancies is under investigation with an eye toward drug repositioning. Ritonavir is thought to exert its antineoplastic activity by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways, including the Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. It can increase the amount of unfolded proteins in the cell by inhibiting both the proteasome and heat shock protein 90. Combinations of ritonavir with agents that increase the amount of unfolded proteins, such as proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, or heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, therefore, induce endoplasmic reticulum stress cooperatively and thereby kill cancer cells effectively. Ritonavir is also a potent cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibitor, increasing the intracellular concentration of combined drugs by inhibiting their degradation and efflux from cancer cells and thereby enhancing their antineoplastic activity. Furthermore, riotnavir’s antineoplastic activity includes modulation of immune system activity. Therapies using ritonavir are thus an attractive new approach to cancer treatment and, due to their novel mechanisms of action, are expected to be effective against malignancies that are refractory to current treatment strategies. Further investigations using ritonavir are expected to find new uses for clinically available drugs in the treatment of urological malignancies as well as many other types of cancer. Keywords: drug repositioning, novel treatment

  8. PEGylated DX-1000: Pharmacokinetics and Antineoplastic Activity of a Specific Plasmin Inhibitor

    Laetitia Devy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel inhibitors of the urokinase-mediated plasminogen (plg activation system are potentially of great clinical benefit as anticancer treatments. Using phage display, we identified DX-1000 a tissue factor pathway inhibitor-derived Kunitz domain protein which is a specific high-affinity inhibitor of plasmin (pin (Ki = 99 pM. When tested in vitro, DX-1000 blocks plasminmediated pro-matrix metal loproteinase-9 (proMMP-9 activation on cells and dose-dependently inhibits tube formation, while not significantly affecting hemostasis and coagulation. However, this low-molecular weight protein inhibitor (~ 7 kDa exhibits rapid plasma clearance in mice and rabbits, limiting its potential clinical use in chronic diseases. After site-specific PEGylation, DX-1000 retains its activity and exhibits a decreased plasma clearance. This PEGylated derivative is effective in vitro, as well as potent in inhibiting tumor growth of green fluorescent protein (GFP-labeled MDA-MB-231 cells. 4PEG-DX-1000 treatment causes a significant reduction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen expressions, a reduction of tumor proliferation, and vascularization. 4PEG-DX-1000 treatment significantly decreases the level of active mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK in the primary tumors and reduces metastasis incidence. Together, our results demonstrate the potential value of plasmin inhibitors as therapeutic agents for blocking breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  9. Modulation of enzymatic activity of human mast cell tryptase and chymase by protease inhibitors

    HEShao-Heng; CHENPu; CHENHan-Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the actions of protease inhibitors on the enzymatic activities of tryptase and chymase in similarexperimental systems. METHODS: Human lung tryptase and human skin chymase were purified by a similarprocedure involving high salt extraction of tryptase, heparin agarose affinity chromatography, and S-200 Sephacrylgel filtration chromatography. Actions of protease inhibitors on tryptase and chymase activities were examined byenzyme assays. RESULTS: The specific activities of tryptase and chymase were 2.1 kU/g protein and 4.9 kU/g protein, respectively. Both preparations showed a single diffuse band on SDS-PAGE. Among non-native proteaseinhibitors, N-(1-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl)-L- arginyl-L-prolinamide hydrochloride (HNAP), leupeptin, antipain,benzamidine, and protamine inhibited more than 90 % enzymatic activity of tryptase, whereas soy bean trypsininhibitor (SBTI), Z-Ile-Glu-Pro-Phe-CO2Me (ZIGPPM) and chymostatin inhibited more than 95 % enzymaticactivity of chymase. Native protease inhibitors α-antitrypsin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)inhibited more than 90 % enzymatic activity of chymase, but lactoferrin appeared to enhance chymase enzymaticactivity. All the 3 inhibitors had weak inhibitory actions on tryptase. CONCLUSION: The protease inhibitorstested had relatively good selectivity to either tryptase or chymase.

  10. Type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity.

    Kahaly, George J; Hansen, Martin P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. Genetic background may affect the risk for autoimmune disease and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, autoimmune gastritis, coeliac disease and vitiligo. Approximately 20%-25% of patients with T1D have thyroid antibodies, and up to 50% of such patients progress to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. Approximately 0.5% of diabetic patients have concomitant Addison's disease and 4% have coeliac disease. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia is 5% to 10% and 2.6% to 4%, respectively. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Patients and family members should be educated to be able to recognize signs and symptoms of underlying disease.

  11. Atividade da enzima acetil-hidrolase do fator ativador de plaquetas (PAF-AH em pacientes com diabete melito tipo 1 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Simone Henriques de Castro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade da acetil-hidrolase do fator ativador de plaquetas (PAF-AH e sua relação com variáveis clinicodemográficas, com o controle metabólico, os níveis de apolipoproteínas A e B e a suscetibilidade da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL à oxidação in vitro em pacientes com DM tipo 1 (DM 1. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 42 pacientes com DM1 (27 mulheres e 48 não-diabéticos (16 mulheres, pareados por sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC. Os exames realizados foram: glicemia de jejum (GJ e pós-prandial (GPP, lipidograma, ácido úrico (AU, hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c e coeficiente de oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL por espectrofotometria. A análise da atividade da PAF-AH foi realizada por espectrofotometria (Cayman Chemical. RESULTADOS: A análise da atividade da PAF-AH mostrou haver maior atividade enzimática nos pacientes com DM 1 do que nos não-diabéticos (0,0150 ± 0,0051 versus 0,0116 ± 0,0041; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity and its relationship with clinical and demographic variables, metabolic control, apolipoprotein A and B levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL to in vitro oxidation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM 1. METHODS: Forty two patients with DM 1 (27 females and 48 control subjects (16 females matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI were evaluated. The following tests were performed: fast plasma glucose (FG and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG, lipid profile, uric acid (UA, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation rate using colorimetric assay. The PAF-AH activity was analyzed using colorimetric assay (Cayman Chemical. RESULTS: The analysis of PAF-AH activity showed a higher enzyme activity in patients with DM 1 than in control subjects (0.0150 ± 0.0051 vs. 0.0116 ± 0.0041; p < 0.001. In patients with DM 1, a direct correlation

  12. The angiotensin type 1 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by G protein-dependent and -independent pathways in cardiac myocytes and langendorff-perfused hearts

    Aplin, Mark; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schneider, Mikael;

    2007-01-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) through G proteins or G protein-independently through beta-arrestin2 in cellular expression systems. As activation mechanisms may greatly influence the biological...... effects of ERK1/2 activity, differential activation of the AT(1)R in its native cellular context could have important biological and pharmacological implications. To examine if AT(1)R activates ERK1/2 by G protein-independent mechanisms in the heart, we used the [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII ([SII] Ang......II) analogue in native preparations of cardiac myocytes and beating hearts. We found that [SII] AngII does not activate G(q)-coupling, yet stimulates the beta-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2. The G(q)-activated pool of ERK1/2 rapidly translocates to the nucleus, while the beta-arrestin2-scaffolded pool remains...

  13. A trypsin inhibitor from snail medic seeds active against pest proteases.

    Ceciliani, F; Tava, A; Iori, R; Mortarino, M; Odoardi, M; Ronchi, S

    1997-02-01

    A protein trypsin inhibitor from seeds of snail medic (Medicago scutellata), MsTI, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The protein inhibits the catalytic activity of bovine beta-trypsin, with an apparent Kd of 1.8 x 10(-9), but exhibits no activity towards bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. Moreover, MsTI inhibits the trypsin-like proteinase activity present in larvae of the crop pests Adoxophyes orana, Hyphantria cunea, Lobesia botrana and Ostrinia nubilalis. The complete amino acid sequence of MsTI consists of 62 residues corresponding to a M(r) of 6925. Sequence comparison shows that MsTI exhibits significant similarity to other proteins belonging to the Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor family, and the closest identity (81%) with the wound-induced trypsin inhibitor from Medicago sativa leaves.

  14. Exploring in vitro and in vivo Hsp90 inhibitors activity against human protozoan parasites.

    Giannini, Giuseppe; Battistuzzi, Gianfranco

    2015-02-01

    A set of compounds, previously selected as potent Hsp90α inhibitors, has been studied on a panel of human parasites. 5-Aryl-3,4-isoxazolediamide derivatives (1) were active against two protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum, with a good tolerability toward cytotoxicity on non-malignant L6 rat myoblast cell line, unlike the 1,5-diaryl,4-carboxamides-1,2,3-triazole derivatives (2) which, while showing a single-digit nM range activity against the same protozoa, were also highly cytotoxic on L6 cells. In a subsequent in vivo study, two isoxazolediamide derivatives, 1a and 1b, were very efficacious on the sleeping sickness-causing agent with a clear parasitaemia during treatment. These data, however, showed that not all protozoa are sensitive to Hsp90 inhibitors, as well as not all Hsp90 inhibitors are equally active on parasites.

  15. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism at the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene modulates plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 concentrations in response to dietary fat consumption.

    Pérez-Martínez, P; Adarraga-Cansino, M D; Fernández de la Puebla, R A; Blanco-Molina, A; Delgado-Lista, J; Marín, C; Ordovás, J M; López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with the response of functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat in healthy subjects. PAI-1 is the major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and a lower level of fibrinolytic activity could be implicated in an increased risk of IHD. Fifty-nine healthy Spanish volunteers (ten 4G/4G homozygotes, twenty-eight heterozygotes 4G/5G and twenty-one 5G/5G homozygotes) consumed three diets for periods of 4 weeks each: a SFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 20 % SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (30 % fat, 55 % carbohydrate) and a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 22 % MUFA) according to a randomized crossover design. At the end of each dietary period plasma lipid and functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations were determined. Subjects carrying the 4G allele (4G/4G and 4G/5G) showed a significant decrease in PAI-1 concentrations after the MUFA diet, compared with the SFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets (genotype x diet interaction: P = 0.028). 5G/5G homozygotes had the lowest plasma PAI-1 concentrations compared with 4G/4G and 4G/5G subjects (genotype: P = 0.002), without any changes as a result of the amount and the quality of the dietary fat. In summary, no differences in plasma PAI-1 concentration response were found after changes in dietary fat intake in 5G/5G homozygotes, although these subjects displayed the lowest concentrations of PAI-1. On the other hand, carriers of the 4G allele are more likely to hyper-respond to the presence of MUFA in the diet because of a greater decrease in PAI-1 concentrations.

  16. Serum proteomics reveals systemic dysregulation of innate immunity in type 1 diabetes.

    Zhang, Qibin; Fillmore, Thomas L; Schepmoes, Athena A; Clauss, Therese R W; Gritsenko, Marina A; Mueller, Patricia W; Rewers, Marian; Atkinson, Mark A; Smith, Richard D; Metz, Thomas O

    2013-01-14

    Using global liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics analyses, we identified 24 serum proteins that were significantly variant between those with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and healthy controls. Functionally, these proteins represent innate immune responses, the activation cascade of complement, inflammatory responses, and blood coagulation. Targeted verification analyses were performed on 52 surrogate peptides representing these proteins, with serum samples from an antibody standardization program cohort of 100 healthy control and 50 type 1 diabetic subjects. 16 peptides were verified as having very good discriminating power, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥ 0.8. Further validation with blinded serum samples from an independent cohort (10 healthy control and 10 type 1 diabetics) demonstrated that peptides from platelet basic protein and C1 inhibitor achieved both 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for classification of samples. The disease specificity of these proteins was assessed using sera from 50 age-matched type 2 diabetic individuals, and a subset of proteins, C1 inhibitor in particular, were exceptionally good discriminators between these two forms of diabetes. The panel of biomarkers distinguishing those with T1D from healthy controls and those with type 2 diabetes suggests that dysregulated innate immune responses may be associated with the development of this disorder.

  17. Gender-specific correlations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator levels with cardiovascular disease-related traits

    Asselbergs, F. W.; Williams, S. M.; Hebert, P. R.; Coffey, C. S.; Hillege, H. L.; Navis, G.; Vaughan, D. E.; Van Gilst, W. H.; Moore, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and cardiovascular disease-related traits in a general population and whether these correlations differed between females a

  18. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in Malaysian subjects.

    Al-Hamodi, Zaid H; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Ahmed, Khaled A; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-05-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat insertion/deletion polymorphisms might be genetic determinations of increased or decreased of their plasma activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome parameters in normal Malaysian subjects and to assess the impact of these polymorphisms on their plasma activities and antigens. The genetic polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 normal subjects. In addition, the plasma activities and antigens of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator as well as levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profile at fasting state were investigated. The subjects with homozygous 4G/4G showed association with an increased triglyceride (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). In addition, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism modulates plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and antigen and tissue plasminogen activator activity (p = 0.002, 0.014, 0.003) respectively. These results showed that, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator activities in Malaysian subjects, and may serve to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Malaysian subjects.

  20. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent 4-fluoro-2-cyanopyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.

    Fukushima, Hiroshi; Hiratate, Akira; Takahashi, Masato; Mikami, Ayako; Saito-Hori, Masako; Munetomo, Eiji; Kitano, Kiyokazu; Chonan, Sumi; Saito, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Akio; Takaoka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are promising antidiabetic drugs, and several drugs are in the developmental stage. We previously reported that the introduction of fluorine to the 4-position of 2-cyanopyrrolidine enhanced the DPP-IV inhibitory effect. In the present report, we examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-cyano-4-fluoropyrrolidine with N-substituted glycine at the 1-position. We report the identification of a potent and stable DPP-IV inhibitor (TS-021) with a long-term persistent plasma drug concentration and a potent antihyperglycemic activity.

  1. Cellular Activity of New Small Molecule Protein Arginine Deiminase 3 (PAD3) Inhibitors.

    Jamali, Haya; Khan, Hasan A; Tjin, Caroline C; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-09-08

    The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of arginine side chains. Multiple PAD isozymes have been characterized, and abnormal PAD activity has been associated with several human disease states. PAD3 has been characterized as a modulator of cell growth via apoptosis inducing factor and has been implicated in the neurodegenerative response to spinal cord injury. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally constrained versions of the potent and selective PAD3 inhibitor 2. The cell activity of representative inhibitors in this series was also demonstrated for the first time by rescue of thapsigargin-induced cell death in PAD3-expressing HEK293T cells.

  2. Structure-activity relationship study of selective benzimidazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH

    Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Sharling, Lisa; Zhang, Minjia; Liu, Xiaoping; Ray, Soumya S.; MacPherson, Iain S.; Striepen, Boris; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parasites are important waterborne pathogens of both humans and animals. The C. parvum and C. hominis genomes indicate that the only route to guanine nucleotides is via inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Thus the inhibition of the parasite IMPDH presents a potential strategy for treating Cryptosporidium infections. A selective benzimidazole-based inhibitor of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) was previously identified in a high throughput screen. Here we report a structure-activity relationship study of benzimidazole-based compounds that resulted in potent and selective inhibitors of CpIMPDH. Several compounds display potent antiparasitic activity in vitro. PMID:22310229

  3. Inhibitors of VIM-2 by screening pharmacologically active and click-chemistry compound libraries.

    Minond, Dmitriy; Saldanha, S Adrian; Subramaniam, Prem; Spaargaren, Michael; Spicer, Timothy; Fotsing, Joseph R; Weide, Timo; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Galleni, Moreno; Bebrone, Carine; Lassaux, Patricia; Hodder, Peter

    2009-07-15

    VIM-2 is an Ambler class B metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) capable of hydrolyzing a broad-spectrum of beta-lactam antibiotics. Although the discovery and development of MBL inhibitors continue to be an area of active research, an array of potent, small molecule inhibitors is yet to be fully characterized for VIM-2. In the presented research, a compound library screening approach was used to identify and characterize VIM-2 inhibitors from a library of pharmacologically active compounds as well as a focused 'click' chemistry library. The four most potent VIM-2 inhibitors resulting from a VIM-2 screen were characterized by kinetic studies in order to determine K(i) and mechanism of enzyme inhibition. As a result, two previously described pharmacologic agents, mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis([2-([2-hydroxyethyl]amino)ethyl]amino)-9,10-anthracenedione) and 4-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB) were found to be active, the former as a non-competitive inhibitor (K(i)=K(i)(')=1.5+/-0.2microM) and the latter as a slowly reversible or irreversible inhibitor. Additionally, two novel sulfonyl-triazole analogs from the click library were identified as potent, competitive VIM-2 inhibitors: N-((4-((but-3-ynyloxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)methyl)-4-iodobenzenesulfonamide (1, K(i)=0.41+/-0.03microM) and 4-iodo-N-((4-(methoxymethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide (2, K(i)=1.4+/-0.10microM). Mitoxantrone and pCMB were also found to potentiate imipenem efficacy in MIC and synergy assays employing Escherichia coli. Taken together, all four compounds represent useful chemical probes to further investigate mechanisms of VIM-2 inhibition in biochemical and microbiology-based assays.

  4. Improved antitumor activity of immunotherapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E melanoma

    Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Mok, Stephen; Moreno, Blanca Homet; Tsoi, Jennifer; Faja, Lidia Robert; Goedert, Lucas; Pinheiro, Elaine M.; Koya, Richard C.; Graeber, Thomas; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Combining immunotherapy and BRAF targeted therapy may result in improved antitumor activity with the high response rates of targeted therapy and the durability of responses with immunotherapy. However, the first clinical trial testing the combination of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab was terminated early due to substantial liver toxicities. MEK inhibitors can potentiate the MAPK inhibition in BRAF mutant cells, while potentially alleviating the unwanted paradoxical MAPK activation in BRAF wild type cells that lead to side effects when using BRAF inhibitors alone. However, there is the concern of MEK inhibitors being detrimental to T cell functionality. Using a mouse model of syngeneic BRAFV600E driven melanoma, we tested whether addition of the MEK inhibitor trametinib would enhance the antitumor activity of combined immunotherapy with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. Combination of dabrafenib and trametinib with pmel-1 adoptive cell transfer (ACT) showed complete tumor regression, increased T cell infiltration into tumors and improved in vivo cytotoxicity. Single agent dabrafenib increased tumor-associated macrophages and T regulatory cells (Tregs) in tumors, which decreased with the addition of trametinib. The triple combination therapy resulted in increased melanosomal antigen and MHC expression, and global immune-related gene up-regulation. Given the up-regulation of PD-L1 seen with dabrafenib and/or trametinib combined with antigen-specific ACT, we tested combination of dabrafenib, trametinib with anti-PD1 therapy in SM1 tumors, and observed superior anti-tumor effect. Our findings support the testing of triple combination therapy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors with immunotherapy in patients with BRAFV600E mutant metastatic melanoma. PMID:25787767

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease and the Emergence of Drug Resistance

    Poulsen, Nina Rødtness

    in the virus life cycle has made it a major target for drug development and active site competitive inhibitors have been successful in the battle against HIV. Unfortunately, the massive drug pressure along with high-level replication and lack of proofreading by the viral reverse transcriptase have resulted......Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is responsible for cleaving ten different sites in the viral Gag and Gag-pol polyproteins, thereby releasing the structural proteins and enzymes necessary for the maturation and infectivity of the HIV-1 virus. The vital role of HIV-1 PR...

  6. The potent Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK kinase inhibitor XL413 has limited activity in many cancer cell lines and discovery of potential new DDK inhibitor scaffolds.

    Nanda Kumar Sasi

    Full Text Available Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase or DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase is required to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating and activating the replicative Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. DDK is overexpressed in many tumor cells and is an emerging chemotherapeutic target since DDK inhibition causes apoptosis of diverse cancer cell types but not of normal cells. PHA-767491 and XL413 are among a number of potent DDK inhibitors with low nanomolar IC50 values against the purified kinase. Although XL413 is highly selective for DDK, its activity has not been extensively characterized on cell lines. We measured anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of XL413 on a panel of tumor cell lines compared to PHA-767491, whose activity is well characterized. Both compounds were effective biochemical DDK inhibitors but surprisingly, their activities in cell lines were highly divergent. Unlike PHA-767491, XL413 had significant anti-proliferative activity against only one of the ten cell lines tested. Since XL413 did not effectively inhibit DDK in multiple cell lines, this compound likely has limited bioavailability. To identify potential leads for additional DDK inhibitors, we also tested the cross-reactivity of ∼400 known kinase inhibitors against DDK using a DDK thermal stability shift assay (TSA. We identified 11 compounds that significantly stabilized DDK. Several inhibited DDK with comparable potency to PHA-767491, including Chk1 and PKR kinase inhibitors, but had divergent chemical scaffolds from known DDK inhibitors. Taken together, these data show that several well-known kinase inhibitors cross-react with DDK and also highlight the opportunity to design additional specific, biologically active DDK inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. The potent Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK) kinase inhibitor XL413 has limited activity in many cancer cell lines and discovery of potential new DDK inhibitor scaffolds.

    Sasi, Nanda Kumar; Tiwari, Kanchan; Soon, Fen-Fen; Bonte, Dorine; Wang, Tong; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Weinreich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase or DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase) is required to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating and activating the replicative Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. DDK is overexpressed in many tumor cells and is an emerging chemotherapeutic target since DDK inhibition causes apoptosis of diverse cancer cell types but not of normal cells. PHA-767491 and XL413 are among a number of potent DDK inhibitors with low nanomolar IC50 values against the purified kinase. Although XL413 is highly selective for DDK, its activity has not been extensively characterized on cell lines. We measured anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of XL413 on a panel of tumor cell lines compared to PHA-767491, whose activity is well characterized. Both compounds were effective biochemical DDK inhibitors but surprisingly, their activities in cell lines were highly divergent. Unlike PHA-767491, XL413 had significant anti-proliferative activity against only one of the ten cell lines tested. Since XL413 did not effectively inhibit DDK in multiple cell lines, this compound likely has limited bioavailability. To identify potential leads for additional DDK inhibitors, we also tested the cross-reactivity of ∼400 known kinase inhibitors against DDK using a DDK thermal stability shift assay (TSA). We identified 11 compounds that significantly stabilized DDK. Several inhibited DDK with comparable potency to PHA-767491, including Chk1 and PKR kinase inhibitors, but had divergent chemical scaffolds from known DDK inhibitors. Taken together, these data show that several well-known kinase inhibitors cross-react with DDK and also highlight the opportunity to design additional specific, biologically active DDK inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  9. Purification, characterization and evaluation of insecticidal activity of trypsin inhibitor from Albizia lebbeck seeds

    Pratima Sharma; Amarjit K Nath; Reena Kumari; SV Bhardwaj

    2012-01-01

    A Bowman-Birk inhibitor with activity against gut protcases of Helicoverpa armigera was extracted in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer from defatted seed flour of Albizia lebbeck.It was purified to 29.62 folds with 51.43% re,very using ammonium sulfate precipitation,gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A50.The purified protein had a molecular weight of 12,303 daltons as determined by SDS-PAGE.It was found to be heat stable up to 60℃ and had two pH optima of 7.5 and 9.0.The inhibitor exhibited non-competitive pattern of inhibition with a low Ki value of 0.2 μM.The inhibitor was found to be susceptible to varying concentrations of reducing agents like DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol,thereby indicating the role of disulphide bridges in maintaining its three dimensional structure and stability.The purified inhibitor caused mortality and suppressed larval growth of Pieris brassicae larvae.It was also found to be effective against gut trypsin extracted from Spodoptera littoralis.The sequence of the genes encoding for such inhibitors can be determined and the genes expressing protease inhibitors can be used in vegetable crops to confer resistance against insect pests and other plant pathogens.

  10. Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship of TIBO HIV-1 Inhibitors

    LI Xiao-Hong; ZHANG Rui-Zhou; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate a set of molecular descriptors (properties) for 14 TIBO derivatives with anti-HIV activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were employed in order to reduce dimensionality and investigate which subset of variables should be more effective for classifying TIBO derivatives according to their degree of anti-HIV activity. The PCA showed that the EHOMO, μ, LogP, QA, QB and MR variables are responsible for the separation between compounds with higher and lower anti-HIV activity. The HCA results are similar to those obtained with PCA. By using the chemometric results, four synthetic compounds were analyzed through PCA and HCA and three of them are proposed as active molecules against HIV, which is consistent with the results of clinic experiments. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new TIBO derivatives with anti-HIV activity. The model obtained showed not only statistical significance but also predictive ability.

  11. A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from corms of Xanthosoma blandum with bactericidal activity.

    Lima, Thaís B; Silva, Osmar N; Migliolo, Ludovico; Souza-Filho, Carlos R; Gonçalves, Eduardo G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Amaral, André C; Franco, Octávio L

    2011-05-27

    Bacterial infections directly affect the world's population, and this situation has been aggravated by indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents, which can generate resistant microorganisms. In this report, an initial screening of proteins with antibacterial activity from corms of 15 species of the Xanthosoma genus was conducted. Since Xanthosoma blandum corms showed enhanced activity toward bacteria, a novel protein with bactericidal activity was isolated from this particular species. Edman degradation was used for protein N-termini determination; the primary structure showed similarities with Kunitz inhibitors, and this protein was named Xb-KTI. This protein was further challenged against serine proteinases from different sources, showing clear inhibitory activities. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity was observed for Xb-KTI. The results demonstrate the biotechnological potential of Xb-KTI, the first proteinase inhibitor with antimicrobial activity described in the Xanthosoma genus.

  12. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 1: structure-activity relationships, assessments of selectivity and cellular potency.

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Long, Scott A; Pierce, Betsy S; Mahoney, Matthew W; Mourey, Robert J

    2009-08-15

    Identification of potent benzothiophene inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, selectivity assessments against CDK2, cellular potency and mechanism of action are presented. Crystallographic data provide a rationale for the observed MK2 potency as well as selectivity over CDK2 for this class of inhibitors.

  13. Evidence that levels of the dimeric cellular transcription factor CP2 play little role in the activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat in vivo or following superinfection with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Zhong, F; Swendeman, S L; Popik, W; Pitha, P M; Sheffery, M

    1994-08-19

    The dimeric transcription factor CP2 binds a sequence element found near the transcription start site of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) long terminal repeat. Several groups have suggested that cellular factors binding this element might play a role in modulating HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. For example, induction of latent HIV-1 gene expression in response to superinfection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or cytomegalovirus is thought to be mediated, in part, by factors binding the CP2 site. In this report we began to examine directly the relationship between CP2 and expression of the HIV-1 promoter. First, we tested what effect HSV-1 infection of T cells had on the cellular levels of CP2. The results showed that HSV-1 infection led to a significant reduction in the level of CP2 DNA binding activity and protein within 20 h. Next, we tested the effect of overexpressing either the wild-type factor or a dominant negative variant of CP2 on HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. The results showed that CP2 had little effect or slightly repressed HIV-1 promoter activity in vivo. In addition, these expression constructs had little effect on the induction of HIV-1 promoter activity elicited by HSV-1 infection.

  14. Molecular Design, Synthesis and Trypanocidal Activity of Dipeptidyl Nitriles as Cruzain Inhibitors.

    Avelar, Leandro A A; Camilo, Cristian D; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Fernandes, William B; Gonçalez, Cristiana; Kenny, Peter W; Leitão, Andrei; McKerrow, James H; Montanari, Carlos A; Orozco, Erika V Meñaca; Ribeiro, Jean F R; Rocha, Josmar R; Rosini, Fabiana; Saidel, Marta E

    2015-01-01

    A series of compounds based on the dipeptidyl nitrile scaffold were synthesized and assayed for their inhibitory activity against the T. cruzi cysteine protease cruzain. Structure activity relationships (SARs) were established using three, eleven and twelve variations respectively at the P1, P2 and P3 positions. A Ki value of 16 nM was observed for the most potent of these inhibitors which reflects a degree of non-additivity in the SAR. An X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand-protein complex for the structural prototype for the series. Twenty three inhibitors were also evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal effects and an EC50 value of 28 μM was observed for the most potent of these. Although there remains scope for further optimization, the knowledge gained from this study is also transferable to the design of cruzain inhibitors based on warheads other than nitrile as well as alternative scaffolds.

  15. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  16. Structure activity relationship of selective GABA uptake inhibitors

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten K;

    2015-01-01

    A series of β-amino acids with lipophilic diaromatic side chain was synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT1-4 in order to investigate structure activity relationships (SAR) for mGAT2 (corresponding to hBGT-1). Variation...

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress immune activation in primary mouse microglia

    Kannan, Vishnu; Brouwer, Nieske; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Regen, Tommy; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is required for tissue clearance and repair after infections or insults. To prevent excessive damage, it is crucial to limit the extent of neuroinflammation and thereby the activation of its principal effector cell, microglia. The two main major innate immune cell types in the CNS

  18. Structurally unique recombinant Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor retains activity when terminally extended and glycosylated.

    Kludkiewicz, Barbara; Kodrík, Dalibor; Grzelak, Krystyna; Nirmala, Xavier; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2005-10-01

    Recombinant derivatives of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor GmSPI2 (36 amino acid residues), which is a component of insect silk, were prepared in the expression vector Pichia pastoris. The rhSPI2 had a C-terminal hexahistidine tag attached to the GmSPI2 sequence, rtSPI2 was extended with GluAlaAla at the N-terminus, and rfSPI2 included this N-terminal extension and a C-terminal tail of 22 residues (myc epitope and hexahistidine). A portion of the secreted rfSI2 was O-glycosylated with a trimannosyl or hexamannosyl. The native inhibitor was active slightly on trypsin and highly on subtilisin and proteinase K. The extended C-terminus in rhSPI2 and rfSPI2 enhanced activity on the two latter enzymes and rendered rfSPI2 active on elastase and pronase, but abolished the inhibition of trypsin. The glycosylation of rfSPI2 reduced its inhibitory activity to a level comparable with the native inhibitor. The rtSPI2 with tripeptide extension at the N-terminus and no C-terminal modification was clearly less active than the native inhibitor. None of the tested compounds inhibited alpha-chymotrypsin and the non-serine proteinases.

  19. Host immunity contributes to the anti-melanoma activity of BRAF inhibitors.

    Knight, Deborah A; Ngiow, Shin Foong; Li, Ming; Parmenter, Tiffany; Mok, Stephen; Cass, Ashley; Haynes, Nicole M; Kinross, Kathryn; Yagita, Hideo; Koya, Richard C; Graeber, Thomas G; Ribas, Antoni; McArthur, Grant A; Smyth, Mark J

    2013-03-01

    The BRAF mutant, BRAF(V600E), is expressed in nearly half of melanomas, and oral BRAF inhibitors induce substantial tumor regression in patients with BRAF(V600E) metastatic melanoma. The inhibitors are believed to work primarily by inhibiting BRAF(V600E)-induced oncogenic MAPK signaling; however, some patients treated with BRAF inhibitors exhibit increased tumor immune infiltration, suggesting that a combination of BRAF inhibitors and immunotherapy may be beneficial. We used two relatively resistant variants of Braf(V600E)-driven mouse melanoma (SM1 and SM1WT1) and melanoma-prone mice to determine the role of host immunity in type I BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 antitumor activity. We found that PLX4720 treatment downregulated tumor Ccl2 gene expression and decreased tumor CCL2 expression in both Braf(V600E) mouse melanoma transplants and in de novo melanomas in a manner that was coincident with reduced tumor growth. While PLX4720 did not directly increase tumor immunogenicity, analysis of SM1 tumor-infiltrating leukocytes in PLX4720-treated mice demonstrated a robust increase in CD8(+) T/FoxP3(+)CD4(+) T cell ratio and NK cells. Combination therapy with PLX4720 and anti-CCL2 or agonistic anti-CD137 antibodies demonstrated significant antitumor activity in mouse transplant and de novo tumorigenesis models. These data elucidate a role for host CCR2 in the mechanism of action of type I BRAF inhibitors and support the therapeutic potential of combining BRAF inhibitors with immunotherapy.

  20. PLA2-mediated catalytic activation of its inhibitor 25-acetyl-petrosaspongiolide M: serendipitous identification of a new PLA2 suicide inhibitor.

    Monti, M C; Casapullo, A; Riccio, R; Gomez-Paloma, L

    2004-12-17

    25-Acetyl-petrosaspongiolide M (PMAc) (1), a mild non-covalent PLA(2) inhibitor, unexpectedly recovers, after incubation with bvPLA(2), the ability to covalently modify the enzyme target. This study demonstrates the catalytic effect of bvPLA(2) in converting 1 in its deacetylated congener petrosaspongiolide M (PM) (2), a strong covalent PLA(2) inhibitor whose molecular mechanism of inhibition has already been clarified. Moreover, our findings outline the potential role of PMAc as anti-inflammatory pro-drug, by virtue of its ability of delivering the active PM agent at the site of inflammation, functioning as a suicide inhibitor.

  1. Human 15-LOX-1 active site mutations alter inhibitor binding and decrease potency.

    Armstrong, Michelle; van Hoorebeke, Christopher; Horn, Thomas; Deschamps, Joshua; Freedman, J Cody; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Jacobson, Matthew P; Holman, Theodore

    2016-11-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h15-LOX-1 or h12/15-LOX) reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces bioactive lipid derivatives that are implicated in many important human diseases. One such disease is stroke, which is the fifth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in America. The discovery of h15-LOX-1 inhibitors could potentially lead to novel therapeutics in the treatment of stroke, however, little is known about the inhibitor/active site interaction. This study utilizes site-directed mutagenesis, guided in part by molecular modeling, to gain a better structural understanding of inhibitor interactions within the active site. We have generated eight mutants (R402L, R404L, F414I, F414W, E356Q, Q547L, L407A, I417A) of h15-LOX-1 to determine whether these active site residues interact with two h15-LOX-1 inhibitors, ML351 and an ML094 derivative, compound 18. IC50 values and steady-state inhibition kinetics were determined for the eight mutants, with four of the mutants affecting inhibitor potency relative to wild type h15-LOX-1 (F414I, F414W, E356Q and L407A). The data indicate that ML351 and compound 18, bind in a similar manner in the active site to an aromatic pocket close to F414 but have subtle differences in their specific binding modes. This information establishes the binding mode for ML094 and ML351 and will be leveraged to develop next-generation inhibitors.

  2. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA1 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 ( SCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  4. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  5. Type 1 Tyrosinemia with Hypophosphatemic Rickets; a Case Report

    Peyman Eshraghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, which typically affects liver and kidneys. It is caused by a defect in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase or fumarylacetoacetase (FAH enzyme, the final enzyme in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The disease typically manifests as early onset type in early infancy with acute hepatic crisis with hepatomegaly and bleeding tendency. In 1992, a new drug orfadin (NTBC, Nitisinone which is a potent inhibitor of 4 hydroxy phenyl pyrovate dioxygenase has revolutionized the treatment of tyrosinemia type 1 and is now the mainstry of therapy. Case presentation: Our case was a girl in midchidhood period with profound rickets and slowly progressing liver disease who presented with difficulty walking and weakness of muscles. She had an elevated serum tyrosine and urinary succinylacetone, which confirmed the diagnosis of tyrosinemia type 1 and after treatment with NTBC significant remission, was achieved.

  6. Complement receptor 2-mediated targeting of complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation.

    Song, Hongbin; He, Chun; Knaak, Christian; Guthridge, Joel M; Holers, V Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    In a strategy to specifically target complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation and disease, recombinant fusion proteins consisting of a complement inhibitor linked to a C3 binding region of complement receptor (CR) 2 were prepared and characterized. Natural ligands for CR2 are C3 breakdown products deposited at sites of complement activation. Fusion proteins were prepared consisting of a human CR2 fragment linked to either the N terminus or C terminus of soluble forms of the membrane complement inhibitors decay accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59. The targeted complement inhibitors bound to C3-opsonized cells, and all were significantly more effective (up to 20-fold) than corresponding untargeted inhibitors at protecting target cells from complement. CR2 fusion proteins also inhibited CR3-dependent adhesion of U937 cells to C3 opsonized erythrocytes, indicating a second potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of CR2 fusion proteins, since CR3 is involved in endothelial adhesion and diapedesis of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. Finally, the in vivo validity of the targeting strategy was confirmed by the demonstration that CR2-DAF, but not soluble DAF, targets to the kidney in mouse models of lupus nephritis that are associated with renal complement deposition.

  7. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  8. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  9. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  10. Genetic and logic networks with the signal-inhibitor-activator structure are dynamically robust

    LI Fangting; TAN Ning

    2006-01-01

    The proteins, DNA and RNA interaction networks govern various biological functions in living cells, these networks should be dynamically robust in the intracellular and environmental fluctuations. Here, we use Boolean network to study the robust structure of both genetic and logic networks. First, SOS network in bacteria E. coli, which regulates cell survival and repair after DNA damage, is shown to be dynamically robust. Comparing with cell cycle network in budding yeast and flagella network in E. coli, we find the signal-inhibitor-activator (SIA) structure in transcription regulatory networks. Second, under the dynamical rule that inhibition is much stronger than activation, we have searched 3-node non-self-loop logical networks that are dynamically robust, and that if the attractive basin of a final attractor is as large as seven, and the final attractor has only one active node, then the active node acts as inhibitor, and the SIA and signal-inhibitor (SI) structures are fundamental architectures of robust networks. SIA and SI networks with dynamic robustness against environment uncertainties may be selected and maintained over the course of evolution, rather than blind trial-error testing and be ing an accidental consequence of particular evolutionary history. SIA network can perform a more complex process than SI network, andSIA might be used to design robust artificial genetic network. Our results provide dynamical support for why the inhibitors and SIA/SI structures are frequently employed in cellular regulatory networks.

  11. Novel Aza Peptide Inhibitors and Active-Site Probes of Papain-Family Cysteine Proteases

    Verhelst, Steven H.L.; Witte, Martin D.; Arastu-Kapur, Shirin; Fonovic, Marko; Bogyo, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Recent characterization of multiple classes of functionalized azapeptides as effective covalent inhibitors of cysteine proteases prompted us to investigate O-acyl hydroxamates and their azapeptide analogues for use as activity-based probes (ABPs). We report here a new class of azaglycine-containing

  12. Structural basis of specific inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activators inhibitor-1

    Lihu Gong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family [2] and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis [3], converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 [4] (Fig. 1. Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort [5]. Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 [6]. Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out [7–18], however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1 recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I, and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering [19]; (2 formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro [19]; and (3 solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA [19,20], and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents [19].

  13. [Antiviral activity in vitro and pharmacokinetics of HCV entry inhibitor AVR560].

    Ivashchenko, A V; Iamanushkin, P M; Mit'kin, O D; Ezhova, E V; Korzinov, O M; Bulanova, E A; Koriakova, A G; Vyshemirskaia, P V; Bychko, V V; Ivashchenko, A A

    2014-01-01

    Several novel compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of the HCV (JFH-1 isolate) infection in vitro. Human serum did not significantly reduce antiviral activity of the lead compound, AVR560 (New Guinea type 2) in in vitro infection experiments. AVR560 also did not inhibit any of the tested human CYP450 isozymes (3A4, 1A2, 2C19 and 2D6). In the pharmacokinetic studies in mice, rats and dogs, favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and good oral bioavailability were observed for AV560. Further pre-clinical studies with this novel HCV inhibitor are in progress.

  14. Identification of inhibitors against the potential ligandable sites in the active cholera toxin.

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Datta, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    The active cholera toxin responsible for the massive loss of water and ions in cholera patients via its ADP ribosylation activity is a heterodimer of the A1 subunit of the bacterial holotoxin and the human cytosolic ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6). The active toxin is a potential target for the design of inhibitors against cholera. In this study we identified the potential ligandable sites of the active cholera toxin which can serve as binding sites for drug-like molecules. By employing an energy-based approach to identify ligand binding sites, and comparison with the results of computational solvent mapping, we identified two potential ligandable sites in the active toxin which can be targeted during structure-based drug design against cholera. Based on the probe affinities of the identified ligandable regions, docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify probable inhibitors against these sites. Several indole-based alkaloids and phosphates showed strong interactions to the important residues of the ligandable region at the A1 active site. On the other hand, 26 top scoring hits were identified against the ligandable region at the A1 ARF6 interface which showed strong hydrogen bonding interactions, including guanidines, phosphates, Leucopterin and Aristolochic acid VIa. This study has important implications in the application of hybrid structure-based and ligand-based methods against the identified ligandable sites using the identified inhibitors as reference ligands, for drug design against the active cholera toxin.

  15. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  16. [Response of N transformation related soil enzyme activities to inhibitor applications].

    Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie; Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Likai

    2002-09-01

    With an aerobic incubation test, this paper studied the response of soil urease, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and hydroxylamine reductase to urease inhibitor hydroquinone (HQ) applied in combination with nitrification inhibitor encapsulated calcium carbide (HQ + ECC) or dicyandiamide (HQ + DCD). The results showed that HQ + DCD could inhibit urease activity and increase activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and hydroxylamine reductase significantly in comparison with CK, HQ and HQ + ECC. Under the condition of our test, there existed a significant relationship between soil urease, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and hydroxylamine reductase activities and soil NH4+ and NO3- contents, NH3 volatilization and N2O emission rate, and regression analysis indicated that there were significantly positive relationships between soil urease, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase activities.

  17. Structure and activity of NO synthase inhibitors specific to the L-arginine binding site.

    Proskuryakov, S Ya; Konoplyannikov, A G; Skvortsov, V G; Mandrugin, A A; Fedoseev, V M

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of compounds containing a fragment similar to the guanidine group of L-arginine, which is a substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is the main direction in creating NOS inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of such compounds is caused not only by their competition with the substrate for the L-arginine-binding site and/or oxidizing center of the enzyme (heme) but also by interaction with peptide motifs of the enzyme that influence its dimerization, affinity for cofactors, and interaction with associated proteins. Structures, activities, and relative in vitro and in vivo specificities of various NOS inhibitors (amino acid and non-amino acid) with linear or cyclic structure and containing guanidine, amidine, or isothiuronium group are considered. These properties are mainly analyzed by comparison with effects of the inhibitors on the inducible NOS.

  18. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Targeting KIT on innate immune cells to enhance the antitumor activity of checkpoint inhibitors.

    Stahl, Maximilian; Gedrich, Richard; Peck, Ronald; LaVallee, Theresa; Eder, Joseph Paul

    2016-06-01

    Innate immune cells such as mast cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Recent evidence indicates that levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in melanoma patients are associated with poor survival to checkpoint inhibitors. This suggests that targeting both the innate and adaptive suppressive components of the immune system will maximize clinical benefit and elicit more durable responses in cancer patients. Preclinical data suggest that targeting signaling by the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, particularly on mast cells, may modulate innate immune cell numbers and activity in tumors. Here, we review data highlighting the importance of the KIT signaling in regulating antitumor immune responses and the potential benefit of combining selective KIT inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  20. Small molecule inhibitors block Gas6-inducible TAM activation and tumorigenicity

    Kimani, Stanley G.; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Welsh, William J.; Birge, Raymond B.

    2017-01-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (Gas6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of Gas6. These inhibitors effectively block Gas6-inducible Axl receptor activation with low micromolar IC50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit Gas6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit Gas6 inducible activation of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the Gas6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and Gas6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM activation, and support the further development of small molecule Gas6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:28272423

  1. Basis Tetrapeptides as Potent Intracellular Inhibitors of type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity

    Hale, M.; Swaminathan, S.; Oyler, G.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2011-01-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent of all toxins that cause flaccid muscle paralysis leading to death. They are also potential biothreat agents. A systematic investigation of various short peptide inhibitors of the BoNT protease domain with a 17-residue peptide substrate led to arginine-arginine-glycine-cysteine having a basic tetrapeptide structure as the most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), the inhibitory effect was drastically reduced. Replacing the terminal cysteine with one hydrophobic residue eliminated the DTT effect but with two hydrophobic residues made the pentapeptide a poor inhibitor. Replacing the first arginine with cysteine or adding an additional cysteine at the N terminus did not improve inhibition. When assessed using mouse brain lysates, the tetrapeptides also inhibited BoNT/A cleavage of the endogenous SNAP-25. The peptides penetrated the neuronal cell lines, N2A and BE(2)-M17, without adversely affecting metabolic functions as measured by ATP production and P-38 phosphorylation. Biological activity of the peptides persisted within cultured chick motor neurons and rat and mouse cerebellar neurons for more than 40 h and inhibited BoNT/A protease action inside the neurons in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Our results define a tetrapeptide as the smallest peptide inhibitor in the backdrop of a large substrate protein of 200+ amino acids having multiple interaction regions with its cognate enzyme. The inhibitors should also be valuable candidates for drug development.

  2. Initial Assessment of β3-Adrenoceptor-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Rodent Model Using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Aparna Baranwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT is activated by β3-adrenoceptor agonists and norepinephrine transporter (NET blockers and is measurable using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in rats. Using the streptozotocin (STZ-treated rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, we investigated BAT activity in this rat model under fasting and nonfasting conditions using [18F]FDG PET/CT. Drugs that enhance BAT activity may have a potential for therapeutic development in lowering blood sugar in insulin-resistant diabetes. Rats were rendered diabetic by administration of STZand confirmed by glucose measures. [18F]FDG was injected in the rats (fasted or nonfasted pretreated with either saline or β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 or the NET blocker atomoxetine for PET/CT scans. [18F]FDG metabolic activity was computed as standard uptake values (SUVs in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT and compared across the different drug treatment conditions. Blood glucose levels > 500 mg/dL were established for the STZ-treated diabetic rats. Under fasting conditions, average uptake of [18F]FDG in the IBAT of STZ-treated diabetic rats was approximately 70% lower compared to that of normal rats. Both CL316,243 and atomoxetine activated IBAT in normal rats had an SUV > 5, whereas activation in STZ-treated rats was significantly lower. The agonist CL316,243 activated IBAT up to threefold compared to saline in the fasted STZ-treated rat. In the nonfasted rat, the IBAT activation was up by twofold by CL316243. Atomoxetine had a greater effect on lowering blood sugar levels compared to CL316,243 in the nonfasted rats. A significant reduction in metabolic activity was observed in the STZ-treated diabetic rodent model. Increased IBAT activity in the STZ-treated diabetic rat under nonfasted conditions using the β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 suggests a potential role of BAT in modulating blood sugar

  3. Initial Assessment of β3-Adrenoceptor-Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Rodent Model Using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Baranwal, Aparna; Mirbolooki, M Reza; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by β3-adrenoceptor agonists and norepinephrine transporter (NET) blockers and is measurable using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in rats. Using the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we investigated BAT activity in this rat model under fasting and nonfasting conditions using [(18)F]FDG PET/CT. Drugs that enhance BAT activity may have a potential for therapeutic development in lowering blood sugar in insulin-resistant diabetes. Rats were rendered diabetic by administration of STZ and confirmed by glucose measures. [(18)F]FDG was injected in the rats (fasted or nonfasted) pretreated with either saline or β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 or the NET blocker atomoxetine for PET/CT scans. [(18)F]FDG metabolic activity was computed as standard uptake values (SUVs) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and compared across the different drug treatment conditions. Blood glucose levels > 500 mg/dL were established for the STZ-treated diabetic rats. Under fasting conditions, average uptake of [(18)F]FDG in the IBAT of STZ-treated diabetic rats was approximately 70% lower compared to that of normal rats. Both CL316,243 and atomoxetine activated IBAT in normal rats had an SUV > 5, whereas activation in STZ-treated rats was significantly lower. The agonist CL316,243 activated IBAT up to threefold compared to saline in the fasted STZ-treated rat. In the nonfasted rat, the IBAT activation was up by twofold by CL316243. Atomoxetine had a greater effect on lowering blood sugar levels compared to CL316,243 in the nonfasted rats. A significant reduction in metabolic activity was observed in the STZ-treated diabetic rodent model. Increased IBAT activity in the STZ-treated diabetic rat under nonfasted conditions using the β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 suggests a potential role of BAT in modulating blood

  4. Lovastatin inhibits VEGFR and AKT activation: synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with VEGFR inhibitors.

    Tong T Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1, play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM, also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

  5. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) Predicts Negative Alterations in Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity in Chronic HIV Infection.

    Wirunsawanya, Kamonkiat; Belyea, Loni; Shikuma, Cecilia; Watanabe, Richard; Kohorn, Lindsay; Shiramizu, Bruce; Mitchell, Brooks; Souza, Scott A; Keating, Sheila; Norris, Philip J; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa; Chow, Dominic

    2017-03-21

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), a key negative regulator of fibrinolysis, has been investigated to be a potential predictor of the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Because chronically stable HIV-infected individuals frequently develop abnormal glucose metabolism including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, we postulated PAI-1 could be one of multifactorial pathogenic roles in the development of insulin resistance among chronic HIV-infected individuals. From our longitudinal cohort study, we selectively recruited chronically stable HIV-infected individuals without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at baseline (N = 62) to analyze the correlation of baseline inflammatory cytokines including PAI-1 and whole body insulin sensitivity with two-year follow-up, as measured by Matsuda Index. We found a negative correlation between baseline PAI-1 and Matsuda Index (r = -.435 , p = .001) and a negative correlation with PAI-1 at baseline and Matsuda Index at two years (r = -.377 , p = .005). In a linear regression model that included age, total body fat mass percentage, serum amyloid A and family history of diabetes mellitus, PAI-1 still remained significantly associated with Matsuda Index at two-year follow-up (β = -.397, p = .002). Our longitudinal study suggests PAI-1 is an independent predictor of insulin resistance among chronic HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Effect of fermentation inhibitors in the presence and absence of activated charcoal on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee; Song, Se Hee; Wee, Young-Jung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2013-06-01

    The acidic hydrolysis of biomass generates numerous inhibitors of fermentation, which adversely affect cell growth and metabolism. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of fermentation inhibitors on growth and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also conducted in situ adsorption during cell cultivation in synthetic broth containing fermentation inhibitors. In order to evaluate the effect of in situ adsorption on cell growth, five inhibitors, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid, were introduced into synthetic broth. The existence of fermentation inhibitors during cell culture adversely affects cell growth and sugar consumption. Furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid were the most potent inhibitors in our culture system. The in situ adsorption of inhibitors by the addition of activated charcoal to the synthetic broth increased cell growth and sugar consumption. Our results indicate that detoxification of fermentation media by in situ adsorption may be useful for enhancing biofuel production.

  7. Complementary dendritic cell-activating function of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells: helper role of CD8+ T cells in the development of T helper type 1 responses.

    Mailliard, Robbie B; Egawa, Shinichi; Cai, Quan; Kalinska, Anna; Bykovskaya, Svetlana N; Lotze, Michael T; Kapsenberg, Martien L; Storkus, Walter J; Kalinski, Pawel

    2002-02-18

    Dendritic cells (DCs) activated by CD40L-expressing CD4+ T cells act as mediators of "T helper (Th)" signals for CD8+ T lymphocytes, inducing their cytotoxic function and supporting their long-term activity. Here, we show that the optimal activation of DCs, their ability to produce high levels of bioactive interleukin (IL)-12p70 and to induce Th1-type CD4+ T cells, is supported by the complementary DC-activating signals from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Cord blood- or peripheral blood-isolated naive CD8+ T cells do not express CD40L, but, in contrast to naive CD4+ T cells, they are efficient producers of IFN-gamma at the earliest stages of the interaction with DCs. Naive CD8+ T cells cooperate with CD40L-expressing naive CD4+ T cells in the induction of IL-12p70 in DCs, promoting the development of primary Th1-type CD4+ T cell responses. Moreover, the recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I-presented epitopes by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells results in the TNF-alpha- and IFN-gamma-dependent increase in the activation level of DCs and in the induction of type-1 polarized mature DCs capable of producing high levels of IL-12p70 upon a subsequent CD40 ligation. The ability of class I-restricted CD8+ T cells to coactivate and polarize DCs may support the induction of Th1-type responses against class I-presented epitopes of intracellular pathogens and contact allergens, and may have therapeutical implications in cancer and chronic infections.

  8. Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity: study on the effect of vitamin A on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats

    Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129 mg/kg diet on 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. Methods Male, 5-month-old, lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain (n = 16 for each phenotype were divided into two subgroups consisting of 8 rats of each phenotype. Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6 mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129 mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks. Food and water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, tissues were collected and 11β-HSD1 activity was assayed in liver and visceral fat. Results Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11β-HSD1, decreased in liver of vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver × receptor α (LXRα, a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. Conclusions This study suggests that chronic consumption of vitamin A-enriched diet decreases 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Decreased 11β-HSD1 activity by vitamin A may result in decreased levels of active glucocorticoids in adipose tissue and possibly

  9. Jack bean urease: the effect of active-site binding inhibitors on the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups.

    Krajewska, Barbara; Zaborska, Wiesława

    2007-10-01

    In view of the complexity of the role of the active site flap cysteine in the urease catalysis, in this work we studied how the presence of typical active-site binding inhibitors of urease, phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD), acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), boric acid and fluoride, affects the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups, the active site flap thiol in particular. For that the inhibitor-urease complexes were prepared with excess inhibitors and had their thiol groups titrated with DTNB. The effects observed were analyzed in terms of the structures of the inhibitor-urease complexes reported in the literature. We found that the effectiveness in preventing the active site cysteine from the modification by disulfides, varied among the inhibitors studied, even though they all bind to the active site. The variations were accounted for by different extents of geometrical distortion in the active site that the inhibitors introduced upon binding, leaving the flap either open in AHA-, boric acid- and fluoride-inhibited urease, like in the native enzyme or closed in PPD-inhibited urease. Among the inhibitors, only PPD was found to be able to thoroughly protect the flap cysteines from the further reaction with disulfides, this apparently resulting from the closed conformation of the flap. Accordingly, in practical terms PPD may be regarded as the most suitable inhibitor for active-site protection experiments in inhibition studies of urease.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, free fatty acids, and insulin resistance in patients with myocardial infarction

    Gruzdeva O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Ekaterina Belik, Ekaterina Shurygina, Olga Barbarash Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases under the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kemerovo, Russian Federation Background: Insulin resistance is known to be a common feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. The key pathogenetic mechanisms of insulin resistance progression are free fatty acids metabolism impairment and enhanced activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Both free fatty acids and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recognized as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included 65 non-diabetic myocardial infarction patients and group 2 enrolled 60 diabetic myocardial infarction patients. The control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched volunteers. The concentration of serum free fatty acids, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin were measured on the 1st and 12th days of the study. All the patients had their postprandial glycemia, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations measured 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate breakfast containing 360 kcal (protein 20 g, carbohydrate 57 g, and fat 9 g. Results: Free fatty acids levels in group 1 and in group 2 exceeded the control group values by 7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was 2.5-fold higher in group 1 and 4.6-fold higher in group 2 compared to the control group on the 1st day from the myocardial infarction onset. In addition, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was significantly reduced in both groups on the 12th day from the myocardial infarction onset; however, it did not achieve the control group values. Conclusion: Increased postprandial glucose level, insulinemia, and elevated levels of free fatty acids and plasminogen activator

  11. Spiroimidazolidinone NPC1L1 inhibitors. Part 2: structure-activity studies and in vivo efficacy.

    Howell, Kobporn L; DeVita, Robert J; Garcia-Calvo, Margarita; Meurer, Roger D; Lisnock, JeanMarie; Bull, Herbert G; McMasters, Daniel R; McCann, Margaret E; Mills, Sander G

    2010-12-01

    Ezetimibe (Zetia®), a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor (CAI) approved by the FDA for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, is believed to target the intestine protein Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) or its pathway. A spiroimidazolidinone NPC1L1 inhibitor identified by virtual screening showed moderate binding activity but was not efficacious in an in vivo rodent model of cholesterol absorption. Synthesis of analogs established the structure-activity relationships for binding activity, and resulted in compounds with in vivo efficacy, including 24, which inhibited plasma cholesterol absorption by 67% in the mouse, thereby providing proof-of-concept that non-β-lactams can be effective CAIs.

  12. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system.

  13. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-03-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery.

  14. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites.

  15. A comparative structure-function analysis of active-site inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae cholix toxin.

    Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-01

    Cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin that shares structural and functional properties with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Herein, we have used the high-resolution X-ray structure of full-length cholix toxin in the apo form, NAD(+) bound, and 10 structures of the cholix catalytic domain (C-domain) complexed with several strong inhibitors of toxin enzyme activity (NAP, PJ34, and the P-series) to study the binding mode of the ligands. A pharmacophore model based on the active pose of NAD(+) was compared with the active conformation of the inhibitors, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of the inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Moreover, a conformational search was conducted for the missing coordinates of one of the main active-site loops (R-loop). The resulting structural models were used to evaluate the interaction energies and for 3D-QSAR modeling. Implications for a rational drug design approach for mART toxins were derived.

  16. Computational design of a PDZ domain peptide inhibitor that rescues CFTR activity.

    Kyle E Roberts

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The most prevalent CFTR mutation, ΔF508, blocks folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent work has shown that some ΔF508-CFTR channel activity can be recovered by pharmaceutical modulators ("potentiators" and "correctors", but ΔF508-CFTR can still be rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway involving the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL, which binds CFTR via a PDZ interaction domain. We present a study that goes from theory, to new structure-based computational design algorithms, to computational predictions, to biochemical testing and ultimately to epithelial-cell validation of novel, effective CAL PDZ inhibitors (called "stabilizers" that rescue ΔF508-CFTR activity. To design the "stabilizers", we extended our structural ensemble-based computational protein redesign algorithm K* to encompass protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions. The computational predictions achieved high accuracy: all of the top-predicted peptide inhibitors bound well to CAL. Furthermore, when compared to state-of-the-art CAL inhibitors, our design methodology achieved higher affinity and increased binding efficiency. The designed inhibitor with the highest affinity for CAL (kCAL01 binds six-fold more tightly than the previous best hexamer (iCAL35, and 170-fold more tightly than the CFTR C-terminus. We show that kCAL01 has physiological activity and can rescue chloride efflux in CF patient-derived airway epithelial cells. Since stabilizers address a different cellular CF defect from potentiators and correctors, our inhibitors provide an additional therapeutic pathway that can be used in conjunction with current methods.

  17. Structural basis of specific inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activators inhibitor-1

    Gong, Lihu; Liu, Min; Zeng, Tu; Shi, Xiaoli; Yuan, Cai; Andreasen, Peter A.; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family [2] and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis [3], converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) [4] (Fig. 1). Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort [5]. Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 [6]. Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B) containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I), and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD) variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering) [19]; (2) formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro [19]; and (3) solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA [19], [20], and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents [19]. PMID:26909366

  18. Amino Acid Composition, Urease Activity and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity after Toasting of Soybean in Thick and Thin Layer

    Tajana Krička

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine amino acid content, urease activity and trypsin inhibitor activity in soybean grain for polygastric animals’ feed aft er toasting with the aim to introduce thick layer in toasting technology. Hence, soybean was toasted both in thick and thin layer at 130 oC during 10 minutes. In order to properly monitor the technological process of soybean thermal processing, it was necessary to study crude protein content, urease activity, trypsin inhibitor activity and amino acid composition of soybean in natural and toasted samples. Results demonstrate that protein content in soybean toasted in thick and thin layer was found to be slightly increased while urease activity was reduced in relation to non-treated sample. Study also established a significant reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity aft er toasting, at higher extent in thin layer toasting. Amino acid content of soybean was slightly increased in relation to natural sample, as well as difference between amino acid content in samples toasted in thick and thin layers.

  19. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  20. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    David H. Keating

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass, phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(PH, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.

  1. The protease inhibitor HAI-2, but not HAI-1, regulates matriptase activation and shedding through prostasin.

    Friis, Stine; Sales, Katiuchia Uzzun; Schafer, Jeffrey Martin; Vogel, Lotte K; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Bugge, Thomas H

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-anchored serine proteases, matriptase and prostasin, and the membrane-anchored serine protease inhibitors, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 and HAI-2, are critical effectors of epithelial development and postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Matriptase and prostasin form a reciprocal zymogen activation complex that results in the formation of active matriptase and prostasin that are targets for inhibition by HAI-1 and HAI-2. Conflicting data, however, have accumulated as to the existence of auxiliary functions for both HAI-1 and HAI-2 in regulating the intracellular trafficking and activation of matriptase. In this study, we, therefore, used genetically engineered mice to determine the effect of ablation of endogenous HAI-1 and endogenous HAI-2 on endogenous matriptase expression, subcellular localization, and activation in polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Whereas ablation of HAI-1 did not affect matriptase in epithelial cells of the small or large intestine, ablation of HAI-2 resulted in the loss of matriptase from both tissues. Gene silencing studies in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers revealed that this loss of cell-associated matriptase was mechanistically linked to accelerated activation and shedding of the protease caused by loss of prostasin regulation by HAI-2. Taken together, these data indicate that HAI-1 regulates the activity of activated matriptase, whereas HAI-2 has an essential role in regulating prostasin-dependent matriptase zymogen activation.

  2. The synthesis, structure and activity evaluation of pyrogallol and catechol derivatives as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors.

    Xiao, Zhu-Ping; Ma, Tao-Wu; Fu, Wei-Chang; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Some pyrogallol and catechol derivatives were synthesized, and their urease inhibitory activity was evaluated by using acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a well known Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitor, as positive control. The assay results indicate that many compounds have showed potential inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. 4-(4-Hydroxyphenethyl)phen-1,2-diol (2a) was found to be the most potent urease inhibitor with IC(50)s of 1.5±0.2 μM for extracted fraction and 4.2±0.3 μM for intact cell, at least 10 times and 20 times lower than those of AHA (IC(50) of 17.2±0.9 μM, 100.6±13 μM), respectively. This finding indicate that 2a would be a potential urease inhibitor deserves further research. Molecular dockings of 2a into H. pylori urease active site were performed for understanding the good activity observed.

  3. Anti-diabetic activity of insulin-degrading enzyme inhibitors mediated by multiple hormones.

    Maianti, Juan Pablo; McFedries, Amanda; Foda, Zachariah H; Kleiner, Ralph E; Du, Xiu Quan; Leissring, Malcolm A; Tang, Wei-Jen; Charron, Maureen J; Seeliger, Markus A; Saghatelian, Alan; Liu, David R

    2014-07-03

    Despite decades of speculation that inhibiting endogenous insulin degradation might treat type-2 diabetes, and the identification of IDE (insulin-degrading enzyme) as a diabetes susceptibility gene, the relationship between the activity of the zinc metalloprotein IDE and glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Although Ide(-/-) mice have elevated insulin levels, they exhibit impaired, rather than improved, glucose tolerance that may arise from compensatory insulin signalling dysfunction. IDE inhibitors that are active in vivo are therefore needed to elucidate IDE's physiological roles and to determine its potential to serve as a target for the treatment of diabetes. Here we report the discovery of a physiologically active IDE inhibitor identified from a DNA-templated macrocycle library. An X-ray structure of the macrocycle bound to IDE reveals that it engages a binding pocket away from the catalytic site, which explains its remarkable selectivity. Treatment of lean and obese mice with this inhibitor shows that IDE regulates the abundance and signalling of glucagon and amylin, in addition to that of insulin. Under physiological conditions that augment insulin and amylin levels, such as oral glucose administration, acute IDE inhibition leads to substantially improved glucose tolerance and slower gastric emptying. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of modulating IDE activity as a new therapeutic strategy to treat type-2 diabetes and expand our understanding of the roles of IDE in glucose and hormone regulation.

  4. RecA Inhibitors Potentiate Antibiotic Activity and Block Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Alam, Md Kausar; Alhhazmi, Areej; DeCoteau, John F; Luo, Yu; Geyer, C Ronald

    2016-03-17

    Antibiotic resistance arises from the maintenance of resistance mutations or genes acquired from the acquisition of adaptive de novo mutations or the transfer of resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance is acquired in response to antibiotic therapy by activating SOS-mediated DNA repair and mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer pathways. Initiation of the SOS pathway promotes activation of RecA, inactivation of LexA repressor, and induction of SOS genes. Here, we have identified and characterized phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid RecA inhibitors that block antibiotic-induced activation of the SOS response. These inhibitors potentiate the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, including members of the quinolone, β-lactam, and aminoglycoside families in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They reduce the ability of bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance mutations and to transfer mobile genetic elements conferring resistance. This study highlights the advantage of including RecA inhibitors in bactericidal antibiotic therapies and provides a new strategy for prolonging antibiotic shelf life.

  5. Actin remodeling confers BRAF inhibitor resistance to melanoma cells through YAP/TAZ activation.

    Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Jongshin; Hong, Hyowon; Lee, Si-Hyung; Lee, June-Koo; Jung, Eunji; Kim, Joon

    2016-03-01

    The activation of transcriptional coactivators YAP and its paralog TAZ has been shown to promote resistance to anti-cancer therapies. YAP/TAZ activity is tightly coupled to actin cytoskeleton architecture. However, the influence of actin remodeling on cancer drug resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a pivotal role of actin remodeling in YAP/TAZ-dependent BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cells. Melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 exhibit an increase in actin stress fiber formation, which appears to promote the nuclear accumulation of YAP/TAZ. Knockdown of YAP/TAZ reduces the viability of resistant melanoma cells, whereas overexpression of constitutively active YAP induces resistance. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerization and actomyosin tension in melanoma cells suppresses both YAP/TAZ activation and PLX4032 resistance. Our siRNA library screening identifies actin dynamics regulator TESK1 as a novel vulnerable point of the YAP/TAZ-dependent resistance pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of actin remodeling is a potential strategy to suppress resistance in BRAF inhibitor therapies.

  6. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Expressed Levels of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Glucose Transporter Type 1 Genes in Newborns of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Heidarzadeh, Zahra; Samimi, Mansooreh; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Ashkezari, Mahmood Dehghani; Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Mahmoodi, Samaneh; Aghadavod, Esmat; Jamilian, Mehri; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-02-01

    The current study was designed to determine the beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on expressed levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) genes in newborns of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 40 women with GDM. Patients were randomly allocated to intake either 233 mg zinc gluconate (containing 30 mg zinc) (n = 20) or a placebo (n = 20) for 6 weeks. PPAR-γ and GLUT1 mRNA levels were quantified in umbilical cord blood of newborns of women with GDM. After 6 weeks of intervention, the change in serum zinc levels was greater in women consuming zinc than in the placebo group (+11.1 ± 13.4 vs. -4.8 ± 17.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002). Quantitative results of RT-PCR demonstrated that compared with the placebo, zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase of expressed levels of PPAR-γ mRNA (P zinc supplementation for 6 weeks among GDM women increased the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ and GLUT1 in their newborns compared with the placebo group.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of ALVAC vCP1452 and recombinant gp160 in newly human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Jin, Xia; Ramanathan, Murugappan; Barsoum, Shady; Deschenes, Geoffrey R; Ba, Lei; Binley, James; Schiller, Daryl; Bauer, Daniel E; Chen, Donald C; Hurley, Arlene; Gebuhrer, Lucette; El Habib, Raphaelle; Caudrelier, Pierre; Klein, Michel; Zhang, Linqi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2002-03-01

    In order to boost immune responses in persons in whom highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was initiated within 120 days of the onset of symptoms of newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, we administered vaccines containing a canarypox virus vector, vCP1452, with HIV-1 genes encoding multiple HIV-1 proteins, and recombinant gp160. Fifteen HIV-1-infected subjects who achieved sustained suppression of plasma viremia for at least 2 years were enrolled. While continuing antiretroviral therapy, each subject received at least four intramuscular injections of the vaccines on days 0, 30, 90, and 180. Adverse events were mild, with the most common being transient tenderness at the vCP1452 injection site. Of the 14 patients who completed vaccination, 13 had significant increases in anti-gp120 or anti-p24 antibody titers, and 9 had transient augmentation of their T-cell proliferation responses to gp160 and/or p24. HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells were quantified using an intracellular gamma interferon staining assay. Among 11 patients who had increased CD8(+) T-cell responses, seven had responses to more than one HIV-1 antigen. In summary, vaccination with vCP1452 and recombinant gp160 appears safe and immunogenic in newly HIV-1-infected patients on HAART.

  8. Benzoxazolone carboxamides as potent acid ceramidase inhibitors: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies

    Bach, Anders

    2015-01-01

    be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions, such as cancer, in which ceramide levels are abnormally reduced. Here, we present a systematic SAR investigation of the benzoxazolone carboxamides, a recently described class of AC inhibitors that display high potency and systemic activity in mice. We...... examined a diverse series of substitutions on both benzoxazolone ring and carboxamide side chain. Several modifications enhanced potency and stability, and one key compound with a balanced activity-stability profile (14) was found to inhibit AC activity in mouse lungs and cerebral cortex after systemic...

  9. Insecticidal heterolignans--tubuline polymerization inhibitors with activity against chewing pests.

    Frackenpohl, Jens; Adelt, Isabelle; Antonicek, Horst; Arnold, Christian; Behrmann, Patricia; Blaha, Nicole; Böhmer, Jutta; Gutbrod, Oliver; Hanke, Roman; Hohmann, Sabine; van Houtdreve, Marc; Lösel, Peter; Malsam, Olga; Melchers, Martin; Neufert, Valentina; Peschel, Elisabeth; Reckmann, Udo; Schenke, Thomas; Thiesen, Hans-Peter; Velten, Robert; Vogelsang, Kathrin; Weiss, Hans-Christoph

    2009-06-15

    Starting from natural product podophyllotoxin 1 substituted heterolignans were identified with promising insecticidal in vivo activity. The impact of substitution in each segment of the core structure was investigated in a detailed SAR study, and variation of substituents in both aromatic moieties afforded derivatives 5 and 43 with broad insecticidal activity against lepidopteran and coleopteran species. In vitro measurements supported by modeling studies indicate that heterolignans 3-134 act as tubuline polymerization inhibitors interacting with the colchicine-binding site. Insect specific structure-activity effects were observed showing that the insecticidal SAR described herein differs from reported cytotoxicity studies.

  10. Structure-activity relationships of heteroaromatic esters as human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitors.

    Im, Isak; Lee, Eui Seung; Choi, Soo Jeong; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2009-07-01

    Human rhinovirus 3C protease (HRV 3C(pro)) is known to be a promising target for development of therapeutic agents against the common cold because of the importance of the protease in viral replication as well as its expression in a large number of serotypes. To explore non-peptidic inhibitors of HRV 3C(pro), a series of novel heteroaromatic esters was synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against HRV 3C(pro), to determine the structure-activity relationships. The most potent inhibitor, 7, with a 5-bromopyridinyl group, had an IC(50) value of 80nM. In addition, the binding mode of a novel analog, 19, with the 4-hydroxyquinolinone moiety, was explored by molecular docking, suggesting a new interaction in the S1 pocket.

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  12. Structure activity relationships of benzylproline-derived inhibitors of the glutamine transporter ASCT2

    Singh, Kurnvir; Tanui, Rose; Gameiro, Armanda; Eisenberg, Gilad; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Grewer, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The glutamine transporter ASCT2 has been identified as a promising target to inhibit rapid growth of cancer cells. However, ASCT2 pharmacology is not well established. In this report, we performed a systematic structure activity analysis of a series of substituted benzylproline derivatives. Substitutions on the phenyl ring resulted in compounds with characteristics of ASCT2 inhibitors. Apparent binding affinity increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the side chain. In contrast, interaction of the ASCT2 binding site with specific positions on the phenyl ring was not observed. The most potent compound inhibits the ASCT2 anion conductance with a Ki of 3 μM, which is in the same range as that of more bulky and higher molecular weight inhibitors recently reported by others. The experimental results are consistent with computational analysis based on docking of the inhibitors against an ASCT2 homology model. The benzylproline scaffold provides a valuable tool for further improving binding potency of future ASCT2 inhibitors. PMID:28057420

  13. Structure-guided inhibitor design for human FAAH by interspecies active site conversion

    Mileni, Mauro; Johnson, Douglas S.; Wang, Zhigang; Everdeen, Daniel S.; Liimatta, Marya; Pabst, Brandon; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Nugent, Richard A.; Kamtekar, Satwik; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Ahn, Kay; Stevens, Raymond C. (Scripps); (Pfizer)

    2008-11-24

    The integral membrane enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid anandamide and related amidated signaling lipids. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH produces analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes but not the undesirable side effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists, indicating that FAAH may be a promising therapeutic target. Structure-based inhibitor design has, however, been hampered by difficulties in expressing the human FAAH enzyme. Here, we address this problem by interconverting the active sites of rat and human FAAH using site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting humanized rat (h/r) FAAH protein exhibits the inhibitor sensitivity profiles of human FAAH but maintains the high-expression yield of the rat enzyme. We report a 2.75-{angstrom} crystal structure of h/rFAAH complexed with an inhibitor, N-phenyl-4-(quinolin-3-ylmethyl)piperidine-1-carboxamide (PF-750), that shows strong preference for human FAAH. This structure offers compelling insights to explain the species selectivity of FAAH inhibitors, which should guide future drug design programs.

  14. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs...... with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay...... that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual...

  15. ASYMPTOTIC SOLUTION OF ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR SYSTEMS FOR NONLINEAR REACTION DIFFUSION EQUATIONS

    Jiaqi MO; Wantao LIN

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear reaction diffusion equations for activator inhibitor systems is considered. Under suitable conditions, firstly, the outer solution of the original problem is obtained, secondly, using the variables of multiple scales and the expanding theory of power series the formal asymptotic expansions of the solution are constructed, and finally, using the theory of differential inequalities the uniform validity and asymptotic behavior of the solution are studied.

  16. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    Asri Pirade Paserang; Aris Tjahjoleksono; Utut Widyastuti; Suharsono Suharsono

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, s...

  17. Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Moelsted-Pedersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This nationwide prospective multicenter study took place in eight Danish centers treating pregnant women with type 1 diabetes during 1993-...

  18. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    ... 2-Year-Old Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A What's in this article? ... pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, ...

  19. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level.

  20. Vegetative Storage Protein with Trypsin Inhibitor Activity Occurs in Sapindus mukorassi,a Sapindaceae Deciduous Tree

    Shi-Biao Liu; Xu-Chu Wang; Min-Jing Shi; Yue-Yi Chen; Zheng-Hai Hu; Wei-Min Tian

    2009-01-01

    A vegetative storage protein (VSP) with trypsin inhibitor activity in a deciduous tree,Sapindus mukorassi,was characterized by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,Western-blot,immuno-histochemical localization,light- and electro-microscopy,together with analysis of proteinase inhibitor activity of the purified VSP in vitro.There were two proteins with molecular masses of about 23 and 27 kDa in a relatively high content in the bark tissues of terminal branches of S.mukorassi in leafless periods.The proteins decreased markedly during young shoot development,indicating their role in seasonal nitrogen storage.Immuno-histochemical localization with the polyclonal antibodies raised against the 23 kDa protein demonstrated that the 23 kDa protein was the major component of protein inclusions in protein-storing cells.The protein inclusions were identified by protein-specific staining and should correspond to the electron-dense materials in different forms in the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells and phloem ray parenchyma cells under an electron microscope.So,the 23 kDa protein was a typical VSP in S.mukorassi.The 23 and 27 kDa proteins shared no immuno-relatedness,whereas the 23 kDa protein was immuno-related with the 22 kDa VSP in lychee and possessed trypsin inhibitor activity.The 23 kDa protein may confer dual functions:nitrogen storage and defense.

  1. The trypsin inhibitor panulirin regulates the prophenoloxidase-activating system in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus.

    Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Corzo, Gerardo; Besada, Vladimir; Vega-Hurtado, Yamile; González-González, Yamile; Perera, Erick; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene

    2013-11-01

    The melanization reaction promoted by the prophenoloxidase-activating system is an essential defense response in invertebrates subjected to regulatory mechanisms that are still not fully understood. We report here the finding and characterization of a novel trypsin inhibitor, named panulirin, isolated from the hemocytes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus with regulatory functions on the melanization cascade. Panulirin is a cationic peptide (pI 9.5) composed of 48 amino acid residues (5.3 kDa), with six cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges. Its primary sequence was determined by combining Edman degradation/N-terminal sequencing and electrospray ionization-MS/MS spectrometry. The low amino acid sequence similarity with known proteins indicates that it represents a new family of peptidase inhibitors. Panulirin is a competitive and reversible tight-binding inhibitor of trypsin (Ki = 8.6 nm) with a notable specificity because it does not inhibit serine peptidases such as subtilisin, elastase, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and plasmin. The removal of panulirin from the lobster hemocyte lysate leads to an increase in phenoloxidase response to LPS. Likewise, the addition of increasing concentrations of panulirin to a lobster hemocyte lysate, previously depleted of trypsin-inhibitory activity, decreased the phenoloxidase response to LPS in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results indicate that panulirin is implicated in the regulation of the melanization cascade in P. argus by inhibiting peptidase(s) in the pathway toward the activation of the prophenoloxidase enzyme.

  2. The effect of autoclaving on soluble protein composition and trypsin inhibitor activity of cracked soybeans

    Stanojević Slađana P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of autoclaving conditions (heating for 5, 10 and 15 minutes at 0.5 bars over pressure and oil-extracting temperatures (40°C, 60°C on protein content, composition, and inhibitor activity of cracked soybeans were investigated. The results obtained indicated that oil-extracting method and heat treatment had significant influence on soluble protein content and composition. Raw soybean samples defatted at lower temperature had better solubility (535.42±2.10 mg/g than those obtained by the Soxhlet procedure (345.53±2.80. The same results were obtained for nitrogen solubility index. Autoclaving combined with two oil-extraction methods decreased protein solubility to 180.32±1.50 -245.41±1.41 mg/g, while the dominant component of heat treated flours was 11S fraction. High content of glycinin fraction (44.59-41.10% implies the possible use of treated samples in food industry. Residual activity of treated samples was 43.40-84.26%. Kunitz inhibitor (KTI was responsible for residual inhibitor activity.

  3. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some [Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor]-C5'-linker-[Integrase Inhibitor] heterodimers as inhibitors of HIV replication.

    Sugeac, Elena; Fossey, Christine; Ladurée, Daniel; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Geraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Selected for their expected ability to inhibit HIV replication, a series of eight heterodimers containing a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) and an Integrase Inhibitor (INI), bound by a linker, were designed and synthesized. For the NRTIs, d4U, d2U and d4T were chosen. For the INIs, 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (6) and 4-(3,5-dibenzyloxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (9) (belonging to the beta-diketo acids class) were chosen. The conjugation of the two different inhibitors (NRTI and INI) was performed using an amino acid (glycine or beta-alanine) as a cleavable linker.

  4. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Antiretroviral Activity of Multiple Doses of Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355), an Anti-CD4 Monoclonal Antibody, in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adults ▿

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Godofsky, Eliot; DeJesus, Edwin; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Weinheimer, Steven P.; Lewis, Stanley T.

    2009-01-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and inhibits the viral entry process. A phase lb multidose study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of ibalizumab was conducted with 22 HIV-1-infected patients. Nineteen patients were randomized to receive either 10 mg/kg of body weight weekly (arm A) or a 10-mg/kg loading dose followed by 6 mg/kg every 2 weeks (arm B) intravenously for 9 weeks. Three patients were assigned to receive 25 mg/kg every 2 weeks for five doses (arm C). During the study, the patients remained off other antiretrovirals or continued a stable failing regimen. Treatment with ibalizumab resulted in substantial reductions in HIV-1 RNA levels (0.5 to 1.7 log10) in 20 of 22 subjects. In most patients, HIV-1 RNA fell to nadir levels after 1 to 2 weeks of treatment and then returned to baseline despite continued treatment. Baseline viral isolates were susceptible to ibalizumab in vitro, regardless of coreceptor tropism. Emerging resistance to ibalizumab was manifested by reduced maximal percent inhibition in a single-cycle HIV infectivity assay. Resistant isolates remained CD4 dependent and were susceptible to enfuvirtide in vitro. Complete coating of CD4+ T-cell receptors was correlated with serum ibalizumab concentrations. There was no evidence of CD4+ T-cell depletion in ibalizumab-treated patients. Ibalizumab was not immunogenic, and no serious drug-related adverse effects occurred. In conclusion, ibalizumab administered either weekly or biweekly was safe and well tolerated and demonstrated antiviral activity. Further studies with ibalizumab in combination with standard antiretroviral treatments are warranted. PMID:19015347

  5. Steroidal inhibitors as chemical probes of the active site of aromatase.

    Brueggemeir, R W; Moh, P P; Ebrahimian, S; Darby, M V

    1993-03-01

    Androstenedione analogs containing 7 alpha-substituents have proven to be potent inhibitors of aromatase in human placental microsomes, in MCF-7 mammary cell cultures, and in JAr choriocarcinoma cells. Recent investigations have focused on the use of mechanism-based inhibitors, such as 7 alpha-substituted 1,4-androstadienediones, to biochemically probe the active site of aromatase. Inhibition kinetics were determined under initial velocity conditions using purified human placental cytochrome P450arom protein in a reconstituted system. Derivatives of 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione exhibited high affinity in the purified enzyme system. 7 alpha-(4'-Amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, abbreviated 7 alpha-APTADD, demonstrated rapid time-dependent, first-order inactivation of reconstituted aromatase activity only in the presence of NADPH. The apparent Kinact for 7 alpha-APTADD is 11.8 nM, the first-order rate of inactivation is 2.72 x 10(-3) sec-1, and the half-time of inactivation at infinite inhibitor concentration is 4.25 min. The values for the rate constant and half-time of inactivation are similar to those observed in the placental microsomal assay system. Further studies were performed with radioiodinated 7 alpha-(4'-iodo)phenylthio-1,4-androstadienedione, 7 alpha-IPTADD, and the reconstituted aromatase system. Incubations with [125I] 7 alpha-IPTADD were followed by protein precipitation, solvent extraction, and column chromatography. Analysis of the isolated cytochrome P450arom by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography demonstrated the presence of only one radioactive band, which corresponded to the protein staining band for cytochrome P450arom. HPLC radiochromatographic analysis of the isolated cytochrome P450aroM confirmed the presence of only one radioactive peak coeluting with the u.v. peak for cytochrome P450arom. Peptide mapping analysis by reverse-phase HPLC of digested inhibitor-cytochrome P450arom complex

  6. Time for testing incretin therapies in early type 1 diabetes?

    Bosi, Emanuele

    2010-06-01

    Incretin-based compounds, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, have emerged as a new class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this article, the potential and supporting evidence for extending their use to early type 1 diabetes are reviewed. The rationale relies on the assumption that these drugs, in addition to their action on insulin secretion and glucose regulation, may be effective in preserving and even expanding the beta-cell mass. This assumption is based on data from in vitro and animal studies, with no clear demonstrations in humans. This class of drugs may represent an entirely new approach to the treatment of type 1 diabetes, focused on protection and preservation of beta-cells, an ideal complement to immune interventions inhibiting or modulating the pathogenetic autoimmune process. The ideal candidates for this treatment are patients at the time of clinical onset of type 1 diabetes or individuals with preclinical type 1 diabetes who still have a significant viable beta-cell mass.

  7. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  8. Creating novel activated factor XI inhibitors through fragment based lead generation and structure aided drug design.

    Ola Fjellström

    Full Text Available Activated factor XI (FXIa inhibitors are anticipated to combine anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects with a low bleeding risk. This motivated a structure aided fragment based lead generation campaign to create novel FXIa inhibitor leads. A virtual screen, based on docking experiments, was performed to generate a FXIa targeted fragment library for an NMR screen that resulted in the identification of fragments binding in the FXIa S1 binding pocket. The neutral 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one and the weakly basic quinolin-2-amine structures are novel FXIa P1 fragments. The expansion of these fragments towards the FXIa prime side binding sites was aided by solving the X-ray structures of reported FXIa inhibitors that we found to bind in the S1-S1'-S2' FXIa binding pockets. Combining the X-ray structure information from the identified S1 binding 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment and the S1-S1'-S2' binding reference compounds enabled structure guided linking and expansion work to achieve one of the most potent and selective FXIa inhibitors reported to date, compound 13, with a FXIa IC50 of 1.0 nM. The hydrophilicity and large polar surface area of the potent S1-S1'-S2' binding FXIa inhibitors compromised permeability. Initial work to expand the 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment towards the prime side to yield molecules with less hydrophilicity shows promise to afford potent, selective and orally bioavailable compounds.

  9. Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Chieu Anh Kim Ta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS. As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented.

  10. A novel prothrombin time assay for assessing the anticoagulant activity of oral factor Xa inhibitors.

    Barrett, Yu Chen; Wang, Zhaoqing; Knabb, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Conventional prothrombin time (PT) assays have limited sensitivity and dynamic range in monitoring the anticoagulant activity of direct factor Xa inhibitors. Hence, new assays are needed. We modified a PT assay by adding calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the thromboplastin reagent to increase assay dynamic range and improve sensitivity. Effects of calcium and sodium ion concentrations, and sample handling, were evaluated to optimize assay performance. Increasing concentrations of calcium ions produced progressive increases in PT across the factor Xa inhibitor concentrations of 0 to 2500 nmol/L for razaxaban and apixaban. The greatest effect was seen when the thromboplastin reagent was diluted 1:2.25 with 100 mmol/L CaCl2 (thus selected for routine use). The optimized assay showed an interassay precision of 1.5 to 9.3 percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) for razaxaban and 3.1 to 4.6 %CV for apixaban. We conclude that the modified PT assay is likely to be suitable as a pharmacodynamic marker for activity at therapeutic concentrations of factor Xa inhibitors.

  11. Synthesis and activity study of phosphonamidate dipeptides as potential inhibitors of VanX.

    Yang, Ke-Wu; Cheng, Xu; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Jia, Chao; Feng, Lei; Xiao, Jian-Min; Zhou, Li-Sheng; Gao, Hui-Zhou; Yang, Xia; Zhai, Le

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to develop inhibitors of VanX, the phosphonamidate analogs of D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptides, N-[(1-aminoethyl) hydroxyphosphinyl]-glycine (1a), -alanine (1b), -valine (1c), -leucine (1d) and -phenylalanine (1e) were synthesized, characterized and evaluated using recombinant VanX. The crystal structure of the intermediate 6d was obtained (Deposition number: CCDC 839134), and structural analysis revealed that it is orthorhombic with a space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), the bond length of P-N is 1.62Å and angle of C-N-P is 123.6°. Phosphonamidate 1(a-e) showed to be inhibitors of VanX with IC(50) values of 0.39, 0.70, 1.12, 2.82, and 4.13mM, respectively, which revealed that the inhibition activities of the phosphonamidates were dependent on the size of R-substituent of them, with the best inhibitor 1a having the smallest substituent. Also, 1a showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with a MIC value of 0.25 μg/ml.

  12. The activity of non-specific esterase in the thyroid epithelial cells of the guinea pig as influenced by various inhibitors and activators. A histochemical study

    Kirkeby, S

    1976-01-01

    The action of various inhibitors and activators upon esterase activity in the thyroid epithelial cells is demonstrated. The agents used were triorthocresylphosphate (TOCP), parachloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), Arsanillic acid, p-nitrophenyl dimethyl carbamate and bis p-nitrophenyl phosphate. TOCP wa...

  13. Urokinase, urokinase receptor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression on podocytes in immunoglobulin A glomerulonephritis

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mee-Hye; Park, Jae-seok; Na, Gyoung-Jae; Gil, Hye-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 on podocytes in immunoglobulin A (IgA) glomerulonephritis (GN). Methods Renal biopsy specimens from 52 IgA GN patients were deparaffinized and subjected to immunohistochemical staining for uPA, PAI-1, and uPAR. The biopsies were classified into three groups according to the expression of uPA and uPAR on podo...

  14. Circadian fluctuations in circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are independent of feeding cycles in mice.

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Ohkura, Naoki; Yasumoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Saori

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the involvement of the day-night feeding cycle in the circadian regulation of circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations, mice were fed with a diet for eight hours during either daytime (DF) or nighttime (NF) for one week. The reversed feeding cycle did not affect the circadian phases of plasma PAI-1 levels as well as the nocturnal wheel-running activity, although the phase of Pai-1 mRNA expression was significantly advanced for 8.6 hours in the livers of DF, compared with NF mice. The day-night feeding cycle is not a critical Zeitgeber for circadian rhythm of circulating PAI-1.

  15. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    Paller, C.J.; Wissing, M.D.; Mendonca, J.; Sharma, A.; Kim, E.; Kim, H.S.; Kortenhorst, M.S.Q.; Gerber, S.; Rosen, M.; Shaikh, F.; Zahurak, M.L.; Rudek, M.A.; Hammers, H.; Rudin, C.M.; Carducci, M.A.; Kachhap, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination t

  16. In vitro activity assays for MYST histone acetyltransferases and adaptation for high-throughput inhibitor screening

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that is carried out by acetyltransferases. The MYST proteins form the largest and most diverse family of acetyltransferases, which regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and cell cycle homeostasis, among other activities, by acetylating both histone and non-histone proteins. This chapter will describe methods for the preparation and biochemical characterization of MYST family acetyltransferases, including protocols for the preparation of recombinant protein, enzyme assays for measuring steady state parameters and binding assays to measure cofactor and inhibitor binding. We also provide details on adapting these assays for high throughput screening for small molecule MYST inhibitors. This chapter seeks to prepare researchers for some hurdles that they may encounter when studying the MYST proteins so that there may be better opportunity to plan appropriate controls and obtain high quality data. PMID:27372752

  17. Molecular mutagenesis of ppGpp: turning a RelA activator into an inhibitor

    Beljantseva, Jelena; Kudrin, Pavel; Jimmy, Steffi; Ehn, Marcel; Pohl, Radek; Varik, Vallo; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Shingler, Victoria; Tenson, Tanel; Rejman, Dominik; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2017-01-01

    The alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance and virulence, making (p)ppGpp-mediated signaling a promising target for development of antibacterials. Although ppGpp itself is an activator of the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase RelA, several ppGpp mimics have been developed as RelA inhibitors. However promising, the currently available ppGpp mimics are relatively inefficient, with IC50 in the sub-mM range. In an attempt to identify a potent and specific inhibitor of RelA capable of abrogating (p)ppGpp production in live bacterial cells, we have tested a targeted nucleotide library using a biochemical test system comprised of purified Escherichia coli components. While none of the compounds fulfilled this aim, the screen has yielded several potentially useful molecular tools for biochemical and structural work. PMID:28157202

  18. Psc-AFP, an antifungal protein with trypsin inhibitor activity from Psoralea corylifolia seeds.

    Yang, Xingyong; Li, Jun; Wang, Xiaowen; Fang, Weiguo; Bidochka, Michael J; She, Rong; Xiao, Yuehua; Pei, Yan

    2006-07-01

    An antifungal protein designated as Psc-AFP, with an apparent molecular mass of 18kDa, was isolated from a traditional Chinese herb, malaytea scurfpea (Psoralea corylifolia L.). The isolation procedure entailed extraction, cation exchange chromatography on CM FF, gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 75 and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on SOURCE 5RPC column. Automated Edman degradation determined the partial N-terminal sequence of Psc-AFP to be NH2-EWEPVQNGGSSYYMVPRIWA, which displayed homology with plant trypsin inhibitors. The protease inhibitor activity of Psc-AFP was then confirmed by the inhibition on trypsin. Psc-AFP at 10 microM inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternari brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia cerealis, suggesting that Psc-AFP has a role in the defense against pathogens.

  19. Discovery and antiplatelet activity of a selective PI3Kβ inhibitor (MIPS-9922).

    Zheng, Zhaohua; Pinson, Jo-Anne; Mountford, Simon J; Orive, Stephanie; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Shackleford, David; Powell, Andrew; Nelson, Erin M; Hamilton, Justin R; Jackson, Shaun P; Jennings, Ian G; Thompson, Philip E

    2016-10-21

    A series of amino-substituted triazines were developed and examined for PI3Kβ inhibition and anti-platelet function. Structural adaptations of a morpholine ring of the prototype pan-PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 yielded PI3Kβ selective compounds, where the selectivity largely derives from an interaction with the non-conserved Asp862 residue, as shown by site directed mutagenesis. The most PI3Kβ selective inhibitor from the series was studied in detail through a series of in vitro and in vivo functional studies. MIPS-9922, 10 potently inhibited ADP-induced washed platelet aggregation. It also inhibited integrin αIIbβ3 activation and αIIbβ3 dependent platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF under high shear. It prevented arterial thrombus formation in the in vivo electrolytic mouse model of thrombosis without inducing prolonged bleeding or excess blood loss.

  20. Changes in midgut endopeptidase activity of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are responsible for adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitors.

    Paulillo, L C; Lopes, A R; Cristofoletti, P T; Parra, J R; Terra, W R; Silva-Filho, M C

    2000-06-01

    The development of transgenic maize plants expressing soybean proteinase inhibitors could reduce the economic damage of one of the major maize pests in Brazil, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797). We examined the influence of soybean proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzyme properties and development of S. frugiperda larvae. The inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in vitro by soybean proteinase inhibitors suggested that either Kunitz (SBTI) or Bowman-Birk (SBBI) would have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by insect larvae. However, chronic ingestion of semipurified soybean inhibitors did not result in a significant reduction of growth and development of fall armyworm. Therefore, digestive serine proteinase activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) of fall armyworm larvae were characterized. The results suggest that S. frugiperda was able to physiologically adapt to dietary proteinase inhibitors by altering the complement of proteolytic enzymes in the insect midguts.

  1. Caspase Inhibitors may Attenuate Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia and Tolerance via Inhibiting Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation

    Jiancheng Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to an opioid induces hyperalgesia and tolerance, which negatively affect pain management in turn and significantly hamper the application of opioids. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that glial activation contributes to the development of these two side effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that morphine, binding to an accessory protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, activates microglia and produces neuroinflammation in amanner parallel to lipopolysaccharide. Meanwhile, lipopolysaccharide activates microglia through TLR4/caspase signalling. Therefore, we hypothesise that morphine may activate microglia throughTLR4/caspase signalling and that caspase inhibitors may attenuate opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance via inhibiting microglial activation and neuroinflammation

  2. Prediction of activity for nonnucleoside inhibitors with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Rizzo, Robert C; Udier-Blagović, Marina; Wang, De-Ping; Watkins, Edward K; Kroeger Smith, Marilyn B; Smith, Richard H; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2002-07-04

    Results of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for more than 200 nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs) representing eight diverse chemotypes have been correlated with their anti-HIV activities in an effort to establish simulation protocols and methods that can be used in the development of more effective drugs. Each inhibitor was modeled in a complex with the protein and by itself in water, and potentially useful descriptors of binding affinity were collected during the MC simulations. A viable regression equation was obtained for each data set using an extended linear response approach, which yielded r(2) values between 0.54 and 0.85 and an average unsigned error of only 0.50 kcal/mol. The most common descriptors confirm that a good geometrical match between the inhibitor and the protein is important and that the net loss of hydrogen bonds with the inhibitor upon binding is unfavorable. Other physically reasonable descriptors of binding are needed on a chemotype case-by-case basis. By including descriptors in common from the individual fits, combination regressions that include multiple data sets were also developed. This procedure led to a refined "master" regression for 210 NNRTIs with an r(2) of 0.60 and a cross-validated q(2) of 0.55. The computed activities show an rms error of 0.86 kcal/mol in comparison with experiment and an average unsigned error of 0.69 kcal/mol. Encouraging results were obtained for the predictions of 27 NNRTIs, representing a new chemotype not included in the development of the regression model. Predictions for this test set using the master regression yielded a q(2) value of 0.51 and an average unsigned error of 0.67 kcal/mol. Finally, additional regression analysis reveals that use of ligand-only descriptors leads to models with much diminished predictive ability.

  3. Identification of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF as a biomarker for lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 1 (LPA1 activation in human breast and prostate cancers.

    Marion David

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a natural bioactive lipid with growth factor-like functions due to activation of a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA₁₋₆. LPA receptor type 1 (LPA₁ signaling influences the pathophysiology of many diseases including cancer, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as lung, liver and kidney fibrosis. Therefore, LPA₁ is an attractive therapeutic target. However, most mammalian cells co-express multiple LPA receptors whose co-activation impairs the validation of target inhibition in patients because of missing LPA receptor-specific biomarkers. LPA₁ is known to induce IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, as also do LPA₂ and LPA₃. In this work, we first determined the LPA induced early-gene expression profile in three unrelated human cancer cell lines expressing different patterns of LPA receptors (PC3: LPA₁,₂,₆; MDA-MB-231: LPA1,2; MCF-7: LPA₂,₆. Among the set of genes upregulated by LPA only in LPA₁-expressing cells, we validated by QPCR and ELISA that upregulation of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF was inhibited by LPA₁-₃ antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719. Upregulation and downregulation of HB-EGF mRNA was confirmed in vitro in human MDA-B02 breast cancer cells stably overexpressing LPA₁ (MDA-B02/LPA₁ and downregulated for LPA₁ (MDA-B02/shLPA1, respectively. At a clinical level, we quantified the expression of LPA₁ and HB-EGF by QPCR in primary tumors of a cohort of 234 breast cancer patients and found a significantly higher expression of HB-EGF in breast tumors expressing high levels of LPA₁. We also generated human xenograph prostate tumors in mice injected with PC3 cells and found that a five-day treatment with Ki16425 significantly decreased both HB-EGF mRNA expression at the primary tumor site and circulating human HB-EGF concentrations in serum. All together our results demonstrate that HB-EGF is a new and relevant biomarker with potentially high value in

  4. Activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor ispinesib (SB-715992) in models of breast cancer

    Purcell, James W; Davis, Jefferson; Reddy, Mamatha; Martin, Shamra; Samayoa, Kimberly; Vo, Hung; Thomsen, Karen; Bean, Peter; Kuo, Wen Lin; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Billig, Jessica; Feiler, Heidi S; Gray, Joe W; Wood, Kenneth W; Cases, Sylvaine

    2009-06-10

    Ispinesib (SB-715992) is a potent inhibitor of kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a kinesin motor protein essential for the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle and cell cycle progression through mitosis. Clinical studies of ispinesib have demonstrated a 9% response rate in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, and a favorable safety profile without significant neurotoxicities, gastrointestinal toxicities or hair loss. To better understand the potential of ispinesib in the treatment of breast cancer we explored the activity of ispinesib alone and in combination several therapies approved for the treatment of breast cancer. We measured the ispinesib sensitivity and pharmacodynamic response of breast cancer cell lines representative of various subtypes in vitro and as xenografts in vivo, and tested the ability of ispinesib to enhance the anti-tumor activity of approved therapies. In vitro, ispinesib displayed broad anti-proliferative activity against a panel of 53 breast cell-lines. In vivo, ispinesib produced regressions in each of five breast cancer models, and tumor free survivors in three of these models. The effects of ispinesib treatment on pharmacodynamic markers of mitosis and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo, revealing a greater increase in both mitotic and apoptotic markers in the MDA-MB-468 model than in the less sensitive BT-474 model. In vivo, ispinesib enhanced the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab, lapatinib, doxorubicin, and capecitabine, and exhibited activity comparable to paclitaxel and ixabepilone. These findings support further clinical exploration of KSP inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors Active against KPC and Other Class A β-Lactamases: Structure-Activity Relationships as a Guide to Inhibitor Design.

    Rojas, Laura J; Taracila, Magdalena A; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bethel, Christopher R; Caselli, Emilia; Romagnoli, Chiara; Winkler, Marisa L; Spellberg, Brad; Prati, Fabio; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-01-04

    Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are competitive, reversible β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs). In this study, a series of BATSIs with selectively modified regions (R1, R2, and amide group) were strategically designed and tested against representative class A β-lactamases of Klebsiella pneumoniae, KPC-2 and SHV-1. Firstly, the R1 group of compounds 1a to 1c and 2a to 2e mimicked the side chain of cephalothin, whereas for compounds 3a to 3c, 4a, and 4b, the thiophene ring was replaced by a phenyl, typical of benzylpenicillin. Secondly, variations in the R2 groups which included substituted aryl side chains (compounds 1a, 1b, 1c, 3a, 3b, and 3c) and triazole groups (compounds 2a to 2e) were chosen to mimic the thiazolidine and dihydrothiazine ring of penicillins and cephalosporins, respectively. Thirdly, the amide backbone of the BATSI, which corresponds to the amide at C-6 or C-7 of β-lactams, was also changed to the following bioisosteric groups: urea (compound 3b), thiourea (compound 3c), and sulfonamide (compounds 4a and 4b). Among the compounds that inhibited KPC-2 and SHV-1 β-lactamases, nine possessed 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ≤ 600 nM. The most active compounds contained the thiopheneacetyl group at R1 and for the chiral BATSIs, a carboxy- or hydroxy-substituted aryl group at R2. The most active sulfonamido derivative, compound 4b, lacked an R2 group. Compound 2b (S02030) was the most active, with acylation rates (k2/K) of 1.2 ± 0.2 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) for KPC-2 and 4.7 ± 0.6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) for SHV-1, and demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli DH10B carrying blaSHV variants and blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 and against clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli producing different class A β-lactamase genes. At most, MICs decreased from 16 to 0.5 mg/liter.

  6. Fluorescently labeled inhibitors detect localized serine protease activities in Drosophila melanogaster pole cells, embryos, and ovarian egg chambers

    Jakobsen, Rasmus Kragh; Ono, S.; Powers, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    a technique using fluorescent synthetic and protein-based inhibitors. With this approach we have detected a novel serine protease activity with a relative mobility of 37 kDa, localized to the surface of pole cells, the germ-line precursors, in embryos between nuclear cycles 11 and 14 in development. A second...... novel cell-specific protease activity was localized to the tissues of early gastrulating embryos. Microinjection of inhibitors into the perivitelline space of stage 2 embryos perturbed normal embryonic development. Fluorescein-conjugated chymotrypsin inhibitor and Bowman-Birk inhibitor labeled protease...... activity localized to the oocyte-somatic follicle cell interface of the developing egg chamber. Our results suggest that this technique holds promise to identify new spatially restricted activities in adult Drosophila tissues and developing embryos....

  7. Maculopathy and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Lebranchu, Pierre; Le Meur, Guylène; Magot, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is a rare heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by cerebellar symptoms, often associated with other multisystemic signs. Mild optic neuropathy has been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), but macular dysfunction has been reported...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Morahan G. Insights into type 1 diabetes provided by genetic analyses. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  9. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    Vaarala, Outi

    2013-10-01

    The role of intestinal microbiota in immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, has deservedly received a lot of attention. Evidently, changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with type 1 diabetes as demonstrated by recent studies. Children with beta-cell autoimmunity have shown low abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and increase in the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum in fecal microbiota. These alterations could explain increased gut permeability, subclinical small intestinal inflammation, and dysregulation of oral tolerance in type 1 diabetes. However, these studies do not provide evidence of the causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity, yet. In animal models, the composition of gut microbiota modulates the function of both innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal bacteria are regulators of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota.

  10. NEURODEGENERATION WITH IRON ACCUMULATION TYPE1

    Shrikhande D Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration with iron accumulation type 1 is a rare degenerative disorder presenting with dementia and progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction. A 10 yrs old girl reported with complaints of difficulty in speech and involuntary movements. MRI Brain showed ‘eye of tiger appearance’ which is suggestive of neurodegeneration with iron accumulation type 1. Treatment is symptomatic and chelating agents have no effect. The disease is progressivelyfatal

  11. A sycamore cell wall polysaccharide and a chemically related tomato leaf polysaccharide possess similar proteinase inhibitor-inducing activities.

    Ryan, C A; Bishop, P; Pearce, G

    1981-09-01

    A large pectic polysaccharide, called rhamnogalacturonan I, that is solubilized by a fungal endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase from the purified walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells possesses proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity similar to that of the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor, a pectic-like oligosaccharide fraction isolated from tomato leaves. This suggests that the proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity resides in particular polysaccharide fragments which can be released when plant cell walls are exposed to appropriate enzyme degradation as a result of either wounding or pest attack.

  12. Synthesis of novel polybrominated benzimidazole derivatives-potential CK2 inhibitors with anticancer and proapoptotic activity.

    Łukowska-Chojnacka, Edyta; Wińska, Patrycja; Wielechowska, Monika; Poprzeczko, Martyna; Bretner, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The efficient method for the synthesis of novel cell permeable inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 with anticancer and proapoptotic activity has been developed. A series of polybrominated benzimiadazole derivatives substituted by various cyanoalkyl groups have been synthesized. Cyanoethyl derivatives were obtained by Michael type addition of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBBi) and 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole to acrylonitrile, whilst cyanomethyl, cyanopropyl and cyanobutyl analogs by N-alkylation of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole and 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole with appropriate cyanoalkyl halides. The inhibitory activity against protein kinase rhCK2α catalytic subunit and cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines: acute lymphocytic leukemia (CCRF-CEM) and breast (MCF-7) were evaluated for all newly synthesized compounds. Additionally, the proapoptotic activity toward leukemia cells and intracellular inhibition of CK2 for the most cytotoxic derivatives have been performed, demonstrating 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole as a new selective inhibitor of rhCK2 with twenty-fold better proapoptotic activity than parental compound (TBBi).

  13. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationship, docking, and molecular dynamics studies of inhibitors for CXCR4.

    Zhang, Chongqian; Du, Chunmiao; Feng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jingyu; Li, Youyong

    2015-02-01

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role as a co-receptor with CCR5 for HIV-1 anchoring to mammalian cell membrane and is implicated in cancer metastasis and inflammation. In the current work, we study the relationship of structure and activity of AMD11070 derivatives and other inhibitors of CXCR4 using HQSAR, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtain an HQSAR model (q(2) = 0.779), and the HQSAR result illustrates that AMD11070 shows a high antiretroviral activity. As HQSAR only provides 2D information, we perform docking and MD to study the interaction of It1t, AMD3100, and AMD3465 with CXCR4. Our results illustrate that the binding are affected by two crucial residues Asp97 and Glu288. The butyl amine moiety of AMD11070 contributes to its high antiretroviral activity. Without a butyl amine moiety, (2,7a-Dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-methyl-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinolin-8-yl)-amine (compound 5a) shows low antiretroviral activity. Our results provide structural details about the interactions between the inhibitors and CXCR4, which are useful for rational drug design of CXCR4.

  14. An Efficient Piecewise Linear Model for Predicting Activity of Caspase-3 Inhibitors

    Alireza Foroumadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study Multimodal distribution of descriptors makes it more difficult to fit a single global model to model the entire data set in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies.Methods:The linear (Multiple linear regression; MLR, non-linear (Artificial neural network; ANN, and an approach based on "Extended Classifier System in Function approximation" (XCSF were applied herein to model the biological activity of 658 caspase-3 inhibitors. Results:Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of the compounds. The original data set was partitioned into the training and test sets by the K-means classification method. Prediction error on the test data set indicated that the XCSF as a local model estimates caspase-3 inhibition activity, better than the global models such as MLR and ANN. The atom-centered fragment type CR2X2, electronegativity, polarizability, and atomic radius and also the lipophilicity of the molecule, were the main independent factors contributing to the caspase-3 inhibition activity. Conclusions:The results of this study may be exploited for further design of novel caspase-3 inhibitors.

  15. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Controls Vascular Integrity by Regulating VE-Cadherin Trafficking.

    Anna E Daniel

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a serine protease inhibitor, is expressed and secreted by endothelial cells. Patients with PAI-1 deficiency show a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis, which has been exclusively ascribed to the function of PAI-1 in down-regulating fibrinolysis. We tested the hypothesis that PAI-1 function plays a direct role in controlling vascular integrity and permeability by keeping endothelial cell-cell junctions intact.We utilized PAI-039, a specific small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, to investigate the role of PAI-1 in protecting endothelial integrity. In vivo inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in vascular leakage from intersegmental vessels and in the hindbrain of zebrafish embryos. In addition PAI-1 inhibition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers leads to a marked decrease of transendothelial resistance and disrupted endothelial junctions. The total level of the endothelial junction regulator VE-cadherin was reduced, whereas surface VE-cadherin expression was unaltered. Moreover, PAI-1 inhibition reduced the shedding of VE-cadherin. Finally, we detected an accumulation of VE-cadherin at the Golgi apparatus.Our findings indicate that PAI-1 function is important for the maintenance of endothelial monolayer and vascular integrity by controlling VE-cadherin trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. Our data further suggest that therapies using PAI-1 antagonists like PAI-039 ought to be used with caution to avoid disruption of the vessel wall.

  16. Rationally designed BCL6 inhibitors target activated B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Cardenas, Mariano G; Yu, Wenbo; Beguelin, Wendy; Teater, Matthew R; Geng, Huimin; Goldstein, Rebecca L; Oswald, Erin; Hatzi, Katerina; Yang, Shao-Ning; Cohen, Joanna; Shaknovich, Rita; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Cheng, Huimin; Liang, Dongdong; Cho, Hyo Je; Abbott, Joshua; Tam, Wayne; Du, Wei; Leonard, John P; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Xue, Fengtian; MacKerell, Alexander D; Melnick, Ari M

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) arise from proliferating B cells transiting different stages of the germinal center reaction. In activated B cell DLBCLs (ABC-DLBCLs), a class of DLBCLs that respond poorly to current therapies, chromosomal translocations and amplification lead to constitutive expression of the B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) oncogene. The role of BCL6 in maintaining these lymphomas has not been investigated. Here, we designed small-molecule inhibitors that display higher affinity for BCL6 than its endogenous corepressor ligands to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy for targeting ABC-DLBCL. We used an in silico drug design functional-group mapping approach called SILCS to create a specific BCL6 inhibitor called FX1 that has 10-fold greater potency than endogenous corepressors and binds an essential region of the BCL6 lateral groove. FX1 disrupted formation of the BCL6 repression complex, reactivated BCL6 target genes, and mimicked the phenotype of mice engineered to express BCL6 with corepressor binding site mutations. Low doses of FX1 induced regression of established tumors in mice bearing DLBCL xenografts. Furthermore, FX1 suppressed ABC-DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as primary human ABC-DLBCL specimens ex vivo. These findings indicate that ABC-DLBCL is a BCL6-dependent disease that can be targeted by rationally designed inhibitors that exceed the binding affinity of natural BCL6 ligands.

  17. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  18. Quantitative high-throughput screening identifies 8-hydroxyquinolines as cell-active histone demethylase inhibitors.

    Oliver N F King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N(ε-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N(ε-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput screening of a ∼236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4 family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation.

  19. Eukaryotic inhibitors or activators elicit responses to chemosensory compounds by ruminal isotrichid and entodiniomorphid protozoa.

    Diaz, H L; Barr, K N; Godden, K R; Plank, J E; Zapata, I; Schappacher, A N; Wick, M P; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate potential signaling pathways regulating rumen protozoal chemotaxis using eukaryotic inhibitors potentially coordinated with phagocytosis as assessed by fluorescent bead uptake kinetics. Wortmannin (inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase), insulin, genistein (purported inhibitor of a receptor tyrosine kinase), U73122 (inhibitor of phospholipase C), and sodium nitroprusside (Snp, nitric oxide generator, activating protein kinase G) were preincubated with mixed ruminal protozoa for 3h before assessing uptake of fluorescent beads and chemosensory behavior to glucose, peptides, and their combination; peptides were also combined with guanosine triphosphate (GTP; a chemorepellent). Entodiniomorphids were chemoattracted to both glucose and peptides, but chemoattraction to glucose was increased by Snp and wortmannin without effect on chemoattraction to peptides. Rate of fluorescent bead uptake by an Entodinium caudatum culture decreased when beads were added simultaneously with feeding and incubated with wortmannin (statistical interaction). Wortmannin also decreased the proportion of mixed entodiniomorphids consuming beads. Isotrichid protozoa exhibited greater chemotaxis to glucose but, compared with entodiniomorphids, were chemorepelled to peptides. Wortmannin increased chemotaxis by entodiniomorphids but decreased chemotaxis to glucose by isotrichids. Motility assays documented that Snp and wortmannin decreased net swimming speed (distance among 2 points per second) but not total swimming speed (including turns) by entodiniomorphids. Wortmannin decreased both net and total swimming behavior in isotrichids. Results mechanistically explain the isotrichid migratory ecology to rapidly take up newly ingested sugars and subsequent sedimentation back to the ventral reticulorumen. In contrast, entodiniomorphids apparently integrate cellular motility with feeding behavior to consume small particulates and thereby stay associated and pass with the

  20. The Development of a Micro Assay for Natural Killer and Lymphokine-Activated Killer Activity and Its Use in Monitoring the Purification of an Interleukin-2 Inhibitor

    1989-05-01

    malaise, weight gain, diarrhea, rash, arthralgia, myalgia, fluid retention, anemia , 6 hypotension, dyspnea, and hyperbilirubinemia (21-23). There was...inhibitor levels in humans with these autoimune diseases to determine if there was any correlation between the inhibitor levels and disease activity

  1. Computational Studies of Benzoxazinone Derivatives as Antiviral Agents against Herpes Virus Type 1 Protease

    Juliana F. R. Mello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus infections have been described in the medical literature for centuries, yet the the drugs available nowadays for therapy are largely ineffective and low oral bioavailability plays an important role on the inefficacy of the treatments. Additionally, the details of the inhibition of Herpes Virus type 1 are still not fully understood. Studies have shown that several viruses encode one or more proteases required for the production new infectious virions. This study presents an analysis of the interactions between HSV-1 protease and benzoxazinone derivatives through a combination of structure-activity relationships, comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. The structure activity relationship results showed an important contribution of hydrophobic and polarizable groups and limitations for bulky groups in specific positions. Two Herpes Virus type 1 protease models were constructed and compared to achieve the best model which was obtained by MODELLER. Molecular docking results pointed to an important interaction between the most potent benzoxazinone derivative and Ser129, consistent with previous mechanistic data. Moreover, we also observed hydrophobic interactions that may play an important role in the stabilization of inhibitors in the active site. Finally, we performed druglikeness and drugscore studies of the most potent derivatives and the drugs currently used against Herpes virus.

  2. Loss of Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation Sites in Variable Region 5 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Is Associated with Resistance to CD4 Antibody Ibalizumab ▿

    Toma, Jonathan; Weinheimer, Steven P.; Stawiski, Eric; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.; Lewis, Stanley T.; Christos J Petropoulos; Huang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Multiple clinical trials with HIV-infected patients have demonstrated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of ibalizumab treatment. A 9-week phase Ib study adding ibalizumab monotherapy to failing drug regimens led to transient reductions in HIV viral loads and the evolution of HIV-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab. This r...

  3. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  4. Sensitive fluorimetric assays for α-glucosidase activity and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots.

    Liu, Si-Yao; Wang, Huan; He, Tian; Qi, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    A fluorescence method was established for a α-glucosidase activity assay and inhibitor screening based on β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots. p-Nitrophenol, the hydrolysis product of the α-glucosidase reaction, could quench the fluorescence of β-cyclodextrin-coated quantum dots via an electron transfer process, leading to fluorescence turn-off, whereas the fluorescence of the system turned on in the presence of α-glucosidase inhibitors. Taking advantage of the excellent properties of quantum dots, this method provided a very simple, rapid and sensitive screening method for α-glucosidase inhibitors. Two α-glucosidase inhibitors, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and acarbose, were used to evaluate the feasibility of this screening model, and IC50 values of 24 μM and 0.55 mM were obtained respectively, which were lower than those previously reported. The method may have potential application in screening α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  5. Potent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by the HIV Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Abacavir.

    Toksoy, Atiye; Sennefelder, Helga; Adam, Christian; Hofmann, Sonja; Trautmann, Axel; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2017-02-17

    There is experimental and clinical evidence that some exanthematous allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by drug-specific T cells. We hypothesized that the capacity of certain drugs to directly stimulate the innate immune system may contribute to generate drug-specific T cells. Here we analyzed whether abacavir, an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor often inducing severe delayed-type drug hypersensitivity, can trigger innate immune activation that may contribute to its allergic potential. We show that abacavir fails to generate direct innate immune activation in human monocytes but potently triggers IL-1β release upon pro-inflammatory priming with phorbol ester or Toll-like receptor stimulation. IL-1β processing and secretion were sensitive to Caspase-1 inhibition, NLRP3 knockdown, and K(+) efflux inhibition and were not observed with other non-allergenic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, identifying abacavir as a specific inflammasome activator. It further correlated with dose-dependent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, indicating that inflammasome activation resulted from mitochondrial damage. However, both NLRP3 depletion and inhibition of K(+) efflux mitigated abacavir-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, suggesting that these processes were secondary to NLRP3 activation. Instead, depletion of cardiolipin synthase 1 abolished abacavir-induced IL-1β secretion, suggesting that mitochondrial cardiolipin release may trigger abacavir-induced inflammasome activation. Our data identify abacavir as a novel inflammasome-stimulating drug allergen. They implicate a potential contribution of innate immune activation to medication-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, which may stimulate new concepts for treatment and prevention of drug allergies.

  6. Discovery of indole-based tetraarylimidazoles as potent inhibitors of urease with low antilipoxygenase activity.

    Naureen, Sadia; Chaudhry, Faryal; Asif, Nadia; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad; Nasim, Faizul Hassan; Arshad, Humera; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2015-09-18

    A series of tetraarylimidazoles (5A-5O) were prepared by one pot four component condensation reactions of 2-arylindole-3-carbaldehydes, substituted anilines, benzil and ammonium acetate in acetic acid. The synthesized compounds exhibited potent antiurease activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.12 ± 0.06 μM to 29.12 ± 0.18 μM as compared with thiourea. However, low inhibition profiles were observed for lipoxygenase. The data show that tetraarylimidazoles containing a substituted 2-penylindole have emerged as a new class of potent inhibitors of urease enzyme.

  7. GLOBAL COUPLING OF AN INTERFACE PROBLEM IN AN ACTIVATOR-INHIBITOR SYSTEM

    YoonMee Ham

    2003-01-01

    An activator-inhibitor reaction system with global coupling was introduced in [1]. The authors showed that global couplingsuppresses the breathing motion and enhances the propagation of the localized solution. The collision between two traveling waves for a sufficiently strong global coupling is discussed in [2]. If the width of layers is infinitesimally thin, the equation of motion for a pair of the interfaces is derived. We shall study the dynamics of interfaces in the free boundary problem with global coupling and with a strong global coupling.

  8. Insecticidal benzoylphenyl ureas: structure-activity relationships as chitin synthesis inhibitors.

    Hajjar, N P; Casida, J E

    1978-06-30

    The 1-benzoyl-3-phenylurea insecticide diflubenzuron is a potent